February (3 of 3)
Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
We have much groundes of suspition, that the Irish have some designe to make some
disturbance. Their great want is of armes and ammunition: they have hopes of supplies from beyond seas. There are three Brest men of warre, which lie upon the Westerne
coast, and through the negligence of the states shippes are like to continue. They give
out, that they expect a fleete to come into those parts. We have some intelligence, which
gives us much ground of suspition, that the intelligence, which my lord protector formerly
gave me, might be a reall designe. I am sending more forces to strengthen those partes,
and I doubt not, if there be occasion, but that we shall find the same prefence of the Lord,
which hitherunto we have had. The state is much abused, through the carelesness of those
men of warre, which attend this coast: they loose much tyme in harbours, under pretence
of victuallinge. Col. Odwyre (fn. 1) had orders from the late council of state, to levye 3500
men in Ireland; in persueance of which orders the commissioners gave him libertie soe to doe;
but I am sending orders to him, to forbeare draweing any more together, until he hath first
satisfied me, that he hath shippes readye to transporte them. I have sent major Wallis
his letter unto you, desireing you will take some care therein; but through the want of
that shipp, which it should seem he had engaged should transport 800 men, the state is
necessitated, rather then to suffer the men to run out into rebellion againe, to advance to
some officers near 1500 l. to transporte those men with the addition of 400 more. I desire
that he may be enforced to reimburse the state here what through his defect they suffer
in this business. The publicke hath been very much abused by such kind of actions upon
the Spanish capitulations. Pardon this tediousnesse of
Your very affectionate friend
Dublin, 14 Feb. 1653.
The high court of justice have agayne adjourned, the judges not being satisfyed to act,
unlesse under the new authority, which we conceive ourselves not impowered to do,
otherways then we have allready. Such kinde of delayes doth no good: the attorney
general desires new authority from my lord; he is a very able honest man: pray
get him a patent.
A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augiers's secretary.
Paris, the 15/25 Febr. 1653/4.
At last France sends an authentical commission of ambassador to M. de Neufville, with
order to demonstrate unto his highness the feelings of a love necessary to gain that of
the commonwealth, whose preparatives are much feared. The cardinal Mazarin, to whom
all governments are indifferent, as long as they are suitable to his interest, had long since
been of that opinion; but the delights towards a young prince, and a queen governed by
superstitious impressions, have detained him until now in the deceitful and imaginary hopes
of the Stuarts, who are in earnest to be gone, as I am informed. Some whisper in their
ears to go toward Denmark, as to cause the storm to fall upon it, and bring hindrance, if
possible, to the agreement of both commonwealths, whilst prince Rupert shall try to land
in some place of England, or at least in Scotland or Ireland; bragging that they have very
good intelligences, and that thereby they shall succeed at this time, being upholded by the
Roman clergy's contributions, and the league the Papists meditate amongst themselves for
to maintain their Antichrist, who to that purpose hath already tried several negotiations in
divers parts. They brag moreover of the great divisions, which would happen in London
itself; this court making them believe the more, thereby to be rid of them, promising
them the king will carefully remit them their pension where they please; and that his
majesty will be more able to serve them absent, than present; so that I am informed, the
little queen is to shew them the way.
We have but little of other news; that of Tholouse, whereof I made mention in my
last, hath been followed with dangerous consequences. The name of the protestant gentleman put to death is Leran, marquis and kinsman to the house of Vantadour. He
hath been unhappily condemned for fighting in a duel, and beheaded a moment before
the arrival of an express his friends sent him with the king's pardon; which causeth infinite grief unto all those of the Reformed church, who are resolved to draw reason of the
malicious temerity of that parliament. To which purpose many deputies come hither from
the city of Montpellier and others; and in the mean while the sons of the late deceased have
put themselves in the field with 4 or 500 of their friends, and have already burnt by anticipation several houses about Tholouse belonging to the said parliament; and also
one belonging to the reporter of that process, expecting more sensible retaliations upon
the persons themselves; so that here are hostilities, which can produce nothing but much
animosity. This court is much offended with it, although it seems much irritated with the
proceeding of that parliament. Those of the Reformed church cry always, they receive
no justice, and that the insolency of their foes doth daily become insupportable. Great
numbers of the nobility of Poictou, which are in this city, have resolved to speak openly
to his majesty's counsel, concerning the business of Rochechouart, the mareschal de Turenne
having promised to uphold them.
It is said that Dureteste hath accused two persons before his death; and that some have
been taken going from England to Bourdeaux with letters, which had been sent hither;
whence the mareschal of Grammont parteth this week for the government of Bayonne.
Beffort is for certain rendered, and the count of Harcourt's peace wholly made.
The cardinal Mazarini gives his palace to the prince of Conti, who hath already received
of his marriage an hundred thousand crowns in money, with promise to receive as much
again, a year hence, without pretension of any interest, and to enjoy the pension of 50,000
crowns, reserved him in his church revenues. Some distrust some jealousy between him
and the cardinal; and it is noted, that since his arrival many rails have been planted
about the entries of the Louvre; and that more than ordinary care is taken to see who
cometh in it. Two honest citizens have been repulsed and searched two days since, for
passing with their cloaks about their shoulders, because of cold weather.
Mr de Neufville's father hath shewed me the plenipotential commission the king sends
to the said Mr de Neufville, as above said. The said commissions to be sent this week by
Intelligence from Dantzick.
Dantzick, 25 Febr. [1653.] N. S.
Vol. xi. p. 1.
BY the last letters from Warsaw we cannot hear of any considerable action hitherto
taken in hand upon that rix-day. The Tartars have sent a message there, to demand
the 500,000 gilders due; as also the 45,000 florins new tribute; a fine recompence
indeed for that they have plunder'd the whole land within four miles of Lublin, and
carried away so many men, beasts, and commodities. The grand duke of Moscow is
said to be with his army at Wierna, a border town of the dukedom of Smolensko,
from whence he hath already sent some parties in the said dukedom, who having
driven back the Polacks, have caused their wayvode to desire prince Radzevil (whom
the king, for to draw him on his side, hath presented with the generalate of Littow)
his assistance for the maintenance of the head city, against the violence of the Muscovites,
which he was not able to resist.
A proclamation of the duke of Austria.
Leopold William, by the grace of God archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy, &c. lieutenant governor and captain general of the Low-countries of
To all high officers, major generals, colonels, captains, and soldiers, bearing arms under
the ensigns and colours of the lord duke of Lorrain, Charles, greeting. Know that
we having this day made sure for some time of the person of the said lord duke of Lorrain,
Charles, in execution of the order and special command, which we have received from the
king my lord, for the proper good of the house of Lorrain, and other high considerations tending to the safety of the state, and the publick tranquillity; the intention of his majesty and ours is, that the body of his troops remain under the command and order of the
count of Ligneville for the same service that they are at present employ'd in, until such
time as the lord duke Francis of Lorrain render himself here, as he will do in few days, to
take himself the government of that body for the conservation of the rights of the said
lord duke, and of the house of Lorrain, under the protection of his majesty; and declaring,
that no soldiers of the said body, nor officers, shall be examin'd or punish'd for any pre
text of former actions, which they shall have committed under the government of the said
lord duke: we have done, and do by these presents strictly and expressly forbid them to
pass into the service of any other potentates or neighbour states, friends or enemies, on
penalty of confiscation of body and goods of his majesty's vassals and subjects, as also of
those inlisted and inrolled heretofore in their books, and for and in regard of other strangers,
on pain of being punish'd as military deserters; provided always, that those heretofore
enlisted and inrolled for his majesty's service, although retired from their colours without
permission, may return without any danger of being examined or punish'd for other
matters. We remit to what the count of Fuensaldagna, governor general of his majesty's
armies, shall more particularly make them understand concerning the advantages that shall
be promptly procured them and effected. 25th of Febr. [165¾. N. S.]
