June (2 of 6)
An extract of a letter from a counsellor of the elector of Brandenburg, residing at Berlin; dated 16/6 of June, 1654. to Mr. Hartlib.
Vol. xv. p. 332.
I Never heard before, that the queen of Sweden caused her library to be transported into
the Low Countries; only I am told, that she is grown weary of all kind of studies,
and that she cares no more for any bookish matters.
The great pensions, which heretofore she hath promised to very many, are now like to
cease; for by reason of her resignation she will be reduced and brought into a narrow
compass from her large extravagancies, which no doubt will be a very strange and uncouth
entertainment to her apprehensions.
A memorandum, concerning searching of the Dutch ships by the English.
Vol. xv. p. 486.
Memorandum or declaration, to signify unto your noble great lordships, how
that upon the 16th of June, 1654. coming from St. Malo, near the Downs, came
up to us an English frigat, with 44 guns, whereof was captain Abraham Hanckers, of
London, who sent his boat on board of me, to ask me from whence I came; and I told
him, that I came from St. Malo. Then they rowed aboard of their frigat again, and
went aboard of the merchant men, and took all the passengers on board him, that were
in those ships. I, perceiving that, manned out my shallop; and as soon as he saw that,
he put the passengers into his boat again, and brought them on board, without doing
them any harm, only opening the hatches of the galliot ship, and look'd into her hold.
This we under-written declare to be true; and I, as captain, am desired to know of your
noble great lordships, whether I shall suffer the same to be done for the future. I shall
expect your lordships advice and order hereupon, how that I shall govern myself for the
time to come.
Den Boer, with eight officers more.
Turin, 17. June. 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xv. p. 420.
Here we expect an embassador from the state of Genoa, desiring licence to raise
forces in these parts, to defend themselves against the Spaniards; and to that purpose
they sent moneys hither by several ways: they shall not be refused, it being as well to
our profit as theirs.
An historiographer of cardinal Mazarin passed here, last coming from France, called
count Galeazzo Gualdo, and going to Padua or Bologna, to print there the history of
the last civil wars of France.
As for our armies, they be kept in their winter quarters; but soon will be preparing
for the field.
I have nothing else at present, but that I am
Your humble servant.
A letter of intelligence from Paris.
Paris, 17. June, 1654. [N. S.]
Vol. xv. p. 140.
My last of the 13/3. of this month will have assured you of the finishing of the ceremonies of the sacre of the king. The duke of Anjou, upon this occasion, represented
the duke of Burgundy; the duke of Vendosme, him of Normandy; the duke of Elbœuf, him of Aquitaine; the duke of Candale, the earl of Tholouse; the duke of Roan,
him of Champagne; the duke of Bournonville, him of Flanders. These were the six
lay-peers of France, to whom the church-men would not give the precedency; those
were, the bishop of Soissons, (who officiated for the archbishop of Rheims, as the chiefest
suffragan) and the bishops of Beauvais, of Noyon, and Chalons, with the archbishop of
Bourges and of Roan, representing the bishops and duke of Laon. The lord chancellor
officiated in his place; the cardinal Grimaldy, in that of great aumonier; the duke of
Joyeuse, in his of lord high chamberlain; the mareschal of Villeroy, in his of chief
master of the hostel of France; and the marquis of Vivonne, in that of gentleman of
the chamber. One of the sons of prince Thomas carried the tail of the king's cloak;
the earls of Charost and Noailles, captains of the guard, went on each side of the king;
the mareschal de l'Hospital carried the crown; the mareshal of Plessis Praslin, the sceptre;
the mareshal of Aumont, the hand of justice; and the lords of Sonuré, d'Orval, and
St. Symon, carried the offering and the money, the bread of gold and silver, with the
The king, being in his throne, received homage from all the dukes and peers aforesaid,
the church-men crying three times, Vivat in æternum! and the lay-men cry'd, God grant
the king to live for ever !
And to set out the ceremony with the more charges and splendor, there were several
pieces of silver dispersed, with the king's picture upon them, as many as came to the
value of 300 l. and several tables spread in the streets, adorn'd with meats and wine, for
all goers and comers. But the magnificence of this ceremony would have been far
greater, if they had observed the old custom.
The day before my last letter, the lord Pimentelli arrived here from Sweden, returning
into Spain. He alighted at the cardinal's own house, where he was most nobly treated
the next day; and the day after, he went to Fontainebleau, to pursue his journey.
The duke of Candale is making ready for his departure within a few days for Catalonia.
The court is still at Rheims: there is yet no certainty, which way they intend to go,
when they go from thence.
To morrow the duke of Guise goes from hence to Rheims, there to take his leave of
the court; and from thence he intends to go for Provence.
The Stuarts are preparing likewise for their journeys; they only stay for the six thousand
pistoles, which they have promised to give them here, to send them going.
General Fleetwood to secretary Thurloe.
In the possession of the right honourable Philip ld. Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
I MUST needes tell you, I lye under a difficulty of many sorts more than formerly I
have done; and yet finde how much I am misrepresented. But in that I am not
sollicitous, knowing my own innocency and integrity will beare me a witness against all
suggestions. I shall not at present trouble you, then to let you know, the comissioners
are in a straite what to doe in setting out lands to captain Blackwell and colonel Hewson,
for the one's assigned bill of adventurers, and the other, his arreares; in regard the places
chosen by both are in places of so great advantage to themselves, being so neare this
place; and the lands for others so very doubtfull, how farre they will satisfye both the
souldiers and adventurers; and therfor have had consideratione, wether they shall proceade according to the rates for the adventurers, as the act setts down; or elce to goe
according to the resolves of the generall counsell, at the highest rates. I wish, I knew
how to steare 'twixt the difficulty, and what was intended in England by my lord protector in such cases. Ther can be nothing sayde but the merritts of the person, the
difference from others, in point of satisfaction, being extreme great. It had bine much
more desierable a good reward had bine given to both of them for their good services;
but differences of this kinde makes many complayn. I love them both so well, that I can
serve them in any thing, which may be of advantage to them, and not disservice to the
publicke. I wish the party for Scotland may be looked after, and not left in distresse
for want of provisions; which, if some be not authorized to look after to speed them,
will be of great prejudice to that party. I have severall things sometimes to trouble
my lord with of publick concernment; but that I feare my letters may be exposed to
others view, which in this jealous time I am more curious in. I wish I knew what
was intended about my coming for England, my deare wife's condicion being such, as
will require a speedy resolution from my lord protector unto
June 7. 1654.
