State Papers, 1658
October (3 of 4)


History of Parliament Trust



Thomas Birch (editor)

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'State Papers, 1658: October (3 of 4)', A collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, volume 7: March 1658 - May 1660 (1742), pp. 447-461. URL: Date accessed: 18 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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October (3 of 4)

The speech of the protector Richard to the officers of the army: in the hand-writing of secretary Thurloe, and corrected by him.

In the possession of the right hon. Philip lord Hardwicke, lord high chancellor of Great-Britain.

Takeinge notice, that there are now in towne very many of the officers of the army both of English and Scotch army, and some alsoe from Ireland, and probablie more then are like to be againe for some tyme, I had a desire to see you together, and thought myselfe obliged to speake some things to you, which I judge the present state of affaires makes it necessary for me to say.

I need not to observe to you, in what a conjuncture of tyme and affayres I am come to the government. You all knowe it; and you know the difficulties my father all his tyme wrestled with; and I beleeve noe man thinks, that his death hath lessened them. I am sure our enemies thinke they are much encreased, and that now is their tyme to devoure us all at once; and they have their instruments in every corner, and in all shapes, to manage their designes that way. Their maine worke is to divide. It's the worke of their day to divide you from me, and me from you, whom God and the law have joyned together, and you amongst yourselves. And if they can effect this, they thinke they effect their desires; and truly I beleeve they make no ill judgment: and if they miscarry in this, it's very likely, that our peace will still be continued.

Then if their worke be division, our worke is union. And if there be a union in principles and ends, it is more then probable wee shall be united in our affections and actions.

Soone after my accession to the government, I receaved from the whole army an addresse, as you knowe, wherein you expressed your affection and fidelity to me, and engaged to be with me, as you had beene with my father; the kindnes whereof, both to my father and myselfe, I doe and shall ever owne and acknowledge. And this I suppose you did, to strengthen my hands against the opposition I am like to meet with in carryinge on the Lord's worke in this land, and in preserving the good cause my father and the honest men of this nation had engaged in. And the army did in that addresse expresse those particulars, wherein they conceived the life and spirit of that cause to consist, which in few words are,
1. The liberty of the nation, as wee are men:
2. The liberty of conscience, as wee are Christians:
3. The keepinge of the army in the hands of godly men:
4. A godly magistracy, and godly ministrie.

All that the army sayd in their addresse to me, and all that is in the hearts of honest men touchinge our cause, is reducible to these 4 heads. And if it be soe, if in truth this be all that lyes in the bottom of men's spirits, I doe not see, whereupon any differences should growe amongst us. All these things are in my heart to promote, and to venture my life, and all I have, and am, in the defence of; soe that soe farr as you have exprest yourselfe in your addresse, I can truly say, I am as you are, and you are as I am.

For the sake of these things hath God cal'd me to the place I stand in; and I perswade myselfe, my standinge and yours too will be accordinge as wee are true, in the sight of God, and not of men only, to these thinges.

For these ends am I alsoe trusted by this nation, who will and doe expect the account of them from me. And I am resolved in the strength of Christ to doe all which lyes in me, to answere my trust and their expectation.

It is my disadvantage, that I have beene soe little amongst you, and am noe better knowne to you. I hope a little tyme will remove that disadvantage, which indeed is upon us both, not doubtinge, but as I come to knowe you better, and you to knowe more of me, our mutuall confidence in each other will encrease. For my owne part, I have an entire confidence in you, as those who were my father's companions in all his daungers and difficulties, and who were witnesses of all the wonders God wrought for him, and you, and these nations; and I knowe his soule clave to you; and I am perswaded soe did yours to hym. God hath raised me up in my father's stead, and put me in the same relation towards this nation and you, as he stood in. If now I may have the affections and prayers of my father's old friends, (which I shall have, if the Lord take pleasure in me) I shall esteeme it a better portion then any thinge else my father hath left me. The government, I can assure you, is not that I take pleasure in. If my lott by beinge here be cast amongst the people of God to serve them, yea to suffer with them, I shall rejoice therein.

I am not ignorant of the surmizes, which are industriously spread abroad, to weaken my confidence in you, and yours in me; and I have heard of some dissatisfactions, which have beene with some of you; wherein I beleeve you in the army might have a very good meaninge, as thinkeinge your desires therein tended to your preservation of the good old cause. I shall take notice of these things noe further, nor make any other use of what I have heard upon this subject, then take occasion from thence to open my heart plainly and fully to you concerning all those things, which any of your feares may have been exercised about.

I knowe the place and station God hath set me in, and the authority which he hath clothed me with; but I shall however be alwayes willinge at any tyme to lay aside all that, to give satisfaction to the meanest person here, that comes with an honest heart to seeke it.

It might have pleased God, and the nation too, to have chosen out a person more fitt and able for this worke then I am. I am sure it may be sayd of me, not for my wisdome, my parts, my experience, my holiness, hath God chosen me before others; there are many here amongst you, who excell me in all these things; but God hath done herein as it pleased him; and the nation, by his providence, hath put things this way.

Beinge then thus trusted, I shall make a conscience, I hope, in the execution of this trust; which I see not how I should doe, if I should part with any parte of the trust, which is committed to me, unto any others, though they may be better men then myselfe: as for instance,
If I should trust it to any one person or more, to fill up the vacancies of the army, otherwise then it is in the Petition and Advise, which directs that the comanders in cheife of England, Scotland and Ireland, and the other field-officers, should be from tyme to tyme supplyed by me, with the consent of the counsell, leavinge all other comission-officers only in my disposall; I should therein breake my trust, and doe otherwise then the parlement intended. And it may as well be askt of me, that I would comit it to some other persons to supply the vacancies in the councell, in the Lord's house, and all other magistrates. I leave it to any reasonable man to imagine, whether this be a thinge in my power to doe. To advise with others, whose experience of men and things hath given them an advantage in this respect, is most necessary; and within a few dayes after my father's death, I did call some of the cheife of the armye, and told them, that in fillinge up of vacancies from tyme to tyme in the armye, I intended to advise with them, and this is still my intention; and I have hitherto observed that course, and shall: but to give it out of my owne hands quite, or to place it in such manner, that I shall exercise no more of my owne judgment, then if I had parted with it, that I cannot doe with a good conscience.

2. It would be a very imprudent thinge in me to doe any such thinge: I should remeyne responsible both to God and men, for all that should be done by the person or persons, that I should trust, and yet exercise myselfe noe judgment about it; soe that if the matter be well done, I should have none of the thankes for it; if it be ill done, all the blame will light upon me, because I am the person trusted by lawe.

3. I should hereby render myselfe insignificant, and uselesse to all the ends of my government. What can I doe to encourage godlines, and discourage profanenes, countenance reformation, and the like, if the army be in other hands, which by this meanes it will in a short tyme be? And I shall be soe farre from being a terror to evill doers, that every body will be a terror to me.

4. The lawe hath now given me an advantage to give a proofe to you, and all the nation, what my principles are; which are best manifested by the persons I trust, and cheifly those in the army.