Manifesto of the archduke of Austria.
Leopold William, by the grace of God archduke of Austria, duke of Burgundy, &c. lieutenant governor and captain general of the Low-countries of
Vol. xi. p. 234.
No person can ignore the just terms of the duty and office, into which our cousin the
lord duke of Lorrain Charles was obliged to contain and behave himself towards the
king my lord, and all his allies, friends, and good subjects, as soon as he was in this
country and provinces. Under his obedience, he was protected from the violences, oppressions, and usurpations, which France committed against his person and his country; and he
was here received by his majesty, and his lieutenants general, not only in all friendliness and
trust, and under a special protection, even to espouse all his interests, and all treaties of
peace; but hath been also gratified with pay and subsistence for his troops, and was made
privy unto all counsels and resolutions of wars against the common enemy.
On the other side, it is no less known unto all the world, how much the said lord duke
hath fallen from the terms of duty and respect due from a prince of his birth, received,
used, and gratified in the manner above expressed, and bound by so near and just ties of
relation to the interests and service of his majesty, and to the good of his states: for besides
the tears, sighs, groanings, and general exclamation of the people, who have publickly
witnessed the robberies, thests, and sacrilege done in churches, forcing of wives, and ravishing of maids, with divers other execrable, abominable and detestable things, which were
done and committed under the power and government of his troops, and he himself received
what remained of such destructions and calamities; his majesty and his lieutenants general
having been duly informed from time to time of the secret intelligences of the said lord
duke, of his many designs contrary to the publick good and service, unto which, and
what was the end and intents of the junction of our forces, of his inconstancy and dissembled variations in the resolutions of war, and his changes or affected delays, which he
brought in against things already concluded, at the very time when exploits of great
importance were to be executed; from which came the ruin and destruction of divers high
enterprizes, which according to all appearance of human judgment ought to have had favourable success; these things by frequent continuance are become so publickly evident, that not
only the lieutenant generals, majors, colonels, and other officers, touch'd all his crasty subtilties with their finger, and were eye-witnesses thereof, but also the least soldier and all the
people became astonish'd to see, how it slid in and increased, without endeavouring any
remedy. 'Tis true, my lord the king, by his accustomed goodness, and restrained by the
singular affection, which he bears, and will ever bear, unto the house of Lorrain, connived
and dissembled at it as long as it was possible for him so to do, hoping that the said lord
duke, touch'd with the humanity and goodness which his majesty used towards him, coming
to know his own true interest, would in the end submit, and subject himself to his duty;
but contrarywise, his proceedings went beyond all bounds, and came to such a height, that
not only all the subjects and vassals of his majesty had him in horror and detestation, but
also the princes and neighbour states had conceived such an aversion, that the effect of
vengeance that they designed to take, apparently would disgorge itself and overflow
in these Low-countries, to make them fall and absolutely miserable; the king my lord,
without pulling the wrath of God on himself, could not delay longer to stop the torrent of
his evil. And it is upon the consideration of these truths, publickly and manifestly true,
that his majesty had commanded us, for a prompt and efficacious remedy, to secure the
person of the said lord duke; in which he hath proceeded according to the law of nature,
that when sovereign princes shall raise taxes, and make violent oppressions against their
states and subjects, to do justice to themselves, to their people, and to potentates and
neighbour states and friends, after all other ways and means have been attempted in vain
for which lawfulness divers examples are in times past in, and for cases of less consequence, and not so justified as this. 'Tis not that his majesty hath any aversion against
the house of Lorrain; contrary-wise he protests ever to protect it, and take part in all
his affairs: in witness and faith of which, his majesty hath taken care, that the government of the army and troops of the said lord duke may pass and remain sequester'd in the
hands of the lord prince Francis of Lorrain, his brother, of whose good disposition and
right intention his majesty hath infallible assurances, to receive the right and due effects and
fruits of the junction of his army; and in the mean time that the said lord duke Francis
arrive, the intention of his majesty and ours is, that the count of Ligneville continue to
occupy his place and function of general.
We command then, in the name and by the authority of the king my lord, to all his
subjects and vassals, and require all princes and neighbour states, to remain satisfied and
well contented with this order and resolution of his majesty, waiting that other times
and conjunction of publick affairs calm these storms and alterations; and that God bring
back the great good, by mollifying the obstinate hearts and spirits of France, that are
against a peace; the people may be re-establish'd in tranquillity and general rest; and
each one in particular re-united, and enjoy what belongs to him. Bruxels, the 25th of
February 1654. [N. S.]
The lord of Amelandt to the states general.
High and mighty Lords,
Vol. xi. p. 231.
The letter of your lordships, dated at the Hague the 28th of this month, stylo loci, I
received yesterday; whereby I did understand, to my great grief, that your lordships
were displeased at the sending of two Amelanders into England (fn. 2) , to desire an act of neutrality. Therefore this serves in all humility and reverence, in answer to your lordships,
that therein was nothing done by me, but what had been formerly done in my time, and
before my time by my predecessors and forefathers, the lords of Amelandt, with whom it
was usual and practicable, namely in times of war and danger at sea, to desire an act of
neutrality, either by sending of commissioners, or writing of letters to all such places and
persons in supreme power, where the same is thought requisite, that so the poor inhabitants
of Amelandt might not be hindered from getting their livelihood; of which being once
debarred, they must perish with hunger. Withal it is very well known, that the lordship
of Amelandt, and the inhabitants thereof, were always neuters, even during the time
of the wars between your lordships and the king of Spain, without being hindered by your
lordships, who did not conceive themselves prejudiced thereby; and therefore what is done,
is humbly conceived to be done according to reason, justice, and equity: for it is most
certain, that those that have no community in the war, ought to be held for neuters.
Lieuwarden, the 25th of Feb.
1654. [N. S.]
V. H. Camminga, free, and
lord by inheritance of Amelandt.
Beverning, the Dutch commissioner in England, to the states general.
High and mighty Lords,
Vol. xi. p. 241.
According to your high mightinesses commands, I have demanded audience this
afternoon, and obtained the same of his highness; when I made a compliment to him,
conformable to your resolutions of the 19th instant. I have nothing in particular to write on
that head, but only that his highness, assisted with the whole council, did receive me bareheaded, and did hear me thus almost all the while: and because I was somewhat incommodated in my lest leg, and therefore obliged to be carried in a chair, his highness ordered an
arm-chair to be set for me, of the same fashion as that wherein he was going to sit down;
but seeing that I remained standing, altho' he stooped already to sit down, yet he rose again,
and heard me standing. I was brought up by the master of the ceremonies, and introduced by
two noblemen, when his highness advanced towards me one or two steps; and thus I was again
led back, and was accompanied sitting in my chair by Mess. Pickering, Strickland, and the
master of the ceremonies, thro' all the chambers and galleries to the park. I thought sit, because
of the good opportunity, besides the compliment of congratulation, to mention something bythe-by of our chief affairs; whereupon I received nothing but a dilatory answer, since my pro
position was only relative to the arrival of my confraters. But as to my congratulation, his
highness answered me with many expressions of affection and esteem towards your high mightinesses. High and mighty lords, I do not doubt the happy success of our affairs in general;
but I must own, that I am a little concerned at all those considerations expressed in your high
mightinesses instruction; for I think I am well assured, that if we should begin in our
conferences to touch upon those things, all which are already adjusted, they would be intirely
laid aside, with new disputes concerning the fishery and sea affairs; so that this business
must unquestionably be managed pursuant to the salutary secret resolutions. But since I
find myself likewise a little vexed, to pass them by so very regardless, I am resolved, after
having made this compliment, to wait the time limited by your high mightinesses, before
I begin any thing, in order first to consult with the lords my confraters: but in default of
their coming, since I see that on the other side the time must be watched, (being here
in the midst of their preparations, though with some difficulties) I will make a beginning
on wednesday next, and endeavour, under the blessings of God, to finish the same; whereof
I will acquaint your high mightinesses immediately, remaining in the mean while,
High and mighty Lords, &c.
