July (3 of 6)
An intercepted letter to mr. Thomas Brookes, under the name of mr. William Matthews.
July 20, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxviii. p. 316.
Though this place affords not any news at present, yet I could not omit writing,
to certify you, that all our friends through mercy are in reasonable good health.
The lieutenant is out of town. Mr. Rich telleth me there is not any news. He with the
rest present their love to you, and think it needless to write till they hear from you; however, I knowing how acceptable a line is from friends at such a distance, have writ,
though of business can say no more than was in my last, unto which I refer you.
Fleetwood, lord deputy of Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxviii. p. 324.
My brother Cromwell being thorough mercye safely arrived, I find he hath his
military commission bearing date about September last; but though I had the
three pounds a day formerly, yett by the last establishment it was reduced, and only the
ten pounds a day continued; and therefore I desire you will procure the councell's orders,
that his pay may be established from the date of his commission, otherwise the tresurors at
warr will not allow thereof, but money at present issued only on account. I could wish (if
his highnes intends any thing shal be done, either as to the armye's reducement, or setting
up the courts of justice before I goe for England) it might be suddenly sent, for after the
middle of September my wife will not be fitt for travell. I beleave it wil be expected,
that an issue wil be put to both these things, before I leave this place. My time in regard to my wife's condition being but short, makes me the more to presse for a resolution, who am
July 11, 1655.
Your affectionate freind and servant,
A Letter of intelligence from the Hague.
Saturday, July 17, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxviii. p. 230.
There was none but Holland alone almost, that was against the orders of the council
of state, for making retorsion against the country of Limburgh. Holland did conclude very well, that the retroacts should be perused; and that in the mean time all things
should remain in the same condition, but the orders of the council of state are already
sent; and they do presuppose that those orders are gone far, yea that they are already
put in execution.
They will finally resolve this day in the assembly of Holland concerning the alliance
with Brandenburgh; and fearing left that might give offence to the protector, they have
resolved to write to the lord embassador Nieuport to communicate the same to the protector, and to let him know, that they were sain to do it to countermine the design of
Sweden, and to invite him to join in the alliance to be made with Denmark against the
designs of Sweden.
Those of Holland (although sunday) did resolve or rather conclude in the assembly of
the states general, (although almost all alone without the consent of the other provinces)
that the retorsion against those of Limburgh shall be suspended, and this resolution was
insinuated yesterday, without resumption, to the president of the council of state. But the
said council do but laugh at it, having sent away their orders already to do the same.
There hath not been yet any thing mentioned to day in the assembly concerning
the treaty with Brandenburgh, although the same was prest in the behalf of the elector.
Now there is advice come, that captain Tromp hath five ships under him at sea, sailing
towards the North and towards the Sound.
From the college of the admiralty at Amsterdam are come three commissioners Vander
Houve, Herberts, and secretary de Wilde: they have had audience of the states general,
and made complaint, that they do not receive any money to finish the building of the
new ships, demanding 252,000 guilders. They have begun to debate about the present
to be given to the young prince of Tarante. They have proposed a present of 2000 (fn. 1)
guilders, in a silver bason, and 1000 guilders per ann. Holland spoke of 500 (fn. 2) guilders
The treaty with Brandenburgh will be at present in the hands of those of Amsterdam.
The taking of St. Domingo doth not please those of Amsterdam. Most do hold it for
a tale; and if it be taken, that the English will not be able to keep it.
They are to confer again with the lord Rosenvinge, concerning the Baltick affairs.
The council of state being required to advise upon the memorandum of the lord embassador of Spain, hath drawn up, and this day exhibited a very long writing, containing a whole narrative and deduction or reasoning of what and for what they have ordered
to make retorsion against those of Limburgh; although that yet the same is only a
summons. The substance of the narration is, that before God and men they are obliged
to vindicate the right of this state by the retorsion. The time failed to day to read it,
but to morrow it will be produced to be read.
Holland likewise hath been summoned to declare themselves concerning the treaty with
Brandenburgh. Whereupon those of Holland made answer, that to morrow they should
be ready to produce their advice.
Prince Maurice hath been heard before commissioners, and hath made report of the
bad condition he found the horse in, and that, in a word, neither the men nor the horse
were worth any thing.
To those of the admiralty of Amsterdam those of Holland have signified and promised
to furnish the necessary money for the building of the ships.
Concerning the education of the young prince of Orange, those of Zealand did exhibitlately a writing. Upon that those of Holland did answer, that therein was already provided, and that that care belonged to the tutor and governesses. Item, to his council
ordinary and extraordinary; and when they failed of their duty, that there were godfathers, who, according to Christian duty, would take care.
Holland hath also named commissioners to examine the proposition of those of Overyssel
lately made unto them.
The difference of Gorcum is as good as accommodated. There are certain satisfactions
(in effect ceremonious and imaginary) given to the court; the rest is in the hands of the
gentlemen, Cant, Moons, and de Raet, to accommodate the same.
The lord Beverning hath again seen the lord Rosenvinge, communicating unto him,
that the state had writ to the lord Nieuport, to found the protector concerning the preparations of the Swedes, and that they did still desire to know what the king of Denmark
had answered to the Swedish minister, in regard he had admonished the king not to suffer
any foreign ships in the Sound; whereupon the lord Rosenvinge did reiterate, not to know
properly any thing; but that the king his master hath great cause to look after his own
business, and his preservation; and that upon this state there is so little ground to be
made, in regard, that having resolved to send 10 or 12 men of war at the beginning of
April and May, there are hardly five ready at present; and that it were better to keep
those five where they are, than to suffer them to be beaten by the Swedes.
Yer I know very well, that the Danes do incite Holland very much to set forth a
great fleet to maintain Prussia, or otherwise that the Swedes will drive all the trade of
Holland to the English and others, in giving great exemption to others, and by laying the
burthen upon the Hollanders.
Those of Holland and Zealand are to introduce this day the lord president Pau into
the high council.
The lord of Beverweert is appointed to accommodate the quarrel between the earl of
Flodrof and monsieur Dorp, who were ready to go to cuffs on sunday last before the
Bordeaux to his son, the French embassador in England.