Your humble servant,
Anth. S. to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xv. p. 136.
Colonell William Hyllyard, whoe is latelye come from the Barbadoes, is
indebted to colonel William Ashburneham the summe of 1900 l. which is to bee
paid after the expiration of four yeares, which ended the fifth or sixth of June instant.
If you finde, that the money is sequestrable, you may doe well to gett an order of the
council to injoyn him to pay the money into some treasury; if not, yet in discharge
of my conscience and judgment, I could doe no lesse then give you this notice, being a
well-wisher to his highness, and one that have beene ever
7th June, 1654.
Your most affectionate servant,
Let not these lines bee seen to any but his highnes; and when I come and take you
by the little finger, you shall then know mee to be the discoverer hereof.
The money by the deed is to bee paid to Mr. John Ash and col. Cooke; but for
the use of col. Ashburneham.
Col. Hillyerd lies at a linen-draper's in Westminster; the signe I knowe not.
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. xv. p. 491.
Vienna, 18 June, 1654. [N. S.]
Yours I received by the two last posts, not being able to answer these last three
ordinaries, by reason of my indisposition after my journey from Ratisbon. I am yet
in my bed, and pray to be excused, till I shall recover this malady.
R. C. is expected at the Spa suddenly, and from thence into Germany, where he is
to receive the auxiliary moneys, arms, and ammunition, promised by the empire, as you
had formerly; which is all I have now to say of him, but great hopes divisions shall
arise in the United Provinces for his advantage. And the news the cavaliers in Scotland
write, makes a great noise among them; but when the substance of your letters shall be
published, the case will be altered, at least by all indifferent persons.
The emperor, his empress, and the king of the Romans, are still at Luxemburg.
Now the emperor, with the king, takes his pleasure in hunting, and prepares to go to
the waters at Baden.
The diet of Hungary will be shortly; and we hear prince Ragotzi made an assembly
of seventy-thousand men, we do not yet know to what end. Excuse this brevity at present from, Sir,
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. xv. p. 342.
Brussels, 27. June, 1654. [N. S.]
Yours I had by the last; but I have nothing to you from Vienna at this time, but
that I sent yours by this week's post away.
The constant letters, that come from divers hands in London, touching the discovered
plot against the protector, begets some belief now of the truth of it; for truly at first few
or none would believe there was any thing of it real; but the conspirators, I hope, by the
hand of justice, will let the world see there was a plot, and a murderous cruel one. Another difficulty is made by many here, that the protector will not call a parliament, though
he promises it to amuse the world, which I believe will prove as false as the rest of their surmises, and the small shame left in those calumniators leave them to some other wickedness.
The differences between the United Provinces increase, as letters and travellers daily bring
hither, which the Dutch embassadors in England cannot be ignorant of, and consequently
others. Our chief news here at present is, the confirmation of the siege of Stenay, and
the prince of Condé with all preparations gone to relieve it; as also all our army now
goes into the field, to which purpose four hundred waggons are gone from this city with all
sorts of provision; and the archduke himself goes from hence to take the field upon thursday next, and not to return this season.
Orders came from the king of Spain some eight days since, to remove from the castle
of Antwerp and the Low-countries duke Charles of Lorrain, and to convey him to Spain
with due security and respect. In obedience whereunto, the said duke is sent to Dunkirk,
where now he is, expecting the first fair wind for Spain. Five vessels of war are there, to
receive and convoy him. When he comes to Spain, it shall appear to him, what he is
committed for. His brother duke Francis desired to see him at his being in Antwerp, but
it was not permitted by the guards, who had orders to the contrary.
The prince of Condé has from the archduke joined with his own army 3000 horse, and
so many foot, and he has got some moneys to relieve Stenay, which surely he will attempt.
Last week Don Hierosme d'Arragon, brother to duke de Terra-Nova, (now embassador
for Spain at Rome) parted hence to take shipping at Dunkirk, to fail into Spain; as also
count de Gand, brother to prince Heim, who brings a regiment newly raised in Flanders
with him to Spain. All these accompany duke Charles, and Terra-Nova his brother goes
upon some secret employment of importance from the archduke, as time will let you see.
Here is no great rumour of a peace with France, though much required and desired by
the people; which is the collection of this week by, Sir,
An intercepted letter of Gilbert Mowat, to Mons. Le Clerke, at the Pearl in James-street.
Vol. xv. p. 158.
Sir, and Dear Friend,
I wish you had not vented all your kindness in your first letter, but that you had
kept some of those expressions for a second or third letter, that so we might have
known, whether you were dead or living. I never received but one letter from you
since your going from hence; and Mr. Durham too, although we have never passed a
week without writing to you. Mr. Durham desired me to shew you he wondered much
at it. Ye may guess what I think also; but one letter I resolve to add yet, worse than
Pollard and Montgomery's flying, if you do not shortly remember us. We have good
news here from Scotland by some Scots ship lately come from thence; wherein were
passengers, who affirm, that they were in Edinburgh, when Monk came in twice
wounded in the body, and struck through the buttocks with a tuck; for as they report,
he had taken the field twice with 3000 horse and dragoons, having sent Argyle away,
to gather what forces he could. The marquis of Montrosse, the earls of Atholl and
Buchane, and viscount of Dicop, charged him at Methuen, routed him wholly, and chased
him to Sterling-bridge, from whence they returned to hunt Argyle; whose fortune if
it were to fall into Montrosse's hands, were it not strange? The uproar was so great in
Edinburgh, that eighty royalists broke prison, and escaped all, except two; and one of
the merchants, that is now here, that was there of intention to carry away some skins,
which he had bought before-hand, was forced to leave all, and make haste over the
water. Because it seemeth that you are become an independent proselyte, and would
keep good news from us, I have resolved to beat this in your ears. Since we have honest
men eye-witnesses, I know not what to believe, if this be false. From hence the states
of Holland have sent over the conclusion taken by them against the prince of Orange, to
be presented to Cromwel. The general states have, on the contrary, commanded the
embassadors not to present it to him. The princess of Tarante hath acknowledged her
fault to the princess Louisa, and now is every day with the queen.
In great haste.
Hague, 18th June, 1654. [N. S.]
A letter from secretary Oste, in Sweden.
Vol. xv. p. 366.