Westminster, Feb. 25/15. 1654.
An intercepted letter of Mr. J. Phillipps to Mr. John Gunter.
Vol. xi. p. 342.
All the tidings that I can give you of Vavasor is, that he, together with captain Williams and Moris Griffith, are gone on their pilgrimage to Cardiganshire. Upon friday
last they were all three at Llanddewyvrevy near Tyvy preaching, as I am very credibly
informed by a member of the church, that came from thence to Radnorshire. It is reported
in the country, but I cannot find the certainty, that captain Williams, when he came here,
gave out, that if he had come here but a little sooner, he had stopped the commissioners
and the country from paying the last contribution; and that he and his fellows, meaning
the last parliament, made an act, that there should be no king or protector in England;
and that it was treason for to name or proclaim any protector in England, by reason they
had made a statute against it. As soon as I can possibly attain the certainty hereof, you
shall hear further from me. It is reported, that all the Watkins are about to take their
journey to London; and you may do well to prefer these articles of tyranny and oppression,
which I sent these 12 months ago to you, against them; and I shall, if needs be, bring
witnesses to London to prove them. There is also some report here in the country, that
the anabaptists will fight it out, before they will submit to the protector, or present government; and Vavasor Powel saith absolutely, that he will never submit to any government,
but that which is according to God's word. Richard Powel is repairing and scouring his
pistols, and so is most of his brethren theirs also, and setting them in order at the smith's
in Finnon-Kynid in Glasbury. Mr. Thomas Powel promised me to meet on friday at
Therrow, but did not. I believe that new petitions to the protector for the clergy, and
for bringing the propagators to an account, would be now granted and heard by the protector, and his council (fn. 3) . This is all at this instant, February the 15th, from your true
Sir Richard Powel refused the last Lord's day at Glasbury, when he was asked, to
read the protector and his council's act, being thereunto required.
For Mr. John Gunter, at his chamber in
Clifford's-Inn, or his seat at the Six
Clerks Office in London, these.
Extract out of the secret resolutions of the lords the states of Holland and West-Friesland, &c.
Thursday, Feb. 26. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xi. p. 251.
The counsellor pensionary de Witt has reported in the assembly the considerations and
advice of the lords their high mightinesses commissioners for the affairs of Poland,
in consequence of, and concerning the commissorial resolution, dated the 11th of November
of last year; and that after previous resumption and examination of the most considerable
treaties of commerce, concluded formerly by this state with other kings, republicks, and
states, they have projected and brought in writing such matters and articles, whereupon,
as their lordships are of opinion, their high mightinesses could make and conclude with
the crown and republick of Poland a good and advantageous alliance, for the defence,
conservation and increase of trade and navigation; having besides consulted upon and
taken under consideration, how and in what manner the said business for the service of the
state might be further carried on, directed, and managed. This being consulted upon,
after previous distinct reading of the said project and articles heretofore mentioned, and
having heard and understood also the explanation and elucidation, by word of mouth made
by the said counsellor pensionary on that subject, it was thought sit and resolved, that this
affair in the general assembly shall be thus directed, to the end that the said articles, by
order of their high mightinesses, may be delivered as a project of the commissaries, to the
hands of the lord de Bye, residing here for and in behalf of the said crown and republick,
with this express addition, that their high mightinesses were desirous to have thereupon the
sentiment of the states of the said crown, now assembled at the diet of Warsaw; their
high mightinesses remaining in the mean while, as well in this affair as also touching the
extension of the said articles, in their full authority, and unprejudiced.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xi. p. 110.
Since my last to you, the high court of justice did againe sitt, but have adjourned
for three weeks or a moneth, without doeing any thing. The occasion of their sittinge
was upon tryal of the lord Muskerrie; but by reason of the late acte sett out by my lord
protector, which hath declared what shall be treason, they conceive themselves not in a
condition to proceede to the tryall of any person, untill that acte shall be explained, because
murther by the lawes of this land is treason; and by our proceedings heere upon the acte
of settlement, and the lawes of this land, all accessories and abettors are proceeded against
as principalls, even before the principalls be attainted: but by reason of this late act, they
can onely be tryed as fellons.
This inclosed paper from the attorney generall will more particulerly informe you concerneinge this business: besides there are other thinges, as burneing of howses, corne, &c.
alsoe by the lawes of this land are treason, which were made soe by reason of the barbarisme of this people, so apte to such crymes: but indeede this of murder has beene soe high
a wickednes, and almost unheard of cruelties has beene exercised by these nativees, that I
am sure it was farre from my lord protector's intentions, or any others concerned in makinge
that lawe, that I most earnestlie presse you will send us a full and speedie explanation
I have one thinge more to adde, that the coyne heere is exceedingly debased and corrupted, and this countrie will be ruined, if not tymely prevented. I must therefore entreate
your speciall assistance in procureing us a minte here, according to the letter to my lord
protector from the commissioners heere. Excuse this trouble from your very affectionate
friend and servant,
Dublin, 16 Febr. 1653.
I desire you will send mee word, how my lord St. Johns does, and whether he actes
with you, or not.
Sir, It is said the Venetian embassador shall have liberty to transporte men from Ireland.
If my lord of Muskerry his innocency appeare, and that he be acquitted, he will be the fittest
person to command them, of any other, and of most advantadge to the publicke (fn. 4) .
For my most bonoured friend John Thurloe esq; secretary
to the lord protector, att the Cockpit.
For the special service of the state. Haste, baste, baste.
Col. Robert Lilburne to the protector.
Vol. xi. p. 266.
May it please your Highnesse,
According to those commands I received from your highnesse this day, havinge
very happilie a man of warre, that I hope will be ready to goe out to-morrow, I
have dispatched intelligence and orders to all those men of warre upon this coast, to cruse
about the Orknayes, Shetland, and Lewis, to see if they can hitt upon Middleton. I
have not a further account of colonel Morgan's successe as yet; onlie to confirme the
businesse, I heare that Kenmore fled to Dunkell, which was some thirty or forty miles
from that place, and came in there privatelie the next day after the engagement. I suppose colonel Morgan is desirous to give mee an account of the taking of Kildrummy,
before he sends mee any other account, by reason of the great distance he is att from
this place, and the difficulty of passages. I have this day received two lines from lieutetenant general Fleetwood, as also from colonel Venables, wherin they desire to hold
correspondence, which I am very glad of, and shall give order therin for the settlement
of a garrison in the most convenient place for landing. A partie went to gaine the
shallopp wee lost in the Clyde, which was carried uppe into a lough: but before wee
could come att her, they fired her, in sight of our men. There seemed to bee
before this defeate given to Glencairne a verie great spiritt of insolencie in the malignants. I cannot conjecture from whence itt comes, unlesse upon some assurance from
colonel Drummond, uppon his late arrivall from France. Lieutenant colonel Mason
having secured the earle of Calender, I have this day received some further confirmation
of that intelligence I had against him; though I am doubtful it will be difficult to bee
made evident. However, my judgment leades mee to secure him for the present. I
Dalkeith, 16 Febr. 1653.
Most humble servant
The examination of Roger Cotes, Febr. 16. 1653. viz.
Vol. xi. p. 246.