July 22, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxviii. p. 330.
I Cannot satisfy myself with your abode any longer in London after such positive orders for
your retreat; but not knowing any certain news of the intentions of the court, which
I suppose may be altered since your last orders, I cannot give you any counsel, you must
take it according to the knowledge of the state of all things, and I conceive that you ought
to consider the silence of the king, to be a sufficient ground of distaste against you for not
following directly the orders which are sent you, so that you do pass in their opinions for
a man too young and uncapable of the management of so great a business. In short you
are generally blamed here to suffer such delays in the signing of your treaty; and it is
ridiculous for you to give so much credit to their discourse, wherein they have so often
sailed you. I can add no more at present, having been from home these five or six weeks.
An intercepted letter from R. Whitehouse to mr. Brookes.
London, July 12, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxviii. p. 33.
I Received yours, and delivered the enclosed. The parties concerned seemed to be satisfied;
and I doubt not, but that the instrument is in much better tune than it was. It hath
and shall be my endeavour to hinder any breaking out to the hurt of our neighbours. I
have acquainted the merchant with your intentions. Mr. K. hath been out of town these
three weeks, but by the next you will hear of him. There is order taken about the H.
it shall come up with all speed. I shall not further trouble you, but to let you know, &c.
The examination of Thomas and Edward Carter, of Enford, in the county of Wilts.
Vol. xxviii. p. 282.
Thomas and Edward Carter, of Enford, in the county of Wilts, inform, that
on sunday before the rebellion at Sarum, there met at mr. Clarke's of the said Enford, who was engaged in the said rebellion, one mr. Henry Mills of Netherhaven, and
mr. Scardivill of Feilding in the said county, both which persons stayed at the said mr.
Clarke's till it was late in the evening that day, but their business there these informers
know not. This information was taken July 12, 1655. per me,
The said persons, namely mr. Mills and mr. Scardivill, were taken up by the sheriff of
Wilts as suspected upon the insurrection, and have given in bond to him to appear before
his highness or council when called.
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxviii. p. 338.
I THINK I omitted in my former letters to giv you notis, that I sent hom alongst with
his highnes horses a couple of Napollitan groomes to dres, govern, and look to them by
the way, for which they ar to hav nyn Naples duccats a man per month, so long as they
shal bi deteyned in attendance of the said horses. When you discharge them, theyr passage
is to bi given them fre for Naples. Thes ar mere fallary men, and in no other manner you may please to look upon them. The duccat of Naples is worth about 5 s. and 6 d.
The Spanish affairs in the duchy of Millan grow worse and worse. The French and
Modenes ar now joined, and mak up nere 25,000 fyhting men. They ar within 3 myles
of the citty of Millan. The Spanyard, that could mak ten thousand, now cannot fynd
six thousand soldiors at his command. 'Tis said they hav given armes to about 30 thousand
cittisens and fryers, who 'tis thoht, if the French will let them mak an Itallian prince of
their own choosing, wil be the first to dryv out the Spanyard from Naples. 'Tis advysed
20 ships and 16 gallyes ar on departure towards Porto Longone, wher they ar to meet 10
sail of other ships from Spayn, who ar to join together, and wait the motion of the
French fleet; others say they ar to go for Cattalonia. I believ the exigency of the Spanish affaires hav need of theyr help in more places then one. The suden los of Landresi,
a town of so great import in Flanders, doth much lessen the Spanish credit in Itally. 'Tis
most certain, that the syv French gallyes, which carryed soldiers latly for Cattalonia,
wer al lost in theyr coming back, many peeces of theyr wrack being daily taken up about
Sardinia. Ther could not be les then 400 men in each gally.
Here is arryved in town one doctor Bayly from Rom, which was reported to be sent
thether by his hyhnes, and is now com hether for credit. I am,
Leghorn, July 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Your most faithful servant,
An extrordinary post cam this week from Madrid, with newes how general Blak behaved himself in a kynd of hostil way. 'Tis very probable this post may carry order to
feiz upon our nation at Naples.
An intercepted letter.
Calais, July 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xvxiii. p. 342.
Yesterday there came to this town a cousin of your nephew's, and I have already received a
summons to remove from hence: however I conclude not to stir till monday come
fev'night. If I see you not by that time, you shall understand by the master of the house
at the sign of the Ship, whither you are to steer your course, which will not be much further than this place. I suppose my sunday's friend is returned to your parts; if so, desire
him to let your master, if occasion be, know where to find him. I would desire you how
to contrive a course to write to Stephen: desire your nephew not wholly to credit the
gentleman, who presented me with a cheese. I should be glad to see your nephew. Good
cousin, God send us a good meeting.
Stephens to mrs. Weldon, at the three Pigeons
in Hart Street.
The prince of Condé to monsieur Barriere, his agent in England.
From the camp near Mons, July 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxviii. p. 350.
I have nothing news to send you, but the siege of Capelle; there are 1000 foot in
the place, and besides monsieur de Bouteville, who is at Avesne with a flying camp,
hath slung into it two regiments of dragoons, under which are fifty French officers. This
is enough for so small a place as Capelle. The governor whereof is monsieur de Chamilly,
a gallant man, who defended Stenay the least year, whereof the counterscarp alone lasted
21 days, having but a handful of men to defend it.
I cannot yet write you an answer by this post upon the subject of 64. 88. 55. 70.
42. 66. 92. p. 32. but without fail by the next.
Chanut, the French embassador in Holland, to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
Hague June 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxviii. p. 354.
My lord Nieuport, in his letter of the 16th to the states general, hath writ, that he
knew that the lord protector had taken the resolution, and likewise had caused an
order to be made for the calling in of all letters of marque, from whence they do conclude
here that our treaty is infallible. First, I consider that mr. de Nieuport knew this particular (if it be true) and it had not been communicated unto you. In the second place, I
perceive the trouble you have had to agree the article, which doth concern those of the
religion in France, and the servency which the lord protector doth declare in the business
of Savoy, and in the end that the English assaulting the Spaniards in the Indies doth
cause men to believe that they will have a peace with us. And of all this I do frame an
imagination, that the lord protector removing the difficulty, which did trouble us, by
causing the letters of marque to cease, and being assured that if he take no more of our ships,
that we will not declare open war with him, according to the opinion which he hath of
it, he will defer henceforward, more and more, the signing of the treaty, and will not be
angry that you withdraw, without concluding at present, and tell you, that you may return to make an end when those businesses, which do hinder it at present, will be more
clear. But my lord, I wish the contrary, and that you may finish your treaty without
making any return.
