The rape and honour of Lewes

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Victoria County History

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L. F. Salzman (editor)

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1940

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1-7

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'The rape and honour of Lewes', A History of the County of Sussex: Volume 7: The rape of Lewes (1940), pp. 1-7. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=56907 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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THE RAPE AND HONOR OF LEWES


The Rape of Lewes: from Budgen's Map of Sussex, 1724.

The Rape of Lewes: from Budgen's Map of Sussex, 1724.

The present RAPE of Lewes, in the eastern division of the county, is bounded on the north by part of Surrey, on the south by the English Channel, on the east by the rape of Pevensey, and on the west by the rape of Bramber. It does not, however, correspond in area with the Sussex territory originally given by William the Conqueror to William de Warenne. Between the Conquest and the time at which the Domesday Survey was made a large strip of land extending to the River Adur on the west, and running from north to south, seems to have been cut off from Warenne's territory and given to William de Braose as part of his rape of Bramber. Another piece of land in the northeast of the original rape of Lewes, the hundred of East Grinstead, was given to the Count of Mortain. For these sacrifices William de Warenne was compensated by a grant of manors in Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex, which are described in Domesday Book as 'of the exchange of Lewes' or 'of the castellany of Lewes' and in the time of Henry II as the Earl of Warenne's 'new land'. (fn. 1)

The rape included throughout the borough of Lewes, but the hundreds that compose the rest of the territory have varied from time to time in number, name, and composition. In 1086, for example, the boundary of the rape included the hundreds of Swanborough, Holmestrow, 'Prestetune', 'Falemere', 'Welesmere', Poynings, Buttinghill, Streat, and Barcombe, and a section of those of 'Eldretune' (later Fishersgate) and Windham. (fn. 2) By 1316 there were eight and a half hundreds, Preston (fn. 3) forming part of the hundred of Whalesbone, and the land in Windham part of Buttinghill. (fn. 4) The half-hundred of Windham reappeared in the early 15th century, (fn. 5) but seems to have been treated as part of Buttinghill in the 17th century, (fn. 6) though it is mentioned separately in the Hearth Tax returns of 1665 as containing Bolney and Twineham. (fn. 7) In 1624 the earlier Welesmere and Falemere had been reshuffled into Whalesbone and Younsmere, the hundred of Preston and Hove had been created, or re-created, and a new hundred of Southover (fn. 8) had grown up. (fn. 9) By 1724 (fn. 10) there was in existence the hundred of Dean, containing Patcham, a manor which in 1086 was in 'Prestetune' Hundred but which since 1296 at least had been reckoned in Whalesbone Hundred. The rape, at the present day, contains 11½ hundreds, namely, Barcombe, Buttinghill, Dean, part of Fishersgate, Holmestrow, Poynings, Preston, Southover, Streat, Swanborough, Whalesbone, and Younsmere, though their existence is now theoretical, as for all practical purposes they have long ceased to function.

During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, at least, the Earls Warenne, like the lords of the other rapes in Sussex and certain magnates elsewhere, had private sheriffs who were distinct from the sheriffs of the county and who did not account at the king's Exchequer. (fn. 11) All the information so far discovered about these Lewes sheriffs comes from the Chartulary of the Priory of St. Pancras at Lewes. (fn. 12) Sheriffs are there found witnessing grants of lands and privileges to the priory by members of the Warenne family (fn. 13) and by other persons. (fn. 14) One, Peter the sheriff, himself gave to the priory a mill and four acres of land at Meeching, (fn. 15) and also one acre of land for building a church at Kingston. (fn. 16) Earl Warenne, in confirming this latter grant, ordered Hugh the sheriff of Lewes to give seisin to the monks. (fn. 17) In another letter to 'Hugh the sheriff and his other bailiffs (villicis)' Earl William III ordered that any man failing to get justice from the prior of St. Pancras in any claim against him, should 'make complaint to me if I am in the neighbourhood or to my sheriff'. (fn. 18) Shortly afterwards the Earl's brother Rainald de Warenne in 1147–8 addressed a letter concerning the merchant gild at Lewes to 'the sheriff of Lewes and all the barons of the earldom'. (fn. 19)

The earliest of these sheriffs of whom records have been found is Peter the sheriff (c. 1090–8). (fn. 20) Hugh occurs in about 1100, (fn. 21) William and Peter in about 1120, (fn. 22) and subsequently Hugh (c. 1145), (fn. 23) Guy (1147), (fn. 24) Adam (1147–8 and c. 1160), (fn. 25) Adelulf (c. 1150), (fn. 26) William (1150), (fn. 27) Pettewin (c. 1160), (fn. 28) Payn (1185 and c. 1200) (fn. 29) and Hugh de Plompton (c. 1230 or earlier). (fn. 30)

The HONOR or BARONY of Lewes, which approximated in area to the rape, was given, as has already been said, by William the Conqueror to William de Warenne, (fn. 31) a Norman lord who was present at the Battle of Hastings and who was left in England in 1067 to help to rule the country. (fn. 32) By 1086 he held land in twelve counties of England. He supported William Rufus against the rebellious earls in 1088 and was invested by him with the earldom of Surrey, (fn. 33) in which county his descendants are found holding the castle and town of Reigate, the manors of Dorking and Betchworth, and other minor possessions closely connected in their descent with the honor of Lewes. (fn. 34) It was this William de Warenne who with his wife Gundrada in 1077 founded the Priory of Lewes (q.v.), the first Cluniac house in England. He died on 24 June 1088 at Lewes, having been wounded at the siege of Pevensey. (fn. 35) His elder son and successor William, 2nd Earl of Surrey, was disinherited by Henry I for his share in the rebellion of Duke Robert of Normandy, but was subsequently restored to lands and favour. He died on 11 May 1138 and was buried with his father in the Priory of Lewes. (fn. 36) His eldest son, another William, succeeded him, and died on crusade on 13 January 1149. He had been an adherent of King Stephen, and his daughter and heiress Isabel married as her first husband William, King Stephen's second son. He died in 1159, and her second husband was Hamelin, natural son of Geoffrey, Count of Anjou, and halfbrother of Henry II. Both these husbands in turn were known as Earl Warenne. (fn. 37) In 1166 Hamelin was holding 60 knights' fees in Sussex (fn. 38) and similarly in 1171–2. (fn. 39) He died on 7 May 1202 and was succeeded by his son William whose descendants were known by the name of Warenne. It is uncertain whether Isabel survived her husband. (fn. 40)


Warenne. Checky or and azure.