The queen hath at last so far executed her intention, that the crown was upon
tuesday last transferred upon his royal highness, the states being called upon saturday and monday last by sound of trumpet to this action, who met in the hall at the time
appointed. The queen, in the morning at nine o'clock, with the nobility and her counsellors, having her crown upon her head, and the sceptre in the right hand, and the rixapple in the left, did cause to be read a paper, containing the resignation of her crown,
and the renouncing of all pretences to the same; which being delivered by the lord
Rosenlaer, who read the same to his royal highness, there was afterwards read by the
said lord another in the same form, wherein his said highness doth oblige himself not
only to protect the queen, but also to let her enjoy the possession of Noortcoping,
Geland, Gotland, Oesel, Pomeren, and two offices in Mecklenburg, during life. This
obligation being delivered to the queen by his highness himself, the queen delivered up
her crown and sceptre: which being done, the states thanked her for her faithfulness and
affection during her government. She gave them thanks for their consent; and pointing
at her successor, she recommended him to them. And after her majesty had recommended herself to his royal highness, they took their leaves of her, and conducted her to
Afterwards, in the afternoon, his royal highness rid to church, attended by most of
the lords, the citizens being all in arms; where he heard the bishop of Stregnitz make
a sermon; which being ended, his royal highness took an oath upon his knees, which
was read unto him by the lord chancellor; and that being done, he was anointed by the
archbishop of Upsal, who delivered up unto him the crown, sceptre, the rix-apple, sword,
The states, on the wednesday, were sworn. The queen, having supped with the king,
departed that night, and was conducted two miles out of town by his majesty.
Upsale, 18th June, 1654. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence from Monsieur Riviere.
Vol. xv. p. 152.
Haieving by one of your frendes learned your adrese, I give you notis of th is what
folowes, which is a certaine treuth: there caime into Paris from London one Thomas
Henshaw and John Wiseman, about the begining of Martch laste; and after haiveing
informed the courte, and betrayed the secretes, which one Monsieur Roqueby, an English
gentelman, who is prisoner of warre in the Bastile of Paris, and who had employed the
said Henshaw for the prince of Condey's service; and the said Monsieur Roqueby is now
since shute up close prisoner, though accused of nothing, but that he is to good an Englishman, and to good a servant unto the prince of Condey's. But this designe of Henshawe's was only to put him into credit as well at the Franch as English court; for he
the said Thomas Henshaw, John Wiseman, and one Wilkenet a Duchman, did propose
to the king of Scotes to murder the protector Crumwel; and did asure the saide king,
that there was several men of quality in England, that they weare imployed by, and who
would act their partes of this tragedy. Those who assisted them heare for to maike their
propositions, was one Walsingham, Monsieur Digby, secretaire, one Shokew, prince
Robert's, surgeon, and Monsieur Montigu's chapline, a popish priest. Thomas Henshaw,
and John Wiseman, when they had their answers, retourned into England to waite their
time to maike this assassinate uppon the person of protector Cromwel. Wilkenet, the
Dutchman, who bostes to have helped to kill colonel Vainsberg at Doncaster, stayes heare
with the others, in hopes to heare newes of the murder, and who promises themselves
greate recompenses, if the assassinatures succede. I give notice divers wayes of this businesse; and though I be noe Englishman, the hopes, which I haive to retourne into England, maikes me to be concerned in Englande's good. Thomas Henshaw was liftenant
to Monsieur Roqueby's troope of horse in the prince of Condye's service, and sent away
the troopers to the contrary party, and runne away himself after into England with his
brother-in-law John Wiseman, who dweles at maister Wisemane's house in the litel Sanctuary, over-against the abbey in Westminster. Maister Wiseman did mary Henshawe's
mother, and is father to John Wiseman. I desire you to excuse me, that I give you this
troble, being not knowne unto you. I am
Your most humble and affectionet servant,
Paris, the 18th of Joune, 1654. [N. S.]
The direction was,
For maister Samuel Speedwel, this letter is recommended
unto the maister of the post, London.
The Swedish resident to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xv. p. 166.
Upon the delivery of the congratulatory letter, her majesty of Sweden, my sovereign
queen and mistress, hath sent a while since to his highness my lord protector, some
difficulties having been made, and some exceptions taken, that withal the copy of the
said letter was not delivered, I could do no less in duty than to acquaint her majesty
with the same; who thereupon did very lately write a letter to me, the substance whereof
is, that though it be not the custom of Swedeland to send copies of the congratulatory
letters, when the originals are in possession; yet her majesty, being willing to give all
content, was pleased to send me a copy of the said letter, the which is here inclosed;
her majesty saying farther, that in case any exception be taken at the titles in the superscription of the said letter, she assureth, that before the sending of the said letter, her
majesty desired by one of her secretaries she then sent to his excellency my lord embassador Whitelocke, to know what titles she should use upon her said letter, who returned
her the same that were upon the letter, in writing; which premises I thought fit to impart to your honour, because no just exception might be taken either by the former want
of the said copy, or by any thing in the title, which hath not been done on any purpose;
and so I remain,
most humble servant,
I intreat your honour, that I may have a speedy answer upon my last papers, sent both
to his highness, and to your honour.
London, the 8th of June, 1654.
A letter to secretary Thurloe, from the person who translated his letters of intelligence.
Vol. xv. p. 157.
8. June, 1654.
The letters from France arrived this day, and I receaved not myne yett. This
beinge post-day, I pray sende them to me; for it may chance alsoe somethinge to
be in them for your service.
You shoulde have had notice from me of marquisse de Cognac his lodginges as desired,
but that I understood he was with his highnes upon tuesday: his brother (who is now of
the kinge's partye, revolted from Condé) is the man, that is his author, you may be
assured, and Mons. de Bax his, as you had formerlie.
For the other matter you gave in chardg, your servant is very busie about it; but
fyndes much difficultie in it, as he tells me, and will shortlie to yourselfe give account, &c. Sir,
Your humble servant,
A letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Vol. xv. p. 174.