Count Brienne to Bordeaux, the French embassador in England.
La Fere, July 23, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxviii. p. 364.
Your letter of the 15th, which came to hand but late last night, I shall have answered
in few words, having only to tell you, that by my last I gave you to understand,
that his majesty doth very much long to have you make an end of your negotiation, and
cannot suffer any longer delays without prejudice to his honour, nor can we think of any
provisoes than what we have already made known unto you. I do very much wonder,
that the lord protector hath not yet had any news of his envoy into Piedmont. He hath
been very well received there, likewise he did speak very civilly, and it is likely, that the
business that brought him thither will be accommodated, if the Hugonots of the Vallies,
who are driven from thence, will be contented with reason.
The king goes for Guise within a day or two. We shall know what will be resolved
on at the council of war, which is to be held in his presence. I pray do me the favour
to obtain the freedom of monsieur Lauviliers Poincy, cousin to the general de Poincy,
of the island of St. Christopher, who was taken aboard a French ship, and is brought
Bordeaux, the French embassador in England, to Lionne, the French embassador at Rome.
Vol. xxviii. p. 370.
I WILL assure you likewise, that on my part there shall happen no interruption in our
correspondence; and to the end that it may be the freer, although my abode here in
England is very uncertain, I will not fail to send you a character by the next post. I can
in the mean time tell you, that my negotiation is still in the same condition, and hindred
by the same considerations, which my foregoing have signisied unto you. And that the
protector doth pretend to send into Switzerland to confer with the protestant cantons,
about the means to re-establish with security the inhabitants of the Vallies of Angrogne,
&c. before he will come to a conclusion. It may be his offices will be prevented by those
of his majesty, and the accommodation will be made, if the said inhabitants do become
We have here yet no certain news of the landing of admiral Penn. The reports thereof
are various; some say, that he is beaten, others, that he hath taken St. Domingo. Blake's
being upon the coast of Cadiz doth likewise give jealousy there.
As for the affairs of England, here do still appear some small agitations, the chiefest
of the nobility being imprisoned, the meaner sort are sent out of the town 20 miles
from hence. These precautions are attributed to some conspiracy discovered against the
government. In the mean time, men do expect with impatience to know the intentions of the protector. He hath seemed to recall the private letters of marque against
the French, and this in favour of the lords of Holland. It were to be wished, that this
revocation were general.
July 23, 1655. [N.S.]
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
Vol. xxviii. p. 334.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, since my last several lords and gentlemen, who were secured in sundry
places, are dismissed to their houses and habitations; and in the beginning of this
week came out the inclosed proclamation or ordinance of the lord protector, whereby it
is ordered, that those that have headed the party of the king, or his sons, or have
assisted them willingly and knowingly, shall withdraw themselves from London and Westminster, and all places that are 20 miles round about the same, and repair to those places
where they are born, except those that are used to live constantly with their families in
the said places and districts. And all officers are earnestly commanded to keep constant
search, and to make a strict enquiry, if the said ordinance be contravened, and those
that afterwards shall be apprehended, shall be punished as disturbers of the publick authority. I am informed, that letters from Tunis, of the 2d of July, import, that the
dey and bashaw have at length settled affairs with some English merchants, after the departure of admiral Blake; and that one mr. Woodhouse is again admitted there as consul
of the English nation. I am told further, that the East India company here has got letters
from Persia, intimating, that a certain person was arrived at the court of the king of
Persia, who pretends to be an embassador of king Charles, to demand, as it is said, the
duties of the toll at Ormus. The same was called formerly sir Henry Band, but now he
is titled lord Bellamont. Among the merchants here at the Exchange, there is news,
that the stay of admiral Blake upon the coast of Spain causes great jealousy; and some
are afraid, that the effects of the merchants of this nation will be seized; but they are
already forewarned, a great while ago, that they should not hazard much money in those
parts. Concerning the taking of St. Domingo in Hispaniola, or any other enterprises in
the Spanish West Indies, there is no further news nor confirmation arrived here since my
last. The governor of Hull has written to the lord protector, that a Swedish ship, having
on board fifteen or sixteen horses, and some of the baggage of the lord embassador Bonde,
had been forced by storm to make that harbour.
Major general Fleetwood arrived here on tuesday last. And by this present east wind
it is daily expected, that the said embassador will be here very soon himself.
Mr. Coyet told me, that he was to lodge in part of the house of the earl of Dorset,
which he had hired for three months.
I am informed, that the quarter-master-general of the camp, mr. Downing, is to set
out one of these days for Savoy, to settle a certain regulation, concerning the distribution
of the money collected here for the poor Waldenses; and that doctor Whistler will be sent
to the king of France.
Westminster, July 23,
1655. [N. S.]
High and mighty lords, &c.
Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to the states general.
Vol. xxviii. p. 362.
High and mighty lords,
My lords, doctor Godofridus Snellius, counsellor and magistrate of the city of Alckmaer, has delivered me your high mightinesses letter of the 7th instant on the 20th
following; and whereas I had heard nothing at all of the seizure of the ship called the
House of Shuyden, which is mentioned at large in your high mightinesses said letter, I
enquired immediately, whether notice touching the same was given to the government
or the court of admiralty here, and found, that by way of notification only, in the
court of admiralty it was reported, some days ago, that captain Thomas Amyes, being a
private ship with a commission, had carried into Guernsey a ship belonging to the subjects
of France, called, les trois Marchands, without any thing further being heard of it: but,
upon nearer application, I was informed, that one captain Philips here was the chief owner
of the said commissioned vessel, and that a certain young man, who has been super-cargo of
the aforesaid ship, the House of Shuyden, was arrived here. That the same person had told,
that the master of the said ship had pacified the said captor with a sum of money; and that
he with the said ship and cargo was released, and sailed to pursue his voyage. And, in
order to get the better information of what has happened, yesterday a particular friend
has written to St. Malo. I have enquired, for two days running, after the said captain
Philips, to hear what advice or information he might have received, or what pretension
he can make against the said ship and cargo; but hitherto I have not been able to find
him out. In the mean while, I assure your high mightinesses, that I will assist the said
interressed to the utmost of my abilities.
