State Papers, 1654


History of Parliament Trust



Thomas Birch (editor)

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'State Papers, 1654: February-March', A collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, volume 2: 1654 (1742), pp. 106-127. URL: Date accessed: 23 November 2014.


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Extract out of the secret register of the resolutions of their high mightinesses the states general, &c. Extract of a letter of Mons. de Bordeaux the French embassador in England, to Mons. de Brienne, secretary of state in France. Intelligence. A letter of intelligence from the Hague. A letter of intelligence from Paris. A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augier's secretary. Extract out of the resolutions of the lords states of Holland and West-Friesland, taken in their high and mighty assembly. Letters of intelligence. Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe. Secretary Thurloe to Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden. The examination of captain Thomas Smith, taken the 24th day of February 1653. before me John Barkstead, esq; lieutenant of the Tower of London, and one of the justices of the peace for the county of Middlesex, by virtue of an order from the council at Whitehall, dated the 24th day of February 1653. An intercepted letter of J. Herbert. An intercepted letter. Van Beuningen to the states general. A paper of several officers in Ireland to the protector Oliver Cromwell. An intercepted letter of Mr. Vavasor Powell to Mr. Price. A letter of intelligence from Paris. Intelligence. Extract of the resident Vries's letter to the states general. An intercepted letter of Mr. Vaughan, to Mr. Charles Roberts. Beverning, the Dutch embassador, to Thurloe. Mr. Mich. Monckton to col. Overton. A letter to Michael Monckton esq; about a plot: A letter of intelligence. Mr. Richard Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe. The Dutch embassadors to secretary Thurloe. General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe. Mr. Lloyd to Mr. Henry Griffith. Intelligence. Beverning, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general, A paper delivered by Sir Cornelius Vermuyden, relating to a treaty between England and the states general. Motives. An additional instruction unto Whitelocke embassador in Sweden. Beverning to the states general. Footnotes


Extract out of the secret register of the resolutions of their high mightinesses the states general, &c.

Lunæ, March 2. 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xx. p. 229.

Was produced again in the assembly the proposition in writing delivered on the 27th of this month to their high mightinesses, by the lord Henry Williamson Rosewinge, commissioner for the king of Denmark: which being deliberated upon, after mature consideration of the tenor thereof, and of foregoing acts relating thereunto, it was resolved and ordered, that the said lord commissary by a speedy and solid answer, after the previous customary acts of civility and thanksgiving, shall be assured in the best and most efficacious terms, of their high mightinesses sincere and well-meaning intention, to promote to their utmost the interest of his majesty, and the safety of his kingdoms and subjects, upon all occurrences, and especially in the negotiations with the lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland; with this further assurance, that their high mightinesses at all times, with due acknowledgment, will remember the friendship, which his majesty in the present dangerous conjunctures, with a sincere affection, has shewn to this state; and that they are ready at all occurrences to acknowledge the same most readily with the like reciprocal returns; especially likewise that their high mightinesses, according to their promises made by Mr. Nanning Kaiser, the late minister of this state in Denmark, in their name to his said majesty, which afterwards were confirmed by treaties, and reiterated by several resolutions of their high mightinesses, are obliged, and think themselves in duty bound, with all their strength and power to help to avert whatsoever may befal his said royal majesty, his kingdoms and subjects, on account of the stopping of some English ships in the harbours of Denmark, in the year 1652. And in case for what has been done therein, any ill treatment should happen on the above-said account, which God forbid, to his said royal majesty or his subjects, at any time whatsoever, that their high mightinesses, in such an unexpected and unhoped-for case, will not be wanting actually to make good the said promises they have given, and punctually perform the same; and that further the said commissioner shall be assured along with the said answer that shall be given him, that in the proceedings and final conclusion of the treaty between the commonwealth of England and this state, all claims and pretensions, which by and in behalf of the said republick, upon and against his said majesty, in relation to the detained ships, and the goods laden therein, shall or may be made, shall be made void, and intirely cease, after the restitution of the said ships and goods, or the amount thereof, in case any of them should happen to be sold; it not being at all their high mightinesses intention and meaning, to permit that the satisfaction for the damages, which the English pretend on account of deterioration of the said ships and goods, which they have suffered, and mentioned in the seventh article of the said projected treaty, shall be laid to the charge of his said royal majesty; neither that the submission, which in default of an amicable composition may be made on that account, shall be done in the name of his said majesty; nor so that the same may or can any wise be interpreted to the prejudice of his reputation; but that all this shall only be done for and in the name of this state, and also at their charge; and shall without any engagement of his said majesty be settled with the republick of England; and that the lords embassadors extraordinary of this state to the lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland, shall further be commanded to endeavour and to see, whether a like restitution cannot be obtained for the ships and goods taken by the English by way of reprizal, from the subjects of his said majesty, on account of the detention of the said ships; and a reciprocal satisfaction be agreed to for the damages suffered by the said subjects thereby and in that respect; and that they for the effectuation of the same shall employ all such means as they shall think will be of a good effect. Finally, it was thought proper, that all the above-written shall be forthwith communicated to the said lords the embassadors, for their information, and to the end that they may punctually regulate themselves accordingly.

Extract of a letter of Mons. de Bordeaux the French embassador in England, to Mons. de Brienne, secretary of state in France.

2 Mars, 1654. [N. S.]

From the collection of M. de Bordeaux's letters, in the library of the abbey of St. Germain at Paris.

J'al receu les deux letters, que vous m'avez fait l'honneur de m'ecrire les 21 & 25 du mois passe, avec celle du roi, dans lesquelles je vois, qu'il plait à S. M. me confier la negotiation du traité entre la France & l'Angleterre, avec la qualité d'ambassadeur. J'ai demandé audience au secretaire du conseil, sous pretexte de lui en faire part, asin de descouvrir avec quels termes Monsr le protecteur desireroit, que S. M. le traitast. Il ne voulut point s'expliquer autrement, si non que son altesse avoit l'autorité souveraine & aussi grande que les rois, & que c'etoit à nous d'en user comme nous jugerions à propos. Depuis cette conversation un homme, qui se mêle d'intrigue, m'est venu trouver, & m'a voulu faire entendre, que le terme de frere seroit bien agreable. J'ai donné ordre à mon secretaire, si l'on lui temoigne desirer le titre de frere, qu'il responde de soi même, que les pouvoirs m'ont eté envoiez, à sin d'avoir un pretexte pour me dispenser de donner cette qualité. — Toutes les resolutions d'ici dans les rencontres de la moindre importance se prennent avec grand secret, & la politique est de surprendre.


Regensberg, 2 March 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xi. p. 114.

Since his imperial majesty's last decree to the states of the empire, concerning the maturation and furtherance of their treaty, they have been very forward in the same; having besides the capitulation-choice (viz. how the new princes at Dietrechtstein, Picolomini, and Aversperg are to be introduced) taken in hand the justicebusiness in all the three colleges; contributing their best endeavours to bring the same and other necessary things to a conclusion before his majesty's departure, which was determined to the 10th April next, but is now said to be prolonged for four weeks. Two days agone there came in here two expresses from Gratz, with divers letters to his imperial majesty; what their business may be, is not yet known.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

3 Martii 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xi. p. 312.

Les ambassadeurs partirent ici demanche premiere de Mars pour Rotterdam, & de la en Zealande, ou il y a un bon navire de guerre pour les transporter en Angleterre. Le sieur Veth s'est excusé de l'ambassade; apres luy fust requis le sieur d'Oostlandt, bourgemaitre à Middlebourgh: on dit qu'il l'a aussy excusé, & il est croyable; car ils voyent bien que ce sera necessité de ratisier purement & simplement, sans avoir egard aux conditions & reserves, dont les provinces ont clausulé la ratisication, & par aussy.

Les ambassadeur de Zealande revenant d'Angleterre seroit non seulement regardé de mauvais oeil, ains suffriroit persecution, comme le sieur Knuyt l'a bien esprouvé apres sa negotiation à Munster.

L'on teint pour assuré, que le sieur Beverning signera & achevera tout devant la venue de ces ambassadeurs, purement & simplement.

Le sieur Rosenvinge, envoye du roy de Denmarq, a bien congratulé sur la paix, & remercié pour l'inclusion; mais toutefois donne tacitement à entendre, que cela n'est pas affes; ains qu'il faudroit aussy indemnisier Denmarq des autres dommages soufferts pour la detention sur quoy il aura une response, qu'on sera tout ce à quoy par la traite on est obligé sans failler en pas un point. On luy donnera une navire pour son transport, & les ambassadeurs feront pour luy tout possible.

Les creanciers de la reyne Boeme, comme aussy le mylord Craven de meme, auront les de faveur du lord protecteur.

L'envoye de conte d'Oldenborgh ayant obtenu l'inclusion, en a remercié l'assemblée, & s'en est allé content.

L'on resolu d'excuser les repressailles pour les heretiers de Belderbus contre le paix de Juliers, par la force des armes.

L'on ne s'estonne pas icy de la saisie fait du duc de Lorreyne; mais de ce que cela ne s'est pas fait plustost; car il s'est aussy bien mocqué du roy d'Espaigne, comme de tout le monde.

Le prince Maurice avoit icy fait demander quelque sauve-guarde dans Cleve, contre les Loreynois, en quoy en estoit difficile.

6 Martii.

Mess. d'Hollande certe portent un grand soing, que le paix (comme un cher ensant) ne perisse point en sa naissance. Ils prevoyent, que selon le cours ordinaire, & le stile, quand bien le sieur Beverning aura tout achevé les provinces icy seront lentes & tardiss à ratisier; & que cependant ne cessera pas la hostilité. C'est pourquoy ils proposerent le 3°, qu'il seroit necessaire de ratisier illico & incontinent, & pour cest effect envoyer un blanq signé au sieur Beverning, à sin qu'il ratifiat incontinent, mettant sur ce blanq signé tel acte de ratification, qu'il trouveroit convenable; craignent aussy que les Anglois voyants nostre longeur & langueur, ne changent de leur bonne inclination.

