A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
March 31. 1653. [N.S.]
Vol. xii. p. 428.
The lord of Opdam, having been at Antwerp, is come back hither. There is no
great heed given to the report, that all the treaty was broke, and come to nothing;
the quite contrary. The earl of Schomberg, who is come in great haste from England,
doth report, that the English continue in their resolution of making peace, and that six
commissioners were already named. The states general being curious to know it, sent
for him into their withdrawing chamber, where he declared the same thing unto them.
In the printed papers here they have put, that since the arrival of the last pink, there
hath been another pink sent from hence for England; but that it was not sent on the
behalf of the generality; and yet Holland will no wise have the name of giving orders
and instructions in particular; and in case that the English will not allow of any proviso
(in omitting the twelfth of the twenty-seven articles) I do not see, that the embassadors
dare conclude; for Holland itself dares not skip that point; so that the embassadors will
be obliged (in case of admission of that proviso) to make report thereof back hither,
and from hence to the provinces; which tedious proceedings will cause much languishing
in the commerce and navigation. God defend that dearth do not follow upon it ! for
every one (of what humour or faction soever he be) doth judge, that the state or the
commonwealth cannot bear this war; and that although England make a peace, yet
they conjecture here, that it is the only interest of the protector, that doth make the
peace; otherwise they think here, that the English are forward enough to continue the
war; and through this temperature men do easily foresee, that sooner or later the
government here will turn to the prince of Orange.
The presumption of some is, that the embassadors, whereof two are Hollanders, will
skip over this proviso, rather than break off the pacification, since that Holland doth
desire in their hearts the downsal of the house of Orange; and that without peace they
shall not be able to subsist.
Since the letter of the embassadors of the 12/23 of March, they writ, and gave orders to
the colleges of the admiralty, to equip and make great preparations in all haste. And
whereupon those of Amsterdam and Rotterdam (the chiefest and the richest colleges)
have writ back without circumlocution, that they have not wherewithal; and that they will
equip, when they shall have money. Now the other provinces, being either poor. or less
interested, or inclined to 161, cannot or will not, or are very low, and Holland is
weary, and tired to do all alone that, which ought to be done amongst them.
The lord of Amelandt having writ of the return and expedition of his commissioners,
they have writ to him back again, that he must send hither the resolution or act, which
his commissioners have obtained in England, and to give an account of their negotiation.
The lord of Brederode hath caused a certain work to be demolished, which those of
Utrecht had begun upon the Rhine, to force back the water. Those of Utrecht are
very angry at it, and are almost resolved to pull down one of his houses hard by that
place, to be revenged upon him. This will yet cause some further trouble.
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Those of Zealand have at last effected their resolutions, having revoked the lord
Vander-Nisse, and deputing in his place the lord Crommon in the states general. Those
of Middleburg have continued the lord Veth; but every one of the other cities (Tolon,
Flushing, and the Veer) will name also each of them one in the states general. Item
Zierixzee will have one likewise. Now Middleburg and Zierixee are good Hollanders; but
the other four cities are for the prince of Orange so that still Orange party in states Holland would have the plurality in stat s general,
being formerly three in the states general; the two were good Hollanders; consequently the plurality;
so that hereafter states of Holland almost alone will be good Hollanders; but till when, I know not.
The 3d April.
The protector hath deceived this state now for the second time. Formerly they
could not believe here, that he would have a peace with this state, nor that he would
have passed by the point of satisfaction, notwithstanding he hath passed it by; and likewise declared, that he would have a peace. Now therefore he will have passed by and
omitted that rigorous twelfth article of the twenty-seven, and admitting of the proviso
for the prince of Orange, which hardly any body here did believe. Now there is yet
remaining a third fear and scruple, and that is, that they do believe the peace will not be
firm nor durable, but that the protector will only endeavour to establish himself; and
that afterwards, he will still find pretence enough to break. God grant that this state
may find themselves deceived in this point likewise !
The lord Bye, resident of Poland, having had audience, did give them to understand
his design of going for Poland, there to communicate the projected treaty of the alliance,
upon which he was answered with a compliment. But if there be a peace with England,
they will the less regard such treaties.
Those of Holland especially are much rejoiced at this good news and likelihood of peace,
as well for the publick as for particular; for the publick, by reason Holland will begin to
fetch breath, and flourish afresh in their commerce, which lay in an agony; for particular, for those that have the present government would have very much abhorred
Holland for having lent an ear to the peace; and they would have been blamed and
charged with a thousand faults, yea, worse than all this; whereof we saw some example
the last summer in the several seditions at Enchuysen, Horn, Goes, and every-where almost,
where they would by force have set up the government of the prince of Orange.
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The state likewise did imagine themselves, that all the world would have prevailed by this
war, and under favour thereof have incommodated them; and it being very ill taken, that
those of the Malta durst speak so high, and much more that the duke of Newburgh
durst own and recommend that; and at last, it was very ill taken (at least by peace) that
the earl of East Friesland durst address himself to the emperor in the quarrel about the
entertainment of 600 men in Embden. good Hollanders do chiesly believe, that these are machinations
against them; and by this peace they hope, that they shall teach their neighbours good
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The Orange party, in the mean time, cannot easily dissemble their displeasure; for having for
their design the interest of prince of Orange, they do hope and expect for him less advantage in peace,
As to the resolution of the queen of Sweden, it is strange she hath spoken with prince
Palatine, who is to succeed her; and to close her discourse told him, God be with you ! I
will see you no more, till such time as I shall say, Behold the king of Sweden. It is said, that
since their speech together she hath shewn much content, by reason she hath prevailed
with the said prince to accept of the charge of the crown upon himself; and that she
doth discourse of all not as a princess, but as a philosopher e porticu.
Captain Kerkhoven is at last arrived here, by whom the embassadors have sent the
verbal of what hath past in the two conferences thereon between the three embassadors and
the six commissioners; and the other between the lord Beverning and Mr. Thurloe. Item,
they have sent the power of the lord protector of the fourth of March. They make
complaints, they could not obtain one of the additions, and omissions or alterations,
which they desired in the articles, saying that the English had already knowledge of the
resolutions of the nineteenth of February. I remain
3d of April, 1654. [N. S.]
Your humble servant.
De Witt to the lords Beverning and Nyport.
Vol. xii. p. 494.
Since my last of the twenty-fifth of last month, I have received both your letters
sent to the government, the one by the post, and the other by an express; at the receipt
and reading thereof, their H. and M. L. resolved these two extracts, which I send you here
inclosed. We do expect every hour further information from thence. I am afraid, that
it will be a difficult thing to keep the assembly together longer than Easter-day, although
I shall not omit to contribute all that shall lie in my power for the keeping them together; yea, I shall use some kind of artifice for that purpose, which I have thought of;
yet I doubt much of the success. The commissioners of their lordships, having consulted
upon the projected treaty sent over unto their lordships by the lord embassador Boreel in
December last, have at last made report of their affairs, and noted many marks or
passages, wherein the said projected treaty doth differ from the instructions, which were
sent unto the said Boreel in June the last year; advising in effect, that in all the said
passages the French project ought to be rejected, and to be allowed nothing, that is beyond the said instruction, which is likewise to be referred to the generality at the provinces advice, with intention to make some resolution upon it; at least as yet not to send
to the said Boreel, but to confer in the first place with the lord embassador Chanut about
the said passages; so that in the said treaty there is not any likelihood, that any thing
will be done yet a while.