Westminster, July 23,
1655. [N. S.]
High and mighty lords, &c.
An intercepted letter from mr. Leo. Williams to mr. Thomas Brooks.
London, July 13, 1655.
Vol. xxviii. p. 62.
Although I have no very great hopes, that this shall come to your hands, yet I had
rather be thought impertinent than negligent, especially by yourself, who have done
so many favours for me, and from whom I expect so much constant employment from you
abroad, if God send you and your estate well home. Your promise, I hope, you will not
forget, any more than I do to pray for our prosperity. And now I have no business,
I must crave pardon, if I trouble you with a little of our country news, some of which
is very good, as the banishment of all cavaliers from the city for three months, and the
securing the chiefest of them in the countries; so as 'tis hoped now, we shall have all
peace at home, and with our next neighbours the French; but the Spaniard will be
cozened, if he thinks, there is no more to do, but to go to the Indies, and fetch home
gold. I have no more to present you with at present, but the good news of all your
An intercepted letter from mr. Thomas Somes to mr. Thomas Brooks.
July 13, 1655.
Vol. xxviii. p. 64.
I Received yours, that told us, you were just going your intended voyage for the perfecting all accompts with your creditors in Spain, which I do very well approve of,
and shall be very glad to hear you end well there; for 'tis much doubted, the breach will
be so wide there, as it will not long be hid. The treaty with France is in a very good
forwardness, and expected suddenly to end in peace: therefore if you think fit, you
may order your trade accordingly. I have little more to inform you than what I wrote
the last week. We hope our trade will be good, because we are quiet, and like to be so:
for his highness takes a short way to prevent all disturbances; all the old malignants being
either in custody, or confined not to come within 20 miles of London. And sure all
others will be in time satisfied; for if we thrive in the West Indies, as it is much hoped,
there will be enough for every man.
The Venetian resident to the protector.
Vol. xxviii. p. 368.
La serenissima republica di Venetia, che hà sempre conservata sincera l'intencione per
la buona corrispondenza sempre havuta con l'Inghilterra, et che sempre con particolar contento hà inteso i prosperi successi di questo stato, ne quali il gran valor dell
altezza vostra hà havuto la parte principale, et meritevolmente l'hà habilità nel grado di
suprema stima, et auttorità nella quale è universalmto riconosciuta; mi hà ultimamente commesso di dover riconfermare all'altezza vostra, questi suoi sinceri sentimenti, et di più
aggiongerle, che à testimonio conspicuo della perseverante volontà della ferenissima republica di nudrire, et di augummentare una buona perfetta amicitia, con l'altezza vostra
li haveva destinato per suo ambasciator extraordinario l'eccellentissimo signor cavalier
Sagredo che di Francia doverà passare all'altezza vostra accioche nella vicinanza, & nel
commodo d'essequirsi dall' eccellenza sua gl' ordini publici resti con la prontezza maggiore
comprobata la stima della serenissima republica, verso il merito sublime dell' altezza vostra,
la quale persuasa dal suo zelo pietoso, e generoso confida l'eccellentissimo senato, mostrerà
dispositione, e rissolutioni affettuosa per giovare a gl. interressi della sua giusta guerra
contro turchi nemici communi, il che come servirà al bene di tutta cristianità, cosi
per l'operato di già dall'armi di vostra altezza sono, e seranno all' Inghilterra presente
eterne li glorie, et al gran nome dell'altezza vostra continui gl. applausi, e le benedittioni.
Londra li 13/23 Luglio, 1655.
Humilissimo devotissimo servitor,
Lorenzo Pauluzzi ressidente di Venetia.
The Venetian embassador to the protector.
Vol. xxviii. p. 694.
Principal commissione impartitami dalla serenissima republica di Venetia, è quella di
rappresentar a vostra altezza, come piace à Dio, che doppo undeci anni d'ostinatissima
guerra, ella faccia scudo à tutta la Christianite, è sola resista alla prepotenza de Turchi.
Questi infedelissimi barbari, che non hanno per fine, che l'oppressione del christianesimo
moltiplicano, i, sforzi per soggiogare interamente il regno di Candia, Antemurale
dell' Italia, è porta, per dove l'infidiosa forza Turchesca può spingerzi all' oppressione della
miglior parte dell' Europa.
Per anco quella principal isola combatte, è resiste, ma il total' abbandono, nel quale
viene lasciata da prencipi Christiani; la forza potente de' Turchi, è la lunghezza della
guerra, che infiachisce sempre più il vigore della republica, dano gran foggetto à dubitare, che anco quel regno Christiano non habbia, dà, sinalmente aggiungersi à tanti altri,
che gemono fotto il pesante giogo Turchesco, che la forza, per altro, grande, è vasto
dell' Ottomano, non divenga per questo nuovo considerabil' acquisto formidabile, et
La disesa costante, che la sola serenissima republica hà fatto sin' hora, contro un monarca
cosi potente, è un lume posto da Dio inanzi à gl'ochi della Christianità, per che
conoscano i prencipi, esser questo il vero tempo di liberar dal giogo tanti migliara de
Christiani, è di riscatar le più belle provincie del mondo dalla schiavitù, che le incatena.
Il zelo, che vostra altezza, tiene per la fede Christiana, quella pietà, è quella religione,
che sono, i più belli freggi, che adornino ii suo generosissimo animo, allumeranno quel
santo fuoco, che accenderà il suo gran coraggio, è che darà il fillo alla fua valorossima
spada, che non può combatter più gloriosamente, quanto à favore dell' evangelo.