Mais les provinces ont difficulté cela; ains ont declaré qu'ils sont bien contents de ratifier icy incontinent, que le sieur Beverning aura adjusté ces 29 articles selon l'instruction & resolution du 19 Fev. sitost que par un expresse il l'aura envoyé icy; car aussitot ayant veu cela icy, on renvoyera le dit expresse avec la ratisication, sans attendre autres resolutions des provinces: & cela sera notisié au sieur Beverning par un expres.

L'ambassadeur de France ayant, comme vous saves, proposé le 26 Fev. un peu serieusement à veu le president de cette femaine, le 3. lui disant, que le roy son maistre trouvoit fort bon & propos, que la paix se sit avec l'Angleterre, & que cest estat devoit la procurer en toute façon, & que le roy y feroit contribuer les bons offices, & que le dit roy ne prenoit pas mal la froide inclusion, dont en sa proposition du 24 Fev. il sembloit se plaindre; certain fameux escrit, intitulé Den beer protectures brouvaten, imprimé est estroitement defendu à son de cloche, car on desire procurer la paix, & ne donner nul sujet de rancune.

Pour dire la verité, l'ambassadeur de France semble avoir varié par trois fois (ce ne dit pas pourtant, qu'il soit variable); car le Jan. il sit une proposition demandant l'inclusion un peu trop humblement, & en suppliant. Le 24 Fev. il rejette ladite inclusion un peu hardiment, & comme en bravant. Maintenant il addoucit de bouche tant au sieur de Witt pensionair, qu'au sieur president cette bravure, disant, que son roy n'est pas sasché, ny ne prend pas mal la froide inclusion. On luy rendra un compliment de bouche. Ceux de l'admirauté d'Amsterdam demandent 400 mille franqs, si on veut qu'ils equippent.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

4 March 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xi. p. 316.

Since my former I received by the post of this day three letters from you, of the 19th, 23d, and 26th last month, together; by which I see what is not believed here is true, the submission of col. Murtagh O Brian in Ireland.

I doubt not but you know before now of the commission sent to M. de Bordeaux to be ambassador there for France, and treat for a peace between you and this kingdom; whence we fear much you will not accept of, though he disbursed much money to get that honour for himself; and I believe will more there (if it be accepted) for to receive him: however, for fear you would not receive him, expecting a person of greater calling, we have determined and concluded, that Mons. M. de Clerembaut shall go, alias comte de Paillau, who shall be furnished as embassador in all things, and not upon his own expences, as written before, he being a man of quality. So I hope you will not accept of the first, being an affront set upon you, on purpose to try what you would do, &c.

After the next Easter, our king's consecration will be at Rheims. The first night the prince of Conti lay with his wife, his majesty and the queen were present only when they were going to bed.

The last council held here last saturday, where mareschal Turenne was, and spoke highly before the king, that they were thinking of nothing more than passing their time in balls, ballets, and dancing, when they should give orders, that their armies might be set in a condition to oppose the enemies of this kingdom, being assured prince Condé had his army near in a readiness for to march to the field soon, and when it pleased him, he might come into France without resistance, seeing no army was in the field to oppose; which caused since the king to disburse moneys to many officers, for to raise men in several places in France. Condé surely will be considerable next campaign, having lately received by letters of exchange from his majesty of Spain 1500000 pieces of eight, and more is promised. James Talbot, who went to Flanders, to steal men from Condé, the Irish men that are there, to old Preston, by the advice of Mons. Servient, surintendant de finances, is come to town, having done nothing at all, he being at Cambray all this while. The Irish officers would not look or come to him by any means, as he says himself; so he came re infecta. One captain came to him, only to speak with him, who returned immediately to his quarters. My lord of Slane is much respected by Condé, and is thought he will be soon three thousand men at least, other regiments being adjoined unto his. He has gotten for himself from Condé already six thousand crowns, to put himself in equipage, six hundred casaques for his soldiers, so many hose, stockings, and hats, and will be well paid accordingly, while Condé has it.

We hearing of your embassador to be so well received in Swedeland, have resolved in our last council to send an embassador extraordinary towards the queen of Swedeland; but he is not named who shall go.

We hear that Mons. mareschal de la Mothe Haudancourt shall go to Rome: others say, Mons. de Lyons, secretary to the queen in time past, for to bring his provision of embassador to the cardinal Mazarin's father; as also his brevet of duke and peer, with the order of chevalier du St. Esprit. It is reported likewise, his majesty will make prince Conti connestable de France. That prince has demanded the consiscation of all his brother's goods; to which the parliament opposed it was not right, his brother having a son and heir, and a child being not capable to be criminal against his majesty, though as yet ruled by his father; which did not please well Conti, being desirous to have the succession, he calling himself now first prince of the blood.

Condé calls himself now generalissimos of his majesty of France his army against cardinal Mazarin, &c. The man sent by king Charles long ago, called Ballendyne, to the queen of Swedeland, desiring her majesty not to accept of your embassador Whitelocke, is returned last week with an answer, that she was very sorry she could not satisfy his majesty's desire at that time; and if any occasion does present hereafter, wherein she may be capable to serve his majesty, that she will not fail always to remain his majesty's obliged servant, &c. Some say, his majesty will send orders to the duke of Orleans to come to court; and if he does not obey, that he shall have a second order, to retire out of Blois to his government of Languedoc, others say, out of France; of which more by the time. His secretary Goulas was in the town four and twenty hours last week, unknown; we know not what was his business.

His majesty and his council are very ill satisfied of M. de la Ferté Seneterre's advantageous composition he gave to M. comte de la Suze and all his garison, when he should receive them upon discretion; and no less cardinal Mazarin, with his captain of guard, M. Baisemains in Brisac, for agreeing with the count of Harcourt upon such fair terms, notwithstanding he had his orders and instructions under the king and council's hands; yet his eminence is mad at it now, and says he will not stand to any proposition promised; the reason is, because the three parts of the garrison are for the king, and the fourth for Harcourt only, which the king pretended to have by the time without any resistance; so poor Harcourt may be ruined. There is 5000 pistoles sent to that Baisemains to pay the garrison; and Harcourt has not moneys, and therefore must want soldiers. His majesty and council hearing M. de Hocquincourt retired to his government, (as I writ formerly) sent a gentleman after him, signifying, neither himself nor his council did ever think to arrest him, they knowing his good and faithful services to the king; and therefore he might freely return without danger. We shall see, if he gives them credit.

It is written from Sedan, that M. Faber governor of that province, and commander of 5000 men for the king, met with some of Lorrain's troops, and fought; but yet they do not know which of them had the victory. In like manner the mayor of Stenay was quartered, and three others hanged, for having promised to deliver that place to Mons. Faber.

We are very desirous to have K. Charles with all his train out of France, for fear he might be an obstacle to the intended peace between you and us. I see no great hopes left for him. This being all, I am, Sir,
Your faithful servant.

My lord of Slane has gotten with the rest above-mentioned 700 susees for his regiment.

A letter of intelligence from Mr. Augier's secretary.

Paris, the 4 Mar./24 Febr. 4/3.

Vol. xi. p. 330.

Friday last a decree of the king's council was publish'd and affixed in this city, prohibiting all merchants to sell any tapestry of rich stuff, or others that shall come from foreign countries, without the leave of the person his majesty hath established to take notice thereof, upon considerable penalties for transgressors. It is doubtless, that each one might pay the taxes this court doth pretend to exact thereof, in virtue of the edicts verified in this parliament.

The same day cardinal Mazarin sent a tailor from hence, to meet his sisters and nieces, to cloath them after the fashion of this city; after which they are to make their entrance in, and not sooner.

In the mean time the abbot Ondedei, the said cardinal's secretary, parted from hence on saturday, to make them welcome between this city and Fontainebleau, where they are come, and where it is thought his majesty may go and visit them, under a pretence of going a-hunting. It is said, that one of the said nieces is very handsome, and by reason the queen will not force the king's inclination, many think he will easily fall in love and marry her, unless powerful considerations and necessities hinder it.

The prince of Conti makes himself to be called Mons. le Prince, without any reservation, to the prejudice of the prince of Condé his brother, whose place he now takes.

Sunday their majesties held a council, wherein it was determined, that they should work speedily on the preparatives of the king's consecration, which is for certain to be made eight days after Easter; and upon the mareschal de Turenne's representation, that he had been informed the Spanish and prince of Condé's army was in a better posture than his, and that it might perhaps surprise them, and re-enter into France, he was ordered to hasten the necessary supplies, to try to prevent the inconveniency thereof. It was also resolved, that after the return from the said consecration, which shall be done at the least charges possible, their majesties design to fill the empty places of the said hundred knights of the order of St. Esprit, establish'd in France; by which means the said cardinal hopes to make many friends, there being above sixty empty places to provide for.

Monday the king, accompanied with the cardinal, went from the Louvre, to recreate themselves at St. Germain in Laye, having a while before sent after the mareschal of Hocquincourt, to ascertain and disabuse him, upon the apprehensions, for which he had withdrawn himself for his government of Peronne.

A declaration hath newly been sealed for the suppressing of all the new Eleus officers for the recovery of treasury: the deputies of the Reformed churches do still complain, by reason they receive no manner of justice.

Divers merchants of Rouen, and other cities of Normandy, come and add their complaints, with great number of citizens of Paris interested with them in the depredations lately made by the English frigats of the French ships coming from the Mediterranean sea, for to try altogether to hinder by his majesty's intermission the sale of their merchandizes; whereof they have also intreated me to write, deploring the disorders of this government; from whence I have made them comprehend all the evil to come, and not from England, which had made use of all manner of meekness and modesty, to hinder the innocent from bearing the pain of the guilty.