Hague, the 3d of April, 1654. [N. S.]
De Witt to Beverning.
Vol. xii. p. 488.
What now concerneth my own opinion concerneth your lordship's remaining there,
or coming home, when it shall please God to have given good success to the business on all sides. I would not keep it from your lordship; therefore I do freely declare
unto you my opinion to be, that your lordship should remain there together a while after
that the business is finished, to keep an eye upon the meeting of the commissioners for
the deciding of all questions for damages suffered, in pursuance of the twenty-ninth article;
that so you may help to direct for the best all other incident affairs; so that I would have
you all to stay there, till such time that their lordships shall write for two of you to come
home; and then I would have them to order you to stay there till further order. This
I suppose will be most for the service of the state for several reasons. I do find, that if
this business succeed, that they do intend to let you reside ordinary embassador there, but
that before you enter into that function, to have leave to come over first to order your affairs
here with convenience.
Upon this I desire your opinion in your next. I shall do all what you shall think fit
for me to do in this, or any thing else.
3 April, 1654. [N.S.]
Johan Van Aylva to Jongestal.
Hague, the 3d of April, [N. S.]
Vol. xii. p. 504.
The minds of our lords principals at the last general meeting-day being somewhat
troubled by your lordship's former letters, as also of all the inhabitants of our precinct, are now again revived by your last; and men do now begin to speak honourably of
the uprightness, prudence, and constancy of the lord protector, in what he faith or doth;
and all men do wish for a good issue. I thank you for your communication. The princess
doth likewise give you thanks. You are hereby much in her favour. As for my own
part, I hope to merit the same by doing some other service for you.
If the peace take effect, we shall depart with joy.
Vive, vale, flore.
Your excellency's affectionate collegue and servant.
The Dutch embassadors in England, to the states general.
High and Mighty Lords,
Vol. xii. p. 492.
We have dispatched a messenger by water, who, we hope, because of the favourable
wind and weather, will be timely come to hands; since which there is nothing come
to our knowledge, neither touching the fleet, nor concerning negotiations; but only, that
his highness, instead of an answer to our memorial marked No 11. in our packet of
yesterday, acquainted us in the evening, by a letter from Mr. secretary Thurloe, that
in relation to the affairs he referred to the commissioners, that did negotiate with us, who
were acquainted with every thing, and had a full power in every thing. Thereupon we
are resolved to press our affairs to-morrow by new requests to those lords, being obliged
to sit still to-day, because it is a solemn fast-day. As to private news, we do not know
many that are worth mentioning. The lord de Neusville will be setched up from Greenwich on monday next, with all the solemnities that are due to an embassador extraordinary
of a king of France. His highness with the advice of his council, by an ordinance of the
twenty-seventh of last month, has continued the customs upon effects, convoys and licences
till the 20th of March 1659. N. S. the time, which the parliament had limited for
the raising thereof, being expired on the 20th of the said month. At the same time he
has also continued the excise, and settled the proportions thereof, without any limitation of
time, which formerly was always regulated by the parliament, as we are informed, and
was never in the power of the king. The pamphlets here are full of favourable ridings in
relation to the Irish affairs; viz. that the son of the lord protector was received there
with great satisfaction and magnificence, and that every thing was there in perfect tranquillity. And from Scotland they write, that Middleton is arrived there, and has landed
some arms and ammunition, and is making a general rendezvous, to attempt something
considerable, as your high mightinesses will be pleased to observe out of the inclosed.
Westminster, April 3. 1654. [N. S.]
High and Mighty Lords, &c.
(Signed) H. Beverning.
A. P. Jongsetall.
A letter to the Dutch embassadors at the Hague.
April 3. [N. S.]
Vol. xii. p. 507.
The lord commander de Ruyter being some days since sent by order of their
lordships to Amsterdam and the north quarters, to make a review of all the ships
of war lying in those parts, is come back with information, that within the space of three
weeks, there will be completely ready seventy capital ships of war. It is yet uncertain,
whether the lords states of Holland will adjourn this night.
A letter of intelligence from France.
April 4. 1654.
Vol. xiii. p. 16.
My Dear Heart,
I have had none of your letters by the two last posts. The delays given by the French
court to the Scots king in the business of his money make him suspect there is some
foul play intended him by the cardinal; he is very passionate to go hence, but cannot for
want of money. My lord Belcarres is arrived at Bologne out of Scotland, as it is believed,
to invite Charles Stuart thither; what his errand is, you shall know, as soon as I can send
Regensberg, 6 April, 1654. S. N.
Vol. xii. p. 590.
The states have been assembled to consult about the departure of his imperial
majesty being appointed on the 28th of this month, S. N. without fail; to which end
about thirty ships lie ready upon the Donaw to attend his majesty and the whole court.
The Swedish embassador did, in the said assembly, highly protest against his majesty's so
sudden departure, alleging, that upon that account the instrumentum pacis would not only
not be satisfied, but rather in all particulars unreasonably violated, and a most heavy and
insupportable burden laid upon the almost languishing states of the empire, if, at
least, his said majesty were not most graciously pleased to continue the ryxday per deputatos, until such time as they might be able, with better order and leisure, to dispatch such
businesses as are of most importance. News is come to the emperor's court, that a disguised party of 250 horse had fallen upon the troops, which conveyed the duke of Lorrain from Antwerp to Genee, with such force, that without doubt, they had quickly
mastered them, and freed the duke, if the Spanish avant-guard were not come in to their
succour; by whose resistance the said disguised party were all slain, save only thirteen
persons, which being taken prisoners, were condemned to be hanged at Genee aforesaid,
from whence the said duke is to be transported for Spain.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the greffier Ruysch.
Vol. xii. p. 535.
In our last, we sent an extract of our verbal, and the condition of our negotiation to
their H. and M. L. which we hope came safe to hand. And on friday last, by the
post, we advised their lordships, that his highness, upon our memorandum, had caused
to be signified unto us by Mr. secretary Thurloe, that he did refer himself concerning that
business to the commissioners, who had knowledge of every thing, and full power; but
we are afraid, whether the last will come to hand, by reason we certainly know, that the
mail was set upon a mile from this city on the way to Dover, and the mail cut open,
the letters taken out, and was flung up and down the highways. Some were taken up
again; but without doubt many will be lost. Therefore we thought sit to dispatch this to
their lordships, to inform them further, that we are assured from a good hand, that the
penning of our said memorandum delivered in had offended the lords commissioners, and
especially those, that we expressed therein by name, as if we had thought to appeal from
them to the lord protector; and in facto did misinterpret, and doubt of their justice concerning what had past in the former conferences. And we perceiving, that for the time to
come we were to debate and finish the business with them, we thought it best to prepare
and order our affairs to a desired issue; and to that end, on saturday last, we desired a
meeting in St. James's Park with Mr. Thurloe, which was performed, and the next day
pursued upon a good occasion; at which times we did once more declare by several
instances, the tenor of the said memorandum, and the truth thereof; and did once more
desire to obtain satisfaction about it, or that the whole difference might remain after the
manner of pretended damage. But seeing that not only those offices were in vain, but
several other endeavours, which other persons of quality, out of affection to the business,
had used, were rendered fruitless, we thought fit not to remain idle any longer; and that
it was our duty to present to the lords commissioners a new memorandum, which we had
drawn up before at the same time that they sent us an answer in English to our first memorandum, with a promise to send us the translation thereof in Latin with the first, the
same being seven sheets long, writ on both sides, and pretty close; and in effect a debate
in sacto concerning the truth and untruth of the circumstances of what was set down in
our former memorandum; whereof we shall send a copy with the first occasion. And
there was withal, at the end, a presentation to agree and conclude upon the articles of
the treaty according to their proposition, or to undertake the payment of the 146050 l.