The lord Stockar is in the end departed. He faith, he was desired by the one and the
other, to suffer himself to be employed, to the end to dispose and induce the lord
protector to release and deliver up the act of seclusion, and by this means to re-establish
the prince of Orange and his posterity in the same quality as his predecessors; but he
saith, that he excused it, as having no order for it; and in case he should not have
effected it, that would have been a shame to his principals. It may be, that he was desired by the one or the other particular; but not by the states general, nor by those of
Holland. Likewise the common opinion is, that those of Holland do not desire, that the
protector should release or deliver it up; at least not the fifteen members, who do set
themselves more and more against the pr. of Orange party; for men see from time to time, that Orange party do grow
wilful; yea, that they do band more and more for pr. of Orange, and that must without doubt
make Hollanders likewise wilful and stubborn. In Zealand the town of Tolen is now likewise for Holland; so that Zealand is divided three against three; and besides that, Flushing and
Veer do stand in awe of England, and fear the war. Those of Holland have writ to the
other provinces, but of several contents; to those of Friesland, a little seriously, as being
a little more sharp; to those of Utrecht, a little more gently, as not being far remoted
from the opinion of Holland; to the rest, moderately; the whole tending to excuse that
which Holland hath done for the seclusion, and to justify their actions, and to exhort the
said provinces to peace, tranquillity, and moderation. And seeing that some provinces do
very much endeavour the recalling of the embassadors, they have declared their reasons,
why it is not necessary nor convenient, that the embassadors should be recalled; and in
the mean time the people (the most part those that live by the sea, fishing, navigation, and commerce) is pleased with the sweetness of gain and profit. In Guelderland,
there is domestic division enough about other differences, and the most part of the cities
are Hollanders. At Groningen there is likewise division; and that party, which side with
count William, is the weakest. One Heinsius, formerly syndic, degraded and banished
by them that side with the earl, is come back again to Groningen. It is time that count
William went thither to moderate the differences; but he hath not been able to do any
thing; and he held himself impartial, and let them alone, returning back hither. Their
difference is domestic, and doth not concern the seclusion; but having business amongst
themselves, they care the less for the seclusion. In Overyssel likewise there are domestic
differences; and Deventer, the first city, is altogether for Holland. Now they begin to
believe the loss of the Recif. Those of Zealand will set out as many more private men of
war for the coasts of Brazil; for men do judge, that the Portuguese will not always be
able to go with fleets. There were at least twenty or thirty commissions granted to private men of war, the same day that the sad news came of the loss of the Recif; so that
they make account here to do all the mischief they can to the Portuguese with their
free-booters. But if the king of Portugal durst, he would soon cause this free-booting
to cease; for I think there are a hundred great ships laden here, that are bound for
Lisbon: by making seizure of them, he would soon repair the loss of this free-booting
design; but he hath enemies enough, and by that means he would have his river of Lisbon
blocked up. Here is news come of prince Maurice, who was thought and believed to
be drowned and perished, that he is a slave at Algier; for being constrained (at that time
that he parted from prince Rupert) to run as far as Hispaniola in the West-Indies, he was
coming back from thence towards Spain in a bark laden with a great quantity of silver,
and was taken by a pirate of Algiers. The queen his mother hath spoken to the embassador of France, to the end he may write in his behalf to the great Turk; for it is
presupposed, that this state dare not speak for him, for fear of offending the protector.
Count William is from day to day expected here; he hath done all that he was able to
appease the differences between the factions, that are amongst the members of the Ommelanders; but it is very much doubted, whether he hath been able to effect it; for those
who do believe themselves the strongest will not hear of any submission; and if a mediator hath no strength, he can do nothing; and those of Holland do likewise foment the
one or other party. At Nimeguen, the assembly of the states doth also continue full of
domestic differences; and although the Orange party do endeavour, and cause to be endeavoured,
all that they can, that the provincial advice of Guelderland be conformable to the advice of
Friesland, and of Groningen (to revoke and disown the embassadors, and to send another
and new embassy into England); nevertheless the members of the province of Guelder
are so divided, that they cannot draw up a provincial advice, as it ought. In Overyssel
there were will be two assemblies of the states, one at Deventer, (for it is their turn to
assemble in that city) and one at Zwol; so that it will be very difficult for them there to
draw up a provincial advice. The commissioner of Groningen and Ommeland to the
states general, having considered the proposition of those of Holland, that embassadors
might be embassadors of the generality, and yet do also a business of and for a province
in particular, hath contradicted that by a writing of the sixteenth of June. At Groningen,
or in the Ommelands, the domestic differences were yet undecided the 3/13. instant. The
one party, the weakest, would very willingly refer the difference to count William; but
the others say, that in a business so notoriously just and clear, all submission would be
useless; that they will trust the right and equity. The messengers sent from hence the
sixth of this month to the embassadors in England, are come back hither; the states general had writ by one of them to the embassadors, to send them a copy of the act of seclusion; those of Holland had writ by the other, to interchange the act with the protector,
in case he would not be diverted from it: the one and the other is done; for they have
sent the copy desired, and they have made an interchange of the original act with the
lord protector. All this is done pro captu lectoris. Orange party continue, and will continue, to oppose it, chiefly those of Friesland; and it seemeth, that ante omnia they will endeavour for the
revoking of the embassadors for another embassy into England, (to the end they may
not offend likewise the lord protector) and afterwards to make choice or denomination of
pr. Orange for the charge of captain general, although question is, if Orange party can gain the plurality
of the provinces; for having once the plurality, they will do the one as well as the other;
and there is great likelihood, that they will have the said plurality; for Friesland and Groningen
do that, which grave William do desire, at least in this point. Zealand will be afraid of protector; otherwise
the people are there almost masters. In the other provinces also, as well as in Friesland, there
is also a party for states of Holland; but the plurality is for Orange party; and in states of Holland alone, the general college have the
plurality. The best for states of Holland is, that among Orange party there are a great many, that are fearful,
and some are very hot, and others moderate and mild. My opinion is, that it would be
good for Holland, if peace were between Spain and France; for Spain would have a little more
authority, and Orange party would be afraid as well of protector as Spain, and would cause Hollanders to subsist the better. In the mean time I see, that Hollanders in Friesland have courage enough. At
Haerlem is dead the lord Renyl, pensionary of that city, who although one of the six
Lovestein lords, yet since he hath always shewn himself very much devoted to the house
of Orange, and was one of the great opposers of this act of seclusion, we shall see now,
whether Haerlem will be a little more. Count William is come back. I do not hear of
any general agreement. The strongest party doth maintain themselves. In the mean time,
at the new assembly, every one will endeavour to be master. On the behalf of the nobi
lity of Holland, the place in the states general is become vacant, since that the lord of
Wimmenum is chosen into the council in the place of the lord Mathenes: now in the
place of the lord of Wimmenum is named the lord of Merode, brother-in-law of the
lord Opdam, consequently a great Hollander, at least a man that may be trusted. In short,
Holland do fortify themselves as much as they can on all sides, and so they had need; for
since the arrival of the copy of the act of seclusion Orange party will not be at rest, but continually stirring. The city of Middleburgh doth begin to be unruly a little, and the people
are there master. I am
Your humble servant.