About the first of November, 1653, your examinant Roger Cotes was at the
Feathers tavern in Cheapside, where there was as followeth; captain Dutton, William Jenkins, Roger Lee, captain Smith, Joseph Barker, Thomas Tucker, and Lee the
dancing master. At that time was engaged (fn. 5) , Thomas Tucker, captain Smith, and myself. Dutton likewise told us, that there was a council of persons of honour, that did act
this design far above us, and therefore thought it requisite, that two persons should be
chosen out of each council, to go to this head council to receive orders and instructions
from them. Whereupon captain Smith and Roger Lee was chosen, and the next night
went with Mr. Dutton; and the night after we had a meeting at the Bull-head in Cheapside, where there was captain Dutton, Roger Lee, alderman Bunch his son, captain
Smith, Peter Middleton, and William Jenkins. To all these captain Smith and Roger
Lee did certify, that there was a council of persons of honour, according to Mr. Dutton's
information: and it was further urged by Mr. Richard Dutton, that it was necessary, that
some money should be gathered, for defraying the charge of those that met most
constant; and it was agreed, that 10 shillings of each person should be gathered, and to
be brought in the next morning, which was at the Pope's-head in Cornhill, the 15th of
November; but before your examinant could have convenience to come, most of them
were gone; there only remained captain Dutton, William Jenkins, Roger Lee, Thomas
Tucker, and Joseph Barker. When I came, Dutton and Jenkins took me aside, and
told me, they had all given Mr. Dutton 20 shillings apiece: whereupon I gave him
my 20 shillings. About the 12th of November there met at the Exchange in Abchurchlane, captain Dutton, colonel Whitley, John Archer, Edward Gosnel, William Jenkins,
Roger Lee, and Thomas Bunch, where Lea told me, Whitley had a letter from the
king, which certified him, there was a design far above ours, which he had notice of;
and at that time they did conclude it necessary to send colonel Whitley and John Archer
to the king, to receive orders, commission, and instructions to carry on this design;
where Roger Lee profered to lay down 50 l. for their charges. About the 15th of
November there met at the Nag's-head in Cheapside colonel Whitley, captain Dutton,
captain Smith, Roger Lee, John Archer, Joseph Sawyer, Thomas Samborne, and one
William; where it was thought necessary, that only colonel Whitley should go into
France; and Roger Lee did agree to lay down 15 l. and myself 10 l. which we had bills
under their hands to see us paid again; which was captain Dutton, capt. Smith, Thomas
Samborne, and Joseph Sawyer. The next night following, there met at the Castle in
Wood-street, colonel Whitley, captain Dutton, captain Smith, Roger Lee, and myself;
where Roger Lee paid his money to Whitley, and myself paid my ten pounds to Dutton
at his chamber, in the morning. At this time there was Edward Massey, the duke of
York, the lord Willoughby of Parham mentioned to be the generals of us, when
our design was grown to persection: but it was concluded, not to speak to any great
men to that purpose, before colonel Whitley's return, which he conceived would be
within a month at the most; but since that time I have never seen him.
About the 14th of December there met at the Nagg's-head in Cheapside captain
Dutton, captain Smith, John Archer, Edward Gosnel, Roger Lee, Thomas Samborne,
and Joseph Sawyer, in expectation of some letters, which Mr. Dutton told us he had
from Whitley: but by reason of two strangers that were at that time engaged, he thought
it not convenient to read them, but appointed a meeting at the Red-lion in Abchurchlane, the saturday following, being but two days; where there met captain Dutton,
Roger Lee, captain Smith, John Archer, Edward Gosnel, and myself; where captain
Dutton shew'd us two letters, which were to this effect; That the commodities he sent,
were received very acceptably by their friend; and that he, their friend, had some commodities of the same nature in England, which he should intrust him and his partner
to buy for him; but his return would be longer than he did expect.
Presently after Mr. Dutton went into the country, and did not return until the 4th day
of February; and his relation to me and Peter Middleton at the Fountain in Fenchurchstreet was, that he had been in most parts of the West of England, in Wales, in Yorkshire, and Lancashire, and had engaged of his friends, and gentlemen, to the number of
six or seven hundred, which would be ready, he seared, before we could, and would
come up when he sent for them: and Peter Middleton told me, that Massy is in town,
and that the king himself would be here, and be our general very speedily, and
many other great persons would be, and is here, whose names he would not tell me;
and that theit intention was to crown Charles Stuart king in Cheapside, in the heat of
Dutton has told me, that the lord Biron, sir Thomas Sandys, sir Thomas Armstrong,
the lord Loughborrow, colonel Lovelace, are of the council. Middleton told me, that
sir John Watts would be in town very speedily with eight horse, and desired me on
monday last to ask at the Miller in Fenchurch-street, whether he was come to town, or
not, who certified me, not as yet.
In the time of Mr. Dutton's being in the country, there was letters received by
Mr. John Gerrard, who goes by the name of Edward Lewis. We had a meeting at the
Feathers in Cheapside, where there was captain Smith, John Archer, Roger Lee, William Jenkins, Mr. Gerrard, and two friends of his, which had a letter from Whitley,
who desired that somebody might come over, and meet him at Calais, to bring over the
commodities he was sent for; but at that time, by reason of charge, there was nobody
at that time agreed upon to be sent; but since Mr. Dutton's return he saith he hath
This was since the act.
The Danish resident to the states general.
Vol. xi. p. 263.
High and mighty Lords,
The most serene and most potent prince and lord, lord Frederick III. by the grace
of God king of Denmark and Norway, &c. my most gracious lord and master,
after greeting and most affectionate offer of whatever may be acceptable to the high
and mighty lords the states general of the United Provinces, and contribute to the continuation of the good and neighbourly friendship and correspondence, which has always
subsisted between the crown of Denmark and this state, has thought proper most graciously to send me to your high mightinesses, to declare with due respect the joy and
satisfaction, wherewith his said majesty has heard, that the almighty God has at last blessed
both republicks by the treaty, which is lately concluded, to that degree that they are
mutually come to a happy and peaceable conclusion of the cruel and bloody war, which
they have carried on one against another for near two years; wishing sincerely, and from
his heart, that the divine majesty will be pleased to finish and to strengthen the said
treaty of peace and concord, which is so well begun, and wherein all Christendom is so
greatly concerned, to the peaceful prosperity of your high mightinesses whole estate, and
your United Provinces, as also for the lasting tranquillity and welfare of your neighbours
His royal majesty having further observed, inwhat manner their high mightinesses the
lords states general, according to their promises, have seriously endeavoured and taken
care, that the interest of his majesty, and his kingdoms and dominions might be minded by
their deputies to the government of England, pursuant to the tenor of the negotiations
carried on between the two republicks, more particularly contained in the 7th article of
the same; therefore his royal majesty, my most gracious master, gives his friendly
thanks to your high mightinesses, for your care and regard therein, desiring friendly
and neighbourly, that you will be pleased to continue still further in such good design and
intention, and especially to direct and manage every thing so, that before ratifications of
the said treaty be exchanged, the lords embassadors of your high mightinesses, being
ready to set out again for England, may be instructed still further to observe the interest
of his said majesty, and the tranquillity of his kingdoms, and to manage and transact
every thing with the present government of England in such a manner, that the friendship which his majesty, even to the hazard and danger of his kingdoms, has shewn to
your high mightinesses in these dangerous conjunctures, may not prove nor tend hereafter to the loss, damage, and prejudice of his majesty, and his kingdoms and subjects,
in consideration that between the crown of Denmark and the republick of England there
have been no differences, except these present ones, which however only at the request
of their high mightinesses, and to their advantage, have happened to his majesty, in
relation to the ships that are seized; whereby his majesty's faithful friendship towards
his neighbours and allies clearly appears. Therefore he doth not doubt in the least the
performance of what their high mightinesses the lords the states general have on their
side promised by their envoy in ordinary, Nanningh Kaiser; viz. That they will help
with all their power and strength to avert, whatsoever by reason of the stopping of the
said ships might any ways happen to the prejudice of his majesty, and the subjects of his
kingdoms, trusting that the promises they have made will be fulfilled with the like
As to the restitution of the English ships and goods that have been stopped, and
which article their high mightinesses the lords the states general have been pleased to
propose by their commissioners in England, his royal majesty my most gracious master
relies upon it, that your high mightinesses will be pleased to command the said lords embassadors, further to endeavour, that all claims and pretensions, that any ways may be
formed by the English government on account of the above-mentioned ships and goods;
and the restitution thereof, may be settled intirely and with speed to the best advantage of his majesty, and liquidated in such a manner, as the same may be most proper
for his majesty's reputation and benefit, and tend likewife to a reasonable restitution and
satisfaction to his subjects, of such ships and goods taken from them by the English,
on account as above-mentioned.
