Institute of Historical Research



C.W. Foster (editor)

Year published


Supporting documents



Citation Show another format:

'Glossary', Lincoln Wills: volume 2: 1505-1530 (1918), pp. 293-300. URL: Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


(Min 3 characters)



Words marked with a dagger are explained in the Glossary of Volume I

Agnus Dei, an. A cake of wax stamped with the figure of the Lamb bearing a cross or flag, and blessed by the Pope. 41

Agnus, the. The part of the Eucharistic Service beginning with the words Agnus Dei. 124

Almain-rivets. Almmenreuettes. A kind of light armour first used in Germany, in which great flexibility was obtained by overlapping plates sliding on rivets (N.E.D.). 65

Ambling. Moving at a smooth or easy pace. Used of a foal (p. 8), a filly (p. 147), a gelding (pp. 172, 204), a horse (p. 18), a mare (p. 178), a nag (p. 31), a stag or young horse (pp. 21, 31, 131, 172, 200).

Ambry, aumbry. A cupboard; a closed recess in a wall; such a cupboard or recess in a church for books, vessels, vestments, etc. 41, 48, 52, 85, 90, 96

Anendes. Anent, in respect of. 95

Angel noble. An old English gold coin, a new issue of the noble, first coined in 1465 by Edward iv. It derived its name from its device of the archangel Michael standing upon, and piercing the dragon. From 1 to 34 Henry viii its value was 7s. 6d. (See N.E.D.). 35, 100

Anoil, an oyle. To anoint, to give extreme unction to the dying. 59

Anowe. An ewe. 70

Arrayments, areyments. The vestments or outfit (of a gild). 114

Assemble. Assembly. 90

Aswyer. Esquire. 65

Awth. Ought. 14

Bed, long. The grave. 89

Begotten. Forgotten. 124

Bend of leather. Half an ox-hide rounded, i.e. with the surrounding thinner parts (i.e. the hide of the head and shoulders and of the belly and shanks) cut off (N.E.D.). 210

Betake. To bequeath. 144

Bewyt. Bequeathed. 183

Bird-work, byrde warke. Embroidery representing birds. 52

Blanket, blankyd. A white or undyed woollen stuff. 144

Boloke. A bullock. 35

Boiled leather. Lat. corium bullietum. French cuir bouilli. Leather boiled till it is soft enough to be pressed into the desired shape. vol. i, 17

Books for preachers— (i) Distructorium Viciorum. Probably the Destructorium Viciorum of Alexander Anglus, 'cuiusdam fabri lignarii filius,' written in 1429; and printed at Cologne 1480 and 1485, Nuremburg 1496, etc. Another Destructorium Vitiorum is identical with the Dialogus Creaturarum, another book for preachers, of which eight editions appeared before 1510.

(ii) Gesta Romanorum. A favourite medieval preachers' book consisting of a collection of tales that might be used to enforce and enliven lessons from the pulpit. Each tale was provided with its application or moral. Nominally the tales were taken from Roman history, but other sources were freely drawn upon, and many of the stories came from the East. The tales were used by Shakespeare and other poets. The book was compiled about the end of the thirteenth or the beginning of the fourteenth century; and was first printed, about 1472, by N. Ketelaer and G. de Leempt at Utrecht. An early English version was edited for the Roxburghe Club by Sir Frederic Madden in 1838, and re-edited for the Early English Text Society by Mr. S. J. H. Herrtage in 1879. The tales were translated into English by the Rev. Charles Swan in 1824, and a new edition of Swan's book, with a preface by E. A. Baker, M.A., appeared in 1905 (London: George Routledge and Sons). A selection of stories from the collection was printed in 1884 in Morley's Universal Library under the title Mediæval Tales.

(iii) Sermones Discipuli. A book of sermons, written circa A.D. 1420, by Johann Herold, a German or Swiss Dominican. It was first printed in 1482, and had run through forty-one editions before the year 1500.

(iv) Sermones Parati. An anonymous collection of sermons called Paratus de tempore & de sanctis; so called because the opening text of each part begins with the word paratus, e.g. I Pet. iv, 5, Ps. cxviii, 60 (Vulgate), etc. There were at least seventeen editions before 1500.

