Townships
Borwick

Sponsor

Victoria County History

Publication

Author

William Farrer & J. Brownbill (editors)

Year published

1914

Pages

170-175

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Townships: Borwick', A History of the County of Lancaster: Volume 8 (1914), pp. 170-175. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=53289 Date accessed: 21 August 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

BORWICK

Berewic, Dom. Bk.; Borwyc, 1255 (unusual); Berwewyk, 1292; Berwyk, 1302; Barwick, xvi cent.

This triangular township lies on the north side of the Keer, and has an area of 846 acres. (fn. 1) The surface is undulating, with a general slope from northeast to south-west, the extreme limits being 240 ft. and 40 ft. above sea level. The village, with the old hall, is in the north-west corner. There was in 1901 a population of 174.

A road from Warton to Over Kellet goes east through the village, from which there is a branch to Priest Hutton, and it is crossed at the western boundary by another road, leading from Carnforth to Burton. There is a station named Borwick on the Carnforth and Wennington branch of the Furness and Midland railway, which runs through the Keer valley. The Lancaster and Kendal Canal winds through the western part of the township, passing close to the village.

Stone quarries are worked.

Manor

In 1066 BORWICK, assessed as two plough-lands, was part of Earl Tostig's Beetham lordship, and was held by Count Roger of Poitou in 1086. (fn. 2) It was soon afterwards included in the Kendal or Warton fee of the Lancaster family, and on division was assigned to the Lindsay share, (fn. 3) thus eventually coming to the Crown.

The immediate owners took the name of Berwick from it. (fn. 4) Ralph de Berwick died in 1349 holding land in Whittington and the manor of Borwick. This manor was held of the king in chief (as of the knight's fees which had belonged to William de Coucy) by knight's service, a rent of 13s. 4d., performing suit at the court of Mourholme from three weeks to three weeks and suit at the mill there to the thirteenth measure. His heir was his son John, aged ten years, whose wardship would have been the king's had not the father just before his death committed his manor to trustees to prevent the king entering. (fn. 5) A later John Berwick died in 1438, (fn. 6) and in 1446 John son and heir of John Berwick made a feoffment of his manor of Borwick, the remainder being to Alfred son of William Berwick. (fn. 7)


Berwick. Argent three bears' heads erased sable muzzled gules.

The descent does not seem to have been in accordance with this settlement, for in 1499 Thomas Whittington and Thomas Bower alias Johnson held the manor, (fn. 8) apparently by descent. The former was succeeded by a brother John, (fn. 9) when Avery as son and heir of Thomas Berwick complained that Thomas Whittington had riotously ejected him from his manor of Borwick, Avery being only ten years old at the time. John replied that he had entered by inheritance and held in parceny with one Thomas Bower alias Williamson. (fn. 10) He retained the manor, and in 1511 was followed by his son Thomas, (fn. 11) who died in I 517, leaving two infant daughters, Margaret, aged two years, and Elizabeth. (fn. 12)

Margaret married George Redmayne, by whom she had sons Thomas and Marmaduke (fn. 13) ; later she married Thomas Atkinson. In 1567 Robert Bindloss purchased one moiety of the manor, (fn. 14) and in 1590 he had the whole, (fn. 15) dying seised thereof in 1595; it was held of the queen as of her duchy by the sixth part of a knight's fee. (fn. 16) He gave it to a younger son Christopher, who at his death without male issue in 1600 was succeeded by his elder brother Robert. (fn. 17)

Robert Bindloss was sheriff of the county in 1612–13. (fn. 18) He was made a knight at Lathom in 1617, (fn. 19) and at his death about 1630 (fn. 20) was succeeded by his grandson Robert, (fn. 21) who was made a baronet in 1641, (fn. 22) but sided with the Parliament in the Civil War. (fn. 23) His estates were not interfered with. (fn. 24) He probably became a Royalist before the Restoration, when he was elected knight of the shire, (fn. 25) serving as sheriff (fn. 26) later. A pedigree was recorded at the visitation of 1664. (fn. 27) Sir Robert made settlements of the manor in 1646 and 1660, (fn. 28) and died in 1688, leaving an only daughter Cecilia wife of William Standish of Standish. (fn. 29) The estates then descended like Standish, being saved from confiscation in 1715 by the proof that Cecilia Standish, who was still living, was the owner of Borwick. (fn. 30) After the death of Thomas (Strickland) Standish in 1813 Borwick went, like Sizergh, to his younger son Thomas Strickland, who died in 1835. (fn. 31) It was in 1854 sold to George Marton of Capernwray, and descended with this estate to Mr. G. H. P. Marton. No lordship is attached to it, nor is any lord of the manor recognized. (fn. 32)


Bindloss, baronet. Quarterly per fesse indented or and gules, on a bend azure a cinqfoil between two martlets of the first.


