State Papers, 1656
May (5 of 6)


History of Parliament Trust



Thomas Birch (editor)

Year published



60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72

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'State Papers, 1656: May (5 of 6)', A collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, volume 5: May 1656 - January 1657 (1742), pp. 60-72. URL: Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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May (5 of 6)

A letter of intelligence.

Zurick, 5 June 1656.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 653.

The deputies of the thirteen cantons and the other ambassadors are to depart this day from Baden to their several habitations for certain reasons of importance, and are to return the 18th June st. v. to compose and end all differences. We have good grounds to hope, that this affair may yet have an happy issue, and be terminated for our advantages. God Almighty crown their endeavours with his blessing.

The information of George Morris of the tower of London gent. taken the 26th day of May 1656. before Sir John Barkstead knight, lieutenant of his highnes tower of London, and of the justices of the peace assigned, &c. for the said county.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 661.

This informant faith, that yesterday the 25th of May instant being sabbath day, he was present at a private meeting in Swan-alley in Coleman-street, London, where were present a great concourse of people; and there heard one John Gardiner pray very servently for about halfe an hour; and in that time used many speeches, that they were the only people, which God had selected to himselfe out of this nation from the rest, whoe had apostatized, and taken upon them a hypocritical government; and that there time of deliverance was very near: and did not doubt, but that God would appear gloriously for them, and that they should be as the lyon terrible to the rest of the beasts; with many other expressions of the same nature, which this informant doth not so particularly remember. And afterwards spoke there from the xxxii of Deuteronomy, ver. the 41, and 42, and 43. If I whett my glittering sword, and mine hand take hold on judgment, I will render vengeance to mine enemyes, and will reward them that hate me. I will make mine arrowes drunk with blood, and my sword shall devour flesh, and that with the blood of the slain, and of the captives from the beginning of revenges upon the enemy. Rejoyce O ye nations with his people; for he will revenge the blood of his servant, and will render vengeance to his adversaries, and will be mercifull to his land and to his people. From whence he observed, that the Lord was now preparing to triumph over his enemies, and to owne that handfull of his people of them, and to act wonderfully by them. And that now the time of their deliverance was approaching, and the sword of the Lord was whetted, and going out against the enemies of his people, and did much exhort them to be patient in expectation, and frequent in prayer for the accomplishment thereof. After which he concluded; and then another person, whose name at present this informant knoweth not, stood up and spoke from Micah the vth and 4th verse, And he shall stand and feed in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of the Lord his God, his God and they shall abide; for now shall he be great unto the ends of the earth. And therein observed much to the same purpose as the former, and expressed himselfe, that, as he thought in his conscience, he had known many godly and religious men of the army heretofore, but that since they had soe fully employed themselves in possessing them of the bishopps and king's lands, that they had much altered from what they were, and are now become tyrannous by taxing and rating the nation. And that it was as impossible for him to stay the sunne from his ordinary course in the heavens, or take it out of the firmament, as to make them returne from what they had now undertaken. And said further, that they themselves had as great a share in those victories and conquests, the said persons did appropriate to themselves as they had. And that it was the faith of their prayer, which prevailed as much in the victorys of Naseby, Edge-Hill, Newberry, and Dunbarre, as Cromwell and his army. And therefore hoped he should live to see the lyon of the tribe of Juda to conquer and drive them all before him, as a flock of sheep; with many other speeches to the like effect, which this informant doth not particularly remember. And further faith, that he observed many persons in the said auditory, which wept, that the tears ran down their faces, sighed, and groaned, and did very much lament, while he was speaking, and further faith not.

The Dutch ambassadors in Poland and Sweden to the States General.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 657.

High and mighty lords,
My lords, during our abode here we have constantly fully advised your high and mighty lordships of the true condition of affairs in these parts, as also of all what had happened to us by his majesty, and in the conferences with his commissioners. Since we have had no further opportunity to have any further conference, by reason of the absence of the king, the lord chancellor, and others. We do greatly expect the further resolutions and orders, which you shall be pleased to give us. The king is now joined with the main army. The marquis of Baden and Carolus Magnus, 3000 strong, are said to have given some further defeat to the army of Charnitzky. The king of Sweden is resolved to reside at Grandentz, a place very convenient for him to have regard upon all occurrences in Poland. It is believed, her majesty of Sweden will go thither this week with the lord chancellor and others. The advices about the king of Poland and his forces are here very different.

The ambassadors of the duke of Brandenburg have given us several visits, and made protestations to us of the good affection, which the said duke is bearing to the welfare of your high and mighty lordships honourable government; and treated us lately very magnificently in honour of your high and mighty lordships, using many expressions of the respect they bear unto your lordships.

6 June 1656. [N. S.]


Mr. Bradshaw to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 677.

Right honorable,
I hoped by this post to have sent yow the full charge against Mr. Townley, whoe by this tyme I beleeve is with yow, together with the examinations; but the merchants heere have beene soe diverted with the necessary dispatching of some shipps and other pressing affayres upon them, that they could not possibly get the business dispatched, which yet I doubt not but to send yow by the next post. If in the meane tyme Mr. Townley should appeare before the councell, and deny any thinge I have charged him with either of late or formerly, I doe assure you, sir, that I have allready made full proose heere of all that I have represented concerninge him; only it will require another post to finish the business, in which I shall be as concise as possibly I can, and declare the truth, wishinge he had not enforced me unto it.