I should by this bereave myselfe of that opportunity.

5. I should thereby keepe myselfe a stranger to you, which of all things in this world I shall never consent to; but on the contrary endeavour by all meanes to knowe you, and be knowne to you; being perswaded that you are the best company and body of men, that ever were incorporated into an army in this world. And it shall be my utmost care, that you may be kept soe; it is for the good of us all, that you be kept soe. Thus you see our end and principles are the same. Some would make a question, whether myselfe or other men should act these things, and fill up the vacancyes with good men. I have shewed you, why there is a necessity for my doeing it, beinge the person trusted therein.

There hath beene alsoe some discourse about a comaunder in cheife. You knowe how that stands in the Petition and Advise, which I must make my rule in my government; and shall through the blessinge of God sticke close to that. I am not obliged to make any comaunder in cheife; that is lest to my owne liberty, as it was in my father's: only, if I will make any, it must be done by the consent of the councell. And by the comaunder in cheife can be meant noe other then the person who under me comaunds the whole army, call hym what you will; field-marshall, comaunder in cheife, major-general, or lieutenant-generall, or be there any other name, that can be devised to signifie that thinge.

And if this be not the meaninge, the parlement would be very much deceived in the obligation they intended to put upon me to take the consent of the counsell; for then I might make a major-generall, a lieutenant-generall, a field-marshall, who should comaund all the forces next a generall, without the consent of the counsell, soe as I did not call him comaunder in chiefe. And this exposition would set me at liberty; but truly I desire not to be set at liberty, where the meaning was I should be bound. Comaunder in cheife is the genus; the others are the species.

And though I am not obliged to have any such person besides myselfe, to comaund all the forces, yet I have made one; that is, I have made my brother Fleetwood lieutenantgenerall of all the army, and so by consequence comaunder in cheife; and I am sure I can doe nothinge, that will give him more influence in the army, then that title will give him, unless I should make him generall; and I have told you the reasons why I cannot doe that.

And as for the feares, which are of puttinge any body over his head, they are groundles and needles jealousies cast into mens minds. I have on my owne accord assured the contrary to many, that I intend him to be ymediately under myselfe. And if I am not trusted upon my word, I am not fitt to be protector. Besides, the callinge him comaunder in cheife doth not hinder me from bringinge in one over his heade, if I have a mind to breake my word. And it is too hard put upon mee to say, I am not to be trusted upon my word.

I looke upon such and the like sayeings to be but tares sowne amongst us by the evill ones.

I have noe other thoughts about the government of these nations then you have, soe farre as you have exprest them in your address; and havinge sayd this to you, I expect that whatsoever may be sayd to the contrary, or whisper'd abroad amongst you, that you looke upon them as calumnyes, and intended against us all, untill my actions declare the contrary; and if any thinge be done, which at any tyme sticks with you, I shall be willinge, that any of you tell me of it, and reason out of any of your mouths shall preveyle with me as much as if the greatest person in the nation spoke it. I assure you, I shall carry it thus to you, and you shall have the justice of being heard by me, before I give beliefe to any thinge, that is sayd; and I hope your generall may expect the same justice. And if I finde any of you at any tyme faulty, and actinge contrary to your trust, I shall not proceed arbitrarily, and only exercise my owne discretion, (which I heare too is a thinge suggested) but shall referre thinges to the discipline of the army, which I wish were kept up more strictly then it hath beene.

In these paths shall you find me; and therefore goe to your charges with this confidence, and suffer not evill and wily men to disquiet and trouble your mindes with thinges, which have beinge only in their owne bosomes; and I shall remeyne here with all confidence of the fidelity and affection of every one of you towards me and this nation.

There is one thinge I am troubled at very much, which is, that the army is soe much in arreare of their pay; and I could have wisht, that I could have sent you out of towne with some certeinty to your fellow-souldiers as to this. I can assure you, both myself and the councell doe consider nothinge so much, as to pay the arreares, and to settle your pay better for the future; and I hope you will soone see the effect of our care in parte; and I shall take noe comfort in my government, untill I can see you substantially provided for. And I pray the Lord to be with you, and blesse you.

General Monck to the protector.

Vol. lxi. p. 326.

May it please your Highness,
Upon occasion of the decease of judge Smyth, one of the commissioners for administration of justice, as well in civill as criminall causes in Scotland, who lately dyed, whilst he was on the northern circuit, your highnesse councill here hold it their duty humbly to acquaint your highness, that upon the first establishment of the courts of justice here by the English authority, it was thought expedient, that the prime judicature for civill causes in this nation (to which there is an appeale from all inferior courts of justice) should consist of all persons of both nations, as well for reasons of state, for the more impartial administration of justice to this people, and as that which might in time have a tendency to the bringing the way and practice of proceedings for the administration of justice here to as neer a conformity as might be with those in England. And it was likewise held fitt, that whereas formerly one single person (as justice generall) was entrusted in adjudging upon criminall causes here, that instead thereof, some of the said commissioners should be commissionated in criminall causes, and accordingly comissions were issued under the great seale of England, erecting those judicatoryes; but in that for criminall causes, there were but two comissioners of the Scotish nation, with all those of the English nation, who were in the comission for the civill causes, being fower in number, who have chiefly (if not wholly) executed that comission, which said judicatures have ever since been, and are (in the opinion of your highnes said councill) meet to be so continued with the addition of your highnes chancellor or keeper of the great seale here, in the comission for civill causes, as your highnes father of blessed memory had appointed, according to the dignity of that office; in regard whereof, and of the present bodily weakeness of judge Goodere, another of the comissioners for civill and criminall causes here, he having for many weekes been visited with sickness, in which he still continues, insoemuch as it is not probable, that he can undergo the travell and paines of those important and burdensome imployments during most of the next session, begining the first of November, and ending the last of February; during which time (there being but two sessions or termes here in the yeare) the work of the commissioners for justice will be very great, because of the manifold causes depending before them; your highnes said councill, in all humility, offer their humble opinion of the urgent necessity of a speedy adding another able and worthy person of the English nation (instead of judge Smyth) in both the said comissions, for the carrying on of justice in this country for the reasons aforesaid, especially there being but two more of the English nation besides your chancellor or keeper of the great seale, (whose other necessary imployments in your highnes service cannott admit his constant or very frequent sitting there) and judge Goodere in those comissions, which they humbly submitt to your highness consideration and order; all which by appointment of your highness councill heere is humbly represented to your highness, by
Hallyrude-house, the 19th October, 1658.

Your Highnes most humble and most
faithfull servant,
George Monck.

Lord Fauconberg to H. Cromwell, lord lieutenant of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

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My Lord,
Affairs have at present an outward appearance of quiet, 33 35 11 36 13 17 41 5 27 28 38 41 45 3 35 8 5 33 31 11 3 37 5 27 9 11 26 12 32 38 21 11 41, but are 41 5 37 11 effectivly 10 13 7 39 21 40 25 49 (if I know any thing) further 35 41 14 13 37 from then ever. 39 16 11 24 11 40 13 35.