Those of the royal palace have lately dispersed divers rumors of a comet appeared in England, with several other wonders, which they make suit with their hopes, as tho' they were for a mortal presage to the commonwealth.

Extract out of the resolutions of the lords states of Holland and West-Friesland, taken in their high and mighty assembly.

Wednesday, the 4th of March 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xi. p. 324.

The raedt pensionary having produced in the assembly all that had passed at the generality of late, upon the introducing of all prohibited wares and merchandizes in the respective fleets of Lillo and Zas van Ghent; and thereupon was consequently read the letter from the council of the admiralty in Zealand, writ in December last upon the same subject to their high and mighty lordships, containing several reasons and motives, why the said introduction ought to be brought into practice again; but after such a manner, that the governors, commanders, or any other military persons, should not meddle nor make with the said respective fleets, nor their appertenances, nor that they should have any power or command over the said ships and merchants goods, whereby to redress and prevent all exactions and trouble, which the merchants and skippers are often put unto under one pretence or other: that also the charges of prohibited goods in the respective fleets ought to be abated and reduced to some lower sum, as was paid at first in the times of war, to the end to prevent and lessen the trade and commerce, which may be feared from those of Flanders. Whereupon being debated, and having first seriously consider'd of the reasons and motives alledged in the said letters, it is thought fit and understood, that the business be referred back to the generality; and likewise that the council of the said admiralty be also desired on the behalf of their lordships, first to draw up with all speed, and to represent to their lordships, such a method and order, whereby may be provided and prevented, that the said governors and military persons have nothing to do for the future with the said respective fleets, and their appertenances; and that they may be effectually debarred from all manner of exactions upon them, or putting them to any trouble, as may be justly feared.

Letters of intelligence.

Upsal, the 24th of Febr. 1654. S. V.

Vol. xii. p. 332.

We cannot receive any dispatch, until the queen understands the true state of the treaty between England and Holland. She persists in her desires of resigning up the goverment; and thereupon she is gone this week to Westraas, to meet the prince Palatine her cousin-german and declared successor, and to treat with him concerning the same; yet she hath promised the lord embassador to accomplish his affair before that time, and that to his contentment; but it is questioned what the grand assembly of the states, which are to convene shortly, will determine in that particular as to the queen's overture. The discourses here are various; some think that don Pimontel hath lain here to negotiate a match between the queen and the Roman king; and that count Montecuculi, general of the horse to the emperor, came hither to agitate the same: but those that pretend knowledge, think no such thing, and are confident the queen is resolved never to marry.

Copenhagen, the 16th March. N. S.

Here is little of news for the present, his majesty with the major part of the court being departed hence for Gluckstadt. The Swedish resident at Elsineur is called home by the queen his mistress, as is conceived, for his yet higher preferment. We can have no certain news of the full conclusion of the treaty with England, which being delayed far from beyond our expectation, causeth some to mistrust the reality of the same.

Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xi. p. 353.

On satterday last I wated upon the queene, and there beinge only sir William Ballendyn in the withdrawinge chamber, as soone as he sawe me, he went to the queene, beinge one of her servants; and returninge, would neither looke upon me, nor speake with me, but told my eldest sonne in these words; Hee may goe in, if he will. My sonn made noe replie, nor said any thinge to me of it: and although I imagined what he meant, yet I forbore to take cognizance thereof, since he thought not fitt to speake to me. After, he went with the same language to another of my followers, that knew him not, whoe come and told me of it; whereupon I held it better to goe to the queen, than to make her stay longer for me, and soe followed him. Mr. Stapleton fearinge that I might receive some mischiefe in the passage, went with me, enteringe into the queene's chamber. Sir William held up the hangings, and just as I entered, let it fall upon me, I believe on purpose; which the queene taking notice of, chid him. I told the queene, and I believe sir William heard me, that this gentleman had noe minde to doe me any favour; and prayed her to pardon me, that I came unto her presence without beinge sent for. She replyed, I sent Ballendyn; did he not come and tell you soe? I said, noe, he held me not worthie to be spoken to, but told one of my followers, that I might goe in; at which the queene seemed to be angry. I gave her majesty thanks for the raindeere, which she was pleased to sende me, and said that I would sende them into England to my lord protector: she answered, they were not worth that trouble. I then told her, that I must take my leave of her, and returne into England. Shee asked me, wherefore I spake soe? I told her, it was upon the common report of that, which her majesty had propounded to her council. This occasioned much discourse betweene us, and she seemed very resolute in it; but she told me, she would dispatch my busines, before that came about, and she hoped to my contentment: she told me alsoe, she was to go out of towne on tuesday next, to meete the prince of Sweade at Westraas; I believe 'tis to speake with him about this busines. I communicated to her such newes as I thought fitt, out of my letters, which I received from England; but stayed not longe with her, she beinge ill.

Munday after dynner I visited count Ericke Oxensterne, to whome I read part of a letter which I receaved from London, informinge me the judges of the admiralty were very willinge and forward to give dispatches to all businesses that concerned the subjects of the queene of Sweden.

Tuesday I was informed by those of my family, that watched that night, that about midnight many drunkards, to the number of ten or twelve, came to one of the doores of my house, havinge their swords drawen, and cryinge, Come out, you English doggs, with many other opprobrious words to our nation: whereupon one of those that watched, discharg'd a pistoll out of the chamber windowe; after which they cryed as formerly, and knocking at the doore, endeavoured by force to breake it open; which when they perceaved they could not effect, they went their waye. The like hath ben don many tymes before, and that many of my servants goinge to their lodgings at night, have ben assaulted, and receaved like affronts from several drunken persons: but God hath to this present hindered them from doinge the least hurt to any of us.

Wednesday sir George Fleetewood told me, he had spoken with sir William Ballendyn about the affront he had putt upon me, and told him plainly of it, and said, sir William denyed with many high asseverations, that he had never the least intension to offer any injurie or affront to me, or any of my followers; but had expressed all civilities to all my company, and prayed I would passe it over, and pardon him. Sir George likewise said, that he beinge with the chauncellor this day, they spake touchinge the busines of sir William Ballendyn; and that the chauncellor desired I would passe it over, for it was in my power to undoe the gentleman, if I should make complaynt. Whereupon I thought fitt not to trouble myselfe any further in this busines, although he were mistaken in the particulars of his excuse; yet denying any intension to doe me an affront, and desiringe my pardon, I tooke for a satisfaction, and the rather at the intreaty of the chauncellor, and of sir George Fleetewood. When Sir William was acquainted, that I had passed it over, he seemed to be very glad, and accordinge to the custome of this place, remembred the English ambassador.

On thursday I was informed by a good hand, that the resident of the duke of Brandenburgh did write from London to his correspondent here, that the Switzers agent was honourably sent backe by my lord protector; and that more honour was done him at his departinge, then had been formerlie to my lord Lagerfeildt. This letter was shewen to several of the senators, on purpose, as I believe, to put a slur upon my busines.

Friday my lord Lagerfield came to me from the chauncellor to know, if I would be at leasure in the afternoone, the chauncellor would visitt me. But in regard he had ben with me several tymes before, I thought it fitt to prevent him, and went to his house, where we discoursed two howers together about several matters, more particularlie concerninge the Scottish busines, whereof he seemed to be informed much more then was true; but I satisfied him by the letters I receaved from you last weeke. He desires to know of me the articles betwixt us and the Dutch, (which are here printed) how far they might be credited; wherein I could not give him soe full satisfaction as I desired, because I have not yet receaved the coppies of those articles; but I hope I shall receave them from you ere longe. The Spanish and Dutch residents have them accordinge to that which is printed in High-dutch. We had a little discourse concerninge the queene's proposition to quit the government, at which he seemed to be very much troubled, and when I talked with him concerninge my busines, he still kept off from particulers, desiringe to heare the effect of our treaty with the Dutch, before a conclusion could be had in my busines. You will pardon this account of things not materiall, as well as those that are, to the end you might know all our passages; and you will please to make use of such only as you think worth mentioninge. Wee have receaved noe letters from Englande this weeke; but we hope, that they are upon the way, and only stayed by crosse winds. I returne you my thanks for the full information I receaved from you the last weeke, and for all your letters and favours; and intreate the contynuance of them unto
Upsale, 24 Feb. 1653.

Your affectionate friend to serve you,
B. Whitelocke.

The chauncellor was very earnest with me about three Sweedish ships, which have ben lately since my cominge hither taken by our English capers, and carried into Dover. He sayes, we use them very unfriendly. I suppose both himselfe, his sonns, and other senators, have part in them. I pray be pleased to use your interest, that justice may be speedily done therein; and that you will as soone as maye be, sende me word of it, to the end the great ones heere may have a better understandinge of us, then hether they have had.

I cannot yett thinke, that this proposition of the queene will come to any thinge. She had much discourse with me about it, and I advised her plainly and faithfully. My eies are very sore, which hinder me from wrighting more with my owne hand, butt to give you most hearty thankes for your favours, and to intreat the continuance of them.

Secretary Thurloe to Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden.

24 Feb. 1653.

Vol. xi. p. 304.