sterling, thereof to deduct what the said ships and goods should be thought worth, according to the appraisement to be made upon the place, where they are; so that we sound
ourselves more and more perplexed, for by chusing of the first, we should render the
comprehension of the king of Denmark uncertain; and by the latter, we should engage
their H. and M. L. in the payment of such exorbitant sums. And yet on the other side
being informed, how the condition of our negotiation stood, what ill offices are done against
it, and how it finally stood with the disposition of his highness himself, and of the lords
of his council; and being likewise informed, that this would be the last paper they intended to exchange with us, and that by default of a satisfactory answer they would
appoint us some few days to chuse; and that at a debate in the council the most voices
were for the continuation of the war; and that some begin to object, that since they were
ready to sign from the twelfth of January, and that the delays did proceed from our side,
that they ought to demand of us reparation of all the charges they have been at in regard
to their equipment made since that time, they should judge us to be the cause of it, in
case we receive no further resolution from their H. and M.L. which we do expect with a
very great desire; yet we thought it our duties to prevent those extremities, by offering
of some things, which might be satisfactory there, and yet not exceed the resolutions of
their H. and M. L. of the nineteenth and twentieth of February, taken upon that subject;
and thereupon have this day given in the inclosed memorandum, upon which we shall
expect an answer, and advise their lordships thereof with the first. In the mean time, we
desire you to keep this very secret.
West. the 8th of April, 1654.
My Lord, &c.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xii. p. 541.
It is almost three weekes since the date of your last letter. I hope there are some at
Water-side for us. I much long to heare how it pleased the Lord to deale with us in
relation to the Dutch busines. It is of great concernment in itself; but the comfort is, the
management of all affayres is caryed on by that divine hand of providence, that if in faith
we can but waite upon the Lord, wee may have peace and rest in what he doth. The
high court of justice sitts not, nor can they, untill we have accompt from you concerninge
the busines for murther. As to what you mention for commissions for the judges, I
desire you would consult with my brother Cromwell, before they are sent; hee will give
you a full accompt of all affaires here. Wee are to have a general councill of officers about
the disposing of lands on the sixth of Aprill next. Major Morgan brought us this returne,
that it was my lord protector's pleasure, wee should proceed according to the act in settinge
out lands, and that if we wanted, we should have the foure countries. It is thought very
strange, that the oppertunity was not taken of so much advantage to the publique; but
it is supposed, that our agent beinge of a different sence from the state of the busines,
there was not so full a representation of the grounds we went uppon in our address; for
as it is now, I doubt, to set our lands according to the act, we shall leave a great debt
upon the state. My brother Cromwell wil be able to speake to this thing, and therefore
shall add no more, but that I am
Dublin castle, 27 March, 1654.
Your affectionate friend and servant,
The grounds of meeting at Tho. Apostle, the 28th day of the first moneth 1654. in solemn humiliation before the Lord, begining at 7 a clock in the morning.
Vol. xxxxiv. p. 787.
I. The manner of the coming in of the present G— with the sudden breaking up
of the last parliament, for that they would have changed the present nationall
ministery, lawyers, presentations, taxes, and oppressions, and for that they would have
ruled as saints, therefore driven out of the house.
II. The present grand apostacy of professors, churches, preachers, and eminent persons
of the nobles of Judah in the army, city, and country, from their former engagements,
declarations, professions, and promises for Christ and his kingdom, cause, and interest.
III. The prosecution (of the faithfull remnant) that threatens them, wherein we may
spread before the Lord those new-made laws of treason, &c. which look too much like tyranny, according to which, the servants of the Lord are imprisoned at Windsor, and others
IV. The manifold tentations abroad, both here and in the countrey, which are of
divers sorts, as adversity, imprisonment, losse of friends, liberties, &c. on the other
side, offers of places, preferments, honors, &c. and on all sides, the spirit of delusion,
by false deluding pamphlets, arguments, falacies, and lies, whereby many good people
are blinded in city and country.
V. The present deadness, and flatness of spirit, that is upon the little remnant of saints
that are not yet backsliden, as at Allhallows meeting, and elsewhere, that those that remain
may have a full, free, fit, and quickned spirit, (beyond whatever they yet had) to engage
with one heart and mind, by constant faith and prayer, in the present testimony.
VI. As to deplore the present magistracy and ministrey, and such wicked ones, which
are hightned in their expectations, and exalted into places; so also to be earnest for the
magistracy, and ministery of the unction, according to the promise in the later daies,
that Christ alone may be exalted.
VI. To spread before the Lord the animosities, jealousies, heart-burnings, and divisions, that are amongst the saints and churches, about formes, opinions, or points of
judgement, and that the Lord would make an union in the spirit.
VIII. On these, and divers other grounds, which we might mention, as hipocracy,
pride, and oppression; to mourn also for the present unseasonable weather and drought,
which threatens famine and mortality, that the Lord would remove causes, that the effects
Extract of a letter of M. de Bordeaux the French embassador in England, to M. de Brienne secretary of state in France.
9 Avril, 1644. [N. S.]
From the collection of M. de Bordeaux's letters, in the library of the abbey of St. Germain at Paris.
Depuis la derniere lettre, que je me suis donné l'honneur de vous ecrire, tout le
tems s'est emploié en ceremonies, traitement, & en l'audience, que j'eus hier en la
maniere & au meme lieu, que le roi la donnoit aux ambassadeurs extraordinaires. Cette
action se passa en complimens; & comme les miens etoient pleins d'assurances de
l'estime & affection de sa majesté, aussi ceux de M. le protecteur confirmerent les protestations, qu'il a si souvent reiterées, de sa bonne volonté & disposition à un accomodement entre les deux nations.
The Dutch embassadors in England to the states of Holland.
Vol. xii. p. 561.
By reason that the bearer hereof is not yet gone from Gravesend, we shall further
inform your lordships, that in answer to our mentioned memorandum, Mr.