His party heere have had another assembly in his favour, and turned every stone to engage the company at London by their example to abett and stand by Townley in what he hath done; by which playnely appeares what manner of men he hath served and made use of in the carryinge on of his and their designes; as it will more particularly appeare to your honor, when yow shall but have leasure to looke over the inclosed copies of the companie's severall registers, which they this post send to Mr. Townley for his encouragement, together with a particular letter of respect from the assembly (which are indeed none but his owne faction, the well-affected diffentinge from them) though it was agaynst my advise and their owne custome to correspond in that kind which private men. If yow have but tyme hereafter to read over the inclosed copie of my this daye's letter to Mr. deputy Llòyd at London (whoe I heare begins now to see into and to dislike of the designeings of Mr. Townley and that party) it will manyfest unto yow, how grosly theise willfull men proceede to uphold Mr. Townley, givinge themselves the lye upon their owne publick register. His servant Cambridge continues his insolente behaviour, which he learned of his master. He told me in the last assembly (whither I went to admonish them of their duty, not to side with and countenance particuler men in their misdemeanors against the state) that it was his opinion, that the company were not bound to followe the advise of any particuler man whatsoever, which yow know, sir, reacheth higher than to my selfe, and accordingly the assembly proceeded. I presume Mr. Townley will finde, that his heightninge of yonge men to such deportment by his example will make much against him.

I hope to get a correspondent in the place you ordered in your last letter. The greatest difficulty will be of gettinge the intelligence. Now the king of Sweden is in Prussia and those parts, we have more certaine notice of things thence. The city of Danzick since their late losse doe begin to repent their forwardness in appearinge against the king of Sweden. They might have held themselves newters with more safety.

The greate matter in expectation now is, what the Holland fleete will attempt in the Sound, whither they are gone about thirty faile, as it's reported. Heere's a report, that the fleete should have taken the fort on the Spanish side in the mouth of the straits. I wish it prove true, beinge of great importance. I am
Hamb. 27th May 1656.

Your honour's most humble servant
Richard Bradshaw.

I had noe letter from your honour the last post.
If Mr. Townley should crave the councell for a warrant to examine witnesses for him, and that it should be thought fit to be graunted, which I thinke it will not, at least till the charge and proose be brought in, theise commissioners may examine whom he shall nominate, if the councill soe order; but except the witnesses for him (beinge indeede partys) be upon othe, they will not value what the say: if some of them doe otherwise upon othe, it's well. I wish, that all the examinations might be upon othe, or that none may be otherwise taken for him; for I have but too much experienced the principles of many, that stand for him heere, and have found some of them in grosse untruths allready under their hands, which they thinke to salve up, if hereafter they be brought upon their oaths, by saying it was what they then remembred; and soe the secretary Misselden hath sayd already, who is now follow'd in all things by the rest of Townley's party.

Mr. Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to Mr. Lloyd, deputy of the company of merchants-adventurers.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 673.

Honored sir,
I have lately understood, that by reason of some misrepresentations made by Mr. Townley or some of his party (as if the only reason of their soe bandyinge agaynst me and their dissentinge brethren heere was, because wee went about to violate the rights and priviledges of the company) they have begot a favourable opinion in divers gentlemen of the company there of their proceedeings (as good reason they should be countenanced therein, if that were true.) But if it shall appeare to you, as I am sure it allready doth to his highness and many others, that the true cause of their soe unworthy and indeed malicious dealinge hath beene in Mr. Townley to carry on his designe of beinge deputie, and in others to revenge the quarrel of the state's enemies, whome I could not heere suffer in their pernitious practices against the state I serve; and likewise because the good and wholsome orders of the company were put in execution to restrayne the extravagant and debauched courses of some yonge men, which you will find to be the truth, when their sayd specious pretences (thereby to engage the company) are canvast and layd off; I conceive that then both yourselfe, and all that truly desire the wellfare of the company will thinke fit, that they should not onely have noe countenance in such courses, but allsoe be severely reproved for what they have done; and that yow will allsoe judge thereby, that I have not been an enemy, but faithfull to the company in opposinge such wayes. Mr. Townley is now commanded over by his highness councell to answer for his misdemeanors, which truly are very great, there beinge but too much, that will be fully proved against him, of which you will heare 'ere longe. I am sorry he hath brought himselfe and the company into soe much truble and disturbance, and that his party heere have shewed themselves (not only formerly, but even since he was sent for over) his confident abettors, as it will appeare unto you in their publick actings in the two last assemblies, of which registers I heere inclosed your copies, which they have also delivered to Mr. Townley's man heere, to be sent to him; and for his special encouragement they have writ a particuler letter from the assembly to give him a further accompt of their proceedings in his behaulse, though the copies of the registers doth it sufficiently, and that I advised them not so apparently to shew their particuler respect to him in this business, thereby to engage the whole fellowship to their prejudice, as you will see by the last register. And truly I am ashamed, that they should proceede soe indiscreetly and passionatly in his behaulse, even to the gross contradictinge of themselves upon their owne register; which allsoe will appear to you in that though they soe lately fined him for his insolent behaviour to the deputie in court, and yet now say, that he hath allwayes carried himselfe like an orderly brother, and that they never knew him to affront the president in the least. Surely this zeale of theirs in abettinge Mr. Townley in his miscarriages against his highness and the comonwealth (for such they will be found to be) will not be well taken.