My Lord,
Your excellencye's of the 27th January is arrived, which I have communicated as well to his highnesse, as to the councell, who although they doe not by this transaction of the queene very well understande her intentions as to the peace, yet they are very much satisfied with the manadgement thereof on your part, and committ the issue thereof unto the Lord, who will either blesse your endeavours, by bringinge thinges to a desired issue, or otherwise dispose of this affaire to the glorie of God, the good of the commonwealth, and the comfort of yourselfe, who are imployed in it. The councell, upon consideration of the whole matter, did not finde it necessarie to give you any further directions, nor did his highnesse, especialy seeinge the last letters but one did expresse the sense of his highnes upon that treaty; and nothing hath occurred since, which hath given any cause of alteration. The buissnes, which was like to have the greatest influence upon your negotiation, is the treaty with the Dutch, whereof I have hitherto given your excellencye a true and full account. What hath hapned since my last, is as followeth:

Sir, M. Beverninge haveinge received full powers and authorities to proceed upon the treaty, hath sent unto his highnes to let hym knowe as much, and to acquaint hym, that three ambassadors are comeing over to hym, to finish the treatie; and that in the meane tyme he will be ready to fitt and prepare the articles against their arrival; or else that he himselfe was readie to signe the articles, and to oblige his superiours for the confirmation thereof. In answere whereunto his highnes desired to knowe from hym what he meant by the articles, and that he would send the same in writeinge. Whereupon he hath sent the 29 articles transmitted to your excellency by my last, wherein are some different from what was agreed upon at their last beinge here: but however I understand from good hands, that lord Beverninge is instructed to open in termes, as they were extended in the said first treatie; and those additions, which are now made, are to be pressed only soe far as may be done with conveniency, without breakinge the treatie; soe that I doe beleive that a peace wil be concluded. Wee heard yesterday, that the ambassadors were upon the sea, and they are expected here every houre; in the meane tyme a conclusion may be made with Beverning, if his highnes soe please. The French are very much troubled at this agreement, and the more, because Holland fayles therein as to the inclusion of them in this treatie, which they much relyed upon: and indeed the Dutch deputies heere have earnestlie pressed, that his highnes would include France; but findinge that there were noe great inclination towards it, it is upon the matter given over: and although the ambassadors now comeinge are instructed to endeavour it, yet not to run any hazard upon it; and Mons. Chanut, nowe at the Hague, havinge knowledge in what manner they had beene instructed in reference to France, made a very discontented speech in the assembly of the states generall, therein reproaching them of injustice and ingratitude, yet dissemblinge his discontent in words as much as might be.

The French kinge and cardinall seeinge themselves disappointed at the Hague, endeavoured to accomplish the effect of that heere, which they expected from thence; and to that purpose the cardinall sent hither one Mons. le Baas, to congratulate his highnes, and to assure him of the friendship of the kinge; and that if he pleased, the kinge would banish Charles Stewart and his family out of his dominions, and procleyme the protector in France, &c. and hath since sent a commission to M. Bordeaux to be ambassadour, who received his powers to that purpose three dayes since, and hath already desired audience thereupon.

The Spanish ambassador doth alsoe very much courte his highnesse, and the present government. It would be too tedious to recite perticulers; but I can assure your excellency, that affaires are in that condition, that gives us great grounde to hope, that God's presence is amongst us, who I hope will give humble hearts to our governors under such dispensations.

How things goe in Scotland, the enclosed will shew. In Irelande all thinges are in perfect peace. Discourses have been here of great dissatisfactions in that place, but they have been without grounde; which your excellency may rest assured of. His highnes hath beene proclaimed there with much joy.

What newes is in France, your excellency will receive herewith.

I have moved the counsell in the two papers your excellency trusted to my care. What order that council hath beene pleased to make thereupon, you will see by the inclosed order; and my care shall not be wantinge to see an effectuall execution thereof.

I suppose your excellency hath beene acquainted, that his highnes hath ordered 1500l. to your use, over and above your allowance; and this day an order is made for the charging of it upon a treasury that will certeinely answer it. I hope it may be received tomorrow, or upon monday. My lord St. John is yet very ill; he hath beene a second tyme in the countrye. I remayne your Excellency's humble and faithful servant.

The examination of captain Thomas Smith, taken the 24th day of February 1653. before me John Barkstead, esq; lieutenant of the Tower of London, and one of the justices of the peace for the county of Middlesex, by virtue of an order from the council at Whitehall, dated the 24th day of February 1653.


This examinant saith, that Roger Lea came to his lodging in Well-yard, in little St. Bartholomew's, about Michaelmas last; which said Roger Lea then told this examinant, that some people were much troubled to see they were like to loose their laws and religion; and that there was a designe on foote to restore them; and that there was some young men apprentices engaged in it; and that there was a grand councell, under whome they were to act; and desired this examinant to be at a meeting with him the said Roger Lea, and some others, which would be within some fewe days, at the Feathers taverne in Cheapside, where this examinant did afterwards goe, and there found this said Roger Lea with six or seven more, which were then all strangers to this examinant; whoe further faith, that in the said meeting was one, whome the companie then called Pritchard, which said Pritchard is since knowne to this examinant by the name of captain Dutton; and soe soon as this examinant came to that first meeting, Roger Lea came to this examinant, and told him, that Mr. Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, was the agent from the grand councell. This examinant further saith, that after they had dranke a quart or two of wine, and eaten some sawceages, Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, desired the company to sit down, and then spake to them as giving them an account of the ground of the designe, which was the settling Charles Stuart as king of England, the restoreing of religion, and the lawes; and then imediately he pulled forth a paper out of his pockett, which conteyned an oath, consistinge of these particulers; first, secrecye to the designe; secondly, each man promoteing it according to his abilitye, and assistinge each other, if in trouble. Then the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, desired those that had not taken the oath, then to take it; and to that end gave it to one, that then satt at the table; but to which, this examinant cannot positively say: but this examinant saith, that the said paper or oath was handed from one to another round the table, and looked on or read by all or most of the company; which being done, this examinant saith, the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, takeing the paper or oath into his hand, he alsoe haveing in his hand a little book bound up in blacke leather, but what was in the said book this examinant saith he knoweth not, called some of those then at the table to the fire side, to whom, as this examinant saith, he verily believeth he then and there gave the oath. And this examinant saith, he rather believeth it; for that after three or foure persons had been called, and after a little stay returned, the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, called this examinant, asking him to take the oath; which this examinant saith he altogether refused, telling the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, that his ingagement should be as good; with which he seemed satisfied, and soe they both went to the table. And this examinant further saith, that at that time captain . . . . made choice of this examinant, and Roger Lea, to go with Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, to the grand councell; and the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, then accordingly appointed them to meete him afterwards at the Horne tavern in Fleet-street; which this examinant saith they soon after did, and there also mett with colonel Lovelace, and colonel Wheatley, where this examinant saith there was some discourse about the designe; and then the said colonel. Wheatley told this examinant, that there was a grand councell, in which persons of qualitie were engaged, whoe were not willing as yet to be publiquely knowne. Then the said Roger Lea told them, he would not joyn with any persons, but such as should take the oath of secresie; whereto this examinant saith they seemed willinge, and thereupon desired to see it: whereupon the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, pulled the oath out of his pocket, and shewed it to them; which when they had received, this examinant saith they asked him whoe drewe it? He answered, A friend; and then this examinant saith he pulled the oath out of his pocket, being, as this examinant believeth, the same that he used at the Feathers tavern. And this examinant saith, when they had read the said oath, the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, told them, they swore to the contents of that paper they had then read; and then this examinant, to the best of his memory, saith they did kisse the book; which being done, this examinant saith they did all agree, that colonel Wheatley should come to the meeting of the apprentices, in October 1653. which accordingly he did at several times and places. And this examinant further saith, that at the first or second meeting after col. Wheatley came among them, which was, as this examinant saith he believeth, at the Nagge's-head in Cheapside, where this examinant saith, that among other things then in debate about the designe, it was agreed, that two persons, viz. colonel Wheatley, and John Archer, should be sent into France to Charles Stuart; at which time alsoe this examinant saith the said colonel Wheatley or Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, did then propose to the com pany, who should be nominated to the said Charles Stuart to be the generall. Then some at the board offered Massie, the lord Willoughbie, and some other this examinant saith were named, which he doth not remember. Then at last it was resolved to leave that wholly to colonel Wheatley, to do therein as he should see cause. This examinant further saith, it was at that time and place alsoe agreed, that the said colonel Wheatley should move the said Charles Stuart to have in readinesse a declaration to satisfie all in trust. And this examinant saith, that at this meeting were present most of those nowe in custody, except Bunce, Rosse, and Watkins. And this examinant further saith, that after this meeting there were diverse other meetings, to consider howe to raise moneys for defraying the charges of them that were to goe into France to Charles Stuart, as aforesaid; and the summe beinge proposed to be sixty pounds, or thereabouts, it was then on consent agreed, that they could not raise soe great a summe; and so they for that time parted that meeting, which this examinant saith to the best of his remembrance was about the latter end of October last, at the cooke's shop in Abchurch lane; at which time and place this examinant further saith the persons then present laid downe their twenty shillings each man towards that charge, which amounted at that time to about seaven or eight pounds. And this examinant further saith, that soon after he with the aforesaid Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, and others, had a meeting at the Nagge'shead in Cheapside, where it was agreed, that they could not for the present raise a sufficient summe to defraye the charges of twoe messengers; and therefore then agreed, that only one of the two fore-named and appointed should goe; and thereupon resolved colonel Wheatley should be that one person, and that they would adde to what was raised at the last meeting 30 l. more towards his charges. And it being then propounded by some of the company, that some particular person should, for expediteing the designe, lay downe the said summe of 30 l. whereupon Mr. Roger Lea did then undertake for 10 l. Roger Coates for 10 l. more, for which they each of them received a noate under the hands of this examinant, and about five or six more, then present, in which was ingaged to repay them within fourteen days, or thereabouts, the other 10 l. This examinant saith John Archer, and one other of the companie, whoe this examinant saith he doth not at present remember, did undertake the payeing of it themselves, for which they desired not any noate: but this examinant saith, he hath since heard diverse of theire companie say, that Roger Lea disbursed that 10 l. also. And this examinant further saith, that he had diverse other meetings with the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, Lea, and the rest, with relation to the reimbursing the monie to those that had laid it downe; and at one of these meetings this examinant saith it was resolved, that each man should laye down his 3 l. Some fewe days after which resolution Roger Lea did send a noate to this examinant for 3 l. being his proportion according to the said agreement; which 3 l. this examinant saith he did send to Roger Lea by the messenger that brought the noate unto him. And this examinant further saith, that at some one of the last meetings, in which this examinant was with them, there was a letter produced by the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, to whome by the superscription it was directed; which letter was subscribed by the name of Whitbye, dated as from Rohan, and written in the style of a marchant; the contents whereof were, that he had acquainted the correspondent with the goods he had brought over, whoe very well approved of them, and he did not doubt, but he should have a very good market for them; only he feared his stay would be longer than expected, or to that effect. And this examinant further saith, that at theire last meeting of all with this examinant, which was about the beginning of December last, as this examinant walked homewards in the companie of the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, the said Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, told this examinant, he would bring him acquainted with other persons; but only nominated captain Hugh Massie, who, as he then said, should give this examinant a meetinge within a night or twoe after, at the Swan at Dowgate; to which place this examinant saith he accordingly went, and stayed there about an houre, and neither of them came unto him thither; from which place this examinant saith he returned, and since that time hath not bene in any of their meetings above once, which was about the beginning of January, at the Windmill taverne in Lothbury, to which place this examinant saith he did usually once a week goe to play at billiards; where being then to play with some persons belonging to Habberdashershall, one of the drapers came up, and told this examinant, that one Mr. Floyd was belowe, and desired to speake with me: whereupon this examinant, going downe, found there Robert Lea, and with him one Mr. Floyd, and one Mr. Davis, and three persons more, whose names this examinant saith are unknown unto him, together with Mr. Archer, and Mr. Coates alsoe; the intent of which meetinge was, as this examinant saith he conceives by Mr. Floyd and Mr. Davis, to give satisfaction to some of the companie, who refused to pay their proportions of money formerly agreed on, alledging they were not satisfied in it, and feared they were cheated in the whole. And this examinant further saith, that at this meeting one of the three men, which are altogether unknown and strangers to this examinant, did then produce a letter from colonel Wheatley, wherein the said colonel Wheatley complains, that he had written several letters to Dutton, but had received no answer; and that the commodities were nowe ready, and therefore desired, that some person might be appointed to meet him at Calais to bringe them over, for that he could not conveniently come over himself: but this examinant saith it was then generally refused to send any person, or to raise any money; only Mr. Coates proffered himself, provided he might have 5 l. which was alsoe refused: which said meeting this examinant saith was the last he either knew of, or was present at, except that in which they were apprehended; whereto he saith he was invited by a noate left at his house to that purpose. This examinant being asked, whether he doth not know of any other person or persons, that were knoweing of or privie to the designe, other than what is mentioned in this examination, or are now in custodie, saith, that he doth not remember any more, save Mr. Peter Middleton. And further this examinant saith, that as to the designe and manner of carryeing on, it was declared to him by some of the aforesaid persons, which this examinant saith to his best remembrance was either the afore-mentioned Pritchard, otherwise Dutton, or Roger Lea, at his first coming into theire company, that a grand council was to act in the cittie, and several other councils under them in several parts of the cittie, who should list men; and that when they were ready for action, they should seize upon the parliament, Whitehall, James's, the Tower, and the several guards and gates about the cittie; and that at the same time there should be insurrections in other parts of the nation; or to that effect. And this examinant alsoe saith, that dureing the time he used to meete as aforesaid, he never acted otherwise than he hath herein declared, nor knoweth not of any other matter or materiall circumstance, or of any other person relateinge to or knoweing of the said designe, than what he hath already hereby expressed and declared; and saith he did never appoint any meeting, contrive any part of the said designe, or engage any person therein. And further this examinant saith not.