Non verrà mai congiuntura piu propitia per abbatere l'impero Ottomano, mentre
stanco sotto il peso d'undeci anni di guerra, diretto dal consiglio di femine; essausto
di soldati, di denaro, se malamente può resistere alla sola republica, è argomento infallibile, che converrebbe cedere alla forza, et all' armi vittoriose di vostra Altezza.
Ella non può render immortale il suo nome, ne coronare di maggior gloria, le ultime
attioni della sua vita, quanto col inviar una slotta de vascelli di questo stato, che unita
all' armata della republica, accorri à far scudo alla fede Christiana violentemente insidiata
dalla prepotenza Turchesca. Una piccolia parte delle gran forze maritime, che Dio
hà date all' Inghilterra, può aggiunger tanto vigore al Christianesimo, che trionsi dell' Ottomana impietà. Et una attione cosi illustre, è cosi eroica, come quella di dimostrarsi
l'unico difensore dell' evangelo, è loppugnatore dell' infedeltà, porterebbe il nome di vostra
altezza, al posto più rillevato di gloria, è d'applauso, è coronerebbe la sua spada
L. P. R. di Venetia.
The Venetian embassador to the protector.
Vol. xxviii. p. 698.
Mi è stata à mesi passati consignata una raccommandatione di vostra altezza à favore
d'un capitano di nave Inglese. Ne scrissi con efficacia, e non ostante le angustie,
che per ordinario accompagnano una lunga guerra, hà egli di già conseguita una parte
del suo credito in testimonio della stima, che la Republica fà delle raccomandamenti di
vostra altezza, e del desiderio ch' ella tiene di dargli ogni più aperto argomento di sua
affettuosa dispositione verso di lei.
Si terminò pure la campagna in Levante con disuantaggio de Turchi, et oltre gli acquistr
fatti nel combattimento all' imboccatura de Dardanelli; la presa, et il sacheggiamto della
Piazza del volo, se gli son prese due galere con apprestamenti di guerra, e diversi altri
vascelli, che solcavano il mare, non lasciando sua divina maestà di far spiccare la sua divina
clemenza, col dar modo alla republica di far scudo à tutta la forza Ottomana, e di fostener
sola le ragioni del Christianesimo tutto. Piaccia a Dio, che altre volte istillo nel coraggio
di vostra altezza, la distruttione de corsari gloriosamente battuti dalle di lei flotte in Algeri,
di valersi altra volta della sua spada, a difesa dell' evangelo, et ad' oppressione della Turchesca barbarie.
E folito che gl' ambasri portano le doglianze de mercanti sudditti del prencipe, che rappresentano, per le perdite fatte, sopra le navi Olandesi prese nella passata guerra. A me
tocca rappresentare a vostra altezza che il carattere d' ambasre non hà potuto essentarmi
dalla perdita di due colli di mobili da uso caricati sopra una nave Olandese, et incaminati
in Amsterdam per parigi dove mi trovavo ambasre, qual restò preda delle flotte di questo
stato, come vostra altezza refterà pienamento informata dalla lettera scritta da me al parlamento in data 7 Febraro 1653. e dalla risposta dello stesso parlamento 23 Marzo che faranno in copia.
Circa la qual risposta concernente, che quelli' ch' hanno havuta la nave in consegna,
hanno detto di non haver ritrovati sopra, i miei colli, tre cose devo rappresentar a vostra
La prima, che se sono stati divisi, e venduti, non è meraviglia, che non si siano ritrovati, certa cosa essendo, come per fede del mercante, che li hà caricati, e del suo corrispondente d'Amsterdam ch' hebbe l'ordine di riceverli, che si trovavano nella nave,
quando fù presa; e come si può vedere dal libro del Carico, che si trova appresso l'amiralità di Londra. E quando anco si desiderassero prove maggiori, assicuro vostra altezza,
che una parte delli sodetti miei beni si trova in qualche casa di Londra; effendovi testimonii di questa natione, che sanno, cosa à stato fatto de fodetti miei colli.
La seconda, che non v'era pur' un' huomo in tutta la Francia, che non credesse, ch' io
dovessi esser il primo ad' ottener la restitutione del mio, trattandosi di cose da uso appartenenti ad' un ambasre, che secondo la prattica del mondo, sono tenute per sacre, e trattandofi di valsente di poca consideratione, mentre le mie perdite non ascendono, che al valore
di cento cinquanta lire sterline, quali mi premono molto più per l'effempio, è per il torto
fatto al carattere di ministro publico, che per il poco valore, che contengono.
La terra ch' hò sempre creduto, che li particolari sodetti non siano mai pervenuti all'
orecchie di vostra altezza notami per altro, la sua infinita bontà, è la cortesia pratticata da
lei co ministri de' prencipi.
L. P. R. di Venetia.
Lord chief justice St. John to secretary Thurloe.
In the possession of the right honourable Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great Britain.
I Spoke to his highnes about the Custos brevium office. He likte the motion; he likewise gave way for your running to grasse a fortnight or 3 weekes in August, which I
beseech you make use of. I shall, God willing, bee about Thorp about the middle of
August; and if your circuite be that way, it would be great contentment to me to meete
you in those parts. Sir, I am even now going out of towne. If I had libertie to have
seene you, I should have sayd somthing more. Sir, I rest
July 13, 1655.
Your affectionate freinde and servant,
Ol. St. John.
Mr. O. B. to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxviii. p. 414.
Havinge considered of what you proposed to me, concerning the matter of trade,
I shall render you the results of my thoughts, forbearing to mention the reasons,
which were too tedious to insert. Therefore I have drawne up and doe send you hear inclossed a paper, wheareby you may see, what I doe conceave your best waye, to fett one
worke some able persons to offerr theire thoughts unto you, which they may conveniently doe in three monthes after they are heare mett. But fearinge I am too longe
and troublsome, I shall refer the enlardgement to some other oppertunity. I cannot
omit to acquainte you, that your fleet (wherin coll. Homphris is) went from Waymothe
saterday the 7th of this month.