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Z. has lost one of the farest oppertunities, 11 26 12 39 14 13 10 5 19 37 11 36 26 3 33 128 35 39 40 27 21 41 19 11 36 that was ever put 34 13 38 11 35 31 38 into a young prince's hands to settle 29 15 31 37 21 27 7 11 36 14 5 27 9 34 39 28 34 1141 39 23 13 the nation and himself. 19 28 27 5 27 8 16 19 24 34 11 23 12. B. wishes it be the last thing they give, 39 4 11 41 14 13 23 5 34 41 39 14 19 25 15 41 14 13 47 17 18 40 11 and he lost; but I feare 28 34 11; 29 38 41 21 10 11 5 37 13 2 both 39 16.

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V. Desb. Berry, Couper, and inferiour 38 33 11 35 5 27 8 19 27 12 13 35 19 28 38 37 officers, wors then themselves, if possible, 26 35 34 41 14 11 29 41 16 13 22 34 11 23 38 11 36 19 10 31 26 36 34 19 4 23 13, have dayly 38 13 6 5 47 25 49 22 13 11 39 21 meetings. 34.

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I wish we had so too; but that 11 14 5 6 36 26 41 26 28; 2 38 41 39 6 5 41 21 34 is our weaknes; 11 3 20 27 13 34; and now, my lord, you have the bottom 38 11 41 16 which, when read, pray 28 22 11, 43 16 19 7 14, 45 14 11 29 37 11 5 8 33 35 3 47 let it be burnt. 2 18 4 38 37 29 39.

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Z. H. H. tells mee dayly 2 13 11 6 3 47 25 49 A. 34 shall come over, 26 24 11 28 38 13 35, though for my owne part I love him too well 4 26 45 27 13 31 5 35 41 19 23 28 40 11 14 21 24 41 28 26 45 11 25 to advise it, unles bee bring something 39 38 27 25 11 36 16 11 13 4 36 19 29 17 34 26 24 11 11 39 16 10 29 17 at his heels. 19 36 14 13 11 25 34. So long as bee states where 17 3 36 14 13 11 36 39 5 19 13 34 45 14 13 35 11 he is, the after-game is pretty 13 5 10 39 13 37 17 3 24 11 19 36 31 37 11 41 39 49 safe 5 12 11.

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B. is resolv'd for T. or north, when 38 6 10 28 35 41 28 35 27 28 35 41 14 43 16 13 27 funerals over, and with his dear freind 26 40 11 37 5 27 8 43 21 39 16 14 21 34 6 13 5 35 10 37 11 21 27 8 lord Howard, to expect 45 3 37 6 39 28 11 44 31 13 9 39 B's 7 commands, the one having good interest in 28 27 13 14 5 38 21 27 17 15 28 26 8 21 27 39 13 35 11 36 39 19 29 Yorkshire; the other from thence 35 13 41 14 13 26 41 14 11 37 10 35 28 24 39 16 11 29 7 13 as far as Monke, who wishes 22 26 29 20 11 43 16 28 43 21 34 16 11 36. A. would correspond with. 28 37 35 11 34 33 28 27 8 43 21 39 16. Since I writt this, I am more confirmed in what I said by discouse with Q. and R; and that it is not safe for 12 11 10 26 34 A. to come over, 22 13 28 38 13 37, being so very much feared and hated by the 5 29 6 14 3 41 11 6 4 47 41 14 13 opposite party. 34 19 39 31 5 35 39 49.

October 19th, 1658.

Your Excelency's most faithfull servant,

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B. would quit his regiment did he not hope to 21 34 35 13 15 21 29 11 29 41 8 19 6 16 13 11 27 26 41 14 28 33 11 39 28 serve 11 37 38 13 A. with it, 41 14 19 41 upon a good account.

General Fleetwood to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

Deare Brother,
I have no time to wright, but must reserve myselfe till the next, and shall therfor only make use of this present addresse to let you know, ther canot be a greater inclination and desire in yourselfe, then is in me, to have a cleare, right, and through understanding 'twixt us. I think interest upon the account of publicke as well as privat should oblige thereunto. I must confesse that old friendshippe and heartynes, that was betwixt us. I canot but remember we are still upon our old debate, but can come to no resolve; the difficultyes we meet with about the maner of calling parliament being great, as allso the necessity of our affayres putting us upon the streight, how we shall be able to obviat thos difficultyes and tryalls, which such a season may put us under, that being a time all interests will be working, and the want we shall be under may put our affayres into much hazard thereby. But that being the only remedy left, we must trust the Lord in what way his providence leads unto, and hope for his presance to prevent what we feare, and to give in what the necessity of our occations call for a supply of; and the more both that and all our other affayres are carryed on by that spirit, the easier will our worke be, and the more successfull. We are much concerned in the buysnes of the Sownd; if the Sweade be worsted, we probably shall seele the smart, though we understand not so well the late attempt as to justify him; yet the consequence therof we are deeply concerned in. Severall reports ther of Copenhagen's being taken, but the contrare is more probable. The Dutch are gone with their fleet.

October 19. [1658.]

Your most affectionate brother and servant.

Dr. Thomas Clarges to H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland.

In the possession of the right hon. the earl of Shelburn.

May it please your Excelency,
Yesterday morning his highnes call'd together the generall officers of the army, and they had a conference concerning the present posture of affaires, which I hope had a very good result, because they parted with much kindnes. My lord Fleetwood hath renewed his commission of lieutenant-generall under his highnes, by the advice of his councill, which is according to the petition of the eighth article of the Petition and Advice. Most of the like disquiets in the army were managed by the inferior officers; but I feare they were influenc'd by some of the rest. They are to have another meeting on fryday; but I believe things are so well moderated, that no disturbances can arise from it. In Scotland all are quiet, and care is taken, that no officers or soldiers have any meetings to interpose in publique matters.

There is little forreigne news since my last to your excellency. The king of France hath appeas'd some mutinous riseings in his province of Normandy, by the good conduct and courage of the marquis of Mountpesat. And his majesty is now goeing to Lyons, in persuit of an inclination he has to a marriage with the duke of Savoy's eldest daughter. The French ambassador had audience yesterday about three of the clock at Whitehall; he had a numerous traine of gentlemen, all in mourning, to attend him, and was followed by eighty coaches. He told his highnes, (after the usuall compliments of condoleing the death of his late highnes, and congratulateing his peaceable accession to the government of thes nations) that his master commanded him in his name to offer to him the assistance of his councells and armies, to confirme him in the gloryes of his father's conquests, and assist him against all the enemies of the peace of England at home and abroad. To which his highnes made a returne worthy his owne goodnes and respect to so great a king, his freind and allye.

I humbly desire your excelency to conceale this letter from view of any but your confident freinds, because some expressions in the beginning of it may receive a frowarder interpretation then was meant in them by,
May it please your Excelency,
Your excelencie's most obliged humble servant,
Tho. Clarges.

London, this 19th of October, 1658.