The new earl William had livery of his lands on 12 May 1202. (fn. 41) In 1212 he was found to be holding 62 fees in the rape of Lewes (fn. 42) and in 1235–6 was assessed at £42 10s. for fees of the honor in Sussex. (fn. 43) In the civil war at the end of John's reign he was at first a supporter of the king but deserted to the baronial side when Louis of France arrived in London. (fn. 44) After the accession of the young Henry III he returned to the royalist side before June 1217 (fn. 45) and was a prominent figure in the politics of the reign. He died in 1240, whereupon his estates devolved upon John de Warenne, his son by his second wife Maud, coheiress of William Marshal II, Earl of Pembroke, and widow of Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk. (fn. 46) John was only five years old at the time of his father's death and from Whitsun 1240 to September 1241 his lands were in the hands of William de Munceus, acting for the Crown. The estates held in demesne at this time were the manors of Meeching, Piddinghoe, Rodmell, Iford, Northease, Houndean, Allington, and Cuckfield; there were also revenues from 'Phideligworth' (presumably Piddingworth in Ditchling), Lamporte and Walland on the outskirts of Lewes, and Seaford. (fn. 47) From Lewes itself 14s. 4d. came 'from the farm of the cottars', £8 0s. 10½d. 'from the customs (consuet') of the town', and £7 'from perquisites of the court of Lewes; other issues include perquisites of the halmotes (alimottorum) or manorial courts, the farm of the hundreds, the issues of the Forest of Worth, and the park of Cuckfield. (fn. 48) In September 1241 the guardianship of the honor was given to Peter of Savoy, the king's uncle. (fn. 49) This grant was later made to extend for 10 years from 2 Feb. 1242. (fn. 50) Later in 1242 all freemen and tenants in socage and burgage in the late earl's Sussex lands were requested to make a competent aid to Peter of Savoy, who was about to cross the sea with the king. (fn. 51) In 1242–3 there were 665/6 knights' fees held of the honor in Sussex. (fn. 52)

Although part of John's inheritance was restored to him in 1248, (fn. 53) the grant did not include the lands his father had held in Sussex and Surrey. Peter of Savoy still held the Surrey lands in April 1252, (fn. 54) but they were in John's possession as from Michaelmas 1252 (fn. 55) and in May 1256 he was granted the third penny of the county of Surrey as Earl of Surrey (fn. 56) and must soon after have been given full possession of the honor of Lewes. (fn. 57) Already, in 1247, he had married the king's half-sister, Alice, daughter of Hugh X, Count of La Marche. (fn. 58)

John de Warenne took an active part in the Barons' Wars and fled to France after the Battle of Lewes. His lands, with the exception of the castles of Lewes and Reigate, were then committed for a time to Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester. (fn. 59)

The story told by Hemingburgh of the 'ancient and rusty' sword produced by Warenne as warranty for his lands (fn. 60) is now discredited, (fn. 61) but the sober record of the Quo Warranto proceedings of 1279 shows that he was successful in maintaining his claim to the liberties of free warren, view of frankpledge, assize of bread and ale, gallows, pillory, tumbrell, thief-hanging, and wreck of the sea throughout the rape, together with his prison at Lewes. (fn. 62) As to the composition of the honor at this period, an inquiry made in 1284–5 showed that the manors held in demesne and in chief were: Meeching (later Newhaven), Rodmell, Piddinghoe, Rottingdean, Ovingdean, Brighthelmeston, Patcham, Blatchington, Clayton, Cuckfield, Worth, Ditchling, Ardingly, Balcombe, and part of Bolney. (fn. 63) Knights' fees held of the barony were to be found in Portslade, Aldrington, Hangleton, Poynings, Piecombe, Perching, Newtimber, Hurst (later Hurstpierpont), Slaugham, Plumpton, West Hoathly, Chailey, Streat, Westmeston, and Hamsey. (fn. 64) At the time of his death in September 1304, Earl John de Warenne was holding in demesne the manors of Houndean, Northease, Meeching, and Patcham, Rodmell, Brighton, Middleton, Allington, and Cuckfield; also lands and tenements in Rottingdean, 'la Wyk', and Keymer, Clayton, and Ditchling. (fn. 65) There were also revenues from 'the castle and borough of Lewes, with nine hundreds', the borough and market of Seaford, and the forest of Worth. In view of the importance attached by the earl to his hunting rights, (fn. 66) it may be noted that wages were paid to a head warenner of Lewes and four subordinates, a head forester in 'le Cleres' with eleven sub-foresters, a head forester and eight subordinates in the forest of Worth, and parkers at Ditchling and Cuckfield. Another interesting point is that the escheator did not account for any meadow or pasture, as all of this was in the hands of Edward, Prince of Wales. The prince at this time had his stud at Ditchling; (fn. 67) on the death of the earl he had at once approached his executors with a demand to buy the earl's horses; and on 15 March 1305 (fn. 68) he had obtained from the king, his father, a grant of the meadow and pasture in the earl's lands for his stud, during the minority of the heir.

Earl John was succeeded by his grandson John, aged 19, whose father William had been killed in 1286 at a tournament at Croydon. (fn. 69) The younger John was granted seisin of his inheritance in April 1306, (fn. 70) and by June of the same year he was referred to as 'the present Earl of Surrey'. (fn. 71)

In the lifetime of this second John de Warenne the barony was the subject of several legal processes. By February 1316 the earl had started proceedings in a divorce suit against his wife, Joan, a grand-daughter of Edward I. (fn. 72) To make provision for his illegitimate children by Maud de Nerford, he surrendered his Sussex manors, with his Surrey estates, to the king in July of that year (fn. 73) and received them again, in August, to hold for life, with remainder successively to his sons John and Thomas de Warenne. (fn. 74) In May 1326, however, this arrangement was set aside by a settlement upon the earl and Joan, still his lawful wife, and their heirs male, with remainder to John's only sister Alesia and her husband Edmund Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel, and their son Richard, and Isabel his wife. (fn. 75) Earl Warenne subsequently made a surrender to, and accepted a re-grant from Edward III, but in December 1346 the settlement of 1326 was confirmed. (fn. 76) In 1347 the earl died (fn. 77) and his widow continued to hold the estates until her death in 1361, after which they passed to the earl's nephew Richard, Earl of Arundel, who then assumed the title of Earl of Surrey. (fn. 78)


Fitzalan, Earl of Arundel. Gules a lion or.