Standish of Standish. Sable three standing dishes argent.

BORWICK HALL stands on rising ground facing south, overlooking the valley of the Keer, from which it is distant about three-quarters of a mile, and is a picturesque gabled and embattled house, built by Robert Bindloss in the last decade of the 16th century. The principal front, which is 104 ft. in length, overlooks a grass courtyard or garden inclosed on its east and south sides by a fence wall and on the west by a gate-house and outbuildings, which on the other side face the old high road from Carnforth to Borwick. Adjoining the gate-house on the south side is a long range of buildings, now used as barns and stables, but which are said to have been erected by Christopher Bindloss for the accommodation of his pack-horses on their way from Kendal to London. About 30 yds. to the east of the house a small stream runs southward to the River Keer, and the gardens are on the north and north-east. The plan follows in general the usual type of central hall and end wings, but with some important modifications, and there is evidence suggesting that the house has been built round an older keep or peel tower at two different periods, not, however, very far removed from one another, the earlier work being what is now the north-east wing at the back, with the narrow structure running westward at right angles to it. Assuming this to have been the case, the present kitchen may have been intended originally as the hall, the principal front of the house facing west on to the road. The tower, which forms so conspicuous a feature in the actual front elevation at the east end, set back between the projections of the porch and the narrow east wing, measures externally 36 ft. by 28 ft., the longer length being from north to south, and the walls are 6 ft. thick, those in the rest of the building being nowhere more than 3 ft. The chief evidence that the main building to the west of the tower is of later date is the existence of quoins and a straight joint at the junction of the tower and the staircase bay at the north-west angle, where the walls are flush at the back, and the raised level of the ground floor. However this may be, the present south front west of the tower seems to be unquestionably Robert Bindloss's work, the date 1595 at the top of the staircase apparently being the time when the building was approaching completion. This being so, it follows, if the above assumption be correct, that the back part of the house is some years earlier in date.

The building has been for many years uninhabited, and is falling into a state of dilapidation. Some repairs appear to have been made in 1812, that date occurring on the lead spouts of the south front, and the upper room over the hall has undergone a rather unfortunate restoration at a later period. The back part of the house is inhabited by a farmer, and the gate-house is also occupied, but otherwise the building stands empty and desolate.

The gate-house is built of stone, with rough-cast walls and stone slated roof. The gateway is 9 ft. wide, with a low three-centred arch constructed of large wrought stones chamfered on the edge, but without hood mould, and above is a panel with the initials of Sir Robert Bindloss and Rebecca (Perry) his wife, with the date 1650. The passage-way is 19 ft. 9 in. long, with rooms on each side lit from the courtyard, the only windows on the west side to the road being one of four lights over the gateway and a two-light window on either side. Between the windows are two chimneys corbelled out at the level of the upper floor, the whole forming a rather good composition. The end gables, facing north and south, have stone copings and ball terminations. The range of buildings south of the gateway is about 250 ft. in length, and comprises a barn, stables and other outbuildings. The roofs are covered with modern blue slates, and there are five old stone doorways facing east with flat four-centred arches, two of which, however, are built up, and two later square-headed doors. The original small square openings remain in the bottom story, but all the upper windows, which were of two lights with hood moulds, have lost their mullions. There are no windows to the road, but there is a stone inserted in the wall bearing the initials of Robert Bindloss and his wife Agnes and the date 1590. (fn. 33) The stone, however, is said to have been originally in a gateway which preceded the present one, being preserved in the later buildings at the time of their erection by Christopher Bindloss.