It should seeme, that because Mr. Townley's party (by reason of their number) doe in his favour command what they please in the assemblies heere, they presume the company at London will be prevailed with by their example to do the like; which I cannot beleive. If he have done well, he will certaynly be approved of by his honourable judges, before whom the busines now lyes; but if otherwise, it's then sit he stand above to answer for his particular misdemeanors against the state, whereunto if he had been sooner left, the company would have had more peace and better government, which I presume he now will and must, notwithstandinge the busling of some men heere to engage the whole company for him. Sir, I presume you will not thinke it an ill office in me to signifie thus much unto yow, to which I find my selfe obliged both by your former civilities unto mee, and the special relation you have now to the company, whose wellfare I hartily wish, and shall endevour, notwithstandinge the unhandsome and unkind proceedings of some members therein towards me, whoe have never deserved but well from the company and themselves, and of which I have a better testimony than to be contradicted by such ill-natured men, whose spirits indeed seeme too great for their fortunes. But least I weary you with too longe a diversion, I have only to ad by way of friendly advise, that as you tender the wellfare of the company (which truly I heare you doe, sutable to the trust reposed in yow) yow will endeavour, that the government of the company heere may be put into the hands of men of knowne discretion, experience, and interest, that soe whoever you have for deputy heere, he may with the assistance of such men finde more comfort in servinge the place, than I have done for some yeares past. I would have writ thus much unto your court, but that my former letters were not answered which, yet held fourth nothinge unsutable, that I know of, but it seemes the custome of the company was stood upon in correspondinge onely with the court and company; which I except not agaynst, though theise gentlemen heere could readily enough dispense with the honnour of the company therein for the encouragement of Mr. Townley in a bad cause, as in short tyme it will sufficiently appeare.

Desireinge your excuse for thus detayninge you, with tender of my respects to yourselfe, and the gentlemen of the company with you, I shall remayne
Sir, &c.

I inclose you allsoe a copie of the assemblie's letter this day to Mr. Townley, which contaynes nothinge but the what copies of the registers declare to him, onely they have shewed their speciall respect therein, and what they would doe for him, if they could, whilst in the meane tyme the assembly have wronged me in using the word command in their register, for that I never used that word to the company since I knewe them, and it was purposely done after I was gone fourth; the word desire being first set downe by the secretary in the * * * *, and after blotted out by their command, as he consest to mee.

Hamb. 27th May 1656.

Secretary Thurloe to H. Cromwell major general of the army in Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

My lord,
The major generalls are all here, and have this day given in an account of the state and condition of the counties under their severall comaunds; whereby it appeares, that their beinge in this trust hath much conduced to the safetye of the countrye, and to the satisfaction of honest men. They are now consideringe amongst themselves, what is further to be done for the carryeinge on of this worke, which certeinlye hitherto hath bene much blest. Wee have yet nothinge from the fleete, nor from any other parts relateinge to our affaires.

Our last letters from Sweden say, that the Swedish forces under the comaund of the kinge's brother Adolph hath routed the Polish army in a battell; but wee expect the confirmation thereof by the next letter before wee can beleeve it.

The last weeke there went out of Dunkirke and Ostend nineteen private men of warre in one body, on purpose to meet with prizes, wherein they had soe good successe, that they met with ten merchant English ships bound from Amsterdam hither under the convoy of a Dutch man of warre. They first beate and tooke the ship of warr, and afterwards all the rest. I have nothinge else to trouble your lordship with, and therefore am bold to signe me
Whitehall, 27 May, 1656.

Your lordship's most humble faithfull and obedient servant
Jo. Thurloe.

The Dutch ambassadors in Denmark to the States General.

Copenhagen, 7th June 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxviii. p. 683.

My lord,
The lord rix-chancellor hath informed us, that the letters from Stockholm from a certain correspondent of his majesty do inform, that there are preparing eighteen ships of war, most of them ready and manned. It is believed, that the river of Dantzick will be suddenly blockt up by the Swedish ships. The resident de Uries doth write to us from Elsenore, that two shippes coming from Wyborgh in Finland doe relate, that in those parts the tolls are raised with a half rixdollar upon each ship going out and coming in. And others complain, that in some Swedish ports they were forced to pay 500 gilders above the ordinary tolls. Grave Magnus de la Garde is said to be come to Riga, and to have had some further advantage upon the boores and inhabitants since the last rencounter, but this is not credibly believed.

A letter of intelligence.

Dantzick, 7 June 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxviii. p. 686.