I pray dispatch my busines, that I may have a littell tyme in the country, for I finde my
selfe not well. I shall add, that I remaine
Westminster, July 13, 1655.
Your affectionate and homble servant,
Mr. Longland, agent at Leghorn, to secretary Thurloe.
Vol. xxviii. p. 446.
Doctor Bayly is com hither from Rom, purposly for credit in my hands, which he
faith you promist to send him. He has been very free with me in informing me
of thos great commands, which you have layd upon him at Rom. To acquaint you
fully therewith, he has taken som paynes this day to giv you a large account in wryting,
which he would hav me send yow for Ingland by a man expresse, which I should hav bin
very forward to do, had I had but the left intimation from yourself, that this gentleman
wer employed by you. However I now send away a man to Genoa, with thes letters, to
overtak the French ordinary ther: so I hope they wil com as saf to your hands, as if
they went by a man a purpos. I shal lykewys furnish this gentleman with 20 or 30 l. upon
that score, that by his own relation, only he belongs to you; and if he proves not the
man he pretends to be, I must hav patience. However pray be plesed to giv me answer
to this bisnes, that I may know how to carry myself hereafter therein; for to improv my
weak endevours to the ful in your servis is the ernest desyre of,
Leghorn, July 24, 1655. [N. S.]
Your most faithful servant,
Nicholas Heinsius, the Dutch resident in Sweden, to the states general.
Stockholm, July 14/24, 1655.
Vol. xxviii. p. 440.
High and Mighty lords,
My lords, upon the 9/19 of this month in the morning the king set fail out of the
Dalers: the fleet divided into squadrons; and in regard that the wind hath blown
very fair ever since, here is no doubt made, but that the king is safely landed ere now.
It is thought he will either land at Wolgas or Stetin in Pomerania.
Some few days since great damage hath happened to the copper mines of this kingdom,
which will be no small loss both to the king, and particular men. It seems that the
works are fallen down, the damage is not well to be known.
Yesterday I received your high and mighty lordships resolution to go for Germany,
which I shall observe with as much speed as may be.
President Viole to Barriere.
Brussels, July 14/24, 1655.
Vol. xxviii. p. 442.
I AM glad that 48 doth not meet with these difficulties, which you write of; but I
fear that 47 doth not meet with no less. 45 doth remain firm to 96, no body doth
speak any thing more to him.
Since the taking of Landrecy, the French army hath spent some time to victual the
place and to fill the lines. It is said that the king hath been there. On wednesday last the
enemy laid siege to the Capelle, and it is said that the Mareschal of la Ferte is to manage
that siege, and the mareschal Turenne hath another design, which I do not believe, for
the one or the other would run the hazard of being beaten.
H. Willemsen, Rosenwinge, and Petrus Charisius, to the states general.
Read, July 24, 1655. [N. S.]
Vol. xxviii. p. 420.
High and mighty lords,
Upon the special command of his majesty our most gracious king and sovereign, we
the underwritten on the 18/28 of April last past, in a publick audience made a report
to your high mightinesses by word of mouth, and afterwards delivered also in writing a
certain proposition with sundry circumstances, relating to that known seizure and detention
of the English ships at Copenhagen, coming from the Baltick, granted in the year 1652,
at the repeated request of the respective deputies and resident of your high mightinesses,
Nanning Keyser, and Frederick de Vries, out of which said ships and their cargo
thus seized, and out of the produce thereof, according to the proposition and approbation
of the said mr. Keyser himself, was made payment and brought over to account for the
loss and damage suffered by the subjects of his royal majesty of Denmark and Norway,
&c. by the reprisals of the English, during the war between the two republicks. We
were in confident hopes, that your high mightinesses would have granted us a favourable
answer in writing, upon our said proposition, for a final liquidation of the said pretensions,
and in order to prevent all misunderstanding, and what further may result therefrom, to
the disturbance of the mutual good understanding and neighbourly friendship and correspondence between his said majesty our most gracious sovereign and this state: nevertheless we observe not without surprise and sorrow the contrary, and seeing that in the
last conference with their high mightinesses deputies, the lords Beverning, the counsellor
pensionary de Witt and Vierssen, were delivered to us certain copies and extracts out of
sundry documents and former acts, consisting in a number of fifteen pieces, whereby
their lordships intended to demonstrate, that his said majesty could not form by law nor
under any colour of reason, any pretension on the said English ships and goods, nor on
the produce thereof, nor on what is out of the same delivered to his majesty's subjects, in
payment, but on the contrary, that his majesty was obliged to make a full and punctual
restitution of the same, without making the least reflection how and from whom his
majesty was to take his satisfaction, for the losses his subjects have suffered, and other
things which the said lords deputies endeavoured to prove by the said documents. But
every thing being well examined and considered by impartial arbitrators, such an uncharitable construction can never be inforced from thence, which is but now only started,
after the conclusion of the peace with England, contrary to all foregoing promises, protestations, and at several times reiterated, and even by their high mightinesses themselves
ratified acts of guaranty and indemnity, endeavouring at present to lessen and extenuate
such an act of friendship and considerable service, shewed and done by his said majesty,
by such a resolute step, even to the hazard of his own kingdoms, and with the utmost
ruin and destruction of innumerable subjects and their commerce.
However in order to demonstrate, though there be no need for it, by particular refutations, that the said respective retroacta and documents are intirely irrelevant, the same,
as they are especially and orderly distinguished, to the number of 15 articles, shall be
answered, and the insufficiency thereof plainly proved, be it that they are considered
either separately or jointly.
Number 1, 2, and 3.
The contents therefore of number 1, 2, and 3, may be intirely applied in favour
and behalf of his royal majesty, since thereby their high mightinesses do expresly confirm, and by a special resolution approve and ratify the promises and protestations of the
said mr. Nanning de Keyser, that their high mightinesses, with all their power and forces,
shall and will assist his said majesty, and avert all that any ways may happen to his
said majesty of Denmark, for and on account of what he shall do in the premisses.
And that their high mightinesses at all occurrences will endeavour to shew themselves
grateful to his said majesty for that service.