(v) Sermones XIII. Sermones XIII predicabiles per totum annum by Michael of Hungary (Michaelis de Ungaria), who is variously claimed as a Franciscan and as a Dominican, and who may possibly have been an Englishman since some of his sermons contain English words and allusions. Many editions appeared before 1513.

Boster. A bolster. 65

Branded, brandyt. Brinded, brindled. 187

Brandreth, brandryth. A gridiron; a tripod or trivet. 174

Brede. Breadth. 135

Bredes. Breadths, widths. Linen was woven in a long narrow web, several bredes or leaves (Latin, folia) of which had to be sewn together to make a sheet. 53

Bridges. See Bruges.

Broiling-iron, brolyng yern. A kind of Dutch oven. 66

Bruges, Bridges. The name of a town in Flanders used to describe a kind of satin. 56

Bunwayn. A wain or wagon bound (with iron). 180

Butt. A land, selion, or rigg; especially such a land when short of its full length owing to the irregular shape of the field. (See N.E.D.). 164. Cp. Rigg.

Butter. Apparently a blacksmith's tool; probably for striking or ramming. 105

Bynk bord. Perhaps a dresser or plate-rack. 207

Byrde warke. See Bird-work.

Care Sunday. Passion Sunday, the fifth Sunday in Lent. 26

Carrod. Perhaps for carved. 52

Carsey. See Kersey.

Cawthorn. Caldron. 52

Certum, sertum (Lat.). A garland; (the explanation in volume i, p. 245, should be cancelled). Volume i, 15, 245.

Chesabell. A chasuble. 6

Chr'en. Christian. 146–7

Chyftyd. Shifted, divided. 179

Corium bullietum. See Boiled leather.

Corse, coorse, corps. The body or ground-work (of a girdle). 51

Coucher, cowcher. A table-cloth. 144

Cristened. Brought to baptism. 18

Crook. An iron hook and chain in the chimney on which vessels are hung over the fire. 105

Cross-week. Rogation-week. 76

Custom-work, land of the. Land held by the customary services owed by the tenants of a manor. 35

Cutted. Small, diminutive. 59

Cypress, satin of cypress. A valuable quality of satin, originally imported from or through Cypress (N.E.D.). 211, 214

Dan. An honourable title—master, sir, given especially to members of a religious order. 151

Delf. A large drain in the fens of the eastern counties. 35

Demiceint, dymysent. A girdle having ornamental work on the front half only. 51

Dese. Dais, a raised table in a hall, at which distinguished persons sat at feasts, etc.; a raised platform at one end of a hall on which such a table stood (N.E.D.). 52

Dornick, dornyx. A species of silk, worsted, woollen, or partly woollen fabric, used for hangings, carpets, etc.; called after the Flemish town of Dornick (in French called 'Tournay') where such fabrics were originally manufactured (N.E.D.). 52

Dowed, dovyd, dowyd. Dulled or faded (N.E.D.); a faded colour, probably of brown or reddish hue: 'one cowe of the color callyd dowyd' (Lincoln Consistory Court, book 1532–4, f. 326d.). 139, 171, 195. Cp. vol. i, 58, 145

Dymysent. See Demiceint.

Elenettys. Eel-nets. 105

Farthing, fardyng. A farthing or fardel of land was the fourth part of a carucate or bovate or acre, etc. 166

Farthing bread, farthyng brede. Loaves costing a farthing each. 24, 166

Feft. Enfeoffed, put in possession; properly used only with respect to land, but here used in relation to money. 172

Felys. Fillies. 147

Fimble, fembull. Material made of hemp. 12

Final expenses. That is, the last or funeral expenses, etc. 39

Fitches, fytchys. Pole-cats, the skins of pole-cats 211

Flekyd. Flitched, flanked. 214

Foole. A foal. 191

Foured cote. Furred coat. 134

Frem. Not related. 44

Frundel, fryndel. A dry measure; said to be equal to two pecks. 154

Furgon, forgan. A poker. 53

Furmeres. Perhaps forms, benches. 65

Fylys. Files. 105

Gad. A strip of the open pasture, usually 6½ feet wide; = swath (N.E.D.). 77

Gallore. Gallery. 52

Garthyns. Gardens. 41

Geys. Geese. 85

Gimmal, gymmowe. A finger-ring (rarely an ear-ring) so constructed as to admit of being divided into two (sometimes into three) rings (N.E.D.). 40–1