The information of George Gregson of Carleton, in the parish of Poulton, in the county of Lancaster, husbandman.

Vol. lx. p. 325.

This informant saith, that about three years since, he this informant was servant to the lord Brudenell of Dean in the county of Northampton, where he became acquainted with one Mr. Francis Fortescue, who came thither as a guest.

That he this informant hath been with the said Fortescue several times since at Dean, and other places in Northamptonshire; and that about twelve monthes since, the said Fortescue sent letters by this informant into Lancashire to Mrs. Anderton and Anne Goldinge.

That this informant about May-day last, went up to London to bind his brother apprentice; and did then carry a letter from Mrs. Anderton to Mr. Fortescue; but not placing of him, this examinant and his brother went to the isle of Sheepy in the county of Kent, to work harvest-work, where they staid two months; and since harvest, this informant came to and did remain in London, and since with his sister Agnes Ringrose at Walgrave in the county of Northampton; and from thence went to Dean, from whence he was sent by one Mrs. Clanton of Dean aforesaid to Mr. Colewell's an apothecary in Oundle, where this informant met with the said Mr. Francis Fortescue, who did then and there deliver to this informant the four letters (two of which he staid the writing of) found about him, the contents of which letters this informant denyes that he did know. or of any imployment, that the said Fortescue is upon; but doth verily believe the said Fortescue is a Catholic, as this informant confesseth himself to be.

Intelligence sent from Holland by resident Downing.

The 30th of October, 1658. [N. S.]

Vol. lxi. p. 337.

Since my last, wherein I acquainted you, that the duke of York and Gloucester had surrendered their commissions to Don John, there is arrived at Brussels father Barton and father Talbot, two English Jesuits, who, together with the old Irish lord Musgrave, and George Hamilton, the old treasurer of Ireland, are employed from the king of Spain to engage the duke of York to continue in the Spanish army; and, by way of inducement thereunto, do promise to augment his stipend of five thousand pistoles per annum to ten thousand, and to raise a new regiment of horse for him, whereunto 'tis thought he will listen. He hath also a house in Brussels allotted to him, where he keeps a great court, and gives great salaries to his attendants, insomuch that his grooms of his chamber, comptroller, 'squire, and several others, keep their coaches. Charles Stuart is still at Brussels, but very solitary, having received but small encouragement from England in his last letters.

Captain Holmes, whom I mentioned in my last, went over by the last convoy to Gravesend, but, for privacy, went in company with, and as one of the retinue to the lady Staresmore, one of the ladies of honour to the princess royal. He is very suddenly to return by the way of Gravesend again for these parts.

There is one captain Lee, who came lately over with some three horses from England to the princess royal at the Hague, with some message, which Nicolas Armorer having received from him, was immediately dispatched away to Charles Stuart. This Lee was a captain in Oxford, and hath since been a merchant in Spain. He is a fat man, with curl'd black hair, and goes over by the next passage to Gravesend. Mrs. Stevens, who hath been so much employed in England, is now to come over by the next ships from Gravesend; for her husband is gone to Flushing to meet her there at her coming; and doubtless she hath some considerable affair to Charles Stuart, for she hath been a great while away.

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There is one for certain come to Largdale from the North; 358 306 468 395 137 146 60; but this I can assure you, that the best news, as they call it, which he brings, and also George Coult, 311 254 156 85 151, who is also arrived from England at Brussels, is, that there is great jealousy 219 71 42 16 365 524 171 and probability of divinon 71 142 345 in England among the great ones in the army; 413 144 339 468 214; and one Smith, 381 146 61, a Jesuit, 41 142 154 346 145, is also arrived at Brussels from England, 585 306 547, who also saith the like; and upon this, and the calling or a par- 81 362 110 59 408 14 122 213 liament, 202 43 104 145, at present they do sound all their hopes. 131 328 123 287. There is another letter come to the same place from another Jesuit 142 153 346 146 to the same purpose.

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I have it from a good hand, that there 134 is at this time much whispering at Brussels about a wise for Ch. Stuart; 305 572; but whether any thing will come of it, or the name of the person, I am not able yet to inform you; but shall listen after it as much as I may.

H. Cromwell, lord deputy of Ireland, to the protector Richard.

20. Octob. 1658.

In the possession of William Cromwell esq;

May it please your Highness,
If the account be true, which I have received of the state of affairs in England, I cannot tell what to advise your highness upon this sad occasion, though I consess 'tis no more than I looked for. Only I had some hopes, it might have been prevented, by keeping all officers at their respective charges. But as things now stand, I doubt the flood is so strong, you can neither stem it, nor come to an anchor, but must be content to go adrist, and expect the ebb. I thought those, whom my father had raised from nothing, would not so soon have forgot him, and endeavour to destroy his family, before he is in his grave. Why do I say, I thought, when I know ambition and affectation of empire never had any bounds? I cannot think these men will ever rest, till they are in the saddle; and we have of late years been so used to changes, that it will be but a 9 days wonder. And yet I fear there is no remedy, but what must be used gradually, and pedetentim. Sometimes I think of a parliament; but am doubtful whether sober men will adventure to embark themselves, when things are in so high a distraction; or if they would, whether the army can be restrained from forcing elections. I know not what to advise at this distance, unless I could hear all the arguments pro and con. upon a true state of the case; yet I am almost afraid to come to your highness, lest I should be kept there, and so your highness lose this army, which, for aught I know, is the only stay you have, tho' I cannot but earnestly desire it. I do also think it dangerous to write freely to your highness, or for you to do it to me, unless by a messenger, that will not be outwitted or corrupted; for I make no question, but that all the letters will be opened, which come either to or from your highness, which can be suspected to contain business. I pray God help you, and bless your counsells. The inclosed is a copy of my letter this post to my brother Fleetwood, which I send, that your highness may see, whether I am mistaken in my apprehension of things. I remain, &c.

Lord deputy Cromwell to general Fleetwood.

20. Oct. 58.

In the possession of William Cromwell esq;