Thurloe came to us this night, and presented to us the inclosed answer; to which we
were necessitated to condescend, as well for some reasons which we had alledged yesterday
in our former conference, as also for several other reasons, which did cause us to fear
some sinister issue of our negotiation; which we thought to be our duty to prevent
with all imaginable means and endeavours, firmly believing, and yet nevertheless humbly
desiring, that their H. and M. lordships would accept of our faithful care for the best of
our country, and prepare all things for the ratification thereof. We do find ourselves
by their H. and M. lordships resolutions, taken the 19th and 20th of February, as well
upon the articles in general, as the point of satisfaction in particular, fully authorized to
the pretended restitution and submission; and therein we proceeded no further than to
an obligation for the performance of the said conditions, which we could not avoid
upon any terms; and neither durst we debate them very hard, by reason they still made
some doubt every time of the execution and perfect performance thereof; and withal
they did endeavour to avoid the absolute comprehending of the king of Denmark, without which we knew their lordships would not conclude: and we will leave it to the
consideration of their lordships, whether there ought not to be writ to the king of
Denmark with the first, that the ships and the proceeds of the goods, that are sold,
may be ready at the arrival of the claimers; that also full and pertinent information be
taken by the lord president De Vries, or some body else, of the constitution of the ships
and goods, with the appurtenances thereof, how they were constituted at the time of
their detention; and now how they shall be restored, with the extract of the tolls, where
the goods were landed; and so furthermore all that may serve for instruction, and the
debate of pretences of this side. That also the said resident De Vries or somebody
else may be authorized to pay there the twenty thousand rixdollars promised: that also
a provincial order be made for the exchange of five thousand pounds sterling, which
we must pay here with the ratification, yet with little noise, by reason the knowledge
thereof would raise the exchange here incredibly; both which sums we could not avoid
to pay: all which we do hope to declare further unto their lordships by word of
mouth. We shall now only, and once more humbly desire, that they would be pleased
to believe, that we have endeavoured to the utmost of our power to serve the state
with less charges and more satisfaction; but that necessity and the constitution of times
and humours made us to resolve upon it. Yet we shall leave the whole work to their
lordships ratification, praying to God, that he would assist them in their weighty deliberations with his good Spirit, and bless their resolutions with peace and prosperity. We
do hope to send over the articles signed within few days.
Westminster, April the 9th 1654. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. xiii. p. 94.
On sunday the 5th day of Easter arrived a galliot or pink, with letters of the 2d
of April, from the embassadors; whereby they found here, that then the conclusion
and signing of the treaty was not yet made, by reason of the excessive sum, which the
English demanded for the 23 English ships. If there be on either side a true desire
and inclination of peace, men ought not to let it hang for a sum of gold more or less.
Here they do as certainly desire peace, as the fish the water. Formerly men did believe,
that the sea was the element of our commerce; but the true element of commerce is the
peace with England. There have lain a great many merchant-men a long while since,
ready to go to sea, provided with mariners, yea some ships bound for the East Indies.
Now the style or custom is, that the mariners or seamen receive no wages, 'till they are
out at sea, and are past the last buoy; and by reason they are kept so long from going
out, and that consequently the mariners get nothing but their victuals, it doth make
them stark mad. One ship bound for the Indies, the men on board of her have mutinied, crying for money; several are imprisoned, and will be severely punished for it.
They begin to fear, that the lord protector hath some design with his fleet against
Denmark, since he doth delay that business so long, not being willing to grant a cessation of arms.
They do not reject here the design of allying with France, although the peace be
made with England.
Holland hath formed a very curious and exact advice upon the project of the
French treaty, and hath also declared, that they will enter into conference with the lord
embassador Chanut, to try if they can come to an agreement together; and since the
English have been so rigid and immoveable concerning the word the enemies, in the articles 8, 10, 11, 12, the intention of this state is, not to take that according to the
letter, or to banish any whom the English shall declare for their enemies; and therein
Holland likewise hath declared to give some farther declaration to the other provinces;
which doth put me in mind of the deceased greffier Musch, saying, We never make an
alliance, but at the same time we study how to elude it. But we do not believe likewise, that the English do understand that according to the letter, but that all must be
done with some knowledge of the cause.
I do perceive they will write to the embassadors, that they do content the interested
in the 23 ships stay'd in Denmark, as well as they are able, omni modo.
10th of April.
They have sent a galliot or pink express to the embassadors, to instruct them
to transact and determine in some sort that demand of 140,650 l. which the
English do demand for the 22 ships stay'd in the Sound; for they will and must take
up the quarrel, and make peace; but this tempest and contrary winds will hinder the
said galliot from getting over yet, without it will arrive before this. If men do add to
this 140,650 l. the 192,000 rixdollars, which this state hath given to Denmark, and the
192,000 rixdollars, which that king was to give, of subsidy to this state, by virtue of the
treaty of the year 1649, (which two sums they have given and released) to help stay
those 22 ships, men will find, that the king of Denmark hath stood this state in two
millions and a half.
Since the letter of the second of April, which came from the embassadors in England
by an express, they have received another of the fourth by the post, which faith nothing
more, but that the memorandum, which they had exhibited to the lord protector, to
debate the demand of the 140,650 l. (the Danish satisfaction) had effected no other
thing, but that the lord protector had referred it to the commissioners. In the mean
time the pink or galliot will arrive with order from this state; or an express sent by
land with the duplicate, which will authorize the embassadors to finish that point of
Denmark, as they shall find it most useful and expedient for this state; and Holland will
furnish the money by merchants remaining caution for it, for which the other provinces
promise to bear Holland harmless.
The lord of Amelandt hath sent hither, according to the desire of the state, the act of
neutrality granted by the lord protector, to be examined, whether the said act doth not
contain any thing prejudicial to this state.
Withal they do still fear here the great equipage and arming of the English; and
they do take more care here for Denmark, than for themselves. All ships stay from going
out to sea, in expectation of the peace.
However, a good fleet of ships is to go for the Mediterranean sea, to secure that
navigation against pirates and picaroons. There remaining still several disputes and controversies undecided between the princesses, mother and grandmother of the prince of
Orange, (especially that of the government of Orange) they are now about to reconcile
My lady, the wife of the lord embassador Nieuport, hath demanded a boat to carry
her to Zealand, desiring likewise to go from thence into England; which is a sign, that
he makes account to be one of the commissioners for composing of the differences in
pursuance of the 29th article. I remain
9th April, 1654. [N. S.]
Your humble servant.
Daniel Searle, governor of Barbados, to the protector.
Vol. xii. p. 591.