Not to rehearse any thing of all the losses and damages suffered by the stopping of
trade and commerce, of the decrease of the tolls, nor of the charges, though pretty
considerable, bestowed for the defence of his majesty's kingdoms and dominions, and
this for no other reason than only because his majesty had resolved to detain the said
ships for the advantage of your high mightinesses, and for the no small disappointment of their enemies; so that therefore it would be unjust, that his said majesty's
subjects should be sufferers to their ruin and loss, for that friendship, which your high
mightinesses have desired from Denmark with so much earnestness, and so great promises, and obtained accordingly; which his royal majesty is also ready at all times to
maintain with the greatest sincerity, and on all opportunities that shall happen, to the
best advantage of your high mightinesses, for the good of your subjects, and for the
wish'd-for welfare of all the United Provinces in general. Hereupon I expect very
speedily a favourable answer in writing, and remain,
Done Feb. 27. 1654. [N. S.]
High and mighty Lords,
Your high mightinesses
Most humble, &c.
Z. v. Rosenvince.
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. xi. p. 256.
They sent back the 20th of this month the express, which the lord of Beverning
had sent hither, to have new letters of credence, power, and order, to congratulate his
highness the lord protector, and to declare, that in a short time the extraordinary embassadors of the state would follow to make the said congratulation with more solemnity; and
they have sent for the lord Jongestall to come hither with all speed. Item, they have
desired Zealand to supply the place of the lord vande Perre with all speed.
All the ratifications of the provinces are now brought in, except that of Groningen
and Ommelande: but this last province would never have any thing to do with the
peace of England, and never did give their consent to send into England; therefore
in all likelihood there will be no ratification from them; or if they do, it will come
conformable to that of Friesland, or else may-be they will pass by the business without
speaking any thing about it.
The new order and instruction for these lords the embassadors to finish the treaty will
be composed out of all these ratifications, with some moderation, and between both,
among all these ratifications, and their conditions; and all will depend very much upon
the dexterity of the embassadors, whereof two will be Hollanders, and the third a
Zealander. Now Holland hath agreed to it without any reserve. Zealand hath no other
reserve, than the proviso about the prince of Orange. These three at the worst will carry
it against the fourth, though he should make much opposition.
The lord Stockard, commissioner of the Protestant Cantons of Switzerland, hath had
audience. He was brought attended with two coaches, one of four, and the other of
two horses; as that of Genoa afterwards brought to audience by the lords Nieuport and
Renswonde. I spoke of his negotiation or mediation in England; so that this was only
a compliment; and he goeth from hence to Switzerland.
To-morrow the lord Pallant is to have audience, on behalf of the great master of
They have writ to those of Zealand, to make ready a vessel to transport the embassadors; but in the mean time the lord Beverning hath order to adjust, sign, and finish all,
if he can.
You have formerly seen the proposition of the lord embassador Chanut, wherein he
did demonstrate to the states general by several reasons, that they ought not to make
peace or agreement with England, unless at the same time there be an agreement made
between England and France; otherwife the state would have no benefit of the peace.
Whether that of late the lord Bordeaux Neusville hath a little advanced this treaty,
and perceiveth that without the intervention of this state France will do well enough to
make their agreement; or whether that France doth not stand in need at present to
implore the intervention of this state, chiefly since this state did so coolly resolve, if it
can be done, not absolutely for the inclusion of France; it is so, that the said embassador
did make this week a generous proposition, wherein tacitly and civilly he did make a
reproach of injustice and ingratitude, and after a handsome fashion gave to understand,
that the embassadors of this state might very well spare their labour in speaking for the
inclusion of France, since that his king is in a condition to make his neighbours both to
desire a peace, and to fear a war; and in the close, notwithstanding assuring the state of
his affection, he told them, that his majesty will force them with his courtesies and
assistance, to cherish and reverence, if they did it not already.
In the mean time those of Holland and Amsterdam found very much to gainsay
and contradict in his favours and courtesies; namely, of twelve millions, which the
French have taken from them upon the Mediterranean sea. In the mean time we see,
that either the king or the embassador is angry; but in effect they have no great
cause; for they did never promise here the inclusion of France, as they did promise that
of Denmark. It is true, that the lord Boreel did endeavour to make a treaty with
France, and that very strict; and the design of this embassy was merely to engage this
state with France against Spain and England; and all the Orange party would be of this opinion; but
Holland is wiser.
The lord Beverning doth a little give the alarm here, saying, that in England they do
make great preparations, which they need not do against us; for we do make no other
account but of a peace; and those are bad people, who do publish, that here they have no
effective intention for a peace, but that they prepared for war. They have appointed
the second of March for the departure of the embassadors for England; and those that
are not ready then, may follow after; and if the lord Beverning be nimble and dextrous,
as he is, he may do all alone.
The king of Denmark doth only write to know, whether he shall prepare his ships;
but his resident hath declared by word of mouth to the lord president, that they ought
to make peace with the sword in hand; that is to say, he desired to have the subsidy of
192000 rixdollars in hand.
This time, or of the 20th/10 February, I had nothing from you. I know not the reason;
I am your servant.
27th of February, 1654. [N. S.]
Beverning to Ruysch.
Vol. xi. p. 354.
Yesterday I received the packet with the dispatches of their high mightinesses,
as likewise therein your letter, with the secret resolutions written with your own
hand. Whereunto I say only, that the same ought to have been in cypher, since I very
much suspect, that it has been seen and read, together with all the others in the packet,
which I could see plainly to have been opened. And besides, I must renew by this
opportunity what I have told you already, even from the beginning of our negotiations,
that by the opening of our letters, and by comparing the same, the cypher of their
high mightinesses, which is at best but indifferent and very common, has been discover'd
without doubt long ago; and therefore that they would be pleased to provide new orders
against the same.
I am confidently informed, that two expresses, one after another, have been sent by the
court of France to the queen of Sweden, with letters, which shew some diffidence
against their high mightinesses; since it seems that some suspect the powerful armament as well of their high mightinesses, as of the government here, at a time, when
they are there of opinion, that our affairs here are finish'd and concluded, and consequently that any secret design may lie concealed under it. And having discoursed
thereupon with the lord Neusville, assuring him of an absolute and intire affection and
sincere inclination of their high mightinesses, he seem'd not absolutely to contradict the
sending of the expresses; however he assured, that his majesty did no ways doubt the
friendship of their high mightinesses. That gentleman looks every hour for new orders,
to take upon him the character of embassador, and then to bring his business here
with the greatest zeal to an issue. Herewith,
Westminster, Feb. 27. 1654.
My Lord, &c.
Daniel Searle, governor of Barbados, to the protector.
Vol. xi. p. 290.