Dear Brother,
I received the account you give of the petition of your officers, for which I give you thanks, and especially for your caution, that I should not believe any thing concerning you, till I had heard you. Truly it was seasonable advice; for I am told strange things: and pray give me leave to expostulate with you. How came these 2 or 300 officers together? If they came of their own heads, the being absent from their charge without licence would have flown in their face, when they petitioned for a due observance of martiall discipline. If they were called together, were they not also taught what to say and do? If they were called, was it with his highness's privity? If they met without leave in so great a number, were they told their error? I shall not meddle with the matter of their petition, though some things in it do unhandsomely reflect, not only upon his present, but his late highness. I wish with all my heart, you were commander in chief of all the forces in the 3 nations; but I had rather have it done by his highness's especiall grace and meer motion, than put upon you in a tumultuary unsoldierly way. But, dear brother, I must tell you (and I cannot do it without tears) I hear, that dirt was thrown upon his late highness at that great meeting. They were exhorted to stand up for that good old cause, which had long lain asleep, &c. I thought, my dear father had pursued it to the last. He dyed like a servant of God, and prayed for those, that desired to trample upon his dust, for they were also God's people. O dear brother! let us not render evil for good; let us not make his memory stink, before he is under ground: let us remember his last legacy, and even for his sake render his successor considerable, and not make him vile, a thing of nought, and a by-word. O! whither do these things tend! Surely God hath a controversy with us. What a hurly-burly is there made! a 100 independant ministers called together! a councill, as you call it, of 2 or 300 officers of a judgment! Remember what has always befallen imposing spiritts. Will not the loins of an imposing independent or anabaptist be as heavy as the loins of an imposing prelate or presbyter? And is it a dangerous error, that dominion is founded in grace, when it is held by the church of Rome, and a sound principle, when it is held by the fifth-monarchy? Dear brother, let us not fall into the sins of other men, lest we partake of their plagues. Let it be so carryed, that all the people of God, though under different forms, yea, even those whom you count without, may enjoy their birth-right and civil liberty, and that no one party may tread upon the neck of another. It doth not become the magistrate to descend into parties; but can the things you do, tend to this end? Can those things be done, and the world not think his highness a knave or a fool, or oppressed with mutinous spirits? O dear brother, my spirit is sorely oppressed with the consideration of the miserable estate of the innocent people of these three poor nations! What have these sheep done, that their blood should be the price of our lust and ambition? Let me beg of you to remember, how his late highness loved you, how he honoured you with the highest trust in the world by leaving the sword in your hand, which must desend or destroy us; and his declaring his highness his successor shews, that he left it there to preserve him and his reputation. O brother, use it to curb extravagant spirits, and busy bodys; but let not the nations be governed by it. Let us take heed of arbitrary power. Let us be governed by the known laws of the land, and let all things be kept in their proper channels; and let the army be so governed, that the world may never hear of them, unless there be occasion to fight. And truly, brother, you must pardon me, if I say, God and man may require this duty at your hand, and lay all miscarriages in the army, in point of discipline, at your door. You see I deal freely and plainly with you, as becomes your friend, and a good subject. And the great God, in whose presence I speak this, he knows, that I do it not to reproach you, but out of my tender affection and faithfullness to you; and you may rest assured, that you shall always find me
Your true friend, and loving brother.

Postscript. Why were we comprehended in the title of your address, and concluded by 2 officers? If it be not printed, pray do not cozen the world.

Lord deputy Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxi. p.338.

I feare by your last weeke's silence, that your indisposition is returned upon you. I wish it be from noe worse cause, though that be bad enough at this juncture, if my account of things bee true. This is but what I expected would unavoidably follow the death of my deare father, and whether it may tend, God knowes. I have thought myself obleiged to discharge my conscience to my brother Fleetwood upon this occasion of this tumultuous meeting; which I have done faithfully and freely. I knowe not, whether you are in a condition to read this without trouble, and therefore forbeare to enlarge. I know, when you are able, you will make good your promise to give me the full state of things at large. Wee are quiett here, and shall endeavour to keep so. I remane

Your very affectionate freind and humble servant,
H. Cromwell.

Dublin, October 20th, 1658.

Lord deputy Cromwell to secretary Thurloe.


I know you had a very great reverence for that most worthie and learned person, the late primate of Ireland, and upon his account did prevaile with his late highnes to resolve upon shewing some marke of his favour to his daughter, my lady Tyrrell, and her children. I have been informed by Sr. Tym. Tyrrell her husband, that there was a graunt readie to pass, of an annuity of 3 or 400 l. for some longe tearme, to bee charged upon the profitts of the lands belongeing to the sea of Ardmagh. Truly, Sir, I would not have those so good and charitable inclinations of his late highnes to bee without effect. I doe presume his now highnes (if you please to concern yourself as much now as heretofore) will not bee backward to soe good a worke. Indeed I thinke they will need this help for their subsistance, and it's pitty the posteritie of such a person should want. If I can make any judgment of professions with such other observations, which have occurred to mee of his deportment, I beleive the bearer to bee not onely peaceably enclined, but readie, to the best of his power, to be serviceable to your interest. I remane

Your very affectionate freind and servant,
H. Cromwell.

Octob. 20th, 58.

Mr. Downing, the English resident in Holland, to secretary Thurloe.


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Right Honourable,
This day I received from the states general, by the hand of their agent, the answer of the admiralty of Zeeland to my memoriall presented to the states this day 14 dayes; the sume whereof is, that they have stoped all the Flanders men of warr in Zeeland, and that justice shall be done. By the post you shall have a copy thereof; but it seemes by this, that they doe not finde the businesse as they had represented in their former letter to the states generall; yet, for my one part, I am very much an infidell as to the issue; for I see plainly it runs from one end of this country to the other, by this meanes 205 287 to destroy the shiping of England. 468 456 339 56 408 547, and that must and will certainly be the if 346 140 u e therof. 137 408. I thinke, yea I am sure, it would be of importance, that you did, in a solemn conference 109 254 108 50 286 205 251 for that very purpose and noe other, remonstrate this matter 142 146 437 466 469 371 148 145 286 to Nieuport. This would make a great noise here, 42 219 395 346 324 134, and, I am sure, doe very much good. I pray seriously think of it, and let it be done; and upon notice of its being done, 71 149 140 231 339 56 272, I hope I shall not be wanting to improve it heere.

This week this last post by the letters from Hamburg we have newes, that the king of Sweden's forces, under the command of major-general Douglas, have fallen into Curland, taken his capitall citty of Mittau, with the duke and his whole family, (his dutchess having bin brought to-bed but few dayes before) and carryed them away prisoners for Riga; a thing, which administers much discourse heere, and the rather for that it's said, that the said duke had obteyned of the king of Poland, whose vassall he was, to be neutrall in this warr betweene the Swedes and the Poles. The king of Sweden hath lately written another letter to this state, wherein is an expression to this purpose, that this state would at least have as great priviledges as any nation whatsoever, in relation to the trade of the Baltique sea. I have herein inclosed to you a copy of a letter, which was taken by a Danish vessell, going from the king of Sweden to generall Douglas; and I doe it the rather, because in the postscript thereof there is mention made of the protector that now is, and that a postscript written with the king of Sweeden's own hand. Not more, but that I am,
Right Honourable, Your most faythfull humble servant,
G. Downing.

Hague, the 21/31. October, 1658.

Not one word of newes from admirall Opdam. Heere was a report, as if the king of Sweden's fleete was retired; but it doth not hold. We begin now to be in hourely expectation of the issue of that greate business.

Memorial of the Portugal embassador.

1. Novemb. 1658. [N. S.]

Vol. lxi. p. 346.

The underwritten embassador of Portugal, having seen and considered the treaty of peace made with the commonwealth of England, hath been found, that the 20 ships he hath offered, which his majesty of Portugal should freight every year for the subjects of the states general, which touch partly the second article of the said treaty. Wherefore he finds himself obliged to advertise their lordships thereof, that, in that particular, he will oblige himself to do only so far, as it may not prejudice England. Given at the Hague, 1st Novemb. 1658.