19. June, 1654. [N. S.]
A letter of intelligence.
Vol. xv. p. 195.
Hague, 19/9. June, 1654.
Since my last to you, by the immediate ordinary before this, the difference betwixt
the provinces groweth for the recalling of those embassadors of those provinces, who
are in London; and the provinces of Friesland and Groningen do press without intermission for the same; and notwithstanding the province of Holland upon friday last exhibited a paper, being the twelfth instant, relating and containing many reasons of importance for the continuation and present being of the said embassadors now in England, the
peace not fully completed, &c. to this paper of the province of Holland answer hath
been given by the other provinces the day following, being the seventeenth instant, in a
paper, declaring that those embassadors in England be recalled, and other confiding persons be sent in their places, to perfect what is to be done further for the accomplishment
of the peace with England. And now I understand the tempest is higher, because the
embassadors in England, in obedience to the generality, have with their letters sent all
that which they treated apart with England, the copies whereof I could now send to you,
but that I know you have them already there. The embassadors last letters are of the
twelfth of June, with the copies of all the secret actings apart with England.
The embassador Jongestal writ to the states general his excuse, that he knew nothing of
the actings all apart; but that he saw sometimes Beverning and Nieuport go alone to the
protector or commissioners, and kept all secret from him. The party of the prince of
Orange is now better satisfied than before; and those of Zealand have declared, that they
will not only disapprove of the said secret act of the province of Holland, but all that
which the said embassadors have treated upon; but this is furious: however, in testimony
of their dislike, they have recalled the vote, which they gave on the behalf of Beverning
for the office of treasurer-general, which he was chosen for, as I gave you long since.
The opinion of most men is, that no less shall be done in the rest of the provinces, and
opposition found. Count William of Nassau, the head of this party, is expected here,
to revive and give strength with his presence and authority to this business; and many
believe, that those who do favour and affect the house of Orange, will attempt something
of violence to the purpose against those of Holland. You shall have what farther shall
be of it duly from week to week, as well as I can. Some talk, as if a great assembly of
all the states should be called upon, to end this difference: it may well be so, before it
be ended. From Stockholm, Mons. Beuningen, deputy to these states in that kingdom;
writes to the states general in a letter of his of the thirtieth of May last, that which
causes great admiration here, which is thus: That the queen of Sweden sent from Upsal to
Stockholm her master of ceremonies with a paper sealed and signed by her own hand,
commanding him to open the same in the presence of the minister of Portugal. And the
substance thereof was, that her said majesty doth not acknowledge any other king of Portugal, but his majesty king Philip of Spain; and that she did not repute his master but
as duke of Braganza, an unjust usurper of that crown; and that the prince her successor
was of the same resolution and mind; and therefore he should retire and recede from her
dominions; and that to that purpose she would give orders for a pass to be drawn for
him, till he had passed her dominions. Some mystery is conceived to be in this matter;
as also in that resignation of the crown. Many speak diversly of it; but no certainty, that
I can yet learn; but it may be, I may come into it, before it be long, because I search for it
always, &c. Sir,
Mr. John Edwards to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xv. p. 192.
In pursuance of his highnes commission and instructions, wee hastened what we could
to this place, where arriving, wee found that the king with the most of his chiefe
ministers were absent; soe that wee applyed ourselves to such as had order from the
reicks-hoff-master or lord high steward, about our business, to whom wee delivered our
demand. For a perticuler account of what hath followed thereupon, I humbly refer
your honor to our joynt letters; though I must needes add, that wee finde both ships and
that small quantity of goods remaineing, much deteriorated by lieing, of which we shall
send your honour perticular certificates, soe soon as they can be finished. These are chiefely
to acquainte the receipt of your honor's favourable lines of the 24th ult. which come
to hand five dayes after our arival, giveing your honor most humble thanks for the sudden
dispatch of the messenger. Wee shall omitte noe care and dilligence in the quicke dispatch
of our busines, which I hope will not deteine us long; and wee shall hasten the rather,
because the sicknes is much in this place. In the meane time, I shall use my utmost
endeavours of rendering myselfe any way serviceable to your honor; though for what your
honour was pleased to mention concerning the Eagle, I cannot learne, that any thing is in
agitation here tending that way. 'Tis thought that party will embroyle himself againe in
warres with the Sweds by takeing the Bremers parte against them; and for these people,
they thinke themselves very secure; soe that they have desisted theire naval preparations,
and discharged the mariners, partely by reason of sicknes, but chiefely upon some ground
of confidence received from Stockholm, that the Swedes would not infest them this yeare.
I shall use my utmost endeavours to answer your honor's expectation in all perticulers;
and when occasion requires, make use of the Spanish commoditie, being ambitious of
your honor's approbation, which will authenticate all my actions. In the meane time,
humbly crave leave to subscribe myselfe,
Most humble servant,
Copenhagen, 10. June, 1654.
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to his father.
Vol. xv. p. 282.
I expect the return of Mons. de Baas from the lord protector, who hath sent for
him the third time, after that he had made him wait twice without speaking with him,
to write my letters to the court; and by reason it is late already, I shall have no time
to write in character, nor at large upon what I shall hear from Mons. de Baas, when he
comes. In the mean time I will answer your letter. You were pleased to write me the
opinion of Mons. Servien: you reduce the discourse you had with him to three points;
the first consists in discontents, whereof I was to make use, to let the protector know,
that his proceedings do not agree with that of France. The second doth regard the
conclusion of a sincere, equal, and just treaty, which I was to press and urge. And the
last was the particular difference, which may arise upon the depredations, whereof the
English complain. If you do remember what I have formerly writ during my abode in
England, you may have taken notice, that the same reasons, which Mons. Servien hath
suggested unto you, have been often made use of here by me, and the same reproaches
made, as well to the protector as his ministers, as often as I had an occasion offered to
speak to them. You know likewise, that in the relation which, I sent of the last conference with the ministers of this council, I rejected and refused all unjust, unequal,
and unreasonable propositions, which were offered unto me by them; and that also we
were agreed about a treaty of alliance and commerce, conformable to the antient ones;
and now at present there is no farther question to be decided between us, there remains
nothing more to be done, but to sign, or break. The opinion, which men have of the
designs of the lord protector, is grounded upon a false principle, it not being true, that
the naval preparations are now more considerable, than in time past; nor likewise that the
conspiracy against the protector is supposed to be as my foregoing letters will have related
unto you. And as for the shutting of the ports, it is in pursuance of the design or
plot; and if any particular men do write any news contrary to ours, it is only conjectural;
and all our letters do not give any such great assurance of an accommodation for men to
blame us for giving and putting too much confidence in their words here. It is very true,
that considering the state of affairs of this country, the disposition of the people, and
the prejudice this government would receive by a breach with France, we have always
hoped, that in the end he would embrace the most advantageous party, and would prefer the amity of France before that of Spain; but it happeneth so oftentimes, that God
doth blind the understanding of those, whom he will precipitate into misfortunes through
the fault of their own conduct, and as if he would shorten or abridge the reign of the
protector, and that God doth cause him to take such courses or measures as are quite
contrary to those, which are necessary for his preservation. This Christian reflection hath
made me to lose the third point, upon which I cannot now inlarge myself, there being
three commissioners of the council come to speak with me at ten of the clock at night,
on the behalf of his highness. I will send an express to carry their proposition, and the
discourse of his highness with Mons. de Baas. You will be somewhat surprised, when you
22/12. June, 1654.