Grail book, grale boke. A gradual, or book containing the antiphons sung between the epistle and the gospel at the Eucharist. 156

Gris, grice. The fur of any grey animal. The explanation under Grice in vol. i, p. 251, should be cancelled. Vol. i, 17, 251

Gyle-fat. The brewing vat in which wort is left to ferment. 52

Hair, here. A cloth, mat, or other fabric of hair used for drying or straining; a sieve of hair-cloth. Cp. Kylneheire. 194

Hanger, hynger. A loop or strap on a belt from which a sword, dagger, or knives were hung; often richly ornamented. 161

Harness. Armorial bearings. 51

Harness. Defensive body-armour, military equipment. 129, 181

Hause. Owes. 176

Hedeman pences. A species of mass-pence†; perhaps the payment to the celebrant, or chief minister, at mass. 99

Hele. Health, well-being, salvation. 93

Hellyght. Health. 176

Hewke. See Huke.

Hogners. Perhaps the collectors of money for parochial purposes on the Hock-days, the second Monday and Tuesday after Easter. 111

Holm. A small island, islet; especially in a river. 20

Home, whoom, to bring. To bring to burial. xi, 61, 152

Homestadyll. A homestead. 40

Hooker, howker bote. A fishing smack with one or two masts. 24

Hoop(1). A ring. 56

Hoop(2), hope, upe. A measure of corn, etc., of varying capacity. 123, 150

Horreg cote. Query an orange coat. 156

Horys. Perhaps for ears, projections to serve as handles. 52

Hostgans. Oxgangs or bovates. 96

Housing, housyng. Houses, house-property. 165

Huke, hewke. (Old French huque, heuque; medieval Latin, huca). A kind of cape or cloak with a hood, worn chiefly by women (N.E.D.). 144

Hustlements, hostelmentes, ustelmenttes. Household goods. 85–6, 149, 190

Indewryng. During. 156

Indument. A garment, robe. 90

Inground. Ing ground, meadow. 40

Intermysse. Perhaps for to intromit, deal with property. 185

Kendal. A species of green woollen cloth, called after Kendal in Westmorland, the place of manufacture (N.E.D.). 126, 162, 209

Kersey, carsey. A kind of course narrow cloth, woven from wool, and usually ribbed (N.E.D.). 161

Kimnell, kymnll, kynnell. A tub for brewing, kneading, salting meat, and other household purposes (N.E.D.). 52, 88

Kist, kyst. A chest or coffer. 144

Kyen. Kine. 146

Kylneheire. The hair strainer of a malt-kiln. Cp. Hair. 52

Lair-stone, layrston. A grave-stone. 164

Land. A selion or strip of arable land in the open fields. 77

Leasows, lesoures. Meadows. 87

Lec'. Lections, lessons. 17

Lether. Ladder. 207

Lifeload. Livelihood, property. 9

Long bed. The grave. 89

Luce. A pike. 18

Marsher. A mercer. 90

Mash-fat. A vat or tub in which malt is mashed. 52

Maundy, mawndy, le mandy. The ceremony of washing the feet of a number of poor people on the Thursday in Holy Week; also (as probably here) alms and gifts to the poor on that day. It will be noticed that both the instances in this volume relate to the parish of Hackthorn. 11, 95

Menyng day. A remembering day, a mind-day, the day on which a person's death is commemorated. The mind-day might be a month's mind, thirty days after death; or a twelve months' mind or year's mind either on the first anniversary of death, or on each successive anniversary. (See vol. i, p. 246 (b) (i)). 148

Messe, mece, meis. A messuage. 7, 25, 32, 35, 49, 75, 110, etc.