Borwick Hall is built of stone, but with the exception of the north side, or back of the tower, the whole of the exterior walling is covered with roughcast, which gives the house a far less dignified appearance than it would have possessed if faced with ashlar, or even rubble masonry, and the roofs are covered with modern blue slates. The doors, windows, parapets and other dressings are of sandstone, but the lower windows of the south front appear to have been renewed. A terrace with stone balustrade runs the full length of the front, with a flight of seven steps opposite the porch to the grass court. The stone balustrade, however, was originally at the other side of the house, as shown in Nash's drawing, (fn. 34) the front terrace wall formerly terminating with a wooden rail and posts. (fn. 35) The south elevation is well broken up with gables and by the great mass of the keep, which consists of four stories and rises to a height of about 45 ft. The wings project only 7 ft. and are of unequal width, the west wing being 2 5 ft. across and that on the east only 17 ft., or little wider than the porch, which is carried up the full height of the building and forms a kind of flanking wing on the west side of the tower, while between the porch and the west wing, above the hall, is a dormer gable breaking the straight length of plain parapet. With the exception of those of the basement story of the tower and the east wing, all the front windows have transoms, and string courses divide the building horizontally all round, except the tower, which has an unbroken surface of wall its full height. The gables have ball terminations and corbelled ends, and the battlements of the tower are moulded all round. The porch has a semicircular outer arch with moulded impost and hood mould, above which is a modern shield with the arms of Marton impaling Dallas. There is a stone seat on each side, and the inner door has a square head and moulded jambs with a threelight window over. The door, which is the original oak one with Y knocker, opens on to a square lobby, from which a stone doorway with moulded jambs on the left leads into the hall. Here the usual arrangement of the screens is not followed, the result apparently of its being an addition to the original design. A door in the east wall leads by steps down to a kind of lower lobby, giving access to the north courtyard and to the lower rooms of the tower, while the main staircase leads from the north-east corner. At the west end are two parlours, and there appears, by the evidence of the walling and steps on the outside, to have been a doorway in the north-west corner opening directly on to the north courtyard. The hall is 30 ft. by 23 ft. 6 in., with a boarded floor and a plain plaster ceiling in three bays, 11 ft. 6 in. high. The walls are panelled to a height of 8 ft. with plain square panelling, which has been removed in the window reveals. The room is lit on the south side by three windows, the middle one of four lights and the others of two lights each, and there is also a similar twolight window on the north side between the fireplace and the stairs. The fireplace is of stone, and has a flat four-centred arch 6 ft. wide and 5 ft. high, and bears the initials R.B., but has apparently been restored, and the room contains a good 17th-century oak table 13 ft. 6 in. long by 2 ft. 6 in. in width. The two rooms in the west wing, opening from the hall, are now bare, but the larger one facing south was formerly panelled in oak.


Plan of Borwick Hall

The stairs are of stone, within a bay 10 ft. square, the walls of which are panelled in deal, terminating in a gable with a three-light transomed window at the level of the attic floor. At the stair head is a kind of stone balustrade 3 ft. 3 in. high carried on circular pillars 6 in. and 4 in. in diameter, on the coping of which are carved the name of alixander brinsmead mason and the date 1595 in raised letters 3¼ in. high. The stairs, which are in short flights with corner landings round a central square newel, open at the first floor level directly on to a large room over the hall and entrance 37 ft. 6 in. long by 23 ft. in width, exclusive of the bay over the porch, which is 8 ft. by 7 ft. 6 in. deep. The room, which has been a good deal restored, is lit on the south in the same way as the hall and by two windows of two lights on the north side, with a continuous window of six lights and two on each return in the recess or bay over the porch. In the west wing are two rooms similar in size to those below, but now modernized and without interest, and in the roof an attic gallery with dormer lights on the south side. A small room at the west end of the gallery, measuring 7 ft. 9 in. by 7 ft. and usually called 'Clarendon's Room,' (fn. 36) retains some good original oak panelling, and another room on the north side, known as the 'Coffin Room,' (fn. 37) is a kind of closet 11 ft. 6 in. by 8 ft. 6 in. at its widest end, formed partly above the fireplaces of the hall and room over it, the flues of which are carried up on either side of the window terminating in diagonally set chimney shafts, with a small balled gable between. Similar chimney shafts placed on each side of a gable occur again in the north-east wing, and on a larger scale in the west gable of the wing running west from it.