At the time of John de Warenne's death the manors of the honor held by the gift of Edward II, following the arrangement of 1326, were: Cuckfield, Clayton, Ditchling, Meeching, Patcham, Brighthelmeston, Rottingdean, Houndean, Northease, Rodmell, Keymer, Middleton, Allington, Worth, and Piecombe, with the vills of Iford, Piddinghoe (member of the manor of Meeching), and Seaford, and the castle and town of Lewes. (fn. 79) No knights' fees are listed in the inquisition post mortem. These same Sussex lands were settled by Richard, Earl of Arundel and Surrey, in 1366 upon himself and his then wife Eleanor, daughter of John, Duke of Lancaster, and upon their son Richard and his wife Elizabeth and their heirs. (fn. 80) The elder Richard died in 1376, and in 1397, after the younger Richard had been attainted and executed for treason, (fn. 81) the honor of Lewes and the rest of his lands were granted by Richard II to Thomas, Earl Marshal and Earl of Nottingham. (fn. 82) In the following year Thomas, who had meanwhile been made Duke of Norfolk, was banished, and in September 1398 the honor was granted in tail-male to the king's half-brother, John, Duke of Exeter. (fn. 83)

In January 1400 the Duke of Exeter was beheaded at Pleshey for his part in the conspiracy against Henry IV, and in October of that year his father's attainder having been reversed, Thomas Fitzalan was restored in blood and honors as Earl of Arundel and Surrey. (fn. 84) A few months before his death in October 1415, he settled the honor of Lewes, with his Surrey lands, on himself and his wife Beatrice and their heirs. (fn. 85) Beatrice held the honor until her death in 1439, (fn. 86) when in the absence of direct heirs it devolved upon the representatives of the late earl's sisters, viz. John Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, grandson of Elizabeth Fitzalan and her second husband; Elizabeth Nevill, Baroness Bergavenny, grand-daughter of the second sister Joan who married William Beauchamp, 4th son of Thomas, Earl of Warwick; Edmund Lenthall, son of the third sister, Margaret, and her husband Sir Rowland Lenthall, Master of the Wardrobe to Henry IV. (fn. 87) Edmund Lenthall was a minor and in the king's wardship, but in December 1440 the other two coheirs were allowed to enter their respective pourparties. (fn. 88)

The barony of Lewes, with all its rents and profits, and the castle of Lewes were now divided into three equal shares. (fn. 89) Each coheir therefore received, in addition to ⅓ of the castle, third parts respectively of the 'Chase called Cleres'; of the forest of Worth and of any residue of the manor of Worth beyond the forest; of assised rent of the vill of Lewes, that is to say a third of each tenant's rent together with any residue from the vill. Similar division was made of the proceeds of view of frankpledge, of the court of the vill, and of the court baron, of a yearly fair at Whitsuntide and a weekly market on Saturday, and of a fishery called the fishery of Lewes. The profits of the eight and two half hundreds of the rape were also divided, as were a certain common fine paid at the feasts of the Annunciation and Michaelmas, the toun of the sheriff of Sussex held at 'Nomansland', and a rent of £11 6s. called 'Sherevesyeld' taken within the rape of Arundel. The order of presentation to the Priory of Lewes was to be first by Edmund Lenthall, second by the Duke of Norfolk, and third by Elizabeth Lady Bergavenny. (fn. 90) The only manor in which actual partition was to be made was Northease with the vill of Iford, from which rents were to be paid to Edmund Lenthall and the Duke of Norfolk by Lady Bergavenny, who was to hold the manorial rights. (fn. 91) Apart from these, the manors were allotted in groups of approximately equal value.

The manors of Houndean, Keymer, and Cuckfield with its appurtenant 'Haldelegh' were given to Edmund Lenthall, with rents as above from Northease and Iford. His knights' fees lay in Portslade, Aldrington, Ovingdean, Hamsey, Barcombe, Streat, Newtimber, Baldshill, Rottingdean, Ockley, Hangleton, Plumpton, and Perching, and Fincham and Rougham in Norfolk, with a third share of fees in Blatchington, Deopham in Norfolk, and Ovingdean, and of Surrey fees. (fn. 92)

The demesne manors of the Duke of Norfolk were Meeching with the vill of Piddinghoe, Clayton, Piecombe, Brighthelmeston, Allington, and Middleton with the vill of Seaford, and rents from Northease and Iford. His knights' fees were in Hurst, Westmeston, Hamsey, Barcombe, Streat, Newtimber, Bevendean, Rottingdean, Hangleton, 'Sonde', Standean, Smithwick, Kingston, Radynden in Sussex, Wretham in Suffolk, and Rougham in Norfolk, with a third share of fees in Blatchington, and Deopham, and Ovingdean, and fees in Surrey. (fn. 93)

To the share of Elizabeth, Lady Bergavenny, fell the manors of Ditchling, Rodmell, Patcham, Rottingdean, Northease, and the vill of Iford. (fn. 94) Her knights' fees lay in Poynings, Piecombe, Wapsbourne, Chailey, Iford, Worth, Ditchling, 'Banham', Firles', Maplesden, Piddingworth, Folkington near Wilmington, and Fulking, (fn. 95) with a share of fees in Blatchington, and Ovingdean, and Deopham, and with certain of the Surrey fees. (fn. 96)

The Lenthall pourparty of the barony did not long preserve its identity. Edmund Lenthall entered upon it in August 1441, soon after coming of age. (fn. 97) In 1444 he settled it upon William, Bishop of Salisbury, and others, including Roland Lenthall his father, doubtless as feoffees to uses of his will. (fn. 98) He died in 1447 (fn. 99) and, subject to the life interest of his widow (d. Jan. 1484) (fn. 100) and of his father (d. 1450), (fn. 101) the Lenthall third of the barony was shared by the owners of the other twothirds. From 1447, therefore, the barony was held in half shares by the Nevills and the Mowbrays.