May it please your Highnes,
Since my last to your highnes, dated the 17th of February, there hath come into
my handes severall declarations of your highnes and greate councell, relateing to
the presant government established in the three nations and dominions thereunto belonging, under that authority constituted in your highnes person, and successive trieniall
In obedience to your highnes commands therein, extending implicitly to us in those
remote parts, (as this island is a limbe and member of the commonwealth) that this
place might be in a dew conformitie thereunto, the quiet and peace thereof maintained,
and regular proceedings in courts of justice not obstructed, the sixth of this month I
summoned the councell and assembly of freeholders to meete, to whom was comunicated those printed declarations of your highnesse and greate councell; the one
bearinge date the 16th of December, 1653. sett forth by the right honourable the councel,
declaringe the resolution of the late parliament, and your highnesse as lord protector of
the three nations proclaimed and published; the other your highnes proclamation set
forth the 21st December, 1653. continueing all persons lawfully possest of any place of
trust in the commonwealth, untill your highnesse pleasure be farther made knowne; as
also an ordnance sett forth by his highnes and greate councell, bearing date the 26th of
December, for alteration of several names and forms hearetofore used in courts, writts,
grants, &c. which to the end the inhabitants of this place might take notice thereof,
we on the 8th of this month here published at the Indian Bridge-towne, and caused the
same to be read the next saboth day in all meeting-places and churches of this island;
all which soe much bespeaking pour highnes and great councell's care, to bring the
restless state and condition of the commonwealth in a quiett repose and settlement of
peace and tranquillity, doe find noe other acceptance amongst this people, but a generall
seeming contentment, and ready compliency therto.
And for the confirmation of the civill and millitary power amongst us, I humbly
conceave it necessary, least there should be a demurr in the administration and execution
of the justice, untill the forme and stile of all commissions formerly by me granted in
this island (by virtue of a power derived unto me from the supream authority) could be
altered and changed, and the stile of them run suitable to the present government of the
commonwealth, I have caused the inclosed declaration to be heare published. I humbly
presented in some of my former addresses to the right honourable the councell of state,
for the good of this colony and other plantations near us, the greate use and necessity
there was, for to have one or two friggats, to spend some time heare for the preservation
of the trade of those remote places against some Dutch pickeroones and ships of war that
annoy us; and doe humbly present the same to your highnesse and grand councell's
consideration, if the differences betweene the commonwealth and the United Provinces
be nott composed. Some time since I receaved orders from the late councell, commanding
my endeavour towards the gathering some fower hundred thousand weight of the Muscavadoe sugars, dew in this island upon account of prize goods, remainder of what was
left uncollected the last yeare, and to returne the same home; which I shall with all
diligence endeavour to see effected. I have latelie seene a copy of a petition, which
hath bin presented to your highnes and greate councell, by some marchants in London,
representinge in general expressions the state of this island, and the government thereof;
as in some distractions. That your highnes and councell are misinformed therein, and
their suggestions appeare wholy untrue, I humbly present to your highnesse with the
inclosed, signed by the councell of this place. Since the surrender of this place to
the supreame authoritie of the commonwealth, I have to my utmost endeavoured to
answere the ends in the exercise of the government, for which the same was committed
to my charge; in management of which trust, as through mercie I have not bin disposed thereto through byassed or sinister respects; soe the effects thereof hath bin
no other hitherto, but as much tranquillity, peace, and concord, as in any parte or
member of the commonwealth; and what the injoyments of this people are in the
free and distribution of justice in the several courts of record and places of judicature
in this island, without exactions or dilatorines; and how much there studied (according
to that necessity is here thereof) the management of humours and interests, and opertune cariing on what may concerne the interest of the commonwealth, and good of
this place, this whole people having bin sensible thereof, not any of them have bin
able, I hope, to justify to particular any neglect, or willfull miscarriages in the government, or the least abridgment of their privilidges, or breach in the least tittle of their
articles. Yet are we not without some few here, who at all times have bin and are still
persons of clamorous dispositions, and troubled spirits; who for not beinge in authority, bend themselves by oblique and sinister wayes, if possible, under specious pretences
of greater freedome and liberties, to trouble the quiett and peace of this place;
which not beinge able to effect, may be feared use instruments to promote the untrue
suggestions to your highnes and greate councell, that thereby somewhat, as is to be
doubted, of their owne designes might be brought to pass. It is therefore humbly
desired, that at this distance your highnes and great councell would be pleased, as to
what concernes the publique in this place, to receive from time to time that accompt
thereof, returned from that authority your highnes is pleased to constitute heare; and
that noe petitions or informations at home may conclude in your highnes judgment
and censures, untill the same be communicated unto us, and answer to your highnes
commands thereupon returned; humbly conceaving it may otherwise prove as unsafe
to what authority soever your highnesse shall heare settle, as a distraction amongst this
people, who having bin formerly ensnared by the secret practises of some Achitophels
amongst them, to committ actions repugnant to their true and proper interest, may not
be blamed to be tender, least the same spirritt is again working by themselves heare, or
agents at home, obtain such an extent of power to be granted to the government in
this island, as to rule with more advantage to themselss and former interest, and less
dependency on the commonwealth.
This daye myselfe and councell haveinge mett with the assembly of freeholders, several
requests have bin made knowne unto us, to be presented to your highnes and greate
councell by coll. Drax; who haveing of long time bin a planter heare, is desired by
sayd assemblie to present the same; all which is humbly referred to your highnesse and
greate councell, to grant such perticulars, and soe much thereof, as may conduce to
this island's future happines, and the interest of the publicke in this place, and protection and incouridgment to all that are faithfull. I humbly crave pardon from your
highnes for these my rude lines, and subscribe myselfe ever
Barbados, 30 March, 1654.
Your Highnes most humble
and obedient servant,
A petition of the council of the island of Barbados.
To his highnes the lord Protector of the commonwealth of England, and Ireland,
and the dominions thereunto belonging;
The governor and councell of the island of Barbados
Vol. xi. p. 303.
That havinge here seene the coppie of a petition, which is certified to have beene
presented to your highnes and councell by some persons in London, alledging this
island of Barbados and the government thereof to be in some distraction, doe in all
humility conceive it thir duties, hereby to certifie to your highnes and great councell,
that this island is in a generall tranquility, peace, and concord, under the administration
of the government of the same, and allway have beene since its surrender, and still doe
remaine in a readie, cheerefull, and willinge compliance and obedience to the supreame
authoritie of the commonwealth. This humbly we have thought fitt to certifie unto
Daniel Searle, governor.
Gentlemen of the councell,
Upsal, 31 March, 1654. S. V.
Vol. xii. p. 589.
My lord embassador presses very earnestly to have a conclusion of his long attendance, and he had audience to day and yesterday. The queen seems now to
be in good earnest to lay down her crown. She did discharge last week most of her
servants and retinue, and hath reserved to herself a very thin court.
I must confess, I do not understand the mystery of it. She professes her desires of
solitude and retirement; and some others say, the debts grew so high, that she hath
been, as it were, forced hereunto. But whether any other secret thing is couched under
it, time will discover.
Don Pimentel the Spanish resident had audience on wednesday last, and took his
leave of her majesty. He intends to take his journey homewards within these few
days, by the way of Denmark. I believe he doth not well relish our likelihood of
peace with Holland. He hath carried very fair to my lord embassador; but we think
we spy some little alteration in him, since the news of the treaty being almost finished
hath arrived here. Spain would gladly kept us still at odds.
Beuningen, the Dutch embassador in Sweden, to the states general.
H. and M. Lords,
Since my last of the 4th of this month, here hath happened nothing considerable.