A paper of the states of Zealand.
Vol. xv. p. 210.
The states of the land and earldom of Zealand have cast a diligent and curious eye
upon the several writings, which have been exchanged and exhibited at the assembly
of the lords states general, and signed according to form or protest in the behalf of the
provinces, as well of Holland on the one part, as that of Friesland on the other part,
do declare, not only with very much sorrow and grief to hear the bitter dissentions, altercations, and divisions occasioned between the aforesaid provinces, altogether unlawful,
being so near allied and united, and most highly pernicious to the commonwealth, especially in these perplexed and dangerous junctures of time; but also do apprehend the
occasion thereof, as a business full of trouble and hazard. For although their noble great
lordships do not understand or presume to intrude themselves illegally into the government
of any of their allies, much less to write any thing against them in matters directly concerning their provincial disposals; yet nevertheless it is their meaning, to take the liberty
to declare their sense and opinion upon the affairs, which might be undertaken and resolved
by any of the confederates, concerning the common preservation, or more especially
being referred by the union, or particular consent of the provinces, to the generality, to
which the states of Zealand do judge the seclusion decreed by the states of Holland and
West-Friesland to belong, in regard of the prince of Orange and his line concerned
therein, for many considerations, for First, it is to be presupposed as undeniable, and not
denied by the lords states of Holland themselves, that the said resolution should be taken
by them at the request of the lord protector of the government of England; and especially, that thereby they might be able to enjoy the effect of peace, and that such undoubtedly, without any foregoing negotiation or agreement, could not pass on both sides;
so likewise, it cannot be denied, but that the same is clearly contrary to the text of the
everlasting confederacy and union, which in the year 1579. was made at Utrecht, forbidding not only any provinces, which are included in the aforesaid union, to make any particular union with one another, or to renew the old, for the better maintenance of their
public authority and rights and privileges; as also, according to the practice as well of
these, as of other neighbouring nations (as without all controversy); but in express terms,
that none of the provinces, cities, or members thereof, should make any confederacies or
unions with any neighbouring princes or countries, without the consent of the rest of the
confederates, upon this ground, that it cannot be imagined, that the same can be done, but
with prejudice and wrong, or at least with just fear and suspicion of the other members,
who are thereby slighted and passed over; and consequently the same can tend to no
other end, than to the weakening and disturbing of the union. So likewise the said resolution could not be lawfully taken for the advancement and accomplishment (as is pretended) of the treaty of peace, without previous knowledge and consent of all the provinces had and taken in, the matter by the ninth article of the union being altogether
without any reserve or exception, at the disposal of the generality; and consequently for
that cause, and upon that account, cannot be undertaken or attempted by any one,
no, nor by more members of the union, without the joint counsel and consent of all, as
being all of them therein particularly interested or concerned; besides that, their noble
lordships do think upon good ground, to be able to maintain, that in case no prohibitive
article be extant in the treaty making mention of the said subject, yet however it
would not be fit, nor becoming any of the confederates, to dispose of any thing of this
nature, for the reasons aforesaid, without the knowledge of the rest, by reason that not
only the provinces by their union stand obliged so strictly and inseparably to each other,
as if they were in effect but one province only, but also, according to reasons of state,
commonly in a business of that high consequence, nothing can be agreed and concluded
by them, or any other members of the union, particularly with foreign nations and potentates, which being done by one, doth trespass upon and diminish the freedom and rights
of the other; as also it is not to be found, that ever any one province in a business of
this nature and tendency hath done any thing to the contrary, but on the other
hand, that the same having consulted and deliberated upon it, never did begin or finish
the same without foregoing advertisement of the other provinces confederated, either by
being present, or having their advice, which, if need were, might be illustrated by several
examples. Besides, the states of Zealand, recollecting their memorandums concerning what
past in the year 1651. between the common confederates, being then extraordinarily assembled in the great hall in the court of Holland, can apprehend no otherwise, but that the
alledged seclusion resolved by the lords of Holland and West-Friesland, without the consent
of the rest, doth differ very much, in many particulars, from the verbal and written declarations of the said confederates made thereupon, the said subject presupposing at large a
general affection and inclination to the promotion of the prince in the eminent functions
possessed by his predecessors, although the same were suspended for many pregnant reasons,
which were judged by the plurality of the provinces to be for the tranquillity of the state;
yet with this proviso, that as soon as the season should be ripe and proper for it, to resume
the remembrance and affairs thereof, as all those who did frequent that assembly can testify;
and how far such is differing from the deliberation held in the assembly of their H. and M.
lordships, upon the proposition made concerning the same by the lord protector and
government of England, together with the peremptory negative resolution, that was made thereupon, is to be seen in the notes, which are inserted about it, and especially in the text of the
proviso set down instead thereof in the thirty-second article of the treaty, must remain with
every one, who were present at those deliberations, fresh in memory, with what an alteration and perplexity of mind the said proposition was generally heard, with what an aversion
rejected, and how earnestly the same was debated by the provinces, not only for the
irreparable injury and disrespect, which was thereby shewn, as well to the whole state as
the said prince, as also by reason of the subjection and pusillanimity, which would be
thereby shewn by this side; for that all confederacies and obligations, which are grounded upon
unequal condition, do draw after them some disrespect and subjection; therefore the same
ought to be declined by all those, who are lovers and zealots of liberty; which is a thing so
well known to all civilians and politicians, there being no want of examples upon record in
history, for proving of remarkable prejudices, which the inferior party hath often suffered
thereby; and how can this be more excused of unreasonableness, that a young prince, born
in the lap and in the arms of the state, and living under their protection, the first and best
qualified person of the United Netherlands, as also of such a high extraction and alliances,
being altogether innocent, without any necessity, simply at the instance of an outlandish
power, with whom we then stood in open hostility, or do now stand in a new amity,
exclude the same and his princely posterity, out of all dignities, advantages, and pre-eminencies, to which he, in respect of his illustrious birth, and according to the successive
example of his predecessors, by the most right and certain access, might lay claim unto?