Lenthall. Argent a bend cotised sable with three molets or thereon.


Nevill, Lord Bergavenny. Gules a saltire argent charged with a rose gules.

The descent of the Nevill or Bergavenny portion of the rape and honor presents few problems. (fn. 102) Elizabeth, wife of Sir Edward Nevill, Lord Bergavenny, died in 1448 (fn. 103) and her husband continued to hold part of her half of the honor until his own death in 1476. (fn. 104) He was succeeded by his seconds on George, 4th Lord Bergavenny. (fn. 105) In 1484, on the death of Margaret Tresham, widow of Edmund Lenthall, he entered into full possession of the Sussex lands of his half of the Lenthall third, the demesne manors of Cuckfield, Keymer, and Houndean being divided between the two heirs. (fn. 106) George, 5th Lord Bergavenny, succeeded his father in 1492 (fn. 107) and died in 1535, having entailed his lands upon himself and his heirs male, with remainder to his brothers Thomas and Edward respectively in like manner. (fn. 108) His son and successor, Henry, 6th Baron, died in 1587 leaving an only daughter, Lady Mary Fane, (fn. 109) so that by terms of the entail the half barony descended to a cousin, Edward Nevill, notwithstanding the attainder of his father Edward, brother of the 5th Lord Bergavenny. (fn. 110) Edward, 7th Lord Bergavenny, died in 1589 (fn. 111) and his son and successor, another Edward, in 1622. (fn. 112) The half rape continued to descend with the barony of Bergavenny which was raised to an earldom in 1784. (fn. 113) In 1876 William, Earl of Abergavenny, was created Earl of Lewes and Marquess of Abergavenny. (fn. 114) Such rights as still persist are vested in his grandson Temple Montacute Larnach-Nevill, 4th Marquess of Abergavenny.

The third share of the barony inherited in 1439 by John de Mowbray, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, Earl of Nottingham, Marshal of England, &c., (fn. 115) became, as has been said above, one half, on the death of Edmund Lenthall in 1447. (fn. 116) The 3rd Duke died in 1461 leaving a widow, Eleanor, to whom dower was assigned from the Sussex lands, (fn. 117) and a son John, born in 1444, (fn. 118) who was a minor in the king's wardship (fn. 119) until 1465 when he was allowed to enter into all his father's possessions. (fn. 120) During his father's lifetime, in 1451, he had been created Earl Warenne and Earl of Surrey, (fn. 121) these titles having been extinct since the death of Thomas, Earl of Arundel, in 1415. (fn. 122) The grant was confirmed by Edward IV in 1462, 'in consideration of his father's services in divers conflicts against the king's adversaries', and carried with it a yearly sum of 20s. from the issues of the counties of both Surrey and Sussex. (fn. 123)


Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk. Gules a lion argent.

John died in 1476 leaving a four-year-old daughter, Anne. (fn. 124) His titles then became extinct, but were revived, in part, in favour of Edward IV's second son Richard, who became Duke of York and of Norfolk, Earl Marshal, Earl Warenne, and Earl of Nottingham. To support his new dignities he was married to the heiress Anne Mowbray 'to the grete honoure of her and of her blode' and it was agreed that he should inherit her possessions even if she died without issue. (fn. 125) Meanwhile, Anne's widowed mother, Elizabeth, Duchess of Norfolk, in view of her daughter's marriage, was induced to surrender the lands of the barony held by her in dower, and to accept instead other manors in Sussex and elsewhere. (fn. 126)

Anne died in 1481; (fn. 127) her husband was murdered in the Tower in 1483. (fn. 128) There was no direct heir to this half of the barony and so it was divided among the next of kin, the four surviving heirs of the other daughters of Elizabeth Fitzalan. (fn. 129) These were John Howard (created Earl Marshal and Duke of Norfolk, 28 June 1483), son of Margaret Mowbray; William, Lord Berkeley (created Earl of Nottingham, 28 June 1483), son of Isabel Mowbray; Sir Thomas Stanley (created Earl of Derby, 27 Oct. 1485), son of Joan Goushill, Elizabeth Fitzalan's daughter by her third husband Sir Robert Goushill; Sir John Wingfield, grandson of Elizabeth Goushill.

The Mowbray half of the barony of Lewes was now to be subdivided so that each of the four heirs would, in 1483, be holding one-eighth of the barony and rape and borough of Lewes, with one-quarter of the original Mowbray manors, (fn. 130) and one-quarter of half the vill of Cuckfield, lately held by Edmund Lenthall. (fn. 131) An agreement was, however, made by the heirs, that the inheritance of Anne Mowbray should be divided in such a way that the Duke of Norfolk and the Earl of Derby should between them hold the half barony of Lewes with its lands in Sussex and Surrey, while the Earl of Nottingham and Sir John Wingfield should similarly divide Anne's lands in Wales and Chester. (fn. 132) By this arrangement the Duke of Norfolk was to have received the Berkeley eighth of the rape and the Earl of Derby that of Sir John Wingfield, but the agreement was not immediately carried into force. (fn. 133)

William, Lord Berkeley, Earl of Nottingham, instead of handing over his eighth to the Duke of Norfolk, settled it, in 1490, on himself and the heirs of his body, with remainder to the king, Henry VII, and his heirs male. (fn. 134) In October 1491, in parliament, all fines levied by him to the king's use were confirmed against the Earl of Surrey (son and heir of the late Duke of Norfolk), who was thereby excluded from his title and right in this eighth share. (fn. 135) The Marquess Berkeley died seised of 1/8 of the barony of Lewes in 1492. He died without issue and his brother Maurice was declared his heir, (fn. 136) in spite of the agreement of 1490. In 1504 Maurice, Lord Berkeley, enfeoffed Sir Edward Poynings and others (fn. 137) to the use, it has been suggested, of the Earl of Surrey. (fn. 138)


Berkeley. Gules a cheveron between ten crosses formy argent.