Mr. Downing, the English resident in Holland, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxi. p. 341.

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Right Honourable,
Haveing written unto you yesterday by the way of Skeveling, I have nothing farther to add; yet doe not thinke fitt to omitt the post. We heare not any thing yet from admiral Opdam, nor his fleete; but the weather hath bin extreame good ever since he went to sea, and so continues; so that we are in hourly expectation of what is past. There was a report heere since the last post, as if the king of Sweden had drawne his fleete from Cronnigburg to Copenhagen, and thereupon it was conjectured, that he would avoyd fighting; but that report continues not, so that it is now verily believed, that blowes have past between them, and the consequences thereof must be greate, which way soever that business turne, of which I have severall times hinted in my former letters. By the last post from Hamburg we have newes, that general Douglas hath fallen into Courland, and seized Mittau, the principall citty thereof, and carryed away the said duke, with his dutchesse and whole family, prisoners to Riga; another unexpected action, and which administers much discourse heere, Courland being a dependence of the kingdome of Poland, but which had obteyned leave to be neutrall in this late warr; and it seemes the dutchess had bin brought to-bed but few dayes before she was carryed away, as you will perceive by the inclosed. And I have heerein inclosed to you a letter of the king of Sweden's, giveing farther order for the doing thereof, which was intercepted by the Danes, and printed heere; and I the rather doe it, because there is therein mention of his highnes, that now is. The states of Holland being seperated, there is nothing here of moment at this time, nor will be, till the issue be knowne of the great business towards the North, according to which all councills will be steered here. In mine yesterday I sent you what newes I had from Ch. Stuart's court, 133 146, and, as was therein hinted, I doe assure you, that Tom. Howard hath seen 36 323 141 42 43 105 severall letters from severall 73 45 jesuits, 346 149 138, wherein they write most confidently and particularly of 267 155 divisions in the army, 339 468 214, and particularly amongst the great ones thereof, 219 413 141 naming them; 388 339 53 468 103; and for the more particular account hereof, I referr you to mine yesterday. It's said, that the states of Poland are now assembled, or assembling, upon the business of the peace with Sweden. Whether this new accident of Courland may be a hindrance thereunto, I know not.

Since my last, I have so laboured with the Portugall embassador about that part of his proposition concerning the hireing of 20 ships of the Low-Countryes every yeare to goe to Brasile, and other the Portugall plantations, as that I have induced him to give in a memoriall to the commissioners, with whom he treates, recanting the same in so farr as it is contrary to the treaty with England, a copy whereof I have heere inclosed sent unto you; and I thought it was better to prevent this business by times, then to lett it run on farther, and it may be past remedy. I am,
Right Honourable,
Your most affectionate,
faythfull humble servant,
G. Downing.

Hague, 22. October,/1 st Novemb. 1658.

I pray your thoughts and care, that I may have for this quarter, which ended at Michaelmasse, for the mayntenance of the English ministers heer; else the English congregation heer will fall; and this bring a great obloquy upon his highness: the queen and that party expect it, and would highly glory therein.

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There is one Dobson, 144 412, a young man, pretending to follow a law-suite at London for his father in the Hague, 565, who hath often recourse to the lord Claypoole's house, 355 170 431 112 84 287 329, who very frequently writes newes 287 hither. 162 140 325 468 131.

From Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England.

London, 1. Novemb. [1658. N. S.]

Vol. lxi. p. 345.

By the Sieur Morland I prayed the secretary of state, that I may have a final answer to my memorials, and principally touching the affairs of Denmark, and the marine treaty, because I had left my wife and part of my family in Holland, and for other reasons very important, as the death of my father-in-law, and other kindred, I was constrained to return to the Hague, and that their high mightinesses would be amazed, that I should not be able to give a good account of what I had in charge. I also saluted some counsellors of state; and tuesday came to me the Sieurs Wolsely and Strickland, with secretary Jessop, saying, that many merchants of this nation make high complaints of the damages suffered in the East Indies from the company of Holland; that the council had thereupon given order, that they should prove the same before the court of admiralty; and that being now justified by the writings of doctor Walker and doctor Turner, the said council had ordered to put the writings into my hands, that due restitution may be given to the plaintiffs. I answered, that, before my departure from the Hague, the Sieur resident Downing had complained of this business; that their high mightinesses had considered thereon, sent to and heard the directors of the said company, and resolved, that if it appeared to be true, as was complained, that reparation should be made. That since their high mightinesses had sent me a resolution of the sixth of August last with divers peers, which were translated into English, and whereof I had the twenty-second of the same month communicated the substance in writing, according to the order and intention of their high mightinesses, to his late highness; and that I had often endeavoured to inform myself of what was thereon resolved. Whereupon they told me, that they had heard nothing at council; that because of the great change, and the sickness of the secretary of state, it might be, that it was still in his hands; and having communicated unto them the particulars, they promised me to make report thereof. Afterward I read the twenty-fourth article of the last treaty of peace, and told them, that divers subjects of the United Provinces were also grievously injured near the Barbados and Caribbee islands by general Penn; that an Amsterdam ship, called the St. James, had been most outrageously pillaged upon the coast of Sussex by the inhabitants of the same country; that there were many other complaints of the injuries and damages, which divers merchants and masters of ships of the United Provinces had suffered, and that had been by me signified to this government, without obtaining any restitution or reparation; that for this reason there ought to be held a mutual order and willingness to end the business upon the proofs made before the court of admiralty, they would do the same in this case in Holland, although the twentieth article speaks otherwise. They told me, that they would report the same; and at last I shewed them by many reasons, and to prevent the complaints on both sides, that the treaty marine should be concluded, principally seeing that their high mightinesses (as by a writing of the twenty-ninth of August of mine might be seen) had yielded to all that was proposed touching that business; and that, if that had been done before, the complaints of the merchants trading in the Indies had not been; that they of the company of Holland, not knowing in the Indies, that there was any agreement for more moderation in either side; and that a man of war of Zeland heing here arrived, wherein I intended, God willing, to pass the seas into Holland before the season pass, I prayed them, that I might know the final resolution of this state, that I might give account thereof to their high mightinesses. The Sieur Wolsely told me, that he was obliged to make a journey into the country, but that now he would speedily make report to his highness and to his council. Yesterday I saluted them again, and shewed, that I was no longer to stay the men of war. Whereupon he desired me to have a little patience till next week, that then it might be determined; that now they were upon a business, wherein the state was greatly interested, even such an one, that the prosperity and welfare of the state depended thereon, intimating, that it was for satisfying the army touching their proposition for a general. He promised me also, that he would speak the same day with the secretary for the preparing of all things. And the wind being east since yesterday, and continuing still, the captain of the man of war told me, that he would be ready for next wednesday. I hope, that their high mightinesses will find, that I have endeavoured, according to my most humble duty, to put in execution their orders and good intentions.

Resolution of the states general in answer to resident Downing's last memorial of the same date.

2. Novemb. 1658. [N. S.]

Vol. lxi. p. 357.