An intercepted letter of J. Herbert.

Vol. xi. p. 337.

I SHOULD be much wanting to myself, if I should not correspond with your desires, espeacially at this tyme, wherein you require me to give you account of S. Vavasor's doctrine in these partes; and in order thereunto you shall receive them in the best method I can recollect them.

Vavasor seemes discontented at the present tymes, saying that men are more for power then Christ: he could specifie, but thought it neither convenient for him to utter, nor them to heare thereof at present; not that he feared the displeasure of any. He tolde us, some preached as they did in the prelaticall tymes; but that doctrine shuted not now, though it were then proper; for doctrines altred as ages did. He told us, Christ was facetious and sociable.

For baptisme, he said, he had rather his child (had he any, as I doe believe he hath many) should be offered up to Moloch than baptized; and that it were a less sinne to circumcise then baptize in these dayes of gosple-light.

This he preached the 23d of this instant February, and endeavoured to justifie his position of God's sanctifieinge since; and all this with much violence and vehemencie, insomuch as that his owne partye begins to start aside, like broken bowes; nay some say, that ere those that have engaged for him shall suffer, they will themselves apprehend him. Sir, I am verry unwilling to trouble you with any more of these hereticall opinions; therefore give me leave to kisse your hands, and to assure you, that I am
Mongomery, Feb. 24. 1653.

Your most affectionate friend and servant
J. H. [John Herbert.]

An intercepted letter.

Paris, March 6. 1654. [N.S.]

If I answered your letters as well in weight and measure as I doe in number, you would have no cause to complaine of me; for I have hardly omitted any occasion of giving you an account of the receipt of yours. I doubt much, that there hath beene some mistake in your directions to me for writing to you, because I cannot perceive, that any of mine, but those to the good lady, are come to your hands.

I am not able to give you any judgment of your journeys into Ireland, because I know nothing of your condition; only I perceive, that 500 l. yearly is not slightly to be let goe in these necessitous times, if there be no other consideration to countervayle that loss, which I have some occasion to doubt may possibly be your case, in regard, that one of your present affections and past imployments may furnish matter of jealousy to your distrustful masters. Whilst you stay in England, doe me the favor to let mee heare from you some times. The cardinal hath latly sent another messenger to your protector, with whom we believe there will be a mutuall good intelligence: it will at least be endeavored from hence, as long as this crowne is in hostillity with Spaine. We are heere fully perswaded, that your protector will assume new titles and dignities sodainly; and are much devided in our opinions, what we ought to wish or feare most in that regard. I am of the number of those fooles, that think, the sooner he does it, it will be the better for us; but I am far from concluding it possitively. The cardinal hath married one of his nieces to the prince of Conty latly; and since his sister a widdow and three other of his nieces are come to this towne, who are designed to great matches. It is sayd, that our young master remooves shortly for Germany. My service kindly to our friend in the countrey. God in heaven prosper you both. I am yours.

For Mr. D.

Van Beuningen to the states general.

H. and M. Lords,

Vol. xi. p. 205.

My Lords,
Since my last to your H. and M. lordships of the 28th of the last month, are come safe to hand your H. and M. lordships commands of the 12th of this month, with a copy of what your H. and M. lordships were pleased to resolve that day, upon certain complaints of the lord resident Appleboom, upon the bringing in of a Swedish ship belonging to Gottenburgh. I cannot conceal from your lordships the continual and often complaints, that are made here of the damages, which the Swedish ships suffer in their trade and navigation by the subjects of your lordships, who do abuse your lordships commission at sea; and when their ships are taken, and brought in, they do think here they have cause to accuse your judicatures of delays and defects in decreeing of sufficient reparation and satisfaction to the interested; and they do tell me here plainly, that they do imagine themselves, that it is the intention of your lordships to disturb and destroy the commerce and navigation of the subjects, through such devilish and Turkish proceedings. And because I have not every time the proof sent unto me from the admiralty, as to their proceedings concerning the Swedish ships, I am not able to answer their complaints, nor justify your lordships proceedings about them; which I hope I shall be able to do in time to come. The English embassador begins to speak of returning home, as soon as the weather will permit him. I do not find, that he hath effected any thing here to any purpose; on the contrary, I am told, that he is very much displeased with the dispositions, which he hath met withal here about the affairs of his master. They are very uneasy likewise at the taking and bringing in of their ships by the English, and very much displeased at it, and nowise satisfied with the answer, which the English embassador hath given concerning it.

Upsal, 6th of March 1654. [N. S.]

Van Beuningen.

A paper of several officers in Ireland to the protector Oliver Cromwell.

Vol. x p. 17.

May it please your Highness,
Seeing the Lord Jesus, whose right it is to rule nations, hath providentially made choice of you for his deputy under him, to manage these three nations, in which he hath so large an interest of chosen vessels, fit for their Master's honour and service; it is therefore of great concernment, and doubtless will be your highness's establishment, to own, countenance, and encourage those of that family, and to make it your great and chief design to promote the inlargement and increase of his kingdom by all ways and means; as also to prevent what may hinder the effecting so blessed a work.

Means are to be used to accomplish such an end; and the most effectual is the promulgation of the gospel; and to that end choice should be made of fit and able persons, that are sound in the saith, apt to teach, able to stop the mouths of gainsayers; and they sent forth, countenanced, and encouraged, that so blind and ignorant souls may be convinced, sinners converted, and those that belong to the election of grace brought home unto his own houshold; and there may be maintained and kept with those fat things, that are prepared for them, and so they may like well and flourish in the courts of our God.