May it please your Highnes,
By some shipes heare lately arived from England, wee have receved intelligence
of the late parliament's dissolveinge themselss, resigneing up theire powers and
authority; and that the administration of government in the commonwealthe is invested
and establish'd in your highnes person, assisted with a councell, for the goverment and
transacting the greate and weighty affaires of the nation with successive trienniall parliaments. This place beinge a limbe of the commonwealth, and myselfe by commission
from the late councel of state, constituted by your highnes authority, intrusted in the
goverment, I holde it my dutie in all humillity to represent to your highnes and greate
councel, that for the continuance of this island's futuer peace and tranquillity, and
regular and orderly proceedeings in courtes of justice, that your highnes pleasuer and
commands maight be made knowne unto us, that such publications might be heare made
thereof, as may settell us in a dew conformity and suteable adminestration of justice in
this place, with that of the commonwealth of England, this collony beinge a limbe
The nation haveing had soe greate experiences, and seene such visible apearances of
the power and wisedome of God, leadeinge your highnes through such wilderneses
and seas of trouble, for the accomplishment of those greate things hath bin brought to
passe, and the resentment your highnes have had of the commonwealthe manie yeares
troubled and unsetled condition, the greate hopes of persons are, that notwithstanding
these severall mutations of supreame authoritie, (which soe long as the influences of
heaven reach affaires on earth, and the affaires on earth have soe great a dependency
on heaven, and cannot but be expected as the motions of divine providence, to bring
forth the etemell decrees and purposes of God in the world) that now supreame authority is invested in your highnes person, as protector of the three nations, that suteable
to your highnes several declarations, promises, and often pleadeings before God the cause
of his people by prayers, and before the people the cause of God with the sword,
your highnes will eminently and vigorously endeavour to bring this tossed commonwealth (oughtentimes even brought almost to shipwracke) into a quiet and peaceable
harbour, and establish justice and rightieousness, the beauty of goverment, and pillar of
all greate states.
And considering that as clocks by weight pressing them downe, if not drawne up, will
at length come to an end; soe the most vigorous, best, and greatest speritts, through
the weight of greate affaires and discouridgements therein, may at length languish and
waxd saint, if they resume not strength from heaven, and be drawne up by the breathings
of the Speritt of God within them, and oughten communion with him, as Moyses, that
greate statesman, who had soe familliar a recourse to the tabernacle of God; I shall (as
one of the meanest of your highnes servants) suplicate the throne of grace, that your
highnes, and the great councel of the nation, might more and more be enlightned and
inlivened with the rayes of divine light and life, to act and doe such things for God, his
people, and the publicke weale, as that rightiousnesse might be to you a crowne, and
justice a gerdel of honour.
Soe shall him that dazeleth the eyes of the wise, and blindeth the most pollitique,
sufferreth wise councellors to fall into the hazards of sencelesse men, preserve your
highnes, and the greate councell of the nation, to the praise of his owne name, the
rejoiceinge of his people, and your highnes lasting comfort; which shall be the prayers
Barbados, the 17th of Feb.
most humble and most
An intercepted letter of major general Drummond to the earl of Glencairne.
In the possession of the right honourable Philipld. Hardwicke lord high chancellor of GreatBritain.
I am exceedingly vexed, that since my comeing to this cowntrie all the cowrses I have
proposed to myselfe for haveing the honor to kis your hands, have proved [in]effectual. I wes once the lenthe of Blaw in Atholl, in order therto, wher I receaved very
disconfortable newes of your lo. and thes with you, which I trust shall not appear as
wes related; nor cowld I have any opportunytie to wreatt before this. My lo. I cannot
deny, but my lo. Atholl hes pressed me much for staying this ten dayes besyde him,
dureing which scharse have we been on night without on, two, or three alarmes, sometymes
trew, sometymes false; and even att present he wowld hardly suffer me to part from
him, albieit I knowes whither to direct my jowrney to find yowr lo. which I am altogether ignorant of. My lo. I beseech you find some way to acquaint me, when and wher
I may waitt upon yow for communycatteing things of consequence from our master and
lieutenant general Midletone. I shall forbear to towtch bussines here, or expresse any of
my private thowghts in order to the service, waitting your lo. will command a dyett for
such things to,
Dunkell, Feb. 17. 1654.
Your most humble servant,
For the earl of Glencairne, Thes.
Upsal, 17 Feb. 1654. S.V.
Vol. xi. p. 114.
Our negotiation here seems for a while to be asleep. The treaty of peace betwixt
England and Holland, and its likelihood of taking effect, hath caused this people to
be a little wary: and it doth concern them; for if peace be ratified, it will put both
nations to take up new counsels. The queen hath promised his lordship, that she will
dispatch him as soon as she receives the certainty of that affair (fn. 6) . The senators are very
busy in council. Some think, that there are commotions likely to be raised amongst the
country people, by reason of the great burthen of impositions. The great assembly of
states is called, and is to meet on the 12th May next. The queen revives her former
overture of resigning up the government to her successor, and desires the liberty of retiring
into privacy. This she made about two years since, and she was then over-persuaded; but
now she hath again proposed it, and the senators are consulting what answer to return her.
Resolution of the states of Friesland.
Read, Feb. 28. [1654. N. S.]
Vol. xi. p.274.
The states of Friesland having heard and examined attentively, and with mature
deliberation, in our full assembly, the circumstantial report of the lord Allart Peter
Jongestall, counsellor in ordinary in our court of Friesland, and one of the deputies of
this state to England, which he made to us as well by word of mouth as in writing, delivering unto us sundry papers, debates, and answers, belonging to that subject, especially the
29 articles of the treaty to be made between the republick of England and this state, have
thought necessary and proper to compare, in due order and method, the said articles,
with the instructions given to the lords the deputies of this state in England, and the resolutions sent unto them from time to time by their high mightinesses; and after having
maturely weighed and considered, what any ways might come into consideration thereof,
they have accepted, approved, and ratified, and by these presents do accept, approve, and
ratify, the said projected and concerted 29 articles, agreed upon between the republick of
England and this state, under such provisos, conditions, and reservations, as follow; viz.
First, that in the fifth article of the said 29, after the last word contained, shall be put
the following words; which shall attack the one or the other republick, their dominions, or lands,
Secondly, that the declaration of the king of Denmark and Norway, &c. to the
seventh article, ought to be first had, before the ratification of the said treaty; and in
case his majesty should not be satisfied with the contents of the said seventh article, it is
our opinion, that the state cannot proceed to the ratification of this treaty, according to
the plain text and tenor of the alliance made between the lord king of Denmark and this
state, containing the words following: That this state shall not be permitted to negotiate
with the present government of England, make any treaty of peace, nor lay down their
arms, but with the communication of the said lord the king, neither shall there be made
any peace, treaties, nor suspension of arms with the aforesaid government in England;
but the above-said the king, with his respective kingdoms, principalities, provinces,
dominions and subjects, shall at the same time have the benefit of the said treaty of
peace, and be expresly comprehended and included in the same.
From which plain and clear words of the said treaty we conclude, that the interpretation thereof cannot be applied only to one of the contracting parties, that is to say, to
this state only; but that the same concerns also the other ally, as having expresly received
Besides this, we think it likewise safest for this state, not only according to the said
treaty and alliance (being inviolable ties for religious observers of their word and faith) to
hold themselves obliged thereto, in relation to the said lord the king of Denmark, but
also for the general interest of the state, and security of our trade: for in case of any
conquests of some places and sortresses by either, on this or the other side of the Oresound,
made by the English government in a successful war against the king of Denmark in the east,
and by the conquest of Calais in the west, the power, welfare, or ruin of this state, and the
safety or danger of the trade, would be intirely left in the hands, and to the pleasure, of
the said English government.
That out of the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth articles must be omitted the words, enemies that
are now declared, or shall be declared hereafter; as not being found in the first, second, third,
fourth, and fifth articles of the treaty called Entrecours, dated Feb. 14. 1495. and this
act, being too general, is subject to too many captious interpretations.
That out of the 28th article, ought to be omitted, the injurious word of murder.