There hath been read in the assembly a certain memorial of the Sieur resident Downing, containing complaints concerning an English ship carried to Enchuysen, and another to Delssiel; also that notwithstanding their high mightinesses letter of the fourth of September to the admiralty of Friseland, and their placart of the ninth of August, yet the said admiralty, instead of restoring another ship called the Love and Friendship, had given sentence to return the ship and goods to the Flemish men of war, that brought her in, and that the proprietor should pay half the charges of the suit, &c. Whereupon, after deliberation, it is found good, that a copy of the said memorial shall be sent to the admiralty of the North quarter, and in Friseland, with requisition and commandment very serious, that they will, concerning all the English ships and goods brought in by any Flemish men of war, punctually and precisely execute the contents of the said placart of the ninth of August, without failing in any manner whatsoever; and therefore not to permit by any means, that the English ships so brought in, be unladen, disposed, or alienated, making the violators of the same to feel the penalties set down in the said placart.

And for that the said resident afterwards toucheth in the said memorial, that it may not be allowed, that the subjects of England should enter in suit with those of Flanders, but only address themselves to their high mightinesses, and after proof of the fact, that their ships taken by the Flemings have been sold in these countries, to expect of their high mightinesses due reparation and satisfaction; the Sieurs d'Ommeren, and other deputies of their high mightinesses for the affairs of England, are required to represent to the said Sieur resident, that all the affairs touching prizes and merchandizes, which are brought into the ports of this state, and demanded by their owners, acknowledge no other judicature and jurisdiction, than those of the respective admiralties privately, and it is before them, that, according to the placarts, affairs of this kind, with all circumstances concerning the same, must be discussed and decided, as is usual in all other countries of Europe. The said deputies are also required hereby to be instant with the said Sieur resident, that the Portugal sugar prizes taken by the men of war of this state, and arrested in England, may be presently released.

Secret resolution touching the assisting of the elector of Brandenburg.

The states general of the United Provinces having seriously examined and weighed the contents of a certain memorial of the eleventh instant, presented to their high mightinesses by the ministers of the elector of Brandenburg; also heard the report of the Sieurs Ommeren and other deputies of their high mightinesses, that had a conference with the said ministers touching what farther resolution this state shall take in the present conjuncture of affairs, in regard of the attempts of the Swedes on the kingdom of Denmark, they have, after mature deliberation, found it good to give to the said ministers this answer to their said memorial; that their high mightinesses have lately signisied to the lieutenantadmiral Opdam, that over and above what he hath already in charge, that it is also their desire, that first the Swedish forces, that are at present in the isle of Zeland, may be hindered from being transported into Holstein or Jutland, and from joining with the forces of the prince of Sultzbach. Secondly, if the elector of Brandenburg shall desire, that any part of his army, for the relief of the king of Denmark, should be transported into Zeland, or into any other island of Denmark, that, in behalf of this state, all possible ways and means may be used to facilitate such his intention; that, in order hereunto, he the said lieutenant-admiral shall, instead of lying with his fleet in and about the Sound, or about the kingdoms of Denmark and Norway, keep himself and fleet in and about the Great Belt, and there, all together, or divided in squadrons, to watch and do what may be done to hinder the joining of the Swedish armies. And in case the said elector of Brandenburg should be inclined to transport a part of his army as aforesaid, that he the said lieutenant-admiral, in such case, for the facilitating of the same, shall not only make use of his fleet, but is hereby farther authorized, for the transportation of the said Brandenburg soldiers, to press and take all ships, as well of this nation as other nations, that shall be found thereabouts, with promise and assurance, that for the same they shall receive the ordinary freight; that he the said admiral shall hold correspondence with the said elector, and with the Sieur Isbrants there, embassador for this state, their high mightinesses having to this end, by letters to the said Sieur Isbrants, given order to signify the same to the said elector, with desire, that his electoral highness would speedily make known his intention to their high mightinesses directly, and also to the said lieutenantadmiral, always understood, that the said lieutenant-admiral should have before his eyes the executing of his former instructions, according to the good intent and meaning of their high mightinesses, in case that the king of Denmark should please (after communication thereof unto him) to give order accordingly. And although the said king should not be in condition to receive such communication, and to give such order, or that it could not be done without considerable loss of time, that he the said lieutenant-admiral shall speedily put in execution these things. That their high mightinesses have resolved in behalf of this state, to dispatch away a minister to the great duke of Muscovy; and that the council of state of the United Provinces is desired to provide the said electoral highness with a considerable quantity of powder and match, at such a price as hath been agreed before between the said elector's ministers and this state, with promise, that the same, in a certain short time, shall be ratisied by the said elector; their high mightinesses desiring the forementioned ministers to make a favourable report of this their friendly and neighbourly order, or else, on the first opportunity, to write to the said elector, assuring him, that their high mightinesses are resolved to continue in their affection and inclination for holding and maintaining all good correspondency and preservation of the common interests, and to testify the same really and effectually in the present troubles of the king and crown of Denmark, caused by the unexpected invasion of Zeland by the king of Sweden; and thereunto his electoral highness may be pleased to give all credit. Given at the assembly of the states general at the Hague, 2. Nov. 1658. [N. S.]
N. Ruysch.

General Lambert to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lxi. p. 375.

I was yesterday at Whithall to have wayted upon you; but some other occasions not permittinge, and my litle affaires wantinge and hopinge for your further assistance, in which expedition wil bee as necessarie as any thinge, I have taken this freedom to desire you to permitt Will. Walker to acquainte you with so much of it, as may leade to under stand the groundes of my further desires to you. Yf your leasure permitt you to give a hearinge to any more of it, hee will account it unto you. Sir, yf I were of a cravinge nature, your former readinesse upon all occasions would so far correct that spirritt, as it durst not appeare to presse any thinge further then your owne satisfaction dictates. Therfor I shall say no more, but to assure you, that I am

Your affectionate frend, and very humble servant, J. Lambert.

Wimbleton, the 23. of October, [1658.]

To general Fleetwood.

In the possession of the editor.