We, whom God hath brought out of a land of much light into a land of thick darkness, cannot but lament and bewail unto your highness the gross and great darkness, that the poor people of this land are under; and therefore is there the more need, that the Lord's arm should be made bare by an able and powerful ministry sent forth amongst such, lest they seeing weakness, confusion, and divisions, through mens inability and instability, that publish and profess the faith of the gospel, their hearts be hardened in their unbelief, We wish we had not already seen too much experience hereof in that little time we have had to experiment any thing of that kind in this land; as also by such means, notions and fancies amongst many persons of unstable minds are cried up; and the purity of the worship in the way of ordinances is disclaimed and disowned; the which indeed is the highway to profaneness in spirit, and a vain and loose conversation, whereby the name of God, and the gospel of Jesus Christ, are dishonoured exceedingly; than which what can be more irksome to a sanctified heart? May it please your highness that we may speak freely; we have observed in our own experience, that where God hath sent amongst us godly, painful, and able ministers, he hath made their ministry successful, in converting many souls to himself; and we cannot but judge that our former rulers great neglect of sending and encouraging such to help in that great work in this land may have been one great cause of the present reproach that God hath cast upon them; and we are bold to offer it, not only as an eminent expedient for the honour of God, whose holy name we fear, whose glory we desire especially the advancement of, but also as a prudent and the most sure way of keeping the hearts of the people of this nation and our native country as one, and to live in a continued unity as brethren, where principles of piety are so plentifully sown in their hearts, and as abundantly grow up and appear in the fruits of holiness in their lives. How then would godly persons of England delight to come amongst godly congregations in Ireland; and godly people out of Ireland to hold communion with the families of Christ in England? O how sweet would such heavenly harmony be, especially if the Lord would so reconcile things, as that his name might be one in these nations! which shall be our earnest and servent prayers and endeavours. We dare not be further troublesome, but only crave leave to recommend your highness to the special support and supplies of Christ's spirit, in whom we desire faithfully to approve ourselves,

Your highness's
Humbly devout servants,
Har. Waller
John Friend
Sa. Clarke
Tho. Martin
Nico. Morfield
John Matthews
Tho. Lucas
Hen. Greneway
Jos. Bennet
Godfrey Greene
Timothy Willmot
John Nunam
John Barit
Benjamin Lucas
Claudius Gilbert, pastor
Thomas Saillew
Will. Hartwell
William Riall
Henry Howard
These subscribed in the name of the Church of Christ in Lymerick.

Lymerick, 12th month, 25th day, 1653.

An intercepted letter of Mr. Vavasor Powell to Mr. Price.

Vol. xi. p. 332.

Mr. Price,
I FINDE you doe not intend to pay me my rent; therefore must take what course I can myself. I am resolved to send a partie of souldiers to distraine upon some, and I know none fitter to begin with then yourself. I hope you cannot blame me. I have had patience, and shewed respect enough. If you please to prevent it, you may by munday morning; otherwise beare the blame yourself.

Your loving friend, Va. Powell.

New Radnor, 25th of Febr. 1653.

I shall be upon munday morning at Mr. Tunman's house to receive it, and give you a discharge.

For my respected friend Mr. K. Price, These.

A letter of intelligence from Paris.

7th March 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xi. p. 320.

This day's post is not yet arrived, that I know of; in other ways we have, that your peace is near concluded with Holland, whereof the articles came hither to the pope's nuntio. I have seen and perused them myself, by the means of a friend; but yet (which I objected) I do not believe them to be so wholly as they think. We expect the truth from thence. Neither do we believe yet, that Murtagh O Brian has submitted; only if he did, that he is out again, by reason of examination of murthers.

King Charles is preparing to part hence with his mother, brothers, and sister; where, I do not yet well know. Our king and cardinal arrived here last thursday from St. Germains, and during their absence a receiver of the rents of the town-house was committed to the prison of the Conciergerie of the palais, for not paying 6000000 livres, which the council taxed him for, he having only paid 100000 livers; but the parliament got him out within two days after, by their own arrest against the council's orders.

Last tuesday prince Conti went to my lord chancellor's house, desiring him, not to proceed further in his brother's process, till such time as he would write to him, and get an answer; and promised to speak likewise to the cardinal concerning the same; which he has done, and the cardinal granted him that space; upon which the said Conti sent an express with quantity of letters: what they may contain, we may know by the time.

Monday last the duke of Anjou sent a gentleman to the chancellor, to know of him how he should carry himself in the chamber de contes, for to have the king's declaration verified touching the suppression of the receivers of the impositions. The next week the said duke is to be there.

His majesty is preparing two armies for the field about Easter next; the one, which shall be commanded by Mons. mareschal Turenne, first for to besiege Rocroy; the other by Mons. mareschal de la Ferté Senneterre, for to besiege Cleremont in Lorrain. Last wednesday the parliament received express orders from the king, to send Mons. de Croisi as embassador to the commonwealth of Venice; which the said Croisi does oppose the best he can. King Charles and all his train may go to Palatinate; but the queen may retire herself to some quiet place in France. Some say, that the cardinal Mazarini's father will come to France, notwithstanding his being embassador at the court of Rome; and that his majesty will give him the government of Paris, and give recompence to Mons. mareschal de l'Hospital, for his good service hitherto, who is now governor of Paris. Time will let us see the truth: it is a wonder, if he be received, &c.

The treaty between the count de Harcourt, La Ferté Senneterre, and Mons. Baissemont, being signed by them above, having full power from the king and his council, is sent hither; at which his eminency was mad, by reason after the taking of Befort he would not by any means consent unto it; yet the council advised him to have it signed for some time, till the matter had been better disposed of, but not to continue it, as Harcourt would have it. Mons. mareschal de la Meillerai, and Mons. duke de Retz, are come to court here lately. Poor cardinal de Retz may be the better for it, as some say.

Yesterday and the day before two expresses came from Peronne, signifying certainly the duke of Lorrain is committed to prison, by orders from the king of Spain and the archduke, for having treated with Mons. le mareschal de la Ferté Senneterre, to deliver some places in the king of Spain's possession now to his majesty of France; and as the letters bring, 1500 horse, that were of the same plot, are taken with him. Some of the duke's letters were intercepted, which caused the whole trouble. Here is some report already, that you will not accept of Mons. de Bordeaux, as embassador, being your agent before, and being not descended of any family of worth; which if so, Clerembaut is ready to relieve him, to give you satisfaction in all things, though not for your affection, &c.

Last wednesday three prisoners suffered the tortures of the Conciergerie of the Palais; among which an Italian priest accused of sodomy, having confessed all by the rigorosity of his pains, was condemned to be first hanged, and afterwards burnt, which was done the next day, being last thursday, at la Greve. The rest that suffered, and have not confessed their crimes, are condemned to the gallies for nine years time, to serve the king.

I do not know whether I writ to you in my former, that the same gentleman that was there before lately from the cardinal here, parted last monday again, with more compliments and overtures than before, as you shall find him; but let people be wary they be not deceived; for there may be other designs in hand, as yet unknown, notwithstanding all common relations.

We daily expect the pope's courier gone to Spain about the general peace, which might come to an end by the time, &c.

King Charles is still sick, and all here endeavouring to get him away, if they could with civility, &c.

Col. Wogan's death is much lamented in the English court, he being a gallant man, as they say. I do believe some of the O Sillivans are gone already to the poor distressed there in Ireland. It is here reported, that my lord protector's son is going thither suddenly, for fear of any revolt there by the anabaptists, which is thought to be good news by some here.

Notwithstanding all fair offers from hence to prolong and delay the time, till they be in a posture, and able to complete their designs, all men are to think of their own affairs properly. Five hundred men are come to old Preston from the Spanish forces in Catalonia, commanded by our colonel Macnamara, in a manner that Preston is now about 1500 men strong, all Irish, and from the Spanish armies, better content than where they were.

Mons. la Ferté Senneterre, with all those that were about Befort, are gone now by the king's orders to Brisac, where sure poor Harcourt will be undone, notwithstanding they dissemble yet to sign his articles here, which is the least they think of. I have nothing else worth your hearing; only that I am, Sir,
Your humble servant.


Dantzick, 7 March 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xii. p. 114.

The news out of Poland is, that the Cossacks have agreed with the Muscovite; and to secure him their fidelity, are to deliver him three earldoms, if it be not a report raised by the court, to further the agreement with the Cossacks, or to procure more large contributions; which a little time will shew. The duke of Muscovy hath already taken Kiow, Biala, Chireaseck, and Chrein, and is advancing further with a great strength, the news whereof hath caused great alteration upon the rixday at Warsaw.

Extract of the resident Vries's letter to the states general.

Vol. xii. p. 221.

H. and M. Lords,
In conformity to the commands given me in the letters and resolution of your H. and M. lordships of the 10th of February last, I went and gave thanks to the king for the several favours and benefits received by the fleet, with a desire, that his majesty would be pleased to continue his benignity and affection towards your H. and M. lordships; and some other compliments I gave, fit for the purpose. Whereupon his majesty was pleased to declare in substance, that he was very willing to give all accommodation in all occasions to the ships and subjects of your H. and M. lordships; and that I might from his royal breast assure them of the same, &c.

Elseneur, 7 March 1654. [N. S.]

An intercepted letter of Mr. Vaughan, to Mr. Charles Roberts.

Vol. xi. p. 335.

Cosin Roberts,
By the inclosed from captain Jenkin John Hewett to Mrs. Lewes of Lanvigan, you may see that he threatens the countrey with his troope. Mr. Morgan of Therw, and divers others of the best of the countie, were at this cock-fight; which was kept noe otherwise, then accordinge to the custome of all other schooles. We conceived, that there was no troope in our county, nor under his command; but it appears by this his owne letter, that he hath them still listed, and keeps them up privately: for though he came not to the cock-fight, accordinge to his menaces, yet he had that morning att his house above thirty horse with saddles and pistolls, which did much trouble and terrifie the countrie people. I pray learn, if his highnesse hath latelie granted him a commission; otherwise I knowe noe reason but these actions should be taken notice of. Our justices of the peace still slight the lord protector's authoritie, and have now issued forth their warrants for the contribution, some in the name of the keepers of the libertie by authoritie of parliament, others without any name at all; and divers gentlemen have bine served with them, butt refused to execute them. I wonder att these proceedings, and more att those that suffer them. I'll assure you, the people by reason of this public and persevering contempt will not believe, that there is a lord protectour, and do but laugh att such relations. I could wish, that those, whom it concerns, would looke to it, least their too much clemency prove hurtful to them. I pray lett me hear from you with the first conveniency, and howe the business goes betwixt me and Mrs. Games. Farewell.

Newton, Ash-wednesday, 1653.

Your friend and affectionate kinsman;
Tho. Vaughan.

For my respected kinsman, Mr. Charles Roberts,
att his chamber in Grayes-Inn, This.