Mind. Intention, desire, wish; (1) the intention as expressed in the last will, 106. (2) the last will itself, 15

Morella, morlay. A kind of material used for dresses, etc. 214

Mortest. Amortized, alienated in mortmain. See p. 12, where, by a confusion of thought, the priest who is to be maintained, instead of the land the income of which is to maintain him, is said to be 'mortest'. 12

Mortyfying. Amortizing, alienating in mortmain. 29

Musterdevillys. Musterdevillers; from the name of the town now called Montivilliers, in Normandy; a kind of mixed grey woollen cloth, much used in the fourteenth century and later (N.E.D.). 41

Mydosalte, mydsalte. A salt-meadow, salt-marsh; marsh or meadow in which sea-water is collected for the manufacture of salt. 141–2

Narke, a. An ark. 56

Neve. Nephew. 212

Newe, a. An ewe. 21

Nolde, a. An old. 144

Nox, a. An ox. 150, 205

Nut, nutte. A cup formed from the shell of a coco-nut mounted in metal; also one made of other materials to resemble this (N.E.D.). 92. See also vol. i, 6, 15

Os. As. 91

Ornament. (1) The accessories or furnishings of a church and its worship. 132, 146, 204. See also Anourements in Index of Subjects. (2) Any adjunct or accessory; as the ornaments of a wain, plough, etc. 83. (3) A decoration, embellishment.

Paryshyng. A parishing, parish. 31, 133, 196

Peane. Pain. 7

Pekkyll. Perhaps a pickling tub. 88

Perels. Apparels†. 51

Pesse rekes. Pea-ricks. 9

Phallarae. Horse-trappings. The explanation of Phallara in vol. i, p. 256, should be cancelled. The correction is due to the kindness of Canon J. T. Fowler. Vol. i, 75, 256

Picture. An image, 76, 79

Portewes, portys. A portable breviary. 150

Preculae (Lat.). The beads of a rosary. Unum par precularum—one pair†, i.e. set, of beads. 4. See also vol. i, 43, 256 (where the explanation should be corrected as above, as also on p. 255, s.v. Pair).

Pricket, prykket. A spike on which to stick a candle; especially a candle or taper stuck on such a spike. 152

Pypys. Pips, little bosses. 26

Qwestes. Bequests. 183

Rackan, recon, reconnys (plur.). An iron chain or other apparatus by which cooking vessels are suspended over a fire; now usually a vertical bar pierced with holes into one of which the pot-hook is inserted. 183

Radybound, Redbone, our Lady. St. Radegund. 146

Raised work. Embossed work. 51

Reformacion. Performance. 190

Reparal. Repair, reparation. 98

Rigg. A selion or strip of arable land in the open fields. 23, 27, 47, 81, 118, 131, 138, 150, 164. Cp. Butt, Land.

Rosett. See Russet.

Roundel. A ring or hoop, wherein candles were fixed, to hang before the rood or an image. 146

Ruggyd. Shaggy, rough with hair. 47

Russet, rosett. A coarse homespun woollen cloth, of grey or neutral colour, formerly used for the dress of peasants and country-folk (N.E.D.). 22, 85, 126, 165–6

Sadell, saddell. A settle. 15

St. Hugh's head. The popular shrine of St. Hugh's head near the eastern end of Lincoln cathedral. 58

Salmes Day. See Soul Mass Day.

Salt-cote. A salt-house; a building in which salt is made by admitting sea-water and letting it evaporate naturally or by boiling. 141–2

Scabellum (Lat.). A stool, bench. The explanation of stabellum (rectius scabellum) in vol. i, p. 259, should be cancelled. The correction is due to the kindness of Canon J. T. Fowler. Vol. i, 43, 259

Scamnum (Lat.). A bench. The explanation of stamnum (rectius scamnum) in vol. i, p. 259, should be cancelled. The correction is due to the kindness of Canon J. T. Fowler. Vol. i, 54, 259

Sectors. Executors. 70

Seperally lyeng. Land so lying is land divided up into a number of strips or selions† or riggs (q.v.) in the open fields. 37

Sertum. See Certum.