The lower or basement rooms of the tower are without interest, but on the 'ground floor,' which is midway between the ground and first floors of the main block, 6 ft. above the floor of the hall, is an interesting room known as the 'chapel,' 17 ft. 6 in. by 16 ft., with a recess 5 ft. 9 in. wide and 2 ft. 6 in. deep in the west wall, which may have been originally a window opening, but has been used, apparently in the 18th century, for the altar, being decorated with stars and the sacred initials on a blue ground. The east and south walls are panelled their full height in deal painted to look like oak, and on the north and west in plaster similarly treated. The window recess on the south side is 4 ft. deep, and the window, like those to the floor above, is a transomed one of four lights with hood mould, probably inserted in the tower at the time of its reconstruction in the 16th century. From the 'chapel' access is gained to the small east wing, in which on the same level are two rooms traditionally allotted to the 'priest.' The first of these is 11 ft. 9 in. by 11 ft. 3 in., panelled its full height of 8 ft. 6 in. in deal painted to resemble oak, and with a low two-light window on the south side and another on the east. Below the floor is a space 4 ft. high known as 'the priest's hiding-place,' but probably merely a hiatus caused by the wish to keep the floors level without unduly increasing the height of the room below. The back room, which is 14 ft. 9 in. by 11 ft. 3 in., has a stone fireplace and late square panelling its full height, each panel painted with a tied olive branch and the joints of the framing ornamented with alternate gilded stars and fleurs de lis. The size of the room is reduced by a screen bay in the south-west corner giving access to the front room, and there are windows on the north and east. The upper rooms in the east wing are without interest. The line of an older and lower gable can be seen at the back, showing that the wing has been raised a story, probably at the time the hall was built. The tower is now covered with two slated hipped roofs having lead gutters, and there is a turret at its northeast corner, the upper part of which has been rebuilt.

The north-east wing is 39 ft. long, but less in height than the rest of the house, the eaves of the roof being level with the sills of the first floor windows of the main block. It is, however, extremely picturesque viewed from the west, and the roof, together with that of the western returned wing, retains its original stone slates, on which a profuse vegetation consisting largely of ferns and yellow stonecrop has formed. The kitchen is 22 ft. by 21ft., with a flagged floor and plaster ceiling 9 ft. 3 in. high, and is lit by a transomed window of six lights on the west side. The fireplace opening opposite is 12 ft. wide and 6 ft. 6 in. high, but is partly filled in with a modern range. There are two doors at the north end and an external one at the north-east corner, suggesting a screen arrangement if this were ever the hall. At the south end another door leads into the tower, the basement of which is level with the kitchen floor, and there is a modern door in the south-west corner to the yard. The returned wing, which incloses the back courtyard on its north side, is 32 ft. long by 17 ft. in width and two stories in height, with an external stone staircase at its southwest corner giving access to the upper floor by means of a covered way or verandah the full length of the south front. The verandah roof is a continuation of that of the building supported by wooden posts, between which is a plain wooden balustrade, the whole forming a very picturesque feature in conjunction with the mullioned windows and dormer gable of the north-east wing overlooking the courtyard. (fn. 38)

At the north-east corner of the building are what appear to be the ruins of a domestic chapel swung round from the house at a slightly different angle, and measuring about 32 ft. 6 in. by 25 ft. externally. The average height of the walls is now about 7 ft. 6 in., and in the south side is the lower part of a five-light window 7 ft. wide, the sill, jambs and part of one of the mullions of which still remain. The sill of the east window is also in position, the bases of three mullions being visible, but at the north end it is embedded in the wall or broken off. The walls are 2 ft. 6 in. thick and of rubble masonry, and the window jambs and mullions have been moulded. The ruins now inclose piggeries connected with the farm.

The gardens on the north side of the house extended eastward across the brook up the hill-side in a succession of terraces which may still be traced. The east boundary wall of the upper terrace is continued southward to a hill known as Bull Cop, on which is a tower which may have been the dovecote.

The estate of the Bower family, above mentioned, can be traced for some time. (fn. 39) One or two other families appear in the records. (fn. 40) Edward Sharp of Borwick, who died in 1909, inherited through the Taylor family; he was succeeded by his son Mr. Wilham James Sharp.

The moor was inclosed in 1820. (fn. 41)

The Church of England is represented by St. Mary's Church; the vicar of Warton conducts service. A chapel formerly stood on the green near the hall, (fn. 42) and was in the time of the Commonwealth served by Richard Sherlock, afterwards rector of Winwick. The Book of Common Prayer being then prohibited, he is said to have used an echo or imitation of his own composition. (fn. 43) He was a benefactor to the poor of the township and parish. After the Restoration the vicar of Warton is said to have ministered there occasionally. The estate passing to the Roman Catholic family of Standish in 1688, the building was closed (fn. 44) and fell into decay.