Beverning, the Dutch embassador, to Thurloe.

Vol. xi. p. 350.

Vir amplissime,
Domini Nieuport & Jongestall litteris suis heri Doveræ datis, certiorem hodie me faciunt de felici eorundem ibi adventu, & quod porro iter suum Gravesendam versus instituant, ubi die crastino circa vesperam occursum meum desiderant, ut & mihi proposui; quod mearum partium esse judicavi, quo vestræ dominationi hisce denuntiarem; ea tamen mente, ut post congressum cum præfatis dominis, latius & meliore modo debito nostro officio erga dominationem vestram defungamur, cui interim maneo

Westmonast. 27 Feb. 1653.

Ad quævis officia paratus,
H. Beverningk.

Mr. Mich. Monckton to col. Overton.

Vol. xi. p. 351.

Honoured Sir,
The welfaire of my commonwealth (which honest men preferr before all things of selfe) constrained me to imparte to you what was lately discovered to me, which (well sifted) may (as I conceive) disclose some of the engaigers in the late blody plot, the mannaging whereof, sir, I leave to your serious considerations; the foundation of my suspitions being here inclosed, and sent you by a faithful friend to the publique, and no less to,
Honored Sir,
Thornholme, Febr. 27. 1653.

Your most humble servant,
Mich. Monkton.

For his ever-honoured friend, col. Overton, London, these humbly present.

Inclosed in the preceding;

A letter to Michael Monckton esq; about a plot:

Vol. xi. p. 284.

Noble Sir,
My unknowneness to your person may perhaps condemne me of presumption, in writeing to you; yet, sir, when I consider the general welfare of the people, (which is the supream law) I am forced to discover soe much as is come to my knowledge of those thinges, which the hellish complotters of our designed ruine have attempted, and doe still drive on towards execution; and doubtles, unless the all-seeing God blast their proceedings, their event may be hazardous to the publick welfare. Sir, I have been long acquainted with your good name, (though little with your person) which imboldens me to addresse myselfe to you, rather then to some others of more intimacye in the same power. Therefore, sir, let me only begg, as you tender the welfare of the publique, your owne happines, and especially the bleeding cause of Christ, that you creditt your unknowne friend, who is resolved, not to insert any thinge of the least untrueth. In briese, sir, thus: There is one Dr. Brunsole, who formerly hath beene a resident in Gainsburgh, but (for the most part) since Worcester business hath resided beyond the seas, or very privately within the limitts of this commonwealth: which doctor hath ever been a grand incendiarie in the late riseings about Pontefracte, Lincoln, Gainsburgh, and divers other places, to the involveing of divers hott spiritts in the said warre; as also a great somenter and contriver of the riseing of many with the Scottish army under Charles Stuart; and is at this instant returned from France to Gainsburgh; the very fight of whom assures me, that a storme is at hand; and the rather, because there was a private meeting of several of them att the house of William Hickman of Gainsburgh esq; where there was a private sacrament administred. He was to returne immediatly to France; but that (as he said) he stayed till the money came, that was to desray his charges, which he expected within two dayes; and that betwixt Easter and Whittsontide he was to returne againe into England, and then he would let them know what the designe was; but till then he would say nothing. Thus he satisfyed divers, that questioned with him about it. Sir, I am given to understand, that the priest's name who gave the sacrament, is Mr. Bell: he lives about Hatton-Pagnell near Doncaster. Sir, what discovery these circumstances may produce, I leave to your vigilancy; not doubting but you will pick soe much good English out of my good meaning, as may (through God's mercy) procure a welfare to those, who have stood close to you in the Lord's controversy, lest the enemies of our selicity insult over us, and say, There, there, thus would wee have it. However, sir, I have discharged my owne conscience; and if this will not satisfy you of some designe at hand in these plotting dayes, I shall be redy, upon farther discovery, to subscribe my name as it is. In the mean time take this as an item from your heavenly protector, by the pen of one, who delights to approve himself true and faithfull to the commonwealth of England, though at present nameless, save by the marks of
Febr. 18. 1653.

A. B.

The superscription,
For his much honoured friend Michael Monkton esq; These present.

A letter of intelligence.

Rome, the 9th of March 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xi. p. 362.

By this post I only received a letter from my friend at Paris. News hence since my last I have but little. From Naples; a cavallero D. Balthasar Carmignano of Malta was slain by some Spaniards, he being a Neapolitan; for which that vice-roy gave command every night to keep a good round or watch at night time, with two criminal judges every night. And coming from Smyrna, three English vessels laden with rich merchandize, were met by three French pirates, and one of the English ships taken, another saved at Messina, and the third ran at land. John Baptista Brancachio cavalier of Malta came from the grand prior to Naples, for to congratulate with that vice roy. The ships and gallies, that provided with men and provisions all Tuscany ports, are returned to Naples, where some ships are arming against those French men of war. The duke of Terranova last monday made his publick visitation, accompanied with 300 coaches, and was in audience more than two hours. We hear the French are always preparing at Toulon, and do expect from Portugal eight ships, 8000 men, and great moneys. Donna Lucretia Barbarina is certainly to be married to the duke of Modena. She gives 2,50000 crowns in dowry. The cardinal Spada, made by his holiness, is not brother to the other cardinal Spada, he being of Lucca, and in time of Urban was governor of Rome, and afterwards patriarch of Jerusalem. Cardinal Albisi is to live by the Jesu; what other employment he may have, he is well worthy of it, being a most real man, and much inclined to the English nation. Some say, one of the new cardinals will become secretary of state; but yet uncertain. The cardinal Stallie, before favoured by his holiness with the title of Famfilio, is yet in Cassells retired; but some say, at last it will be nothing. The maxims of Tiberius are observed in the government. His holiness is in perfect health.

From Venice; Mocenigo is hindred by a chiragra not to go to exercise his office of generalissimo. Four new gallies are going for Dalmatia, where now be arrived 6000 foot, and 2000 horse from the Turks. The French embassador's nephew in Turky made great lamentations before the divan, for not admitting the Venetian embassador Capello to audience, or to be licensed; which was brought in agitation, and interim the matter should be resolved. He is to stay in Adrianople. The bassa-vasaine of impositions made up three millions in gold in his own distriction.

From Turin, madame regent has orders from the French court, to dispose of that militia according as she thinks best: she will have all that militia to go to France, only two regiments of foot, and these to be paid by the French Ministers. This being all what at present I have, I remain always
Your true servant.

For auditor of the camera we have Mons. Veccheanelli; for treasurer M. Cronsone, Genoese. This day was held a consistory for the expedition of ceremonies of new cardinals.

Mr. Richard Bradshaw, the English resident at Hamburgh, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xi. p. 356.

I have not any from you by the poste: I would not therefore give you trouble, havinge nothinge new since my last, save onely to acquainte you, that the English merchants in Gottenburgh, where the masts came, write me, that a skipper of that place writes to his friends, that he was brought upp with his shippe to Dover, by some of your men of warre, and there was closely imprisoned, and not suffered to come to his answer; which the Sweeds thinke much at, consideringe their generall respect to my lord embassador, and all the English. I promised them to certifie you thus much; so leave it to your consideration. I waite your answer aboute shippinge of the masts, and hope shall heare from you of the other particulars in my former, as soon as leasure permits. With best respects I shall rest,
Hamb. 28. Febr. 165¾. Honoured Sir, Your humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

The Dutch embassadors to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xi. p.352.

Vir amplissime,
Cum legationem extra ordinem ad celsitudinem suam dominum protectorem reipubl. Angl. Scotiæ, & Hiberniæ, decernere dominis ordinibus generalibus uniti Belgii visum esset, ad personas nostras respicere placuit, qui ea desungeremur. Itaque suo nomine celsitudinem illam serenissimi domini protectoris dignitatem agnoscere, & communis pacis negotium ad optatum finem, quanto ocyus, jusserunt promovere; sic nostrarum partium effe judicabimus hoc agere, ut noster in hanc urbem adventus celsitudini suæ possit innotescere; simulque dominationem vestram enixe per hosce ex comitatu nostro nobiles rogare, ut favore suo nos dirigat circa ea, quæ ad accessum nostrum propria erunt, aut necessaria. Nos certe eo favore devinciemur, quo semper & ubique, sumus dominationi vestræ
ad quævis officia parati,
H. Beverningk.
W. Nieupoort.
A. P. Jongestall.

Datæ Gravesendæ, 28 Feb. 1653.

General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xi. p. 366.

I Perceave by the printed bookes, that the articles made with Mortogh O Brien are printed, for which I am sorry, they being such as I did not confirme farther than the effectual endeavours of transporting them beyond sea, which I hope is done by this time: But I could not approve of some of them, and therefore am troubled they are in print. I thincke it was my duty, that my lord protector should have knowledge of them, but not so good as to be brought forth unto publique view, though I hope the consequence will tend much to the peace of these parts; there being now not one man that is considerable in armes, in this nation, where the articles are printed. There is likewise an unhandsome reflection about the proclayming of my lord. I shall not be further troublesome, but remaine
Your affectionate friend and servant, Charles Fleetwood.

I thanke you for the rational booke you were pleased to send mee.

28 Febr. 1653.

Mr. Lloyd to Mr. Henry Griffith.

Vol. xi. p. 338.

Dear Sir,
I am extreame sorry, that I could not get a coppie of the remonstrance, to answeare your expectation. The richer sort of Powell's church refused to subscribe it; which gives him occasion of ventinge his bitter and venemous language, as well against them, as against the lord protector, and the present government. He is now everie whit as invective against the magistracie, as he was in London; and if God prevent it not, he will assuredly bringe utter ruine upon our poore countrey. There is noe man will or dare send uppe any charge against him, as longe as the new justices of peace (whoe are all of his church, his well-wishers) continue in commission; for they follow him from place to place, (and our high sheriffe alsoe) to give countenance unto him against the freinde of the present government. He is satyricall enough in publick mixt assemblies against the government. You may easilie ymagine what principles he doth insuse to those of his owne church at their owne private meetinge, where noe stranger is admitted. In sume wee are all undone . . . be not put in comission ..... is

Poole, ult. Februarii 1653. Your verie humble servant,
G. Lloyd.