The embassador of Spain took his leave yesterday of the queen in his publick audience,
and maketh account to be going from hence the next week. His royal highnes hath
presented a list of all such officers as he will entertain in his court, after he is crowned
king. That, which is most upon debate at present, is the business tending to the reforming of the finances, whereof some considerable fruits to the benefit of the crown are
expected. Concerning the exportation of guns mentioned in my last, the grave Erick
told me himself, that her majesty had given permission, that the ship, which was sent
hither to transport them, should be laden, and sent away without any hindrance; and
moreover, that it should be considered how to accommodate your lordships with more,
without any prejudice to the admiralties here; but by reason of the holidays, and the
absence of the lords of the admiralties, nothing hath been done further in it.
Upsal, the 10th of April, 1654. [N. S.]
Your H. and M. Lordships
most humble servant,
C. Van Beuningen.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassadorin England.
Hague, 10 April, 1654. [N. S.]
I was comforted by that letter, which you were pleased to write to me the 3d of
this month, by reason of the apprehensions which the common report of this city give
me, that the great preparations of the English were designed against us; many amongst
them here, who are held the most powerful in this government, being of this opinion;
which was made the more considerable, coming from the lord Beverning, who is said to
have a good share in the secrets and graces of the lord protector. But I perceive by
your letters, there is no such thing; and my reason doth forbid me to think, that his
highness will so easily open himself to M Beverning.
Monsr the prince of Condé, not being able to raise any money upon his jewels at
Antwerp, hath sent them to Amsterdam; from whence I understand, that they do make
scruple there to deal with him. Here the states are busy to examine the articles of
alliance with us; but it goes on but slowly, hearkening to what is done at London, both
for them and for us.
Your humble servant,
Mr. Cha. Longland to secretary Thurloe.
Althoh the Duch ships hav had theyr comissions taken from them by order
of theyr states, the 18th February last, and amongst the rest the Whyt Elefant,
wherof Henry Char is comander; and althoh the Duch here do frequently report,
that al the provinces have subscrybed the articles of peace, and knowing very wel with
what glory and civility theyr ambassadors were received in London for consumation thereof; yet this day the abovesaid Whyt Elephant took an Inglish ship after som howers
syht, coming into this port; which savers more of mallignity or mallis then hostillity:
whereby 'tis clear what manner of peace they ar lyk to keep, til they synd it less advantageous to break it. Whensoever this Whyt Elephant passes the Channel, 'twer fitting
he wer cald to account for this action; for I believe he has no commission for what he
has don. The Duch report, they hav ten weekes tym to tak ships in the Streits, after
publication of the articles: if so, I wish a squadron of frigats wer sent hether to make
the sam use of the tyme of limitation. I am,
Leghorn, 10 April, 1654. [N. S.]
Your most humble servant,
The Dutch ambassadors in England to the states general.
High and mighty Lords,
We did fully advise your lordships the day before yesterday, and this last night by an
express, to what points we had brought our treaty; to which we know nothing
more to add, than that we have this afternoon resumed the whole treaty, and have drawn
up the whole business into a form, so that we hope to sign the articles on sunday next,
or monday morning, and send them away by two several expresses; praying to God,
that it may be to the honour of his holy name, and the welfare of our country.
The 10th of April, 1654. [N. S.]
Whitelocke, embassador in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.
Monsr Bloome came to me with a compliment, that the chancellor was troubled he
could not visitt me before his goinge from this towne; that he withdrew himselfe
to be free from businesse, and to recover his health; and that at his returne he would
come to me. This gentleman did beginn some discourse about my businesse; and I
takinge him for a spie, thought it reasonable to tell him what I beleeved he would
againe report. I told him, that France, Spaine, Portugall, Italy, Flanders, Holland,
Switzerland, Denmarke, and other princes and states had sent their publique ministers
to his highnes my lord the protector, to seeke his friendship; but his highnes havinge
sent his embassador into this kingdom, soe little respect is shewed him, that in three or
four moneths an answer hath not bin given him.
The queene alsoe of late hath bin lesse forward in giveing me audience then formerly,
excusinge herself by reason of her indisposition, when at the same time the Spanish
resident and many others were admitted.
Tuesday, the master of the ceremonies and other courtiers came and dyned with me.
After dinner the master of the ceremonies desired to speake with me in private, and told
me, he had heard, that I had expressed some discontent; and desired to know, if any
thing heere had displeased me, and wherein he might be serviceable to me. I thanked
him for his civility, and told him, that I was troubled, that haveinge bin in this place
well neere four moneths, I had not yet obteyned an answere to what I had propounded.
He excused the delay, by reason of the queene's designe of quittinge the government.
I aunswered, that I imagined there was cause of much trouble to her majestie, and
gave me some reason to thinke, that my frequent visiting her might be some trouble;
whereupon I did forbeare. He said, that my company would be very acceptable to
the queene, notwithstanding she was at present full of businesse; and asked me, if I
would not stay untill the coronation of the new king, to have my businesse concluded
by him, sayinge, it would be more firme then if it be only done by the queene, who is
neare leaving the government. I told him, I could not stay soe long tyme as to see the
coronation; and that I had no credentiall letters nor commission but to the queene; and
that I believed, all acts done before her resignation would be authentique, and perticularly that concerninge friendship with England, and would be very acceptable to his
royall highnes, and would be inviolably kept by him. He aunswered, he did not in
the least doubt of it; and although I had noe credentiall letters to the new king, I
might write into England for them. I told him, that would require more tyme then I
could spend in this place; that I believed, the new kinge would not be crowned in two
or three moneths; and that I should be two moneths after that, before I could receive
new credentiall letters from England; and then two or three moneths more, before I
could be upon my returne towards my countrey, whereby I must be necessitated to
be eight moneths more abroade, by which tyme the winter would be cominge on, and
that it would be too long for me to stay from my relations in England. He replyed,
he would goe and speake with the queene, and returne to me very shortly. I believe he was sent out of designe to found me, as alsoe Mr. Bloome; but I have satisfied
M. Bloome told me, that the chancellor would come to towne to-morrow, and purposed
to be with me the day after.
Wednesday, the master of the ceremonies came to me, and told me, he came from
the queene, to excuse my not havinge audience at the tyme I desired it, by reason her
majesty had many occasions, which hindered her, and perticulerly duringe the Easter
hollidays; but if I pleased to have audience to morrow, she should be glad to see me.
I desired him to present my thankes to her majestie for her favor, and that I would
be ready to waite upon her at such hower as she should please to appoint; of which he
said he would bringe me word, and soe went from me.
In the afternoone Mons. Douglas, a Scotchman, came to visit me. Hee hath been
an antient servant to this crowne, and general of the horse, and at present is a barron,
and rix stalmaster of Sweaden. Hee excuses himself, that he had not bin with me
sooner, which he said was by reason of an ague, that had ben upon him almost three
quarters of a yeare, and had not yet left him; and then asked me, if I had noe
thoughts of stayinge heere untill the crowning of the new kinge ? And upon this
subject we had the same discourse, as I had formerly with the master of the ceremonies.