May it please your Lordship,
I ame very sensible, that the multiplicity of your perplexinge affaires will hardly give way to your deliberate readinge and weighinge soe (seemingly) tedious ane addresse, especially beinge joyned with the consideration of my beinge such an inseriour and inconsiderable person, (as indeed I ame) and cominge upon ane errand, that imports soe litle in a way of fellowship with the multitude of addresses and inteligences, that from the quarters round about (it seems) are by compliers with the times sent unto you, while multitudes of the Lord's people are mourninge before him in the greise of their soules, to observe the holy name, workes, wayes, and people of the Lord, that were somtimes said to be your strength in the Lord of hosts your God, to be now (to say noe worse) soe lightly sett by. Neither ame I altogether unacquainted with the deare-bought experience, that some have had of that word, that when truth faileth, they that depart from inequity make themselves a prey, but have (it may be to carnally) too often been reasoninge myselse into an unbeleevinge silence, because it is an evill time, when to have been valeant for the truth had better suited with a spiritt, that hath with you rejoyced in the Lord, to see heertofore the rightiousness of our kinge before him, and settinge his people in the way of his steppes, both in camp and councell, by land and sea; remembringe alsoe the disadvantages on my hand of a written rather then a verball testimony, as it may be construed and improved; yet callinge to minde the former tests I have had off, and acquaintance with your spiritts, and knowinge, that in the Lord's account, he that dealeth plainlye, is worthy of more favour, then he that flattereth with his lipps, beinge thereunto alsoe prest with paine night and day beyond a possibillity of containinge, I have adventerred on your wonted ingenuity and piety, withall letinge you know, that in case I find not its exercise to me ward, but that the same measure be meted out to me, as hath been to others, yet through grace I have reconed the cost, and shall cast all the carefull burden upon the Lord, to dispose of me and of this, as it seemeth good in his sight. Neither doe I beg the exercise of any charitie in this, further then the truth of it deserveth, save only I desire you to take knowledge of it, and looke on it, not as the hasty offspringe of a disturbed mind, or a matter animated by any malignant influence from others judged factious and seditious, but indead the consequent, and, I judge, the answer of many prayers to the Lord, after I had turned every stone, and used all maner of arguments with myselfe, to banish and smother it, and beinge the only way with me, if not effectually to remember you of that from whence you are fallen, and to provoke you to doe your first worke, yet to keep myselsfe pure, and by this weak and plaine testimony to give you to know, that through grace I am cleer in this matter. My lord, the imediate occasion of my now writeinge is from the vew of the late addresse, that (it's said) was presented by your lordship to the protector you have now advanced, as alsoe from the sight of another like unto it presented by the offecers of the navy, the former of which is don in the name of the army, of which I am hitherto accounted a member (though a weake one); and considred in that capacity, I apprehend, that my full consent is implicitly signified, and would by my silence be ratified; the maine scope of it beinge to strengthen the hands of a single person, his aiders and abettors, in his cominge in upon the office of cheise magistrate of these nations, which is in the said addresse endeavoured partly by many flateries (unto which, I may say, mine honor, be not thou united) as alsoe by a tender made of all constant and faithfull obedience to him, as rightfully advanced to that supreame magistracie, and (as the saylors are bid to say in their addresse, which is of the same complexion and fellowship) with the uttmost hazard of their lives to stand against all those, who shall endeavour to restore the late commonwealth, and against all other opposers of this thinge whatsoever.

My lord, may I deale plainly with your lordship? I ame utterly at a losse in the exercise of all my observation and judgment, if those instruments, togeather with the whole series of transactions now in your high places, doe not proceed in a path directly cross and opposite to the plaine intendment and true spiritt, that ran through those many declara tions, engagments, and other publique edicts, that proceeded from and by meanes of us, and began to be prosecured by us in the day of our virginity, which are well knowne to you, and therfore need not to be inserted in perticular, being manifest in the vew of the sun, unto which we were led by the stretched out hand of the Lord in such cleerness of light, sattisfaction, and singleness of spiritt, wittnessed unto by such a constant blessing of the Lord in all undertakings; desired and rejoyced in by the most upright and thorrow spiritts for God in the land; made terrible to all ungodly persons, and antichristian and unrightious constitutions both in church and state, as became famous not only in these nations, but in all the nations round aboute.

My lord, I must professe, that in my remembrance (in the feare of God) of my having been led into, and persuance of, this cause, and those engagments through many wounds, imprisonments, and other hardships and hazards, as alsoe how much blood I personally shed, and to how much more I am espoused in the common cause, the guilt wherof will lye at my door in my turninge from the rightious cause, for which it was shed, and beinge in full assurance of the presence of God with me all along therin, I ame firmlie through grace united to that blessed cause, as farr as it was carryed on with truth and uprightness, and trust to give a lodging to it in my heart, though it should be deserted of its old friends, and I should be reduced to a morsell of bread for its sake, it beinge to me as deare and as good as ever. Neither can I thinke what evill it hath don, or wlrat malignity was found in it, either in the theorie or practise of it, that it should not only be thought worthy to receive that unexpected interruption, and its best friends that sad discountenance, that for some few late years it hath don; but that now alsoe there should be expected, if not imposed, ane engagment to oppose any endeavours for it with the utmost hazard of our lives to support somthinge in opposition to it against all opposers whatsoever, how rightious or sutable to the minde or dispensations of God soever. Neither can I yett beleeve, that the end of the Lord in drawinge out so largely the blood, treasure, teares and faith of his people in expectation of glorious deliverance to them, and honour to Christ in the earth, (besides the blood and estates of many thousands else by land and sea) was levelled only unto, and to be resolved into that, which is now sett up as the crowninge mercie to this poor (or to the rightious) nation, especially when, to the best of my understandinge, it hath been judged in parliament, even when they were under the highest anoyntings to consult and administer judgment and rightiousness, "that to have the power of these nations in any single person is unnecessary, burdensome, and dangerous to the liberty, safty, and publique interest of the people, and that for the most part use hath been made of the regall power and prerogative to oppresse, impoverish, and enslave the nation; and that usually and naturally any one person in such power makes it his interest to encroach upon the just freedom and liberties of the people, and to promote the setting up of their own will and power above the lawes, &c." Moreover, what eye seeth not (what gratious eye weepeth not to see!) what sad groans of oppression and miserie are every-where in the nation! what listinge up there is of the head and horne of the wicked! what rebukes from the Lord have been and yet remaine unheeded upon the persons and proceedinges aimeinge to uphold the present enterprizes you are upon! what courtinge and espouseinge of men and thinges, which were formerly judged the abhomination of the Lord, with whome he had stated and pleaded his controversie! how much the hearts of the rightious are made sad, as well by the insultings of the vilest men over them, as by the utter disappoyntinge of all their hopefull expectations this way! If you see not these thinges, the Lord helpe you to harken after them, and lay them to heart!

Upon the whole, haveinge been thus farr plaine with your lordship in the discharge of my conscience, it may be you will judge me ane instrument unfitt for the imployment I ame in, if your aimes be to prosecute a designe of worldly greatnes and honour, in neglectt of the true intrest and cause of the best people in the nation. However, I hope the Lord will deliver me from the flatery of the times, and from lyeinge open to any compliance, wherby my conscience should be wrested from the simplicity, that it longs to preserve in this matter. And for the trust hitherto reposed in me, I hope it can be made evident, that I have not failed to approve myself diligent to the uttermost of my abillitye, and, through the blood of the Lamb, shall have comfort and boldnes in the day of judgment, that in the midst of many infirmities the Lord hath enabled me to be faithfull to the true intrest of his name and people; nay, however this very addresse may be interpreted now, yet one day it will be found (though weake, yet) a true testimony of my love to you, and greife for you; and however you shall thinke fitt to dispose of me, yet I shall labour to approve myself (in my desires, that you and others may be pluckt out of the snare) one of

Your Lordshipp's
Best friends, and truest servant in the Lord's worke.

Plymouth-fortt, the 23d, 8 month, 1658.