Sib, sibbe. Related by blood or descent. 44

Sheer Thursday. The Thursday before Easter. The name perhaps alludes to the purification of the soul by confession (cp. Shrove Tuesday). 95

Shoed cart. A cart the wheels of which are furnished with tires. 63

Skellat, skeylott. A small hand-bell. 88

Skomer, skowmer. A scummer or skimmer, a shallow utensil for skimming liquids. 53, 105

Soret. Sorrell. 7

Soul-mass day, Salmes Day. All Souls' Day, 2nd November. 24

Soul-scot. A due paid on behalf of a deceased person to the church of the parish to which he belonged; a mortuary (N.E.D.). xxiii

Sparver, sperver. A canopy for a bed or cradle. 48, 52

Splints, a pair of. Pieces of overlapping metal in medieval armour, used for protecting the arms at the elbows. 65, 120

Start, stert. A handle. 52, 197

Stee. A ladder. 207

Stepefatt. A steeping vat. 52

Sterthuppe. Startup; originally, a kind of 'high-low' or boot, worn by rustics, a shoe that starts up to the middle of the leg; later, a kind of legging or gaiter (N.E.D.). The explanation in vol. i, p. 259, should be cancelled. The correction is due to the kindness of Mr. William Brown, f.s.a. vol. i, 41, 259

Stigh, stight. A stile. 138

Stillicidium (Lat.). A gutter (rather than the eaves as explained in vol. i, 259). vol. i, 6, 259

Storryd mare. Probably a stock mare. 210

Stot. A young ox. 95

Strene. To distrain. 175

Tabernacle. A canopy of tabernacle-work over an image. This is evidently the meaning in vol. i, p. 121, since there would not be two pyxes in a church (see vol. i, p. 260). vol. i, 121, 260

Tache. A clasp. 60

Tag tale, tagyd. Tagged, having the tail tipped with white or other distinctive colour (N.E.D.). 82, 171

Tenand, tenandry. A tenancy, a holding of lands or tenements. 180

Terre. The context suggests that some kind of textile fabric is intended; otherwise 'hempe terre' might mean hempland (cp. pp. 69, 86, 110). 210

Thing. A piece of real property; often used as part of the name of such a piece of property. xxv, 32, 136, 141, 143

Thrawn, throne. Turned, turned on a lathe; from thraw, to twist, turn, etc. 52, 107

Thystell. A thixel, thixle, adz. 105

Toft, toftstead. A homestead. 20, 46–7, 83

Triangle. A small ornament or piece of jewellery of triangular form. 41

Turn. Fashion. 52

Tuyere, tewer. The nozzle through which the blast from the bellows is forced into a forge or furnace. 105

Tyle land, tyland. Probably tilled or ploughed land. 31, 91, 146

Tynned, tynd. Tined, furnished with tines or prongs. 53

Upe. See Hoop.

Ustelmenttes. See Hustlements.

Verder, verder warke. Verdure or verdour; a rich tapestry, ornamented with representations of trees and other vegetation (N.E.D.). 52, 100

Vice, vise A device, ornament. 18, 179

Vigilat. Vigilant. 210

Vowess, Lat. mantulata. A widow vowed to widowhood (rather than a nun as suggested in vol. i, 253, 261). The mantle of widowhood was a recognised habit 17, 19, 143. See also vol. i, 44, 253, 261

Vysement, a. Advisement, consideration. 196

Wardel. World. 130

Wassail, wesayll. A festive occasion; especially, in connection with New Year's eve and Twelfth-day. A wassail light is a light for such an occasion. 178

Wedset. To mortgage, pledge. 158, 178

Weve. A woaf or woave; a measure of 10 feet long, applied to the warp of a piece of cloth (English Dialect Dictionary). 56

Whoom. See Home.

Wone, wne. To dwell, live. 23, 41, 55, 91, 96, 120, 134, 165

Wong, wang. A shot (often called a furlong), a collection or bundle of selions or strips in the open fields. 118

Yern. Iron. 66

⇚rd. Yard. 72

ȝards. Yards. 85

ȝng. Young. 85

ȝwe. An ewe. 88, 93

Index of subjects