Wherein respectively are repeated, and ought to be minded, the words, all that any ways,
which naturally and properly contain a general sense, nothing in the world excepted, but
comprehending all emergencies, without distinction, especially such cases, which after the
said seizure which was desired, must unavoidably follow, and which already happened,
and were effectually existent, by the detention of the Danish ships.
So that the feriousness and earnestness of their high mightinesses request being expresly
declared and manifested by their guaranty and indemnification, the pretended allegation,
that in behalf of his majesty nothing could be produced in writing, for the justification
of his demands and desire of liquidation, doth intirely fall of itself.
It being likewise far from all appearance or likelihood, that his royal majesty, without
assurance of guaranty, would or could have acted thus only and merely in consideration
of their high mightinesses, since the appearance of the ruin of many merchants and subjects
of his majesty could inevitably be foreseen.
Besides this, the said intervening promise of indemnity, as being grounded upon reason,
justice, and equity, even without any previous express stipulation, ought to have been
made good by their high mightinesses since it cannot be presumed, that any body to his
own great prejudice and loss, would promote the advantage and profit of another, especially
because natural equity itself dictates to the contrary, that no body ought to be a loser by
his kindness and good actions, but that the loss must be borne by him, to whom the advantage doth devolve, since loss and profit are relatively reciprocal.
So that it can no ways be sustained, that the offence given to the republick of England, and
the law of retorsion or reprisals was an unforeseen accident, because the same in the treaty of
guaranty I produced under numb. 4. was not mentioned, nor any sufficient obligation entered
into; on the contrary, it is evident, that the affirmative promise of indemnity was the only
fundamental cause of the guaranty, and therefore it is presupposed, that a preceding assurance
of indemnity, with all circumstances and accidental incidents, is tacitly comprehended in the
said treaty, at least the efficacy of such reiterated and formal promises cannot be made
illusive or frustrated by any following confederation, extended generaliter & per modum
relationis, for otherwise the said promise of guaranty would be intirely fruitless and
without force, which would involve a notorious absurdity. And the reason why the said
point of indemnity is not repeated, or expresly inserted, in the said treaty, was, because
the said mr. de Keyser, for want of further instructions, was pleased to draw up the said
act in such, and no other form, and because his majesty (confiding in the usual sincerity,
uprightness and gratitude of their high mightinesses, and being assured of their praiseworthy punctuality in making good their promises) did, præcipitanter & bonâ fide, because
the said de Keyser urged this affair so very pressingly, proceed to the conclusion of the said
treaty. And by a plain consequence the pretended allegation of their high mightinesses can
no ways stand good; that they by virtue thereof are not obliged to indemnify the subjects of
his majesty, and to make any satisfaction for the intolerable and excessive losses, which
they have suffered and sustained, only for the interest of their high mightinesses; but
that their high mightinesses were only obliged thereby to help with all their power to
avert any hostilities, which on that account might have been undertaken, against his majesty
and his subjects. For besides that such a construction and interpretation is contradictory
to the true meaning of the contractants, and the good faith required among allies, it is
likewise repugnant against the very sense of the words thereof, being extended quàm
gener alissimè & universaliter, and does not except any case whatsoever, nor admits of any
limitation or restriction. Moreover the indemnity which is claimed, is not only and solely
grounded on the said treaty of guaranty, but also particularly, on the said repeated and
ratified promises of their high mightinesses, seeing that, without an effectual indemnity,
the preceding protestations and assurances of guaranty, made in favour of his majesty's
subjects, would be needless. For the averting of hostitilies, claims and pretensions, is
really but one point, properly relating to the state of Denmark, and a consequence and obligation, reciprocally resulting from the said treaty, since it cannot in any ways be applied
to the particular interest of the suffering subjects, without the same are indemnified
From the memorial delivered by the said mr. de Keyser in the year 1653, exhibited
under number 5, nothing can be inferred to the prejudice of the said just pretensions,
because the said mr. de Keyser could draw up the said memorial according to his own
will and likeing, and the same being a private and particular draught, can in no manner be interpreted in præjudicium tertii, yet the recommendation of communication and
inclusion, as also the request (to avert all pretensions of losses and interest on account of
the detained English hemp ships) which are respectively mentioned therein, doth not contradict, much less suppresses it the right of indemnification, which by the foregoing respective acts and promises was settled and consented to, so that it was needless to insist
farther upon it. Therefore the offer of his majesty, relating to the restitution of the said
English hemp ships and effects, or otherwise the produce thereof, which is likewise mentioned therein, must be understood to be made with that view and proviso, to receive the
like satisfaction for such ships and effects detained by reprisal, and this ex identitate
rationis. Moreover the intention of their high mightinesses, in conformity thereunto,
will plainly appear by the letter of the said mr. de Keyser to their high mightinesses,
bearing date, Copenhagen, January 13, 1653. for therein is mentioned expressly: That
now his majesty and his subjects had got that security where they could lay a claim to, of which
else, by the relaxation of these hemp ships, they should be destitute. So that it would be intirely
unequitable, that his majesty, without a preceding liquidation, and a like satisfaction,
should make restitution of such money, which according to the evident intention and
cession of their high mightinesses, made by the said mr. de Keyser (whose act their high
mightinesses are obliged to stand to; and to whom, as to the extension and force of the
said promises of indemnity, full credit ought to be given) is already distributed among his
majesty's suffering subjects.
Which is likewise evidently to be seen out of the letter of the said mr. de Keyser,
written to your high mightinesses on the 13th of August, exhibited sub num. 6. for in that
said letter is repeated the request of his royal majesty, to be secured against the English
pretensions, besides what the said mr. de Keyser informs your high mightinesses thereby,
that his majesty also insisted to be freed from all further pretensions, (note the words further pretensions;) and whereas the said words comprehend some separate and special matters, so that besides the beforementioned pretensions, something else must needs be understood, (for else the same would have been superfluous and of no signification;) the said
words can be only applied to this subject, viz. upon the pretensions what the English
should happen to form, in order to refuse to make restitution of and satisfaction for the
Danish ships, which by reprisal might be consiscated, against which his majesty and the
subjects of his kingdoms must be effectually guarantied by their high mightinesses, pursuant to their reiterated and ratisied promises of indemnity. And according thereunto,
the said mr. de Keyser recommends in his said letter, that the said just and reasonable
request may be agreed to, to the satisfaction of his majesty, and in compliance with the
former treaties and acts that are passed.