And now to dispossess him without any cause, is very harsh and unjust. Besides, in conformity to the union, (which prince William his great grandfather did advance, and sign
himself in particular) the common confederates are thereby obliged to maintain the same
and his posterity; the more, because it is notorious to all known politicians, that the Netherlands in general, or in particular, are never to be preserved in quietness and peace, without employing in the conduct of the common affairs heads and lords of quality; so likewise, on the other side, the same was formerly declared for an undoubted proof by all the
provinces united, and particularly by the province of Holland and West-Friesland, and that
no such lords of note were to be found, or to be thought upon to be employed, as the
posterity of the lord prince William the first, and those of his blood and family, in regard
of his laudable resolutions, heroic expeditions, exploits, and actions, which have been performed by him and his children, without sparing bodies or estates, against the Spanish
tyranny, and for the advancement of the liberties and prosperity of the Netherlands; to
which end and purpose they did not repent or refuse to undergo any dangers or difficulties,
but did willingly and chearfully still support and overcome the same with all magnanimous
faithfulness and courage, upon which the foundations of this state are originally built, and
have now remained irremovable for the space of eighty years, through God's mercy, against
all foreign concussions and attempts; in respect or regard whereof, the states of Zealand do
judge, that the said privation or seclusion can be no-wise free of ingratitude and disrespect
against the said heroic house; and the said states are thereby not a little troubled and perplexed, that there should be further resolved by the said lords states of Holland and WestFriesland, that they would hinder with their vote, or not suffer, that the said prince,
or any of his line, should be chosen to the captain or admiralship of the generality; considering as well the importance of the business itself, as the weight and consequence thereof.
Besides, their noble great lordships cannot apprehend, with what right or order the said
states of Holland could resolve to do the same, in regard the constitution and nature of the
union doth expresly dictate, that the confederates are bound to advise with one another
about all affairs, which do concern the confederacy, as they shall think fit, to the best of
their knowledge, and as they shall conceive in their consciences, to make most for the glory
of God, and the good of the commonwealth; and consequently they are to act without
any preoccupation or forejudging, by reason that the freedom of opinions is thereby forestalled or disturbed; and much less are they able to discern, how the same could legally
happen against the intention and the custom of the union, in favour, and at the request,
(as aforesaid) of an outlandish power, without the knowledge of the other allies and confederates; and therefore the states of Zealand can in no-wise permit, that the lords Beverning and Nieuport could be hereunto lawfully desired by the said lords states of Holland
and West-Frielland, or that they could lawfully suffer themselves to be employed without
the express consent and good liking of the common state; considering notwithstanding, that
the said lords are inhabitants and subjects of Holland, and are there alone in the service of
some particular towns, and so consequently, and in that respect, are bound and responsible
to the states of Holland; but they, as long as they remain invested with the title and characters as embassadors of state, and that they act abroad in their service and function with
their commission, upon the credit and reputation of the state, and that they represent the
same, they cannot do or act according to right, than in the name and by order of the generality; and they are not to hearken or give ear to the requests and desires of any other
superiori whatsoever, besides that of the generality, as doth clearly import not only the
nature of all embassies, and such remarkable commissions in general, but also particularly
the instruction of the said lords embassadors, being carefully drawn up for the preventing of
all contrary misinterpretations, and by them solemnly sworn unto. Wherefore they could not
suffer themselves to be employed at the request of one province alone, especially in a business of such a tender speculation, so contrary to the intention of their H. and M. lordships,
and the consequences so earnestly therein demonstrated; whereof they, without all controversy, are bound to give account to the confederates, and are also subject to their censure
and correction, as the same, according to the opinion of the states of Zealand, by the most
members of the union, is sufficiently constituted, and consequently resuted upon abuse by
the lords states of Holland and West-Friesland, although the said states of Zealand could
never conceive or imagine the motives and reasons, that should induce those of Holland to
make any such resolution, nor that they were in any wise constrained through necessity for the
doing of it, either thereby to have preserved the prosperity and welfare of the state, or the
fundamental laws thereof; and as the said lords states of Zealand are credibly informed, the
said resolution was taken after the concluding and signing of the treaty of peace; so that
the said states of Holland were not forced to make use of that resolution for the obtaining
of peace, when the same was concluded before-hand, and the treaty ratified and exchanged;
therefore it must follow of consequence, that the same was agreed upon before the conclusion of the treaty between the lord protector and the states of Holland; for if it had been
out of pure necessity, those of Holland ought to have communicated the same to the rest
of the provinces, as to whose disposal that business did solely and most properly belong;
and because that through want of such advertisement, whether now the generality without
their advice and consent, were not necessitated to remain in such a painful and chargeable
war, or whether the same be not prejudiced in their freedoms and rights; which last position the states of Zealand must lay hold of and embrace as the most just; for die said
lords embassadors (as their lordships are informed) by their letter of the fifteenth of April
last past, did write to the lords states of Holland and West-Friesland, that the seclusion was
as a condition, sine qua non, and the ground-work of the whole work; all which doth the
more trouble the minds of the said states of Zealand, especially when they consider, that
at the request of the lord protector such a remarkable seclusion could be agreed unto; and
withal, when they call to mind the dishonour the said subjection and ingratitude will occasion to the goverment, as well abroad as at home, and then what offence and distaste the
same will give to all foreign princes and potentates, especially those that are allied to that
family by blood, marriage, or affinity; whereas by the seventeenth article of the union,
the provinces were bound to take special care, lest thereby they should administer the least
occasion of offence. Furthermore, what dissentions, breaches, and divisions the same will
occasion, as well amongst the governors of the land one against the other, as also among
the common subjects against the government, may be easily imagined, especially when they
shall think, how that with the project, and under pretence of the said proviso, the other
members of the union have been so disingenuously dealt withal, and covertly abused, as if
in effect the said conclusion had been consented to by the lord prince and his heirs, being
but desired by the lord protector, whereas the same was held to be here impracticable, and
therefore ought to have been declined; the more, because it was pretended, that the said
proviso was inserted to facilitate the close of the treaty; which proviso is said to be first
projected by the English government; whereof now, since the contrary hath appeared,
which can do no other but cause all kind of sinister impressions and dangerous altercations in
the minds of many of the governors, upon whom dependeth very much the management
of the public, is best known to those, who have long had experience thereof, and who are
