Retherwic, Retherwyke, Rutherwyk (xiii cent.);
Rotherwyke, Rytherwyke (xv cent.); Rotherwicke
The parish of Rotherwick covers an area of 1,988
acres, and is situated 7 miles north-east from Basingstoke. The River Whitewater forms part of its
eastern boundary, while in the west it is intersected
by the Lyde River, which flows into the Loddon at
the north-western extremity of the parish. The
country is well wooded and fairly level, the greatest
height recorded being in Tylney Park—300 ft. above
the ordnance datum. The village lies along Cowfold
Lane, which branches off from the main road from
Odiham to Reading in the north-east of the parish,
and is situated about 2½ miles north-west from Hook
Station on the main line of the London and SouthWestern Railway. Tylney Park takes up the southwest of the parish, its western boundary being formed
by the Lyde River. Tylney Hall, which was rebuilt
in 1879 close to the site of the old hall, was considerably enlarged and altered by Mr. Lionel Phillips
between 1899 and 1901. It stands on a hill overlooking the village, and is approached by a long avenue
of trees. According to the Agricultural Returns for
1905 the parish contains 913¼ acres of arable land,
893¾ acres of permanent grass, and 508½ acres of
woods and plantations. The soil is clay mixed with
sand and gravel, and the subsoil is clay. The chief
crops are a succession of grain. Bricks and tiles are
made in the parish. Amongst the place-names occurring in various records are:—Larugmedes, La Lude (fn. 1)
(xiii cent.); Bowmeade, (fn. 2) Rooke's Farm (fn. 3) (xvi cent.);
Chawcrofts, (fn. 4) and The Pewkes (fn. 5) (xvii cent.). The
present Cowfold and Hook Farms suggest the ancient
residences of Richard atte Coufolde and Thomas atte
ROTHERWICK was probably comprised in the royal manor of Odiham at
the time of the Domesday Survey. Part of
it was apparently included in the grant by Henry II
to Juliana de Aquila of the manor of Greywell (q.v.),
which up to this time had also formed part of Odiham. Thus the manor of Rotherwick was stated in
1422 to be held of the Duchess of York, (fn. 6) who was
at that time lady of Greywell. Again, at a somewhat later date, the L'Estranges, who were lords of
Greywell, were returned as the overlords of Rotherwick. (fn. 7) Further, in 1590 William Haydok of Greywell sold to Richard More, lord of Rotherwick, ' all
his woodgrounds, underwoods, and waste called
Rotherwick Wood, and all his other wastes in Rotherwick and Hartley Wespall containing 500 acres, and
all his free and customary rents of the same, services,
heriots, etc.,—which descended to the said William
Haydok as son and heir of James Haydok, deceased.' (fn. 8)
Between 1333 and 1345, Adam Orlton, Bishop
of Winchester, granted permission to John atte
Hooke (fn. 9) to have divine service celebrated in the
manor of Rotherwick within the parish of Odiham. (fn. 10)
In 1336 there was a settlement of a messuage,
70 acres of land, 4 acres of meadow, 4 acres of wood,
and 20s. rent in Rotherwick and Hartley Wespall
upon this same John, who is described in the fine as
' son of Hugh atte Hooke of Berkeley,' (fn. 11) and some
forty-three years later Alice the relict of Hugh released all her lands and rents in Berkeley and Rotherwick to her son John. (fn. 12) In 1387, Katharine wife of
Sir John de Thorpe died seised of apparently the
same estate, (fn. 13) which then passed to Sir Maurice Berkeley, her son by a previous
marriage. (fn. 14) Sir Maurice made
a grant of his holding for life
to Thomas Wyke, who died
seised in 1420, when it reverted to Sir Maurice Berkeley,
the son of the grantor. (fn. 15) Sir
Maurice was seised at his death
in 1464 of one messuage, one
carucate of land, and 9s. rent
in Rotherwick, held of Lord
L'Estrange, (fn. 16) and he was succeeded therein by his son
William. The estate seems
to have passed soon after into
the family of More, (fn. 17) Richard More dying seised of
2 messuages, 100 acres of land, 40 acres of pasture,
20 acres of meadow, 20 acres of wood, and 4s. rent
in Rotherwick, held of Lord
L'Estrange in 1495. (fn. 18) From
this date the Mores continued
in possession for about a century and a half, and there is
evidence that from time to
time they added to their estate, (fn. 19) ultimately dignifying it
by the name of the manor of
Rotherwick. At length in
1629 Richard More, the then
owner, sold the manor of
Rotherwick to Richard Tylney, (fn. 20) who was already possessed
of property in the parish. (fn. 21)
Frederick Tylney, descendant of this Richard, built a
great mansion called Tylney Hall on his estate in 1700. (fn. 22)
Frederick on his death in 1725 was succeeded by his
only daughter Anne, who married William, Lord
Craven. On the death of Anne in 1730, her only
daughter having predeceased her, the manor passed to
her cousin Dorothy, the wife of Richard Child, Viscount Castlemaine. (fn. 23) On his wife's succession to her
inheritance Richard Child assumed the name of
Tylney, and in 1731 was created Earl Tylney. (fn. 24)
When he died in 1749 the estate passed to his son
John, Earl Tylney. The latter died unmarried in
1784, and thereupon all his honours became extinct.