Grave Ericke Oxensterne came to me, by command of the queene, and excused the
delay in my business, as alsoe that some of my audiences have ben put off, and that her
majesty did understand from the master of the ceremonies, that I told him, I had demanded audience three tymes, and had not obteyned it. I said, there was a little mistake
in that, but there was somthing neere in it; that it was not my desire to bring trouble
to her majestie. He said, that the queene desired I would excuse her, by reason of the
holydayes, duringe which they doe not meddle with busines in this country, as also by
reason of many other hinderances; and that at all tymes, and as often as I pleased to
come to her, I should be welcome. Hee told me, he was to goe to his father, to accompany him to this towne; and that within a day or two hee would come to me, and my
busines should receive a conclusion very suddainly. I sent my sonn James with
some other gentlemen to be present at the audience of don Piemontell, whoe this day
tooke his leave of the queene. They told me, he spake to her in Spanish; that she
answered him in Swedish, and that count Tott did interprete; that the Spanish resident
made many ceremonies, and that he was very much astonished in speaking publiquely to
the queene; that he looked pale, and trembled much. This gentleman of late hath
forborne to visit me: I conceive the reason of it to be the probability of peace betweene us and Holland; or because he havinge desired me to speake to the queene to
grant a pardon to a Swede, who had kild a man here, and that he would second me in
it, I answered him, that I being a publique minister, I thought it not fitt to intermeddle in any perticuler business of Sweden, and especially in a matter of blood; and
prayed him to excuse me, since which tyme he hath ben more strange then formerly.
Yesterday whilest I was at dynner, the queene sent one of her lackies to tell me;
she desired I would come to court at two a clocke. I beinge a little sensible of the
quallity of the messenger, did not speake with him, but sent him an answere by one of
my servants. At the tyme appointed I went to court, and was mett att the councel
chamber by count Tott, and many other of the queene's servants, with more respect
then ordinary, and presently carried in to the queene; whoe began to excuse my not
having audience before, when I desired it; which was by reason of the holydayes. I
told her, that I hoped she had not conceaved any discontent against me; and that I
desired not to give the least disturbance to her other busines, but only endeavoured a
dispatch of my negotiation, on which I had soe long tyme attended. She told me, my
busines should be suddainly dispached, and that my cominge to her gave her noe
trouble, but that I was welcome. I then gave her a draught of articles, according to
the observations I had made upon her articles and mine, and which I the last weeke sent
to you. Shee readinge them over, told me, that I would not consent to one of her
articles, but insisted upon all my owne. I then shewed her, wherein I consented to many
of hers, and my reasons whie I could not consent to the rest. We had much discourse
upon the whole to the same purpose as formerly. Shee said, that if the articles were not
concluded, the amity between the two nations might nevertheless continue. I told her,
that there would be noe increase of amity, nor testimony of respect to my lord protector, to send back his servant, after soe longe a stay, without any thinge effected.
She then said, she would dispatch my businesse in a few dayes, and she hoped to my
content. I answered, it was in her power soe to doe, and that I could not stay untill
the change so much spoken of; that I had received her promise to be dispatched,
which I knew she would not breake. She then desired I would leave with her the
copy of the articles untill the morrow, and then to come to her again; and soe fell
upon other discourse.
The Spanish resident visitinge me told me, that he was resolved to goe towards
Flanders within seven or eight dayes; that yesterday he took his leave of the queene;
and that he was now come to take his leave of me. I thank him for the honor
he did me, and told him, I was sorrey he was goinge, by reason I should be thereby
deprived of the good conversation of soe honourable a friend. This afternoone I
waited upon the queene, according to appointment. After I had read her some
newes, and his highnes paper to Mr. Bonneale, upon which I tooke the boldnes a little
to paraphrase, her majestie was very well pleased with it, and wee fell into discourse of
my businesse to the same effect as formerly. The chancellor came forth from her, and
told me, that the queene hearinge of my beinge there, had sent to desire me to come in
to her; but I stayed the less tyme with her majestie, because I presumed the chancellor
and his sonne grave Erick waited to speake with her about my business, to which she
promised to send me answere to-morrow, and that a ship should be ready at the Dollers,
which is the mouth of the haven of Stockholme, to transport me to Lubeck, when I
I am desirous to remove from hence as soone as I cann, and not to be heere too neare the
time of the new kinge's coronation; but I purpose to send a civill message to him. I have
bin very high uppon the point of my delay, and audiences not graunted to me, when the
209. 17. 21. 3. 11. 40. 8. 14. was admitted, which I looked uppon as a dishonour unto
229. and ranted uppon it, and had satisfaction. If I come to a conclusion of my buisines, I shall make haste home; butt within a weeke or two I hope to receive my lord's
order to authorise my returne. 224. is circumvented, and poore 9. 7. 11. 6. brought to
undoe herselse by the crast of ill willers. 228 is noe friend to my buisines, whether out
of envy, or because he hath a share in trade, I cannot say. I have received all your
letters. I cannot find one weeke, wherein your kindnes, and savour, and care of your
friend hath bin wanting. I am extreamly obliged to you for it, and returne my most
hearty thankes. It hath bin a great reputation to me, and furtherance of my busines;
but I ill requite you by beinge thus tedious.
Upsale, March 31. 1654.
Your most affectionate friend to serve you,
I am very sorry my master continues yett ill.
I desire to present my humble thankes to the councell, for their favour concerning
I have sent you a paper with an indorsement, which is all the queene's owne hand to
me, by which she desires a favour. I pray be pleased to move my lord protector in it; the queene much desires it.
Articles of a treaty between England and the states general, in the handwriting of secretary Thurloe.
I. That the people of both states and nations may freely and sincerelye saile and
trade in all kingdomes and territoryes beinge with them respectively in peace and
neutrality, and shall not be disturbed by the people of either, by reason of any hostility,
which is arisen or may arise betweene the one and the other of those, who shall remeyne
in friendship and neutrality with the other.
II. Neverthelesse neither of the sayed confederates or the people abidinge, inhabtinge, or dwellinge within either, shall by colour hereof give any aid or assistance to the enemies or rebells of either, or suffer, that any of their ships or men be
made use of by such enemies or rebells, to the prejudice of the other; nor shall transport
or carry to those kingdomes and territories in hostilitie with the other, any prohibited
goods or wares of contraband, but shall with effect hinder the same, as beinge expresly
contrary to the seventh article of the peace last made between the sayd two confederates.
III. And to the end that accordinge to the said treatye of peace, which shall most
strictly and inviolably be observed in all perticulars by both these confederates and their
respective people, there may be a specification and designation of such goods, as shal be
esteemed and adjudged prohibited and counterband, it is agreed, that under the same
be comprehended all armes workeinge with fire, and their appurtenences, as cannons,
guns, morter-pieces, petars, granadoes, saines, . . . of pitch, carriages for cannon,
forkes, bandeleirs, gun-powder, matches, saltpeter, bals; and alsoe all other sorts of
armes, pikes, swordes, potts, helmetts, breast and back pieces, halbards, lances, or
halse-pikes; and all such other armour, men, money, victualls, horses, harnesses, pistols, pistol-barrels, holsters and capps, bitts, and all other furniture for warre, and all
shipps of warre; and alsoe cordage, sails, masts, and materials for shippinge.