Footnotes

1 Including 10 acres of inland water.
2 V.C.H. Lancs, i, 290b. The assessment was afterwards reduced to one plough-land.
3 In 1324 Ingram de Gynes held it with other parts of the Warton fee, paying in respect of Borwick 5d. for castle ward; Lancs. Inq. and Extents (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 126. Mary de St. Paul, Countess of Pembroke, held the ploughland in Borwick in 1346, paying 5d. as before; Surv. (Chet. Soc.), 82.
4 Patrick de Berwick was a juror in the forest perambulation of 1228; Farrer, Lancs. Pipe R. 420. Adam son of Richard de Berwick was plaintiff in 1276; Assize R. 405, m. 1 d. Adam de Berwick in 1292 alleged that one Henry de Rumworth, who did not appear, was his native; Assize R. 408, m. 73. From Adam Matthew son of Henry de Redmayne claimed a debt, but was non-suited; ibid, m. 54 d. In 1301 Adam son of Nicholas de Berwick is named; Assize R. 417, m. 3.
Richard son of John de Berwick and kinsman and heir of Adam was under age in 1302, when his lands were in the custody of various lords—Robert de Washington, Ingram de Gynes and Christiana his wife, John de Cansfield, and Roger de Croft. Eleanor widow of John de Berwick was seeking dower; De Banco R. 141, m. 30; 149, m. 77 d.
5 Inq. p.m. 24 Edw. III (ist nos.), no. 78; 28 Edw. III (2nd nos.), no. 1a. Robert son of Richard de Berwick was one of the trustees. The earlier inquisition states the money rent as 6d. and names Ralph's other children, Thomas and Margaret.
The king seems to have recovered the wardship, and in 1358 John son of Robert de Dalton had custody of the lands, &;c., of John son and heir of Ralph de Berwick; Memo. R. (L.T.R.), 123; 126, m. 10.
John de Berwick proved his age in 1361; he was born at Little Carleton; Dep. Keeper's Rep. iii, App. 206. He occurs as plaintiff in 1373; De Banco R. 452, m. 405 d.
6 In 1388 John de Berwick received from feoffees land in Docker, &;c.; Sizergh D. In 1417 John Berwick the elder gave lands in Lupton, &;c., to John Berwick the younger, his son and heir, and Margaret his wife; ibid. In 1438 John de Berwick the younger and Margaret his wife were parties to a bond; ibid. In the same year (21 Aug.) the writ of diem cl. extr. was issued after the death of John Berwick of Warton; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxiii, App, 38.
7 Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 9, m. 12, where the deeds are recited. John Berwick had by Margaret Hudson sons named Alexander and Roger, on whom he settled lands for life. John Berwick the younger had been defendant in 1443; ibid. 5, m. 3b. In 1445 he was accused of waylaying, with intent to kill, Robert Greenbank; ibid. 7, m. 4. Alice widow of John Berwick (perhaps the father) is named in 1448; ibid. 11, m. 16b.
The settlement of 1446 was confirmed by fine; Final Conc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), iii, 112. Peter Berwick and John Washington were the trustees.
Alfred Berwick was living in 1500 when an inspeximus was granted him; Towneley MS. CC (Chet. Lib.), no. 694.
In 1448 John Berwick was summoned to answer James Croft concerning an agreement, dated 16 July 1445, by which arbitrators divided certain tenements including Bretland. It was alleged that John had broken the terms by expelling Isabel widow of William Berwick from part; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 11, m. 5b.
Miles Whittington of Borwick occurs in 1479; Add. MSS. 32108, no. 1435.
8 Thomas Whittington died 8 July 1499 holding the manor of Borwick of the king by the tenth part of a knight's fee, but Thomas Bower held part of the manor valued at 14 marks. John Whittington, the brother and heir of Thomas, was thirty years of age; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iii, no. 47. Bower's alias appears later.
Elizabeth widow of Thomas Whittington claimed dower in 1500; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 89, m. 2 d.
9 John Whittington was in 1509 summoned to answer William Johnson in a plea respecting the manor which they held undividedly of the inheritance of John Berwick as his next of kin. John was seeking a partition; Pal. of Lanc. Writs Prothon. file 1 Hen. VIII. After this the manor was probably assigned to John.
10 Star Chamb. Proc. Hen. VII, no. 116.