His nephew, Sir James Tylney-Long, bart., succeeded
to the property, and his son after him. (fn. 25) The latter
dying in 1805 at the age of eleven years, Tylney
Hall passed to his sister and co-heir, Catherine TylneyLong, (fn. 26) who dealt with it by recovery in 1810. (fn. 27)
Two years later she married William Wellesley-Pole,
nephew of Richard Wellesley, second Earl of Mornington, who by royal licence, 14 January 1812, took
the additional surname of Tylney-Long between
those of Pole and Wellesley. (fn. 28) The.latter, who succeeded his father in the earldom in 1845, died in
1857. (fn. 29) His trustees sold the estate about 1870 to
Mr. C. E. Harris, from whom it passed by sale to the
present owner, Mr. Lionel Phillips, in 1899.
More of Rotherwick. Argent two bars vert letween nine martlets gules.
Tylney. Argent a cheveron between three griffons' heads razed gules.
Another estate in Rotherwick, (fn. 30) originally also part
of Odiham, was in the 14th century held of the
king as of Windsor Castle by suit at Odiham Hundred
Court. Richard atte Coufold died seised in 1361, (fn. 31)
leaving as his co-heirs his three daughters Edith,
Margaret, and Isabel, who married respectively
Nicholas atte Broke, William Gregory, and John
Helwys. Isabel and Margaret gave up their portions
to Nicholas atte Broke and Edith in 1382 and 1383, (fn. 32)
respectively. Nicholas at his death in 1396 was
seised of a messuage, 2 gardens and a dovecote, 60
acres of land, 12 acres of wood, and 5s. 6d. rent in
Rotherwick; his son and heir was John, aged seventeen. (fn. 33) The further history of this holding has not
been traced, but it probably became absorbed in the
More estate in the 16th century.
The church, the dedication of which
is unknown, consists of a chancel 22ft.
4in. by 15 ft. 3m., with a vestry and
organ chamber on the north, a nave 52 ft. by 21 ft.
9 in. with a short north aisle 20 ft. 9 in. by lift.
1 in., and a west tower 12 ft. 1 in. square. There
is also a timber south porch. All the above dimensions are internal.
The oldest part of the building is the chancel,
which is of flint and stone and dates from the latter
part of the 13th century and is set with a slight northward inclination from the axis of the nave. The
nave was a timber-built structure of 15th-century
date with herringbone brick filling, like Mattingley;
but in the 16th century was built round with brickfaced walls, and its main timbers cut away, the roof
and east and west gables being the only parts now remaining. In the 17th century a red brick west
tower was added; the north aisle dates from 1876,
and the porch and vestry are modern, and there
are many other modern repairs.
The east window of the chancel has three lancet
lights under a two-centred arch with moulded label
and carved head stops. The centre light is higher
than the others, and the spandrels are not pierced.
Only a few of the jamb and mullion stones and part
of one of the heads are old, of late 13th-century date.
The two windows in the south wall of the chancel
each consist of a single trefoiled ogee-headed lancet.
The inner splays and chamfered rear arches are old,
belonging to the first half of the 14th century. Between these two windows is a modern doorway with
chamfered jambs and two-centred head. The archway into the vestry on the north side of the chancel is
modern and has chamfered jambs and drop arch of
two chamfered orders.
The two east windows of the vestry are similar to
those of the south wall of the chancel, but one of them
is modern and the other is of old stonework retooled,
having been formerly in the north wall of the chancel.
In the north wall is a modern doorway and a window
of two trefoiled ogee-headed lights.
The vestry opens to the north aisle by an arch now
filled with the organ. There is no chancel arch, its
place being taken by a wooden lintel with modern
carved bracket supports. Above the lintel the original
gable remains, with vertical timbers filled in with
The arcade opening to the north aisle is of two
bays with an octagonal column with moulded base and
capital and chamfered responds. The arches are twocentred of two chamfered orders.