That the last of the well-known 36 articles ought to be also the last article of this
treaty, as having been always used by all civilized nations in treaties and alliances, to be
inserted under this solemn clause: Hostium hostes erimus, exceptis regibus, civitatibus & portubus, quibuscum sædus nobis & amicitia est. At least this state never has made any treaties
and alliances with any princes or republicks, but what have always included therein its allies.
That the government of England has declared to the deputies, that they would live
in good peace and unity with all their neighbours, and nevertheless will not permit the
allies of this state, and more especially not the crown of France, to be comprehended in
this treaty, is very suspicious, and of a dangerous presumption, that there is concealed a
snake in the grass; and that the government of England either actually has, or for the
future may have thoughts, which formerly had Ferdinand king of Arragon, in the making
of a treaty with the king of Navarre, as it is related by Bodinus, lib. 5. de republ. cap. 6.
with these words, Ferdinandus Arragonum rex, ut Petrum regem Navarre imperio spoliaret,
nibil prius habuit, quam ut illum a Francorum societate sejungcret, ut tandem ab omnibus desertus
facilius opprimeretur. The inclusion of the crown of France in this treaty is the best
guaranty of this state, and of that consequence and reputation, that thereby every one
will be prevented to do any injury or affront, either to France or this state, seeing that
he thereby would rouze against him, at once, the forces and opposition of both powers;
viz. of France and this republick, which being well united, would be formidable to any
one that would wrong them, knowing that he would offend both at the same time, and
consequently must expect the resentment of both; France and the United Netherlands
being thereby preserved and maintained in a strong and lasting peace and welfare.
The inclusion of the crowns of France and Denmark in this treaty is likewise the best
safety thereof, united with their high mightinesses; since thereby the state of both republicks will be settled in a lasting tranquillity against all their enemies, and the trade in a
security and flourishing condition.
When on the contrary the crown of France and the republick of England being continually in arms, and insulting one another, nothing else can be expected but a perpetual
disturbance in trade, and incertain events of war; no peace but only an outward shew
of peace, no security but danger for the trade of this country.
And whereas trade is the soul and life of this state, so it is likewise an irrefragable
maxim of the same, not only to have peace with all their neighbours, but also to
endeavour with all application, and by all possible means, that all the neighbours of this
state may live in peace with one another, since the least disturbance of war among them
causes also a disturbance, stop, and ruin of the trade of this republick.
If it be true in any republick, it is certainly the most true in this state, what Sallust
says; Non exercitus, neque thesauri, præsidia regni sunt, verum amici. Non aurum istud sceptrum est, quod regnum custodit, says Xenophon; sed ccpia amicorum, ea regibus sceptrum
verissimum, tutissimumque, nec ullum majus boni imperii instrumentum quam boni amici. Tacitus,
lib. 4. histor. Videtur amicitia rempublicam magis continere, & majore, quam justitia, in
studio suisse legislatoribus. Nam si amicitia inter omnes esset, nibil esset, quod justitiam desiderarent; at si justi essent, tamen amicitiæ præsidium requirerent. This also is the sentiment of Aristotle, lib. 8. cap. 11.
This likewise was the opinion of their high mightinesses, when they, from time to time,
by serious and reiterated resolutions, of the fifth of June 1653. and others, did order,
and firmly conclude, that the interest of France should be minde by this state, as much
as their own; and that the crown of France should be reconciled with the government of
England, as well as this state: these are the very words, whereof communication was
made by the lord Boreel, upon the credentials of this state, to his majesty and the
regency of France; whereupon the articles projected by this state, and approved of by
all the provinces, for the renewal of the alliance with the crown of France, were sent,
upon which conferences were held with his majesty, and brought to the very brink of
Which proceedings of this state ought not to considered as a mere compliment, much
less must the same be looked upon like a pretence or snare, to obtain in the mean while
the more advantageous conditions from England; but like a true, sincere, and upright
intention and resolution, approved of by all the provinces, to bring the same to a good
All which considerations we think to be of that moment, that this state ought not to
proceed to the ratisication of this treaty, except with the express inclusion and comprehension of the crowns of France and Denmark, the one of which is the most antient and considerable ally of this state, that in several occurrences has paid such notable deference and
subsidies to the same, that the remembrance thereof ought never to be forgot by our
And it is also our opinion, that the lords, the late deputies, together, and at the same
time, shall be sent with all speed into England, invested with the characters of embassadors, and with these instructions, having the firm confidence, that the government of
England, against reason and justice, will not very much oppose the inclusion of the
crowns of France and Denmark, since they have declared already, that they will live
with all their neighbours in good peace and unity.
Further, we give thanks to the lord Jongestall, one of the joint deputies of this state
in England for this province, that his lordship has not hindered nor prevented the free
deliberations of the whole state, nor of this province, by the signing of the projected
articles, in conformity with their high mightinesses resolution of the fifth of June 1653.
Likewise we give thanks hereby to his lordship, for his zeal and the trouble he has taken
for the service of the state.
Further, the commissioners of this province are ordered to direct matters thus, that
the lords the deputies may all of them have thanks given them for their good endeavours,
offices and conduct, which they have shewn in this negotiation; and that the same, after
the finishing of the said treaty, may be duly acknowledged.
Thus done and resolved at the landhouse, on the fourth of February 1654. Signed, for
Ostergoo, S. Saekema, Z. Huber; for Westergoo, W. van Osiega, Zælius Swaga; for the
towns, Sierd Claess, Francis Riemersma. Underneath stood, Agrees with the original,
with the knowledge of me the secretary. (Signed)
P. V. DOMA.
Beuningen to the states general.
High and Mighty Lords,
Vol. xi. p. 267.
Since my last to your H. and M. lordships of the 25th of this month, is publickly
made known the resolution of the queen, which she hath for a long while carried in
her breast, to be dismissed of the government of the kingdom; and on monday last did
declare so much to her council, that she was fully resolved to quit her crown, and to
resign it up to duke Charles, her designed successor; and to that end to appoint a general
day of meeting. The reason whereof, as I am informed, was said to be the infirmities of
her bodily disposition; and that now especially, she could discharge herself of the government without any disservice to her kingdom, since she should leave the same to a prince
endued and provided with all manner of great qualities, to employ the same to the best
advantage of the kingdom; and which was also acceptable to the states of the kingdom, since he was chosen for successor to the crown. I do not know, whether her
majesty did extend herself upon any further reasons, but that she did speak the same with
such efficacious expressions of so unchangeable a resolution, that there is little likelihood
to take her majesty off from what she hath so thoroughly resolved upon; yet the same
hath been twice attempted by her council, and desired with many instances, that her
majesty would be pleased to keep the government in her hands, but without any effect;
and therefore they do consult at present, for the appointing of a general meeting, which, is
said, will be in May next. The queen, in the mean time, intends, some four days hence, to go
to New Copenhagen, and from thence, it is said, to some other place, where she is to meet
with his royal highness, to speak with him about the maintenance of the court; for which
she demandeth two hundred thousand rixdollars per annum.
Upsal, the 28th Feb. [1654. N. S.]
H. and M. Lords,
The news, that came here eight days since, is, that the English take all ships whatsoever they can meet withal in the chanel; and that they had taken lately two
ships belonging to Gottenburgh, and had misused the men, which had caused her
majesty to complain to the embassador Whitelocke about it in very earnest terms;
and to expostulate about the damages, which the merchants have formerly suffered
in the bringing in of their ships; but the embassador defended himself with excuses
and exceptions, which gave no satisfaction; and he should have said amongst the
rest, that he had no instructions about it; but that they should send to his principals concerning it. It is thought, that he doth intend to be going home as soon
as the weather will permit him.
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to the protector.
Vol. xi. p. 289.