Howard, Duke of Norfolk. Gules a bend between six crosslets fitchy argent with the augmentation for Flodden on the bend.

Meanwhile, John, Duke of Norfolk, owner of the second 1/8, had been killed at Bosworth in 1485, and with his son and heir, Thomas, Earl of Surrey, subsequently attainted, and his lands seized by the king. (fn. 139) Thomas was pardoned in 1489, (fn. 140) but did not recover possession of his father's lands until 1507, on the death of Elizabeth, Duchess of Norfolk, mother of Anne Mowbray, (fn. 141) and it was not until he had petitioned the new king, Henry VIII, that he was given leave to enter, c. 1512, that 1/8 share of the barony to which he declared himself entitled by his agreement with the Earl of Nottingham. (fn. 142)

From this time forward the Howard share of the barony of Lewes would be ¼, and owing to political complications was continually in and out of the king's hands. Thomas, Earl of Surrey, created Duke of Norfolk in 1514, died in 1524, (fn. 143) when he was succeeded by his son Thomas. Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, forfeited his lands and possessions in 1546 when his son Henry, Earl of Surrey, was attainted for high treason. (fn. 144) His dukedom was, however, restored to him in 1553, and he died the following year. (fn. 145) The fate of his grandson and successor, Thomas Howard, was worse than his own, for he was beheaded for conspiracy with Mary Queen of Scots in 1572, and once more the honours and titles of the family were forfeit. (fn. 146) Thomas had married Lady Mary Fitzalan, heiress of the 12th Earl of Arundel. His eldest son Philip succeeded his maternal grandfather as Earl of Arundel in 1580. (fn. 147) With his brothers, Thomas and William Howard, he was dealing by fine in 1585 with ¼ of the manor of Cuckfield, part of the barony. (fn. 148) He unsuccessfully claimed the title of Duke of Norfolk, became a Roman Catholic, and was committed to the Tower, where he died in 1595. (fn. 149) He died attainted, so that his son Thomas was deprived of his honours. On the accession of James I, in 1603, he was created Earl of Arundel and Surrey, but the king kept his property. Some of this he was able to buy back in 1608 with his wife Anne Dacre's money, and in 1610 and 1611 he was dealing by fine with lands of the honor of Lewes. (fn. 150) He suffered a recovery of the barony, manor, and borough of Lewes and other land in 1640–1. (fn. 151) He was created Duke of Norfolk in 1644 and died 1646. (fn. 152) From this time the ¼ of the barony and rape of Lewes descended in the family of Howard, Dukes of Norfolk.

The 1/8 share of Sir John Wingfield presents many difficulties. Sir John was attainted and his estates forfeited for taking part in risings following the accession of Richard III in June 1483, that is to say immediately after the murder of the young Richard, Duke of York and Norfolk. (fn. 153) His estates were restored to him on the accession of Henry VII (1485), (fn. 154) and in April 1487 the king for his good services granted him an annuity of £40 of and in the manors or lordships of Reigate and Dorking, co. Surrey, Lewes, Clayton, Brighthelmeston, Meeching, and Seaford, co. Sussex, late of John, Duke of Norfolk. (fn. 155) How long this grant lasted does not appear. Meanwhile, according to the arrangement made c. 1483 by the four Mowbray coheirs, Wingfield's 1/8 of the barony should have been transferred to the Earl of Derby in return for lands in Wales and Chester. (fn. 156) This transfer had certainly been made by 1521. (fn. 157) The lands acquired by Sir John in 1484 upon the death of Margaret Tresham were not, however, included in this arrangement. (fn. 158) They apparently remained in the family until 1539, when Sir Anthony Wingfield (fn. 159) conveyed them to Joan Everard. (fn. 160) They consisted of ¼ of a moiety of the manors of Houndean, Keymer, 'Haldeleigh', and of lands and rents in Cuckfield, i.e. ¼ share of the Lenthall manors formerly held in dower by Edmund Lenthall's widow. (fn. 161) The quitclaim also included ¼ of a moiety of the barony, castle, and borough of Lewes, (fn. 162) but their claim to this was later disputed and disproved, (fn. 163) and the only lords of the rape from 1559 onwards are representatives of the families of Bergavenny, Howard, and Stanley.


Wingfield. Argent a bend gules cotised sable with three pairs of wings argent on the bend.

Joan Everard settled her part of the rape in 1546 on her daughter Mary, second wife of Richard Bellingham of Hangleton and Newtimber. (fn. 164) After his death, Mary, now widow of George Goring of Ovingdean and Lewes, and her son Edward Bellingham, made a fine with George Smyth and others in 1595, (fn. 165) for purpose of a settlement on Mary for life and her son after her. Mary Goring died in 1602; her son succeeded to her so-called 1/8 of the barony and of the manors, (fn. 166) and died in 1605, said to be seised of 1/8 of the castle and barony of Lewes, and of 1/8 of the manors of Houndean, Keymer, 'Hall Lee', Court Bushes, Cuckfield, Cuckfield Clauditor, held of the king in chief and valued at £5. (fn. 167) His son, Sir Edward Bellingham, died in 1637, still claiming 1/8 of the castle and barony and manors, (fn. 168) and leaving as his heir his cousin Cecily, wife of Thomas West and daughter of Richard Bellingham, deceased (brother of Edward Bellingham, father of Sir Edward). (fn. 169) Cecily's son Henry West of Woodmancote (fn. 170) and his wife Alice in 1670 made a settlement of ¼ of a moiety of the castle and barony and also of the borough and manor of Lewes, with ¼ of a moiety of the manor of Houndean, on himself and heirs (fn. 171) and the next year conveyed it to William Spence. (fn. 172) In 1672 ¼ of a moiety of the castle of Lewes and of the manor of Houndean were the object of a fine between Sir John Stapley as deforciant and John Stonestreet and Martha Stonestreet, widow, plaintiffs, (fn. 173) but there is no further evidence forthcoming concerning this so-called Wingfield eighth share of the barony.