Sir, I beseech you present my service to my truely honoured friend Mr. Tho. Vaughan.

For Mr. Tho. Vaughan, a barbour, in Chancery-lane, over-against the korner, to be delivered to Mr. Alexander Griffith, London.


Cologne, 10 March 1654. [N. S.]

Vol. xi. p.114.

We are now out of all fear of being troubled with the Lorain troops in these countries, who will now quickly come to lose their Lorrain name. Since they heard of their master's imprisonment, they have been almost in a rage, and for madness have burned Baringen, and plundered the city St. Truyen. The conde Fuensaldagna, who thought to have got them into his majesty's service, by presenting them with 40000 crowns, was pursued by them unto Diest in Brabant; so that he was forced re inexpedita to return to Brussels, where it is feared, that Mons. Faber (who with 7 or 8000 Frenchmen arrived at Luyck, for the assistance of the prince elector) will draw the said forces to his master's service, several colonels and chief officers inclining thereunto (fn. 1) .

Beverning, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general,

H and M. Lords,

Vol. xlviii. p. 27.

My Lords,
Your H. and M. lordships resolution of the third of this month was delivered unto me by Marcelis van Bayen the seventh ditto, at night, being also directed to the lords Nieuport and Jongestall, who were not then arrived; so that I did prepare myself to prosecute an answer to the articles I had delivered in; and about nine of the clock at night a servant of the lord Nieuport's came to give me notice, that he was the day before yesterday arrived at Dover, and would meet me this night at Gravesend; so that now I am necessitated to transport myself thither, to effect your H. and M. lordships commands, comprehended as well in that as in your former resolutions, according to the utmost of my power.

H. and M. Lords,

Westminster, 10 March 1654. [N. S.]


A paper delivered by Sir Cornelius Vermuyden, relating to a treaty between England and the states general.

Vol. xii. p. 109.

I. That both states do agree a perpetual amity, and that they take up arms offensive and defensive jointly against the enemy of both states, or one of them; the state of England to bear the two third parts, and the states of the United Provinces one third part thereof.

II. That they do each separately maintain by land a complete number of men, foot and horse, in ordinary pay, to have in service for a defensive war by each side.

III. That both parts do maintain by water so many ships, men of war, as occasion shall require, for the saseguard of the seas against all invasions, that might he attempted against both or one of them, or for such other service, as both hereby have agreed upon; and that the states of England shall bear and furnish the two third parts to all navies, and the states of the United Provinces the third part thereof.

IV. That alliance may be made with Denmark, Sweden, and other princes of Germany, not being papists, and not maintaining the inquisition, in manner as is agreeable with the interest of both states, and not contradictory of what by one of them, by means of amity, is contracted already with others, and so that it doth not destroy the intention of this union; and that an alliance may be made with France, with that provision, that those of the protestants may have freedom of conscience without disturbance.

V. That the inhabitants of England shall be free in the United Provinces, and enjoy all privileges and freedom whatsoever; and that they may bear all offices, as any the freeborn men of the United Provinces do; and that widows and children, though not living in the United Provinces, also enjoy the same; and that the like freedom and privileges the inhabitants of the United Provinces shall have in England, as for buying of land, bearing of offices; and their widows and children, though living out of England, enjoy the same.

VI. That the inhabitants of both states shall have free commerce in each their respective countries, in manner and with that freedom, as each their inhabitants have in their own country; as also free fishing in all the seas without that any disturbance be done the one to the other.

VII. That the inhabitants of both states shall have free commerce in all Europe and Africa, without disturbing one the other (those havens, castles, forts and plantations, where the states of the United Provinces now have in Africa, only excepted); for that they are to remain unto them with that freedom, as now they enjoy the same.

VIII. That the trade of all Asia, the Great and Little, shall henceforth belong unto the United Provinces; and that the state of England, Scotland and Ireland, nor any of their inhabitants, shall not, nor have, nor may trade there any more, the places in Asia, which do join on the Middle Sea, only excepted; for that there each may have free trade. And that there shall be given unto the English company of East India, by the company of the East India of the United Provinces, the sum of and thereupon shall the English company and all others leave trading there, and return home, and go no more.

IX. That all America, and the trade thereof, both of the north and south of continent, (except the Brazils and the Salt-pans in Venezula near Point Araza) shall be and belong only to England; and that for settling the state of England in possession of such havens, rivers, forts, towns, and castles in America, as is requisite thereunto, the state of the United Provinces do hereby agree, that when the state of England please, they will give assistance unto the state of England, and at their cost furnish and maintain the third part of such a navy both for ships and other force, as the state of England find necessary to provide for to settle them in such havens and forts in America, as the states of England shall find good, and until they have possession thereof.

X. That the Brazils in America, in which the states of the United Provinces already have a considerable part, shall be to the states of the Low Countries; viz. from the Tropicus Capricornus unto the isle of the Maragnon; and that at the charge of both states pro rato as before, all the remaining forts and havens, &c. within the said limits, shall be taken from the Portuguese, and be delivered to the states of the United Provinces, for them to enjoy; and the remainder of Brazil, if any be, to the states of England; the Salt-pans of Araza in Venezula to be for both states.

XI. That for the keeping the better correspondence in this union, there shall be eight commissioners residing in each state, half English and half Dutch, twice four to be named by the one state, and twice four by the other, which shall determine all differences, which may or shall arise between any English and Dutch; and that those eight commissioners or any of them, in each state, shall and may take copies, and have knowledge of all acts of state, resolutions, and orders, and the like, resolved in any committee or council of each state respectively.

XII. That all acts of enmity whatsoever and wheresoever done before the date hereof, damages and hostilities on both sides, shall be quit and forgotten, as if they never had been, and each to bear his losses, and from henceforth to be in a perpetual bond of amity, love, and assistance the one to the other.

XIII. That teachers, men gifted in knowledge of Jesus Christ, shall be sent by both states respectively, unto all people and nations, to inform and inlarge the gospel and the ways of Jesus Christ.


Vol. xii. p. 113.

That when both states do agree, it will be requisite they be in posture by sea, so that they may be able to rencounter the force of the rest of Europe; for it is like they will endeavour to join together to hinder the strength of that union.

Therefore to have this union prosper, they should be in action, and take in hand such enterprizes, as will occasion them to gather more strength in shipping and seamen, the better to resist and defend, and it to be for the enriching of both states, and for the propagation of true religion.

That it be for those two states to remember, how the Spaniard hath been busy this hundred years or more, to settle him into a fifth monarch; and to bring these devices to pass, they did massacre, murder, bring to martyrdom them of the reformed religion throughout all Europe; also the power of the states of Rome joined with his wicked ends, and effected by power of armies, employed all the wealth of America yearly thereunto, and will so still, so soon as he can find an opportunity, if not prevented.

That it is to be remembered, how many hundred thousand poor innocent Indians the Spaniard with cruelty hath slain and murdered without a cause, on purpose to make him master of all America, and to have room for the Spaniards; it concerneth both states to consider how blind ignorant all that part is (being near the moiety of the world) in the true knowledge of Jesus Christ, and what an infinite good should arise to the honour of God, by the increasing the kingdom of Jesus Christ to make a conquest upon the Spaniard there.

That by doing so, there would of necessity follow the unableness of the Spaniard, that having lost America, his sword, as it were, is taken out of his hand; and so consequently all Europe will be discharged of the cruel wars, and perpetual attempts and plots, either by himself, or by the emperor in Germany, who there of late was near to have extirpated the true religion, and did set up instead thereof popery and idolatry, and this by the help of the Spaniards money.

That this conquest of America, as can be made appear, may be in the general done in one year, (if secretly) and the Brazils the second year, and with no more ships, but that England and the United Provinces may easily furnish them, and yet not so many as both now have to use the one against the other; and by this conquest England may very well enjoy such a revenue, as to discharge all taxes of the subject of England, and to pay all the navy and forces by sea and land, by the customs of America, besides the great trade and riches the subject shall have thereby.

The particulars how and what, is too large, and timely enough, when the resolutions are taken.

An additional instruction unto Whitelocke embassador in Sweden.

Vol. xi. p. 292.

Wee havinge considered the particular account, which you have given of your present negotiation in Sweden, as well by your former letters, as those dated for Upsale the 17th of February last, doe finde noe great cause to expect, after such long delayes, soe good an issue of the worke you are upon, as was hoped. And therefore might have well given you positive orders at this tyme to have returned; but in respect there may fall out a great alteration in affaires before this will come to your hands, wee have thought it more convenient to allow you a latitude in that particular, giving you libertie, as we do, hereby, to returne home at such tyme as you shall finde it for the good and service of this commonwealth.

Beverning to the states general.

High and Mighty Lords,

Vol. xii. p. 11. My Lords,
Your high mightinesses resolution of the 3d instant is duly delivered to me on the 7th in the evening by Marcelis van Bayen, being directed besides me to my lords van Nieuport & Jongestal, who at that time were not yet arrived; so that I had made myself ready again, to insist this morning on an answer to the articles, which I have delivered; when about nine o' clock, a servant of my lord Nieuport came to acquaint me, that his lordship landed the day before yesterday, being the 8th instant, at Dover; and that he would expect me this evening at Gravesend: so that now I am obliged to go thither, in order to effect to our utmost your high mightinesses commands contained as well in this as in the former resolutions. Wherewith,
Westminster, March 10. 1654. [N. S.]

High and Mighty Lords, &c.
(Signed) H. Beverning.


1 Notwithstanding this, Fuensaldagna found means to retain them in the service of the king of Spain. Hist, of Turenne, tom. i. p. 260.