best able to judge how different the government of this state is in that particular from other
countries, in the constitutions thereof. And the states of Zealand do wish with all their
hearts, there never had been by this means any occasion given of discontent amongst the
confederates; and particularly that no just cause of discontent to the said states of Zealand
had been given by that peremptory resolution of the states of Holland and West-Friesland,
that they would never receive or make the said prince, or any of his line, stadtholder, or
governor of their province, it being notorious, that it maketh for the special honour of
both provinces in regard of their vicinity, navigation, and commerce, together with many
other interests, wherein the prosperity of both have been wrapped up together for above an
hundred years, that it was hard to observe any difference between them to fall out in
their public affairs; but they have so managed it from time to time, that they have lived in a
joint and brotherly confederacy together; and that consequently the same, since they were
made earldoms, they have not only stood successively and without interruption, under
the government of the said earls, but also they were to be divided from their alliance upon
no terms by the said earls; whereby it doth farther appear, that for many ages, the two
said earldoms have always joined together under one and the same provincial court, and
have been governed by one and the same stadtholder, as well in time of their earls, as also
since their abjuration of the king of Spain, as when the princely authority was consolidated
with the power of the states, from which it took its original; so that by virtue as well of
the aforesaid right, as possession and custom of many hundred years, it would be unhandsome, nor consist with the power of each other, to chuse a stadtholder effectually, and to
set him up over their particular province, without the knowledge and advice of the other;
so likewise it cannot well agree with equity, much less with the discretion of so near confederates, as that the states of Holland and West-Friesland have pleased definitively to make
the said seclusion, without so much as once hearing the states of Zealand, or to enter into
communication with them, as the merits of their cause might have required; seeing they
are so contrary unto the union erected between both provinces in the years 1575 and 1576.
whereby it is mutually agreed as in the express terms of the text, that the contractors and
confederates shall maintain a good correspondence, amity, and neighbourhood amongst themselves, in matters relating to the public; and they are so to form and make their resolutions,
as if the aforesaid lands and cities were comprehended under the commonwealth of one
city, and reputed as one body. And it would be needless here to dilate and represent
what glorious and wholsome effects would follow thereupon, both for the weal of the general
state, as to the honour and might of both provinces, as the same is manifest to the whole
world, and especially not unknown to the states of Holland, who may be more particularly
pleased to think what mutual form of government and correspondence by the deputies on
both sides was resolved in the beginning of the war, and what desirable and profitable
communications and resolutions upon all occasions of state and consequence have followed
thereupon, to the mutual contentment of each other.
Upon all which merits and considerations, since the states of Zealand do most certainly
hold forth, that according to the express text, as the manifest intention of the union, none
of the provinces are qualified to contract, without foregoing advice and communication of
the other provinces, with any foreign powers and potentates, especially in affairs directly
belonging to the union; and consequently the said seclusion, concerning the employment
of the lord prince of Orange, and his posterity, as relating thereunto, can in no wise subsist
according to right; that the same doth likewise differ from the negative resolution taken
upon the proviso, and doth moreover imply, not only an unworthy subjection and inferiority in respect of the state, but also a manifest ingratitude to the person and illustrious
family of the said prince; and likewise, if rightly considered, by the said seclusion, not
only the order and freedom of deliberation and advice is wholly subverted, which hereafter
might be formed upon the collation of captain and admiralship of the union, but also the
laws and maxims usual in all societies; likewise that the lords Beverning and Nieuport have,
according to the judgment of their noble and great lordships, exceeded the limits of their
instructions and commission, in that they have suffered themselves to be employed in such
an essential point, directly contrary to their order and commands prescribed to them, upon
a particular request of the lords states of Holland, without the knowledge, much less the
consent, of the generality; but also did exhibit the act concerning the same, sent to them
by the states of Holland to the lord protector, as they have confessed themselves in their
letter, after that they were advertised of opposition and protests, which were here made
against it; and it may be, the same was done after the express command to the contrary of
their H. and M. lordships; because they do not precisely express the time when they exhibited the same, as they ought to have done; neither can their particular employment bear
them out in what they have done, as being distinct on the behalf of the province of Hol
land and West Friesland, as they have alledged, that being quite contrary to the union;
which, if it were admitted, would prove of dangerous consequence to the state. And since
the said states of Zealand, after most serious examination of the said act, having a copy of
the same, that was sent over, they do find the same to be grounded upon such pure and
unavoidable necessity, as that thereupon would depend irresistibly the continuation of war
with England, and the peace rendered desperate; and having likewise considered, that the
said seclusion is opposite and contrary to the antient confederacies particularly erected
between the provinces of Holland and Zealand, the said states of Zealand do therefore
declare with very much sorrow, to see themselves obliged to disallow and disapprove (for
the maintaining of general and particular union, as whereon the peace and security of the
state do depend) of all separate and underhand negotiation; as also they do protest against
all inconveniencies, breaches, and divisions, that may happen thereby, as well abroad as at
home. They do also earnestly desire, that the states of Holland would speedily and really
forsake their said design to prevent the same; that so all farther dissention might be
thereby avoided, and that a perfect and intire amity and correspondence might be restored
between the provinces, and the government reduced to its first lustre, and their reputation
preserved; and that especially the union might be maintained, as being the only prop,
upon which the building of this state is laid, and after a war of eighty years is brought
to that height of prosperity, wherein the same is at present: whereunto doth particularly
belong that costly lesson, which the emperor Charles, so wise a prince, and so great a
lover of these Netherlands, did leave with them, when he left them in the year 1555. concerning their most necessary inseparable conjunctions, unity, and concord. And as long
as they have steered that course, the blessing of God hath still been with them, and hath
preserved them in their paternal liberties against the designs of mighty potentates; and
when at any time they have gone astray, and turned from that course, they have been still
brought into danger of ruin and destruction to fall upon them: for prevention whereof,
the states of Zealand do crave God's blessing upon all the consederates in general, and
each in particular; and that he would open their eyes of the understanding, to see the truth
aright in all affairs, and to do to every one according to their qualities, which right and
reason do require.
Thus done and resolved in the assembly of their noble mighty lordships the states of
Zealand and Middleburgh, the 22d June, 1654. [N. S.]
By order of the states,