The fourth of the Mowbray heirs, Sir Thomas Stanley who inherited 1/8 of the barony had made com pact, as has been said above, to take over the Wingfield 1/8 share in return for lands in Chester and Wales. (fn. 174) When, if ever, he did so, does not appear since no inquisition post mortem has been found. (fn. 175) He died in 1504 and his grandson Thomas son of Sir George Stanley, Lord Lestrange, entered straightaway upon his inheritance. (fn. 176) He was the 2nd Earl of Derby. At the time of his death, May 1521, he appears to have been holding, in addition to the original 1/8 barony, the 1/8 inherited in 1483 by Sir John Wingfield, but, as has been already stated, not the Lenthall share that fell to Wingfield after Margaret Tresham's death in 1484. (fn. 177) So, though the Earl of Derby held half the manors of the Mowbray Dukes of Norfolk, i.e. Meeching, Piddinghoe, Cuckfield, Allington, and Seaford, &c., he held only his original 1/8 share in Houndean, Keymer, Cuckfield Clauditor, and 'Haldelegh'. (fn. 178) Edward, 3rd Earl of Derby, a minor at the time of his father's death, obtained possession of his lands in 1531. (fn. 179) It is clear that during his lifetime at least, the barony of Lewes was shared by three owners, namely, the Lord Bergavenny (whose share was ½), the Duke of Norfolk, and himself. (fn. 180) He was succeeded in 1572 by his son Henry, who in 1576 alienated ¼ of the barony, borough, and manor of Lewes, with ¼ of the hundreds of the rape, and ½ the manors of Brighthelmeston, Meeching, Allington, and Seaford to Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst. (fn. 181) Lord Buckhurst was later created Earl of Dorset, and was followed in 1608 by his son Robert who died the following year and was succeeded by his son Richard, (fn. 182) to whom King James I appears to have confirmed ¼ of the barony in 1611–12. (fn. 183) He was dealing with his ¼ by fine in 1617. (fn. 184)


Stanley. Argent a bend azure with three harts' heads caboshed or thereon.


Sackville. Quarterly gules and or a bend vair.


West. Argent a fesse dancetty sable.

The ¼ lordship appears to have followed the line of the Earls and Dukes of Dorset (fn. 185) until the death in 1815, without issue, of George John Frederick the 4th duke, when the Sackville property was divided between his two sisters, (fn. 186) the barony of Lewes falling to the younger sister Elizabeth, wife of George John Sackville-West, Earl De La Warr. (fn. 187) In 1835 her husband was one of the three lords of the honor, (fn. 188) but since this time any rights specifically connected with the barony appear to have lapsed.