11 John Whiitington held the manor of Borwick of the king as duke by the sixth part of a knight's fee; he also held messuages and lands in Borwick, Warton, Whittington, Tatham and Docker. Thomas his son and heir was eighteen years of age, and had married Mary daughter of Geoffrey Redmayne; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. iv, no. 43. Mabel Worsley widow of John died in 1522 holding messuages and lands in the vill of Borwick of the king as duke by the twentieth part of a knight's fee. The heirs were Margaret and Elizabeth, daughters of Thomas son of John Whittington; ibid, iv, no. 90; v, no. 40.
12 Ibid, iv, no. 86; Mary his wife survived Thomas. The manor was held of the king as of his manor of Warton by knight's service. The widow claimed dower in 1518; Pal. of Lanc. Plea R. 123, m. 4 d.
The wardship of the daughters was in 1518 granted by the king to William Redmayne; Dep. Keeper's Rep. xxxix, App. 562. Margaret had livery in 1532; ibid. Elizabeth is not again mentioned.
13 George Redmayne and Margaret his wife (the heiress) in 1548 made a settlement of the manor of Borwick, with lands, messuages, water mill, &;c., in Borwick and other places, the remainders being to their sons Thomas and Marmaduke; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 13, m. 242.
George Redmayne died early in 1565, whereupon his widow Margaret surrendered to her son Thomas a moiety of the capital messuage as of the remainder of the estate. George had demised the hall and lands to Robert Greenbank, who after his death made a further agreement with the son and widow, but soon afterwards found himself forcibly ejected; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. lix, G 5; lxiii, G 1.
In 1566 Thomas Redmayne made a feoffment of the manor, &;c.; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 28, m. 182.
14 Ibid. bdle. 29, m. 15; the deforciants were Thomas and Marmaduke Redmayne. The moiety was tenanted by Thomas Atkinson and Margaret his wife (in her right).
15 In 1578 Robert Bindloss acquired a messuage, &;c., from William Redmayne, Leonard Babthorpe and Frances his wife; ibid. bdle. 40, m. 181. In 1590 he obtained the 'manor' from Thomas Newton; ibid, bdle. 52, m. 212.
In 1574 Robert Bindloss, being seised of a capital messuage called Borwick Hall and certain demesne lands there, claimed in right thereof common of pasture for a flock of sheep upon Warton Crag; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. lxxxix, B 3.
In the Westmorland visitation the family is described as of Hailstone; Foster, Cumb. and Westmld. Visit. 23. 'Mr. Robert Byndlose esquyer ' was admitted a 'foreigner freeman' of Kendal; Ferguson, Bk. of Record, 21. In the account of gifts to Kendal Grammar School he is stated to have been born at Helsington; ibid. 224.
16 Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xvii, no. 7. A settlement of 1587 is recited by which Robert Bindloss and his wife Agnes were to have the manoT of Borwick, with lands, &;c., in many townships, with remainder to his son Christopher and Milicent his wife, and failing male issue to Robert son and heir of the said Robert. Agnes died before her husband. There were three daughters—Agnes Fleming, Dorothy Braithwaite and Anne (dead), who had left a son Robert Jopson. Robert Bindloss, the elder son, was thirty-six years old. The father's will is given.
17 Ibid, xvii, no. 52; Christopher's heir was a daughter Bridget, five years old.
Christopher had in 1596 renewed his claim to pasture in all the waste and common lands of the manor of Warton in right of his ownership of Borwick; he also held burgages in Warton, and Warton Crag was part of the common; Duchy of Lanc. Plead. Eliz. clxxii, B 9.
A Christopher Bindlowes of Westmorland was a student of Gray's Inn in 1580 and matriculated at Oxford (Queen's Coll.) in 1582, aged eighteen; Foster, Alumni Oxon.
18 P.R.O. List, 73.
19 Metcalfe, Bk. of Knights, 171. In the following year Sir Robert purchased the manor of Trimdon in Durham; Surtees, Durham, i, 105.
20 In 1630 he made provision for his grandson, Francis Bindloss; Royalist Comp. Papers (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 176.
21 The younger Robert was son of Sir Francis (made a knight in 1624) son of Sir Robert. He was born about 1626, according to the pedigree. Sir Francis was member of Parliament for Lancaster in 1628, and died in that year; Pink and Beaven, Parl. Repre. of Lanc. 117.