The aisle has two modern north windows of two
traccried lights each, and under the easternmost is a
The eastern window in the south wall of the nave
is of 16th-century date and has four cinquefoiled
lights under a square head with a modern label and
sill. The other south window and the only north
window of the nave are modern copies of this and
have the same number of lights. About the middle
of the north wall of the nave is a blocked doorway,
but it can only be seen through one of the wall gratings connected with the heating apparatus.
The south doorway between the two windows is
modern and has cement jambs and a four-centred head.
At the east end of the south wall of the nave is a
small projecting turret which originally contained the
stair to the rood-loft; the positions of the steps
are now marked by stones in the walls. The turret is
now open to the nave, and is spanned by a modern
arch; externally it is brick-faced like the rest, and
lighted by a narrow modern trefoiled window.
The west doorway of the nave has a semicircular
head and a wooden frame. At each side of the doorway is a post supporting a large lintel, part of the
framing of the wooden nave. Between the posts are
bracket supports. The gable above the lintel is of
half-timber work similar to that at the east end, and
filled with roughly laid brick, evidently not meant
to show. Some of the bricks are moulded for use in
cornices or strings.
The west doorway in the tower has a three-centred
brick arch and a moulded square-headed wood frame
of 17th-century date with an old studded oak door.
Above this is a three-light window with brick
mullions, jambs, and three-centred arch.
The tower is of three stages with an embattled
parapet. In each side of the top stage is a two-light
window with a wood frame. In the west face there
is a small single light in the middle stage.
The roof of the chancel is of modern open timberwork, but that of the nave of 15th-century date, of five
bays with braces forming four-centred arches beneath
the principals and continued upwards as curved struts,
two purlins a side with arched wind braces, and a
well moulded plate. The main posts are cut away a
foot below the plate level.
A simple but good modern screen is set across the
opening to the chancel, and in the nave are a number
of plain seats with roll-moulded tops, which may be
as old as the nave, some of the backs being made of
very large planks.
The font has a plain cylindrical bowl on a
modern base, and may be as early as the 12th century;
it stands close to the south door of the nave.
In the north aisle is a large marble monument of
white and grey marble with a pediment carried by
Ionic columns, to Frederick Tylney of Tylney Hall,
who died in 1725. The monument was erected by his
widow Anne, daughter of George Pitt of Stratfield
Saye; and a shield of their parted arms commemorates
In the north wall of the chancel is a pretty little
monument to Anthony More, son of Thomas More
of Lancelevey in Sherfield Loddon. The date is
almost obliterated, but is perhaps 1583, the last figure
only being certain. Above, in a curved pediment,
are his arms of the bars and martlets.
On the floor of chancel and sanctuary are several
17th and 18th-century slabs to the Tylney family, the
oldest being to 'Richardus Tylney, Armiger,' who
died in 1646. This has a shield of Tylney impaling
The tower contains five bells, the first being inscribed 'Love God 1630,' and the second 'Fear
God 1630,' the letters of both being reversed. The
third is a pre-Reformation bell inscribed.
Hac in Conclave Gabrielis nc Page Svave (sic)
a small crown being used as a sign of abbreviation, with
a cross of four fleurs de lis between the first and last
words. The fourth bell bears the black letter inscription, 'Our hope is in the Lord 1607 r. e.'
The fifth is inscribed, ' Sancte Johannes ora pro nobis'
in black letter, the initials being crowned. It bears
the Reading marks, a lion's face, a cross and a groat,
and is of 15th-century date.
The plate consists of a silver chalice, paten cover
and flagon of 1568, 16l4, and 1776 respectively, the
latter being given by Sir J. Harris in 1875; and a
There are six books of registers, the first containing
baptisms, marriages, and burials from 1569 to 1630,
the second the same from 1630 to 1727, and the third
continues them from 1728 to 1754. The fourth
book is the printed marriage form with entries from
1754 to 1802, the fifth contains baptisms and burials
from 1756 to 1812, and the sixth marriages from
1802 to 1812.
Rotherwick was a chapelry dependent on Odiham until 1867, when
by order in Council the benefice was
declared a rectory in the gift of the Bishop of Winchester. (fn. 34)
In the latter half of the 14th century the parishioners received a warning from the bishop to attend
the parish church, and not the manorial chapel, on
Sundays and holy days. (fn. 35)
An annuity of £2 11s. 9d. was
formerly applied in the distribution of
calico to the poor, supposed to be
charged on some moorland and houses.
A sum of 5s. a year known as Poor's Money has
also ceased to be paid.
The school, originally erected in 1713 by Frederick
Tylney, and endowed by him with£10 a year, was
rebuilt in 1872, and has in recent years been considerably enlarged.