IV. That none of the sayd prohibited goods be carryd by the one or the other subjects
to the enemies of the one or the other, on paine of forfietinge the same, as also the ship,
wherein they shall be found; that other lawful goods found in the ship shall be free.
V. That the one people and subjects may trade with, and carry to the enemies of the
other all other goods and merchandizes, without any interuption, or other trouble, unless
it be to such ports and places, as are beseiged by the other, in which case they may either
sell their goods to the beseiged, or freelie passe therewith to some other port not beseiged.
VI. That in case the shippes of warre of either state, or any ship carryeinge private
commission, doe deteyne, take at sea, or bringe into port, or otherwise wronge or prejudice any of the ships of the other, or their respective people or subjects, contrary to
the aforesaid peace, or this present agreement, all such ships with their lading shall be
forthwith, and in a summary way, discharged, without being putt to their attendance
of the ordinary processe; and the captains, commanders, and officers of the said ships,
doeinge the wronge, shall be corporally punished, accordinge to the nature of the offence,
and be compelled to pay the damages susteined by such detention, or bringing into port,
as farre as his whole estate will extend; and in case justice be done therein, that then
the state, to whome such officers are subject, shall be lyable to pay the damages.
VII. That the masters, commanders, and mariners of all ships goeinge to sea, and
carryinge the commissions of Charles Stewart, or of any other pretended prince or
person, havinge noe territories in possession, shal be esteemed as pirates and robbers, and
proceeded with accordinge to the fourteenth article of the said peace.
VIII. That neither of theise consederates shall suffer, that any shippes, vessels, goods,
or merchandises belonging to either, or the property or subjects of either taken at sea, or
otherwise, by their respective enemies or rebells, be brought into the ports, harbours, or
dominions of other; and if any such should be, all such shippes, goods, and merchandices,
that shall be found in beinge, yea, though they have beene sold, shall be restored to the
right owners, or made good to them or their procurators, due proof being made of the
proprietye in the court of admiraltie, accordinge to lawe; and also their people brought
in there sett at libertye.
IX. If the ships of either come to perish, or be stranded about the coasts of either, all
that is saved shal be restored to the proprietors, if they doe sue for it within the time of
one whole yeare, paying the expences, with a reasonable recompence to those, by whose
labour and diligence the same have beene saved and kept in custody.
Part of the treaty between the protector and the states general.
That none of the people or inhabitants of the commonwealth of England, or any
of the territories or dominions thereunto belonging, shall be detained prisoners aboard
any ship or vessel of any foreign prince or state, failing with any sea-commissions, letters
of mark or reprisal, with the people, subjects, or mariners of any foreign princes or state,
or aboard any prize or prizes, taken by such ship or vessel, which shall enter into any of
the harbours, ports, roads, creeks or rivers of the United Netherlands; but that all and
every such person and persons, so detained prisoners on board such man of war or prize,
shall immediately on notice thereof to . . . . . . . . . . . be set at liberty; and that no
accord or agreement, made between the master or commander of any ship, which shall
be so taken prize, and the commander or captain, or any the company of such man of
war, by whom such ship shall be taken, for compounding for such ship and goods, shall
be any bar or hindrance to the restoring any such prize or prizes, which by virtue hereof
ought to be restored.
That all and every captain or commander of any private man of war, having commission, letters of mark or reprisal, from any foreign prince or state, against the people
or inhabitants of the commonwealth of England, that shall come upon the coasts, or into
the havens, ports, creeks, or rivers of the United Netherlands, with their ships and
prizes, or with their prizes only, shall at the first place where they shall arrive, address
themselves to the officers of the place, established there to look after ships, that enter,
and shew them the commission, wherewith they went to sea, and declare the cause of
their coming in, and the merchandizes therewith entered; and shall not continue in the
harbours, havens, creeks, roads, or rivers of the said United Netherlands, any longer than
by tempest, or other accident happened unto them, such ship and ships shall be constrained there to continue; and shall not send such prize or prizes into any town of the
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. xxxii. p. 359.
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It is true, that the states of Holland propose to grave William not only the seclusion, but also that he deliver up the
states of Overyssel; but in the mean time there will be a good many provisoes about the seclusion, which
will gild or sweeten this pill, and which will make them to swallow it with ease. The business
of Overyssel will have somewhat more difficulty in it; but however the one and the other
will yield a little; and grave William, having a very great desire to be master of the militia, will not
mind a small thing, knowing also very well, that the objection of seclusion is only a little
dust, which is flung into the eyes of the protector, to the end he should be blind, and not see
the ways and maxims of states of Holland. In the mean time also I can tell you, that amongst
the friends of the pr. of Orange, there are some very obstinate ones, and will endeavour to direct the grave William, and
to animate him, to the end he do in no manner of way ply under seclusion, as seeing sufficiently the weakness of states of Holland, and of Amsterdam, who do flatter pr. of Orange, Denmark, and princess dowager, and do
seem to be ashamed of liberty; as also Holland in general are enough and amongst themselves
divided, and also mutable. But withal, they do fear Cromwell, yea more than Sweden, at least in
appearance; for they give money to Denmark, and 170 is so cunning as to say, that he doth not
desire any money, that he hath enough; but that he hath desired infantry, and all that to the
end to embark and engage them the more in alliance against Sweden; for by this means Holland
will of necessity stand in need of pr. of Orange, and grave William, in regard that to give infantry is more alliance
than not to give money. Formerly king Henry the fourth having also discovered the plot of the
marshal of Byron, seeing of him play at a certain game, told him, Monsieur de Byron, you
play well, but you have chosen a bad party. I leave you to judge, whether Holland do not do the
like; for of 170, (though he doth win) they can only expect the great making of p. of Orange; from
Denmark the same, although that Denmark is more wife, not being willing to engage himself, and in
all likelihood 170 will be a party very ill chosen; for I cannot comprehend how he can
subsist alone against Sweden; and in case Sweden doth not succeed, he will say, (at the least)
you have given so much of money to 170 against me; give me as much; or he will take it
upon commerce. To give, whether it will be willingly or by force, will be shameful; and if they
embark in amity, it is that which Holland are greatly jealous of what Sweden doth with Cromwell. The
embassador of states general hath writ, that in an audience which he had about the business of king of Poland,
Cromwell answered so obscurely and ambiguously, that it was easy to be seen, that Cromwell was
agreed, and in alliance with Sweden. And upon this discourse I know what hath been spoken,
that they could not do better than to speak to king of Spain on the one side against Cromwell, and
emperor on the other side against Sweden; wherein if they have yet chosen a good part, I know
not: time will make us wife. I am
Your most humble servant.
P. S. I perceive that Holland do accommodate very much; they do bring so much moderation and provision, that the other states general cannot alledge any thing against it. It is true,
that literally Cromwell cannot have any thing against it; but however Cromwell is not so blind, nor
so insensible, that he should not see or feel, that Holland, by accommodating after this
fashion with pr. of Orange, grave William, Denmark, and princess dowager, at the same time doth alienate
from Cromwell, will unite with Sweden; as also that Cromwell will in no wise hearken to a