22 G.E.C. Complete Baronetage, ii, 140.
23 In 1645 he was placed on the Parliamentary Committee of the county; Civil War Tracts (Chet. Soc), 210. About the same time he and Thomas Fell were elected for Lancaster, displacing the Royalist members; Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 118. He was sheriff of the county in 1657; P.R.O. List, 73.
24 Charles II is said to have stayed at Borwick Hall in 1651 on his expedition to Worcester; Whitaker, Richmondshire, ii, 312 (quoting Lucas).
25 In the Convention Parliament of 1660, which arranged for the Restoration; Pink and Beaven, op. cit. 77.
26 In 1671–2 and 1672–3; P.R.O. List, 73.
27 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc), 31.
28 Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 142, m. 14; 165, m. 4.
29 Dugdale, Visit. (Chet. Soc.), 31.
30 The manor or reputed manor of Borwick with the capital messuage, demesne lands, water-course, mill, &;c., and appurtenances in Borwick, Warton and Hutton had with other manors and lands been assigned to Cecily as her jointure in 1697; Mr. Roper's MS. The fine concerning it is Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 240, m. 140.
31 Whitaker, op. cit. 311. Borwick and Hutton were included in a recovery of the Standish manors in 1760; Pal of Lanc. Plea R. 592, m. 7.
32 The sale particulars of 1854 said that the estate (335 acres) included 'the manor or lordship or reputed manor or lordship of Borwick, with the quit-rents, royalties, and all other manorial rights belonging thereto.'
33 The inscription is
Ao DNI 1590
R B
AoB
the initials of the husband being in separate shields, those of the wife on a single shield with a small pair of shears between.
34 Mansions of England in the Olden Time, iv.
35 Shown in the view in Whitaker's Richmondshire.
36 The tradition that Clarendon stayed at Borwick Hall and wrote part of his History of the Rebellion there is without foundation.
37 The walls sloping inwards to the window between the chimney flues makes that end of the room resemble in some slight degree the shape of a coffin.
38 This is the view drawn by Nash (Mansions of England).
39 William Redmayne in 1531 complained that Thomas Johnson alias Bowyer (Bower) and others had destroyed the mill dam at Borwick; Ducatus Lanc. (Rec. Com.), i, 147. In 1574 John Bower had a dispute with George Sill concerning Cawser House in Borwick; ibid, iii, 15.
An agreement as to four messuages, &;c., was in 1576 made between John Johnson alias Bower (son and heir of James) and James Johnson alias Bower; Pal. of Lanc. Feet of F. bdle. 38, m. 128. Sec Ducatus Lanc. iii, 3.
John Bower alias Johnson died in 1617 holding a capital messuage and lands in Borwick of Sir Robert Bindloss by fealty and suit of court. His heir was a son Thomas, above thirty years old; Lancs. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), ii, 252. Thomas died in 1623 holding his estate of the king as of his duchy by the hundredth part of a knight's fee. His son and heir Thomas, aged eighteen in 1630, succeeded him; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxv, no. 26.
40 In 1302 John Brown of Borwick made a claim against Henry Brown of Carnforth; Assize R. 419, m. 10.
The Middletons of Yealand held a messuage in Borwick, but the tenure is not recorded; Duchy of Lanc. Inq. p.m. xxix, no. 64.
Richard Backhouse paid £10 in 1631 as a composition for refusing knighthood; Misc. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), i, 221.
A short pedigree of Nathaniel West of Borwick Hall was recorded in 1664; Dugdale, Visit. 330. He was cousin of Cecily wife of Sir Francis Bindloss, who was daughter of Thomas West, third Lord De la Warr. He had a monument in Warton Church.
41 Under a Private Act, 56 Geo. III, cap. 15.
42 In 1650 it was stated that Sir Robert Bindloss had left £20 a year for a 'preaching minister' at this chapel, 'whilst any of his name or blood should be lords of Borwick'; Commonw. Ch. Surv. (Rec. Soc. Lancs. and Ches.), 122. At that time the stipend was withheld and no incumbent is named.
43 Whitaker, op. cit. ii, 313. Sherlock had a controversy with the Quakers in 1654 while chaplain at Borwick. He is said to have left on account of his remonstrances concerning Sir Robert Bindloss's reckless living proving useless.
44 Gastrell, Notitia Cestr. (Chet. Soc), ii, 562.