The ambassadors of Muscovia having made some stay at Koningsberg through contrary winds, and failing towards Denmark, were forced to stay at a place called Hela four miles from hence; and they desired a Netherland merchant to falute the magistrates here, and charged him to declare, that the peace between their lord and master and the king of Poland was certainly concluded; and that he was greatly affected to the city of Dantzick; but in regard they were informed at Koningsberg, that the town was besieged by the Swedes, they were forced to alter their design of coming hither, and to further their journey towards Holland.

A letter of intelligence.

Dantzick, 7 Junii 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxviii. p. 689.

This town presses hard upon us for contribution contrary to his highness's letter, which they say they have answered; but we cannot recede from it, nor submit to military impositions, not being liable to the laws of arms, being merchants and strangers, who have our commerce as well where the Swede is master as here; and therefore must not be drawn unto arms or hostility against our friends, with whom his highness is in alliance, and to whom, as the burgomaster faith, he doth send assistance; whereas e contra the Hollanders do send admiral Ruyter to their assistance, and upon whom together with the Muscovite, they hope to have some diversion or good to arise to them. I wish these troubles were well composed, whereof for present I see no appearance. We are here streightned more and more; and Polish succours are not to be heard of. We have reports of Poles beating, but not considerable, as I can learn, being a flying army, and not so easily brought to stand in so wide and spacious country as this is. Some say the Poles have been before Warsaw, and have been repulsed several times. The Tartars would have the prince elector not to join with Swede against Pole. Things are yet uncertain between the Swede and Muscovite.

The deputy of Dantzick to the States General.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 691.

High and mighty lords,
Having received an express order from the city of Dantzick to make no longer stay here, but to get some final resolution to my proposals given me in charge; wherefore I most humbly entreat your high and mighty lordships to grant me some favorable and real answer to my memorandums of the 18 and 20 May, that so I may write some things of certainty of your high and mighty lordships good affection to the welfare of the said city.

The 7 June 1656. [N. S.]

signed Christian Schroder.

H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland, to secretary Thurloe.

May 28th 1656.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 491.

Being at present indisposed by reason of a cold, I must begg your pardon for not writinge by this post; and the rather having nothing worth the communicatinge to you from hence. I shall only say this, that those false and scandalous reproaches, which have bin cast uppon me, and endeavoured to be insinuated into his highnes and others, as if not only the anabaptists, but allsoe the independants were offended at me, and at the management of affaires here, are wholly groundless, which Dr. Winter's church takeinge notice of, the pastor with the officers and some of the cheif members of that church came to me yesterday, and passionately declared there abhorency of such wicked practises, and did express that not only thire, but all the churches in Ireland walkeing in thire way were free frome the leaste appearance of dissatisfaction; which col. Cooper beinge occasionally by and hearinge, declared the like of that people, that walke in same way at Carrickfergus, and looke uppon it as a malicious designe of Satan to raise jealousies betwixt me and the sober people here. This letter comeinge accidentally this day to my handes from a grave godly minister, pastor of the church of Waterford, I thought it not amisse to sende it to you. I ame not at present in a condition to write much to you. All that I shall add uppon this subject is, to desire the Lord to forgive those, that goe about thus to take away my good name, and that for the accomplishinge theire designes; and learne me to make a sanctified use of these his dispensations.

I have communicated at large to my brother Fleetwood the readines our men are in for Jamaica; and leaste he should be gone to the countrey, I have inclosed it to Sir John Reynolds, to the end you may be *****
Your moste affectionate freind and servant
H. Cromwell.

Inclosed in the preceding. Mr. Wale to H. Cromwell, major general of the army in Ireland.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 317.

May it please your excellency,
Your humble servant, the unworthy messenger of Christ to Waterford, heartily prayeth for all blessings of heaven and earth to abound unto you. As the greatnesse of your calling and imployments admitt not of many letters from such as I am, soe I thought the ingagements, that are upon mee, doe require some acknowledgement of this nature from mee, especially the weake condition of my body so much unsitting me for travell, that I cannot wayte upon you at Dublin as otherwise I would. My lord, it is not many moneths since I heard of some reports made to you, insinuating some disaffection in my selfe and other christians of my acquaintance here to the present government. But concerning that matter, I hope you received full satisfaction by what we wrote with joynt consent to your lordship, and subscribed with all our hands. And as for my selfe in particular, as I doe desire with my whole heart to give thankes to God for the present government (which I am perswaded is the most wise and godly in the whole world) and to walke worthy of it in all duty and faithfulnesse towards it, and that in the sight of God; soe I can truely say, that I know not a person in this society, that is otherwise affected. My lord, as there is one thing I chiefly desire, even the presence of God in Christ, soe there is one thing I chiefly endeavour after, even to promote grace and godlynesse in my owne and others hearts and lives. And if God will make me faithfull to himselfe in this, I shall not doubt but he will keepe me faithfull to the present power. For what can be more desireable in any government than what we have by this, viz. Christ's interest furthered, and the peace of the commonwealth maintained: this is enough for such as feare God, who will endeavour to walke worthy thereof, than to seeke for more. As for your lordship, I desire heartily to prayse God with you, for that he hath assisted and kept you against many provocations, and used you farre already for good to us all. And God forbid, that I should sin against the Lord in ceasing to remember you and your great and hard service, when I draw neare to the throne of grace. As for the present great assayres of this state, I can through mercy say, that I am sollicitous for the prosperity and good successe of the present government in all their publique undertakings; and that God will preserve his highnesse from all dangers, and stop the mouthes of his adversaryes by his gracious appearing for him. But I would not trouble your lordship with a tedious letter. The Lord continue to shine upon your excellency, directing you still in all your wayes, to the glory of his name, and benefit of his people; and blesse your honourable confort, and posterity, to your and their great peace and comfort. I humbly take my leave, craving the continuance of your favourable respect to poore Waterford, and toward
Waterford, this 12th of May 1656.