Footnotes

1 Suss. Arch. Coll. lxxii, 25–6; V.C.H. Norfolk, ii, 18 note, 80–94 passim; Farrer, Honors and Knights' Fees, iii, 297–8.
2 V.C.H. Suss. i, 435–43, and map, 386–7.
3 This was the 'quarter' of the hundred recorded in 1278 as in the hands of the Bishop of Chichester: Assize R. 921, m. 14.
4 Cf. Feud. Aids, v, 135–6.
5 Bk. of John Rowe (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxxiv), 186.
6 Suss. Arch. Coll. lviii, 11–19.
7 Lay Subs. 258, no. 18.
8 See below, p. 44.
9 Horsfield, Sussex, i, 103–4.
10 Budgen's map of that year.
11 V.C.H. Suss. i, 352; W. A. Morris, The Medieval English Sheriff, 108; N. Denholm-Young, Seignorial Administration in England, 46–53. Cf. List of Sheriffs (P.R.O. Lists and Indexes ix), 141.
12 Trans. and ed. by L. F. Salzman for Sussex Record Society (vols. xxxviii, xl).
13 Lewes Chart. i, 23, 40; ii, 25, 27, 58.
14 Ibid. i, 132, 161; ii, 26, 42, 44, 46, 52, 53, 114.
15 Ibid. i, 13, 36; ii, 50.
16 Ibid. ii, 34.
17 Ibid.
18 Ibid. i, 39.
19 Ibid. 25.
20 Ibid. i, 13, 33, 34, 36, 40; ii. 50.
21 Ibid. i, 34.
22 Ibid. i, 132; ii, 58.
23 Ibid. ii, 39.
24 Ibid. 46.
25 Ibid. 25, 44.
26 Ibid. i, 161.
27 Ibid. ii, 26.
28 Ibid. 114.
29 Ibid. 42, 52, 53.
30 Ibid. 27.
31 Cf. V.C.H. Suss. i, 361, 377, &c.
32 Dict. Nat. Biog.; cf. Lewes Chartulary, i, 2–3.
33 Ibid.; cf. Stenton, English Feudalism, 231 and note; V.C.H. Surrey, i, 340.
34 Cal. Pat. 1313–17, p. 483; Cal. Inq. p.m. ix, 54; Bk. of J. Rowe, 187, 189, 190; cf. V.C.H. Surrey, iii, 234.
35 Dict. Nat. Biog.
36 Lewes Chart. ii, 15.
37 Dict. Nat. Biog.
38 Red. Bk. of Exch. i, 204.
39 Ibid. 58.
40 Farrer, Honors and Knights' Fees, iii, 304; Add. Ch. 24634. See genealogical table in Suss. Arch. Coll. lxi, 80–1.
41 Rot. Lit. Pat. (Rec. Com.), 10.
42 Bk. of Fees, i, 71.
43 Ibid. This was apparently one instalment of the aid of 2 marks on each fee.
44 Dict. Nat. Biog.
45 Norgate, Minority of Henry III, 49.
46 Dict. Nat. Biog.
47 Part of Seaford was originally in the Rape of Lewes, but subsequently the whole was included in the Rape of Pevensey.
48 Pipe R. 25 Hen. III, m. 5.
49 Cal. Pat. 1232–47, p. 259.
50 Ibid. 272.
51 Ibid. 279.
52 Bk. of Fees, ii, 690–1. The total number of fees, including some in Norfolk, held of the Castle of Lewes was returned in 1440 as 723/5: Mins. Accts. (P.R.O.), 1120, no. 1.
53 Cal. Pat. 1247–58, p. 14.
54 Close R. 1251–3, p. 79.
55 Ibid. 400.
56 Ibid. 1254–6, p. 299; cf. V.C.H. Surrey, i, 340.
57 Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 750. The earl here states that he was in the king's wardship for 17 years and more.
58 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (1st ed.), vii, 327.
59 Cal. Pat. 1258–66, p. 326.
60 Hemingburgh (Eng. Hist. Soc), ii, 6.
61 Cam, Hundred and Hundred Rolls, 234–5.
62 Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 750–1.
63 Feud. Aids, v, 129–30.
64 Ibid.
65 Esch. Accts. 33 Edw. I.
66 Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), ii, 207, 209, 210; Plac. de Quo War. (Rec. Com.), 750, where King John is said to have given the earl rights of warren for the sake of the pun on his name (propter cognomen suum a warenna), which may well be a fact.
67 Suss. Arch. Coll. ii, 82, 92; Hilda Johnstone, Letters of Edward Prince of Wales (Roxburghe Club), 1, 2, 31, 40.
68 Cal. Close, 1302–7, p. 245.
69 Dict. Nat. Biog.
70 Cal. Close, 1302–7, p. 373.
71 Cal. Pat. 1301–7, p. 476.
72 Ibid. 1313–17, pp. 401, 434. She was the child of Edw. I's daughter Eleanor and Henry III, Count of Bar.
73 Ibid. 483.
74 Ibid. 528; Cat. Anct. D. iii, A. 5917. Maud had already started proceedings in a cause of pre-contract of matrimony: Cal. Pat. 1313–17, p. 401.
75 Ibid. 1324–7, p. 271.
76 Ibid. 1345–8, p. 221; 1348–50, p. 327.
77 His will is printed in Testamenta Eboracensia (Surtees Soc. iv), i, 41.
78 Cal. Inq. p.m. ix, 54; Cal. Close, 1346–9, pp. 314, 316; G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), i, 243. Cf. V.C.H. Surrey, iii, 234.
79 Cal. Inq. p.m. ix, 54.
80 Cal. Pat. 1364–7, pp. 198, 237; Suss. Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxiii), nos. 2331, 2332; cf. ibid. no. 2434. Elizabeth was the daughter of William, Earl of Northampton: G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.) i, 245.
81 Chan. Inq. p.m. 21 Ric. II, no. 137, m. 11.
82 Cal. Pat. 1396–9, pp. 209–10, 220, 249. Included in the grant were 8 and two ½ hundreds: viz. Barcombe, Buttinghill, Holmestrow, Poynings, Streat, Swanborough, Whalesbone, Younsmere, ½ Fishersgate, and ½ Windham.
83 Cal. Pat. 1396–9, p. 458.
84 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), i, 245–6; Feud. Aids, vi, 520.
85 Cal. Pat. 1413–16, p. 336; G.E.C. loc. cit.; Chan. Inq. p.m. 4 Hen. V, no. 54.
86 Chan. Inq. p.m. 18 Hen. VI, no. 28.
87 See 'The Devolution of Sussex Manors', Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 54–91; G.E.C. loc. cit.
88 Cal. Pat. 1436–41, p. 483.
89 See The Bk. of J. Rowe, 185–91.
90 See The Book of J. Rowe (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxxiv), 185–91.
91 Ibid. 185, 188, 189.
92 Ibid. 185–7; Cal. Pat. 1441–6, pp. 350–1. Mins. Accts. (P.R.O.), 1120, nos. 1, 2; Exch. K.R. Accts. bdle. 515, no. 5.
93 Bk. of J. Rowe, 187–9.
94 Ibid. 189.
95 These two are identified from the list of fees in ibid. p. 193.
96 Ibid. 190–1.
97 Cal. Pat. 1436–41, p. 562. His father, however, held a life interest in these possessions: ibid. 1441–6, pp. 350–1.
98 Ibid.; Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 62; liv, 10.
99 Cal. Inq. (Rec. Com.), iv, 234.
100 She was assigned in dower the manors of Keymer and Houndean and the so-called manor of 'Aldelegh' or Haldelegh, rents in Cuckfield, 7½ knights' fees and profits and perquisites of courts and view of frankpledge in all the hundreds of the rape: Cal. Inq. (Rec. Com.), iv, 417; Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 62.
101 He died holding ⅓ of 2/3 of the customary rent in Guildford, ⅓ of ⅓ of toll and customs, and ⅓ of 25s. 4d. rent in Southwark, ⅓ of a tenement and land in Southwark and Camberwell, all in Surrey: Cal. Inq. (Rec. Com.), iv, 248.
102 Horsfield, Sussex, i, 136–7; Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 61.
103 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), i, 29.
104 Ibid. 30; Dict. Nat. Biog.; Chan. Inq. p.m. 16 Edw. IV, no. 66; cf. Cal. Inq. (Rec. Com.), iv, 379. He did not hold the manor of Rodmell.
105 His elder son had died: G.E.C. loc. cit.
106 Chan. Inq. p.m. 1 Ric. III, no. 43; cf. Cal. Inq. p.m. (Rec. Com.), iv, 417; Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 61.