The resolution of your high mightinesses of the 7th of September 1653. delivered sub
num. 7. deserves not only no answer, but on the contrary may very well be accepted in
favour of his majesty, since thereby the respective requests of his majesty, mentioned in
the abovesaid letter of the said mr. de Keyser, inserted in the said resolution, are agreed
to without any limitation or protestation.
Number 8 and 9.
From the memorial of the resident mr. Charisius presented to your high mightinesses on
the 25th of October 1653, as also from the resolution of your high mightinesses, which
passed the same day, relating to the same, which respectively are exhibited sub num. 8 and 9;
not the least argument can be inserred against the said just petition and request of liquidation, so that thereon no particular debates are required.
The resolution of your high mightinesses of the 7th of November 1653, produced sub
num. 10. comprehends among other things some further assurances in conformity of the
former promises of indemnity, viz. That their high mightinesses at all times, and with all
their strength and power, will help to avert all whatsoever should happen to his said majesty, or
his kingdom, dominions, and people, in relation to the said seizure or sale, or any other pretensions;
(note the words, other pretensions) that might be formed on that account. And whereas the
English for that reason have made a pretension upon the Danish ships, for which they
will neither give nor make the least satisfaction, their high mightinesses are especially
obliged, even according to the said resolution, to guaranty his majesty and his kingdoms,
and subjects, against the same, and to indemnisy them. However, what concerns the offer
and assurance of his majesty in relation to the restitution of the hemp ships, which is
likewise mentioned therein, that same must be taken and understood under such a proviso
and restriction, as above in the debates on num. 5. is set forth, to which for brevity's
sake we refer.
The letter of his royal majesty written to their high mightinesses on the 11th of November 1653, and exhibited sub num. 11. we pass by, as requiring no solution.
And thus proceeding to the report of the notification made by the lords Beverninge,
van Nieuport, and Jongestal, to the said resident Charisius, delivered January 26, 1654,
and exhibited sub num. 12. we reply, that we cannot imagine, what from the same can
be inferred, to the prejudice of the reiterated promises of guaranty.
By the proposition made by mr. Rosenvinge to their high mightinesses on the 27th of
February 1654, produced sub num. 13. it was recommended, upon just grounds, that the
lords embassadors of their high mightinesses then in England might be charged to procure, that a reasonable restitution and satisfaction might be obtained concerning the ships
and goods of the Danish subjects, taken from them by the English, for the abovesaid
reason. But from thence it doth not follow any ways, that their high mightinesses were
thereby freed from their obligation, ad præstationem indemnitatis, wherewith their high
mightinesses, according to their respective promises and assurances, are and remain still
privative, and especially charged, and could have been solely called upon as being accountable. But the reason why at that time their high mightinesses were not directly required to make good their obligation was, because the Danish ships were detained by the
English, and consequently could not be effectually restored by their high mightinesses.
But whereas their high mightinesses, be it out of some particular view, or any other considerations and interest of state, did not insist on the said point of satisfaction, and
omitted to have the same inserted, together with the inclusion, (in conformity to the
said request of his majesty) in the treaty with England, therefore the same obligation is
still owing by their high mightinesses, who proprio facto have obliged themselves to the
necessity, according to their repeated promises, to indemnify the subjects of his majesty
for all the losses they have sustained.
And afterwards by a special resolution, bearing date March 2, 1654. (quoted num. 14.)
their high mightinesses have renewed their reiterated protestations and assurances of indemnity, and declared in case of necessity, that they would effectually perform and punctually make good their said promises, which is an evident sign, that their high mightinesses
never have called into question or disputed the said promise of indemnity by any contrary
disapprobation or protestation against the same; but on the contrary have always acknowledged the same by divers acts of approbation, and with a solemn declaration, that their
high mightinesses at all times with due gratitude will remember the friendship, which his
said majesty had done them at that opportunity, and in such dangerous conjunctures of
time, out of a sincere affection; and that they in all occurrences that might happen would
readily acknowledge the same with the like reciprocal services, so that the said resolution
doth not at all contradict, but rather justifies the said required indemnity.
And lastly, examining the serious letter of their high mightinesses to his majesty, written
on the 23d of September 1654, produced sub num. 15. and made also use of to destroy
thereby the respective acts of guaranty that are passed, we only say, that from such letters
(which may be extended pro lubitu, and according to the intention of the writer) nothing
can be inferred to the prejudice of him, to whom the same may be directed, since the
same, being particular and wilful extensions, cannot demerit any credit in favour of the
writer, to the effect of a sufficient obligation. Besides the centrum thereof, concerning
the general terms of the promise of indemnity and guaranty, and the presentation of
restitution made by his majesty so as therein mentioned, doth sufficiently fall away by
what is mentioned here before. At least the pretended contradictions, which from thence
are fancied to result, are sufficiently and absolutely resuted and interpreted by salutary
distinctions, and under such modifications and conditions as above set forth.
We therefore do not doubt, but whereas their high mightinesses are now fundamentally
informed, by all the abovementioned and alledged reasons, of the true state and situation of
this affair, and of all that depends on it, they will grant us a favourable resolution,
(whereof your usual sincerity assures us) in full satisfaction of our pretensions, which are
grounded upon equity and justice, and in punctual compliance with their high mightinesses reiterated promises given and made as well by resolutions and acts of guaranty, as
also by letters and reports of their high mightinesses deputies extraordinary, made and
dated January 13, 1653. humbly requesting to take all these motives and considerations
into due deliberation, to the end that we may speedily obtain such a favourable resolution
during the present illustrious session of their noble and great mightinesses the lords the
states of Holland and West Friesland; remaining in the mean while your high mightinesses most humble, &c.
Hague, July 22, 1655. [N. S.]
H. Willemsen Rosenvinge.