Your excellencye's humble servant in the Lord
Edward Wale.

The superscription.

These for his excellency the lord Henry Cromwell at Corke-House in Dublin.

The governor of Nevis to the protector.

Might it please your highness to give leave, that poor presumption in all humility desires to present these ensuing lines to your highness grave consideration.

Vol xxxviii.p. 389.

Your highness, by what stirrings of God, or motions of man, I know not, hath been pleased to honour the meanest of your subjects in these parts with your favourable aspect of love and honour in your lines of godly humility by the Marston More frigat, which safely came to my hands; from which my thoughts have run to the height of my weak abilities, that God hath given me, how I might advance your highness designs in these parts. And that I might give your highness an account thereof, I first published your highness proclamations at the heads of all the companies of this island, with some addition, that all such as were willing to transport themselves to Jamaica, would repair to my house on certain days every week by me appointed, and there enter their names and families; whereby I found the greatest part of the island to come in upon that design with a great deal of readiness. This obstacle arising, being most part of them poor (several of the rich not willing to stir) how they should be transported with their wives, children, and servants, and provisions, I was not able to give them satisfaction farther, than this: Your highness I question not would provide in that particular for them; but as yet though rumours and reports have run high of a great fleet in these parts, none appearing as yet, hath put me to a great streight, how I may advance your highness designs; and casting about I thought fit to hire a small ship to transport my self to the island Jamaica. But upon more deliberate thoughts, I not knowing what command might in my absence come from your highness, and not being here ready to receive them might more prejudice your highness designs, than my personal going down might advance it, therefore I made choice to send three gentlemen of the country by name lieutenant Michael Smith, lieutenant Conisby Kettleby, and lieutenant George Gardyner, they being of good repute and credit, as also able and willing to serve your highness to treat with your highness commissioners there, if by them there might be a transport afforded. What their return will be, I cannot yet inform your highness. I sent my son, though tender of years, to put as much life as I could to that national service. But this I am certain, if your highness afford not a free transport to the people and theirs, there can be but a slack repair thither, which with that addition would be done with a full hand with some impowered to treat with the governors of these islands, that small and trivial debts might not obstruct or hinder the furthering thereof. Might it please your highness further to take notice of my actings, I sent your proclamations unto my neighbour islands, with some caution to the governors: though they came from so mean a man's hands as my self, yet they were your highness proclamations, and not to be laid aside, but published to the people. From some I found an opposition at the first; but upon the return of some lines I quailed it, and they were published in all my neighbouring islands. I sent likewise one of them to the governor of Bermudas, which was there likewise published, as I am informed. And as for this island, though some of the richer fort of people are not willing to remove, the greater part, which are poor, are; which of necessity will force them to follow, as before, your highness affording them a free transport for them, their wives, children, servants, and goods. I do not presume to take upon me to prescribe a path for your highness to walk by, but in all humility I humbly desire to inform your highness with my thoughts, what will give a transport to every soul, and their goods, allowing a tune to each both young and old. Might it please your highness, without pride or vain-glory, to give me leave to speak my heart, if it deceive me not, I seek not the world, nor the preserment thereof; but in what I can serve my God, my prince, and country, my life, and fortunes, I am ready to engage, knowing that to serve God and man I was born into the world; and in that service willing, when God shall please, to be rolled into the dust, from whence I came, and whereunto I do willingly and freely subscribe my self to be your highness humble subject and servant in all your commands, so sar as God shall enable me. I humbly beseech your highness to excuse the bold presumption of him, that shall ever subscribe himself to be
Dated in your island of Nevis the 29th day of May, anno domini 1656.

Your highness faithful subject and humble servant
Luke Stokes.

General Montagu to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxviii. p. 709.

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Aprill 20th, we anchor e d before Cadiz and review e d the p o s t u r e of their ships which are a b o u t (28) saile they ly in the C a r r a c c h e s noe t o p mast u p nor r i g g e d there l y e th (3) ships in the m o u t h of the harbor for to s i n k and other great p r e p a r a t i o n s of guns and c h a i n s and new p l a t s o r m s a s h o a r e to oppose a n a t t e m p t.

Wee have a l s o e examined the march a n t s and other s and they a l l make the work very hard and b e s i d e s this the pass a g e in to the C a r r a c c a e s is a w i n d i n g c h a n n e l l very much and wee have not one m a n that can saile u p the ships if none did oppose.