107 Cal. Pat. Hen. VII, i, 409; G.E.C. op. cit. i, 31. For his lands see Bk. of J. Rowe, 149–50; L. and P. Hen. VIII, iii (1), 1290, 1291.
108 G.E.C. op. cit. i, 32–3.
109 Ibid. i, 34.
110 Ibid. i, 34–5; Suss. Inq. (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxxiii), nos. 100, 102.
111 Ibid. no. 126; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxxiii, 58.
112 Ibid. cccxcix, 157; G.E.C. op. cit. i, 36. For rentals and customs of his Sussex lands see The Book of John Rowe, Steward of the Manors of Lord Bergavenny, 1597–1622 (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxxiv).
113 G.E.C. op. cit. i, 42.
114 Ibid. i, 44.
115 Bk. of J. Rowe, 187–9.
116 The duke immediately appointed John Wingfield as steward for the estates coming to him from Edmund Lenthall: Cat. Anct. D. iii, C. 3535.
117 Chan. Inq. p.m. 4 Edw. IV, no. 59; cf. Cal. Inq. (Rec. Com.), iv, 316–17, 329; Cal. Pat. 1467–77, p. 192.
118 G.E.C. op. cit. (1st ed.), vi, 43. A jointure was provided for his wife Elizabeth from the Sussex lands: Cal. Pat. 1461–7, p. 212; Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 16 Edw. IV, file 76, no. 116.
119 Cf. Cal. Pat. 1461–7, pp. 105, 112, 115, 214, 379.
120 Ibid. 477; cf. Chan. Inq. p.m. 4 Edw. IV, no. 72.
121 Cal. Chart. vi, 114; Cal. Pat. 1461–7, p. 208.
122 Dict. Nat. Biog. Thomas was the brother of Elizabeth, Joan, and Margaret whose heirs partitioned the rape in 1439 on the death of his widow Beatrice.
123 Cal. Pat. 1461–7, p. 208. The earlier charter had been annulled by parliament.
124 Chan. Inq. p.m. 17 Edw. IV, no. 58.
125 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (1st ed.), vi, 43; Rot. Parl. vi, 168–9; cf. Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 66.
126 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxiii), 3212, 3213; Cal. Inq. (Rec. Com.), iv, 386–7; Rot. Parl. vi, 169.
127 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (1st ed.), vi, 43–4. There appears to be some uncertainty as to the date. Cf. Cal. Pat. 1476–85, p. 231, where letters concerning her are dated 15 Feb. 1481.
128 G.E.C. loc. cit.
129 Stat. Realm (Rec. Com.), iii, 58–61; see Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 70 et seq.
130 Viz. Clayton, Piecombe, Brighton, Allington, Seaford, Middleton, Meeching, and Piddinghoe.
131 The other Lenthall manors, Keymer, Houndean, and 'Haldelegh' being still in the hands of his widow, Margaret Tresham.
132 Stat. Realm (Rec. Com.), iii, 58–61.
133 Ibid.
134 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxiii), 3269.
135 Stat. Realm (Rec. Com.), iii, 59–60.
136 Cal. Inq. Hen. VII, i, 878, 879.
137 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxiii), 3370.
138 Bk. of J. Rowe (ibid. xxxiv), 193; Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 82.
139 Dict. Nat. Biog.; Cal. Pat. Hen. VII, i, 169.
140 Rot. Parl. vi, 410.
141 Cal. Pat. Hen. VII, ii, 543.
142 Stat. Realm (Rec. Com.), iii, 61.
143 Dict. Nat. Biog.
144 The proceeds of some of the lands of the honor went to the king's uncle, Thomas Seymour: Cal. Pat. Edw. VI, i, 27.
145 Dict. Nat. Biog.
146 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (1st ed.), vi, 53. He is named as one of the three lords of the barony of Lewes in 1559 and 1565, the other two being Lord Bergavenny and the Earl of Derby: Inq. (Suss. Rec. Soc. iii), 9, 26.
147 Dict. Nat. Biog.
148 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 116.
149 Dict. Nat. Biog.
150 Viz. ¼ manor of Keymer and ½ manor of Middleton: Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 251; ibid. xx, 306.
151 Recov. R. Hil. 15 Chas. I, m. 6.
152 Dict. Nat. Biog.; G.E.C. Complete Peerage (1st ed.), vi, 54.
153 Rot. Parl. vi, 244–50.
154 Ibid. 273.
155 Cal. Pat. Hen. VII, i, 169.
156 Stat. Realm (Rec. Com.), iii, 58–61.
157 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xxxviii, 10; lxxxi, 247. See below, p. 7.
158 Stat. Realm (Rec. Com.), iii, 58–61.
159 Grandson of Sir John: Suss. Arch. Coll. liv, 19.
160 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 271–2. Cf. Comber, Suss. Gen. (Ardingly), 26, 318–21; (Lewes), 10; Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 88–9.
161 Ibid.; Chan. Inq. p.m. 1 Ric. III, no. 43. The rents in Cuckfield appear to have represented the manor of Cuckfield Clauditor (q.v.); cf. Inq. (Suss. Rec. Soc. xiv), 330; and see below, p. 157.
162 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 271–2.
163 In 1613: Bk. of J. Rowe, 145–6.
164 Add. MS. 39497, fol. 44, ibid. 39495, fol. 368; Comber, Suss. Gen. (Lewes), 9–10. Cf. Inq. (Suss. Rec. Soc. xiv), no. 382; Renshaw, 'Manor of Keymer', Suss. Arch. Coll. liv, 19.
165 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 272.
166 Inq. (ibid. xiv), 484.
167 Inq. (ibid. xxxiii), 196.
168 Ibid. xiv, 109. But see Bk. of J. Rowe, 145–6, for his claim to the barony: he had sold 1/8 manor of Keymer in 1620: Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 251.
169 Ibid. xx, 500; Comber, loc. cit. In 1648 Cecily and her son Walter West and her second husband Henry Rolt conveyed 1/8 manors of Cuckfield, Haldleigh, and Cuckfield Clauditor to Sir Thomas Hendley: Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 118.
170 Comber, Suss. Gen. (Horsham), 365.
171 Dunkin Coll. B.M. Add. MS. 39495, fol. 370, citing Close R. 22 Chas. II, pt. i, ro. 10.
172 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 272.
173 Ibid.
174 Stat. Realm (Rec. Com.), iii, 58–61.
175 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), iv, 205–7.
176 Ibid.; Cal. Pat. Hen. VII, ii, 397.
177 Cf. Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), xxxviii, 10; lxxxi, 2407. See above, p. 6.
178 Inq. (Suss. Rec. Soc. xiv), 330; Suss. Arch. Coll. lvi, 84.
179 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), iv, 209–11.
180 Inq. (Suss. Rec. Soc. iii), 6, 9, 26.
181 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 63. He had previously disposed of other portions of the barony: ibid. 105, 116, 231, 306.
182 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), iv, 422–4; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccxi, 110; cccxii, 128; Inq. (Suss. Rec. Soc. xxxiii), 214.
183 Add. MS. 5683. fol. 212.
184 Fines (Suss. Rec. Soc. xix), 212–13.
185 Cf. Ibid. 272 (1674–5); 272–3 (1710).
186 G.E.C. Complete Peerage (2nd ed.), iv, 163–4, 429–30. The last duke's mother apparently retained the lordship until her death (1825): Horsfield, Lewes, i, 137.
187 Add. MS. 39473, fol. i v.
188 Ibid. 39497, fol. 313, citing Repts. of Copyhold Com.