May it please your Highnesse,
If the water, which I left with you att my comming out of England, be lost, my wife
hath some of the same to putt uppon the inclosed paper, and will attend your highnesse
with it, if you please to commaund her. Concerninge the passages heere, I have given a
perticular account in my letters to Mr. Thurloe, wherby your highnesse may att your
leisure see all the circumstances, as well as the substantiall partes, if they were worthy
your view. The queene was pleased yesterday to send unto me twelve rayn deere with
a sledde, which is drawen by one of them with a man in it. They travaile in this manner
with increddible swiftnesse, and they are very rare; I am contriving the best way I cann to
send them to your highnesse, together with their keepers, two Laplanders, who came
hither with them. I beseeche the Lord to continue all prosperity unto your highnesse, and
to my sweet native countrey.
Upsale, 18th Feb. 1653.
Your highnesse most humble and faithfull Servant,
Mr. Daniel Whistler to the protector, from Sweden.
Vol. xi. p. 285.
May it please your Highnes,
The last weeke I mentioned how wee were becalmed in our buisnes heere, in expectation of the issue of the Dutch treaty. Wee have little hope of any progression in the negotiation heere, till that buisnes bee one way or other determined, either
for warre or peace. The ricks-diet of this nation, mentioned in my former lettres, is
deferred till May; but her majesty's councel of senators met heere on munday last, to
whom her majesty is sayd to make a tender of surrendring her crown to her successor, if
they thought it for the publique good, shee prosessing herselfe weary of the great care, and
of her owne disposition inclinable to a private life; soe that they would establish for her
certein maintenance 200000 duckats pension yearely, and Pomerania and the town of
Gotenberg; which puts statesmen to a muse at her designe therein, her crowne beeing as
yett neither to hot nor to heavy for her, shee being in noe extremity, but the general want
of generous princes, barenes of mony, havinge noe declared publique enemy, and beeing
in general reputation amongst her people for her liberality, wisedom, and moderation, and
temperance, and more than feminine spirit, and of such authority amongst her councel,
that she overrules them in most actions. Some thinke, that shee hath inclinations to marry,
and settle the crown upon her issue; but that her spirit is such as not to admit a prescribed husband, as the prince Palatine is, in case shee would have her issue to inherit it,
who is declared her immediate successor. There is more than probable surmises, that
the emperor solicites privately a match betwixt her and his sonne the king of the Romans,
hoping that the bait of beeing hereafter an emperesse is sufficient to tempt her to swallow
it, that is a princesse, that deserves and affects honour; for which the Spanish agent
Don Piemontil, a wise man of exact intelligence, voluble of languish, and accomplished
in courtly addresses, upon the interest of the Austrian families the more balast the French
faction at court, which by his meanes of late is of lesse strength than formerlie, is
thought sollicitor. Her exceeding respect to him makes a presumption of her tacit approbation of the buisnes, whereby also the Stuartian design was frustrated with a bare
complimental answer, that signified noe ayd to him; for that he must excuse her, if
shee did not engage her no yet settled crowne in the support of his ruined fortunes; but advised him rather to expect the worke of Providence, than to desire to drown his reputed
friends with himselfe sinkinge. There is of late come one Count de Montecuculi, an
Italian, but of command in the emperor's army, and favour in his court, to negociate
that buisnes, as is thought, more vigorously; but with private instructions, that the councel may not resent any such matter, till her majesty's good inclinations to the offer be ascerteined, the emperor hoping by this meanes of alliance, if accomplished, to recover his
lost interest in the late German warres. This count also is received with all open respect,
which occasions belief of her private relishes of his arrant. Yesterday for enterteinment of
him there was a ball given, and he installed knight of her majesty's new order of Amaranta. Whilst shee was more bookishly given, shee had in her thoughts to institute an
order of Parnassus; but shee beeing of late more addicted to the court than schooles, and
having in a pastoral comedie herselfe acted a sheapheardesse part called Amaranta, wherein
the pastoral song in Italian had viva Amaranta, the humor tooke her to institute for her
order that of Amaranta: shee in the creation invests with a scarfe, at the knot whereof
is a jewel, with an A reversed; the motto is Dolce nella Memoria. I should not have mentioned this, but as a ground for your clearer judgement from her to the messengers, what
shee thinkes of the message. For my part, I doe not thinke her tender was real, but to
fish the sence of her councill, and thereby at least discover the Palatine's faction which
were many, whilst Magnus was in favour, who marryed his sister; but he is now cashiered
the court, at first by voluntary cession, occasioned by his own discontent (as I have mentioned in my former letters); but since, though he desired by lettres to returne, not admitted. Prince Adolph Palatine likewise grand master is volontarily withdrew upon
some disgust taken from count Todt, the new favourit, which was soe high resented, that
he challenged the other upon it; which beeing knowne, the duel was hindred by the
queen's expresse order, but the scarre of discontent as yet remeins in the prince. I
suppose likewise, if her tender find a general mislike, that shee will make that a ground
to take of her restreint in marriage. Accordinge as shee can ripen her design in this and
other matters, before the ricks-diet, soe she intends to manage her proposals there,
either for confirmation of them, if approved of by her senators, or, if rejected, for
redresse, by way of appeale to the generelity, of whose affections towards her, and her
authority upon them, she hath good confidence. Besides, though she may beginne a warre,
and conclude alliance of herselfe, yet shee will scarce doe any such considerable action,
that concernes the publique intetest soe highly, without procuring the people's consent
and approbation, at least without declaring to them what necessity of state moved her
and her council in the undertaking such courses. This action of hers being as obscure
to understand, as the meaning of dark prophecies, I cannot presume to unriddle it but
from the event. Truth is sayd to be the daughter of time; when the mother shall produce
the daughter, I shall (God willing) with your permission acquaint your highnes with the
complexion of the babe. This day her majesty sent to my lord embassador seventeen
reine-deare of the Laplande breede, to be by him conveyed as her present to your highnes. I have nothing more at present, but with sincerity of spirit to beseech that overruling providence, that hath seemed hitherto to support you by his miraculous hand,
to embrace your highnes nowe closer in his armes, that you may be a long, happy
conduit of conveying the blessing of God's mercys to his people.
Feb. 18. 1653.
Most obedient, faithful,
Roger Cotes to col. Sydenham.
Vol. xi. p. 273.
Your honour favoring me with a command to acquaint you with my greevances,
(if any) makes me soe bold nowe to sertifie you, that the persons your honour
imployed to seize on the companie at the ship in the Old Bayly, have not beene soe
private as (I conceive) they ought to be; for the whole busines was told to all the
prisoners at James's, that I was the discoverer, and the passages how I did it; insoemuch that it is now the common discourse of the cittie. And since my coming to the
tower, I being in a roome amongst them, I was reviled and threatened, that I was
affrayed of my life; but since being at a lodging, I desired of his honour the lieuetenant,
that Joseph Sawyer might be with me; for him, if any, I did presume I might worke
upon to confes, which I have effectually wrought; and he desires with me to waight
upon your honour, if your honour please to permitt it. Hee by his confession can conferme most that I have saide, but especially that of the last night, conserning Ross.
This if your honour please to take into consideration, I shall remayne
Feb. 19. 1653.
and ever oblidged servant,
Col. Sydenham to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xi. p. 309.
The inclosed is from Roger Cotes, whoe is, it seemes, discovered by some officer of
the partye, that apprehended those that are in prisson. May it not be best to
release him, and to send to the lieuetenant of the Tower, to take Sawyer's examination,
who confesseth, you will perceave, what Cotes discovers, and especiallye what passed the
last night? Lieutenant colonel Worslye lent Cotes 5 l. It will be just to repaye it to
him; and to send Cotes 5 l. more, may be an act of mercye. He had his cloke taken
from him by the souldiers, as he went to the Tower, as I am informed. I doubt he
may want necessaries.
Whitehall, Feb. 20. 1653.
Your assured friend