Wee did long view the place and ships to finde a n o p p o r t u n i t i e for s e r v i c e before wee would c o m e to a question and at l e n g t h at a councel of warre it was v o t e d at this tyme not to b e e a t t e m t e d Wee had then some debate of Gibralter and there a p p e a r e d no great m i n d to it in r e g a r d of hard ne s and as a l s o e want of land men f o r m e d and officer s and n u m b e r s of men to a l l which are r e a l l obstacle s a s you may judge u p p o n the d e s c r i p t i o n of the place the n u m b e r and quality of o u r men.

and to s a y the t r u t h the s e a men are not for land s e r v i c e un l e s s it b e e a s u d d e n p l u n d e r they are then valyant much b u t not to b e e r u l e d and kep t in a n y government on s h o a r e.

Nor have your s e a officer s much s t o a r s to fight on s h o a r e Yet this work is not through n a s i d on debate.

The fleete growinge to some want of water, wee judged it fitt to make a supply thereof in due tyme; and therefore leavinge some fourteen shippes before Cales, wee went with the rest to Tanger, where wee gott a good supply of water and ballast, and the governor of that place very civill to our men and us. Whilest we lay at an anchor there (we came to an anchor, at Tanger 8th May) May 13th I did take frigott s and view d Gibral. They did permit us to faile c l o s e b y the place un tell wee s t o o d of a g a i n to s e a and then their a n g e r was to s m a l l p u r p o s May 14th I was at the fleete again in Tanger Bay wee s e n t the R u b y and the N a n t w i t c h to a r g e i r e s with Mr. Browne and to range the Spayne i s coast for p i r a t s as they returne.

May 15, the Moores surprized the captain of the Old Warwicke and his boatswaine, carpenter, gunner, and chirurgien's mate (they beinge ashore unadvisedlye to gett wood and the like) and killed them all, as wee thinke: three of their bodyes our men have since brought off.

May 16, we sett saile for Cales, where wee arrived the 17 of the same, by the way havinge met with the letters from England, that came in the victuallinge shipps, who also the same morninge came into the reare admirall before Cales.

When wee were come to our shipps before Cales, wee found the enimye in noe other posture then wee lest him; only they r e p o r t that he looke s for (16) faile of g a l l i e s to c o m e to Cadiz from the streits mouth.

Wee had alsoe a shipp of ours mett us there, which wee had sent to Faro for oyles for the fleete, of which they brought unto us a good portion, and very good oyle, but deere enough, I beleeve. Wee mett also at Cales Bay with our fleete some Lisbon march and s and a lett er from your a g e n t The some of it was that the kinge of Portug. had s i g n e d the treaty 24 which did v a r y from the first in the matter of r e l i g i o n and did tell us w h e r e i n.

That the money was in his p o s e s s i o n though he was not to r e m i t t i t until the protector s a c c e p t a n c e was obteyned.

That hee had sixt his w o r d for (2) thinge s (I.) to w r i t e to the protector for his c o n s e n t (II.) to obteyne lett er s for us to give a s s u r a n c e not to oppose a n y of his fleet s and that wee shall s e n d the protector s lett er of kindness which he did know wee b r o u g h t from England w i t h us Now the t r u t h is we did s e n d o u r lett er of c r e d e n c e to him as wee pass 'd first by Lisbon and he did not then deliver it that it shoul d not obstruct the trea tey.

O u r carriage in this matter is very difficult To give the a s s u r a n c e p res s e d wee have noe power nor are wee entise d to go b e y o n d o u r power there in by consider inge to c o n s e q u e n c e s which is like ly to b e e by delay to gett h o m e their fleet s and then to c h e a t you of the money and perhaps of their a m i t i e t o o B u t c on t r a r i ly wee know inge this s t a t e of the treate ty and that in this n i c k e of tyme they l o o k e for their Brazil silver before they or we can here from you and wee b e i n g at l e a s u r w i t h the fleet wee thought wee had deliver goe before Lisbon and (as wee think at present) d e m a n d the money to b e e put on b o r d the fleet and then give them safety (though I con fess in my private thoughts) I question whether it were not better to s t o p to their Brasil fleet untill we have c o m m a n d s from England if wee meet them wee have the h o n o r of England in o u r eye t o o which wee judge r e q u i r e s o u r a p p e a r i n g after soe b a s e a n a t t e m p t to m u r d e r the a g e n t.

May 20th. On those thoughts wee are under faile w i t h a l l o u r better ships for Lisbon haveinge l e f t the rear ad. w i t h (16) faile of frigots before Cadiz and have s e n t the P h e n i x before to Lisbon to get the a g e n t on b o a r d us to consult h o w to manage o u r businesse God guide us for the b e s t Wee have a b o u t (27) faile of ships w i t h us fire ships and v i c t u a l l e r s i n c l u d e d Wee h o p e to meet your c o m m a n d s by the w a y which would b e e well c o m e to us in this s r e i g h t.

H o w ever wee h o p e for p a r d o n in doeinge o u r b e s t for the s a r v i c e of the protector and o u r c o u n t r y e.

May 22d. 1656.

Thus farr I had prepared for you before the Saphyre mett us; since which tyme we have beene still under faile, as you will be enformed of particularly by captain Lloyd, and have had very bad weather, soe that we could not get our commanders on board to advise with as yett; but what thinges have come in my thoughts this weeke and occurred, I shall give you the trouble to add, and more (if there be occasion) before this be dispatched away.

I perceive much d e s i r e that Gibral. shoul d be e take n My thought s as to that are in s h o r t these that the like ly e s t w a y to get it is by landing on the s a n d and quickly c u t t i n g it off b e t w e e n s e a and s e a or soe to s e c u r e o u r men there as that they may h i n d e r the enter c o u r s of the t o w n wi t h the m a i n frigotts ly inge neare t o o to as s i s t them and it is well known n that Spayne never v i c t u a l l e t h a n y place for one m o n t h.

This will want (4) or (5000) men well formed 11 and officered.

This is my owne onely thought which I f u b m i t at p r e s e n t.

The C u l l e n frigot is take n b y a islanders frigot the water and c a s k &c. are a great l o s s to us at this tyme.

About two days since wee received a letter from Lisbon by a merchantman bound for Tituan, whereby we understand from Sir M e d d o w e 10 32 61 99 that the d a y e s are past and noe peace m a d e.

Wee have b u t (6) wee k e s d r i n k e in the fleet before which tyme B e v o r i d g e m u s t b e e had 1 I judge it may more quickly c o m e from England then from a n y other place.

The captain will shew you why: and you s e e this ne e d s hast and care that what is s e n t b e e good.

I perceive that if God give us victory over the Portug. fleet a or some of them that it is judged and for much of this fleet to goe for England and that their Spayne will get a b r o a d and their fleet l e f t here will not b e e able to fright them nor it may b e e to keepe their post here.

It is good there fore to consider whei ther in that c a s e you can not r e i n for c e the fleet here from England if you design further work for them in these s e a s.

May 29, 1656.

Indorsed by secretary Thurloe.

General Montagu, of the 29th of May 1656.

Received by captain Lloyd, who arrived here 11th July 1656.

A letter of intelligence from the Hague.

This 3d of June 1656. [N. S.]

Vol. xxxviii.p. 611.

It was believed, that the admiral was gone to sea, but neither he nor the vice-admiral nor any one of the Meuse are yet ready, wanting chiefly mariners.

The vice-admiral de Witt hath caused the drum to be beaten at Rotterdam, offering fourteen gilders a month for one mariner; but in regard those of Amsterdam give but thirteen gilders, those of Amsterdam have caused the said levy to be prohibited, to the end that may not cause some scarcity in the wages; and this is thus certified by the college of Amsterdam to the States General. The vice-admiral de Witt hath enemies in the said college; at least he hath a quarrel with the commander de Wildt, a brother of the secretary, and proceeding still from the war of England, upon which is at present come forth a book called a division of Arnoldus Montanus, which is an apology of vice-admiral de Witt.

Notwithstanding the new office applyed by the commissioners of the elector of Cologne this morning to maintain the catholic Roman religion in the magistracy of Rhynbeck, yet however the States General have persisted, and the order is already given, and sent about it, to be executed by the council of state; reserved however to the commissioners to alledge still for the time to come all that they shall or can have to the contrary.

This 5th of June.

The letters of the ambassadors, which came yesterday from Marienberg, have brought very little news or satisfaction this time. They have had a conference with the Swedish commissioners. The three points of the conference were the offer of a mediation; the intercession or intervention for Dantzick; their own grievance of raising the toll. Upon the first they had a dilatory answer, and in effect that will be delivered. For the second the Swedes said, that they had offered the said city their amity, but that the city having chosen hostility, that the king of Sweden was obliged to fall upon it by sea and by land; confequently that this state in pursuance of the seventh article of the treaty of Stockholm is obliged to forbear all manner of commerce and navigation to Dantzick; and that the king commanded his minister at the Hague to insinuate that into this state. And as to the third point (which the said ambassadors would ground upon the said treaty of Stockholm) the Swede said, that this state itself did annul it by the treaty of redemption made in the year 1649 with Denmark; and yet they were content to treat about the moderating of the tolls for the time to come. This gives here new deliberation and irresolution from Denmark. We do not hear, that they do equip any fleet there. That king will not put himself to charges. Likewise his revenue is not great. And this state or the ambassadors have not power to furnish him with any. Yea that king doth still continue his complaints here, how that this state hath not yet paid him the remainder of the subsidy promised during the English war, nor satisfied for the damages received in his subjects during the said war.

It is true, that the ambassadors have power to promise (in case of a war or assault hereafter) to assist this king very royally and really, yea with all their power; but this promise is not powerful enough to engage him.

The elector of Brandenburgh doth still hold himself very much joined to Sweden. Here they have resolved to give to the ministers the elector of Brandenburg, upon their memorandum of the 13 May, a resolution conformable to the advise of Holland of the 23 May, which will be distasting and offensive enough; so that Friesland and Overyssel have very much contradicted it.

From the admiral Opdam came yesterday a letter complaining of the college of the admiralty, that they fail to furnish him with such necessaries, as he stands in need of; desiring the college may be enjoined to dispatch him. He will go from the Meuse with six fail. It is assured, that those of the Vlie are already gone. It is held, that the whole fleet will consist of forty ships, but strong enough to deal against eighty.

7 June.

THE admiration conceived by the particular letters of the ambassadors, which arrived here on the third, is in no wise diminished by those that came to day as well from Marienburgh as Dantzick, which assure that the Swedes have taken almost all the advantageous places, which those of Dantzick possessed about the town. But all that, though streightning the town, yet doth not touch the body nor the fortifications of the city; yet these approaches and advantages have so pust up the Swedes, that they have sent a letter by a trumpet into the city, containing, 1. A reproach, by reason the town would not continue in the amity and neutrality. 2. Inviting, notwithstanding, the town to an agreement. But the town or the magistracy deliberated to give an answer altogether conformable to the faith and fidelity which they owe to the king of Poland. Those of Dantzick do very much complain, that the elector of Brandenburgh doth assist the Swedes with his troops.

The order of making complaint to the king of Sweden for the detention the ambassadors at Lauwenborgh is wholly referred to the arbitrement and discretion of the ambassadors themselves, to make complaint thereof.

The lord Rosenwinge hath declared to the States General by the president, that he stays here only to receive of this state the remainder of the subsidy promised to the king during the English war, whereof is still due to him 150000 or 200000 gilders, wherein Holland is as much defective as the other provinces.

Lately one province declared to him in particular, that they had resolved to cause their share to be paid, as soon as the provinces, that were before them, had paid in theirs; which in effect is not to do any thing, for Guelderland is poor, and Holland hath no great will, in regard that Holland doth believe, that the Danes have very ill satisfied in the promised equipage. Item, they would not join any ship to the fleet of this state. In short they believe here to have given more satisfaction to Denmark, than Denmark hath satisfied this State. Otherwise Holland ought at present, as it were, to force Denmark by this liberality to ingage itself with this state against Sweden. And now at last the lord Rosenwinge hath insisted, that the provinces would pay without any distinction of rank; upon which is yet no other resolved, only that the provinces are admonished to pay. In the mean time those words to pay, without distinction of place or rank, do design and signify something ridiculous; as if men were to observe a rank, and never to do well; as if a clown that is to pray to God, ought to stay till the king had prayed; or enter into heaven after the king was entered.

When a creditor will accept solutionem particularum vel correi, the debtor or the correus must pay.

They have converted the advice of Holland of the 23d May into a resolution of the generality, and that is carried by the lords Schoock and Beverning to the ministers of Brandenburgh.

8 June.

THE commissioner of Dantzick seconded with a letter from the town of Amsterdam hath caused this morning to be represented very seriously the urgent necessity of the town of Dantzick, as upon which dependeth all the business of Prussia or Poland; for as much as it concerneth the interest of this state. The said commissioner desireth expedition and resolution this week, making a great complaint of the delay; but not one province declared themselves either ready or intrusted; and Holland itself as little as the rest; for the commissioners declare, that they have no power, only to declare that, which containeth their advise of the 23d May, which use only words. But those of Holland declared, that their principals are to be assembled the next week or the week following.

From the ambassadors at Marienburgh is nothing come by this post; but so much the more are they in pain here; for it is clearly seen, that Dantzick will make its accommo dation, if it see itself deprived of some subsidy from hence. And if they give them a subsidy here, it will be a kind of a rupture, at least a great offence; and if so be, notwithstanding Dantzick do accommodate itself after the example of Brandenburg, Sweden will do very much prejudice to this state.

The Muscovite envoy, who is to come from Koningsberg hither, was to depart the next day for the Pillaw, namely on the 28 May.

Of the king of Poland and his army is nothing certain come yet.

The town of Dantzick hath returned an answer to the letter of the king of Sweden with much civility, that they would greatly esteem his amity and neutrality, if the faith, which they owe to the king of Poland, would permit them.

9 June.

It is observed, that in the urgent necessity for the present conjuncture of Prussia, not only the raedt pensionary and the secretary Beaumont, but all the council, to whom belongs the right of summoning the states of Holland, are absent, except one, who is of Gorcum. So that the lord Beverning and Lodestein (alone present of the commissioners in the States General) supplying that, do make the summons for the said states to assemble here together as soon as may be, yea as at a constellation or Hannibal ad portas. And to encourage the town of Dantzick and the commissioner thereof, they have secretly resolved, that the advice of Holland of the 23d of May is to be converted into a resolution of the generality, and is to be given so to the said commissioner, to assure him of a real assistance. For that is the sinews and substance of the advise of Holland. And the first is, that upon this resolution they hope, that there will be some merchant, that will furnish Dantzick with considerable sums. And to demonstrate yet more, that they will choose the Anti-Swedish party, they have this day, as it were, retracted the resolution taken the last week (when they did not know what had lately happened in Prussia) to reject the Roman Catholics out of the magistracy of Rhynberk, to the end to oblige the elector of Cologne and his allies; so that upon the said case of Rhynberk there will be a conference to-morrow.

The admiral Opdam was yesterday yet at Rotterdam: his ship and another were ready, but the rest not. It will be resolved, that he go to sea with the other alone if the wind will permit him.