Coals

Sponsor

Centre for Metropolitan History

Publication

Author

W. H. and H. C. Overall (editors)

Year published

1878

Supporting documents

Pages

78-89

Citation Show another format:

'Coals', Analytical index to the series of records known as the Remembrancia: 1579-1664 (1878), pp. 78-89. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=59916 Date accessed: 31 August 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

Contents

Coals.

I. 589 Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, stating that some controversy had lately arisen between the Lord Admiral and the City touching the right of measurage of coal and certain other things upon the River Thames. His Lordship had promised to aid the City's suit to Her Majesty for her further confirmation of their right, held and exercised by them time out of mind, and they besought his good offices with Her Majesty for the settlement of the dispute.
12th March, 1590.

I. 615. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, stating that, whereas, according to instructions touching the controversy between the City and the Lord Admiral as to the measurage of sea-coal and other things measurable upon the River Thames, the AttorneyGeneral (fn. 1) and the Solicitor-General (fn. 2) had perused and throughly reformed a certain Book of Rules for the measuring of sea-coal, &c., as well on Her Majesty's part as on the Lord Admiral, who had given his full assent to have the book so passed as it had been conceived and amended by them, but had refused to sign and allow the same without further warrant. The Lord Mayor therefore entreats the Lord Treasurer to grant the said warrant to the Attorney and Solicitor-General to certify by signing the book that the same has been reformed; and further reminds him of the suit still pending between the Tower and the City, touching the bounds of both places, and requests him to grant a commission to some discreet persons to hear and determine the matter in dispute.
26th December, 1592.

I. 616. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer.
Copy of the above Letter, dated 17th December, 1592.

I. 619. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer and Lord Admiral, to the same effect as No.615.
24th January, 1592.

II. 105. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, requesting them to use their authority for the reforming of the abuses existing among sea-coal owners of Newcastle, who, having taken on lease the common pits (six in number) granted to that town by the Bishop of Durham, (fn. 3) suffered them to be unused, and worked their own private pits, whereby a less quantity and worse quality were imported, to the increased expense of the poor.
4th October, 1595.

II. 132. Causes of enhancing the price and impairing the goodness of sea-coal by the town of Newcastle.
Sans date.

II. 133. Remedies for reforming these abuses.
Sans date. Sans date.

II. 134. Reply to the answer made by Henry Mitford and Henry chapman, in the name of the Mayor and Aldermen of Newcastle, touching the abuses committed in the prices and mixture of sea-coal.
Sans date.

II. 135. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Mayor and Aldermen, &c., of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, informing them that the Lords of the Council had issued a Commission to inquire into the abuses existing in the coal trade in the town of Newcastle, which had caused great loss both to this City and that town.
21st January, 1595.

II. 136Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Bishop of Durham,
upon the same subject.
3rd February, 1595.

II. 137. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Mayor and Aldermen of the town of Newcastle, being a second letter upon the appointment of a Commission to inquire into the abuses existing in the coal trade there.
4th February, 1595.

II. 138. Appointment of Mr. Christopher Lerven (Lewen) by the City of London as their Commissioner for inquiring into the abuses existing in the coal trade of Newcastle.
15th February, 1595.

II. 139. Instructions to be pursued by the Commissioners appointed by the City of London, touching the reformation of the price and mixture of pit-coal.
Signed by Stephen Slaney, Mayor, (fn. 4)
Nicholas Mosley. (fn. 5)
Benedict Barnham. (fn. 6)
Sans date.

II. 152. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, informing them that the City had appointed Christopher Lewen and Henry Sanderson, of Newcastle, as Commissioners to inquire into the price and mixture of sea-coal in that town, that the Mayor and Aldermen of Newcastle had refused to appoint two Commissioners on their behalf, as ordered by the Council, and requesting them to direct the Lord Bishop of Durham to proceed with the examination of witnesses, &c.
31st March, 1596.

II. 153. Letter of thanks from the Lord Mayor to Mr. Henry Sanderson, of Newcastle, for the trouble he had taken in the matter of the mixture of coal, and appointing him one of the Commissioners for the City.
1st April, 1596.

II. 161. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, complaining that the Mayor and Aldermen of the town of Newcastle still refused to appoint two Commissioners to assist the Bishop of Durham and the two Commissioners selected by the City, and praying the Council to consider the inconvenience likely to ensue to the poor of the whole realm by the continued contempt of their former orders thereon.
17th July, 1596.

II. 181. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, directing them to inquire into the causes of the excessive price of coals brought from Newcastle and the North, whether it be by engrossing or no, and what reasonable price, according to their judgment, should be allowed to the coastmen bringing coals; and whether the Companies could be moved to purchase a stock in the summer, and issue them to the poor in the winter, at the same rates, and so to keep down the price.
17th July, 1601.

II. 202. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, enclosing, answers to the instructions forwarded by them, to inquire into the causes of the excessive price of sea-coal.
July, 1601.

II. 255. Petition of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen to the Lord Treasurer, touching the grant of 4,000 chaldrons of sea-coal yearly from Newcastle, free of impost, for the poor of the City.
Sans date.

III. 101. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor concerning complaints, made by the farmers of the imposition on seacoals, of abuses by coastmen of Newcastle in the lading of coal ships by bulk, and not measuring the coals, whereby His Majesty was defrauded of the imposition due upon them. These abuses could only be found out by inspection of the coal meters' books, to which the farmers had hitherto had access, but had lately been refused. The Council therefore required the Lord Mayor to enjoin the coal meters to make out books of all coal ships, and the number of coals unladen from them in the Port of London from the 1st of January till the last of May last past, and deliver the same to the Clerk of the Cockets, in order that the farmers or their deputies might inspect them as they had formerly done, and further, to direct them to deliver such books in future monthly to the Clerk of the Cockets for their inspection.
19th June, 1613.

IV. 12. Letter from the Lord Mayor to Lord Chief Justice Coke, reciting that ships laden with sea-coals had been wont to ride at a portion of Tower Wharf, holden by grant from the King, for the better receipt of coals, which was also the most convenient place for coal ships to lie at, seeing that they had latterly been built of greater burden than before, and that on account of the shallowness of the water they could not well float at any other place; that carrs which conveyed such coals from the ships to the City had usually passed through the bulwark there, but Sir Jervis Elwis, (fn. 7) late Lieutenant of the Tower, had prevented their passage, and the bulwark still remained shut up; the carrs had consequently to go so far round that the cost of carriage was doubled, and the ship-masters not having their wonted utterance by carrs, were forced to sell them to the woodmongers and other engrossers, who had lighters to fetch them, thereby increasing the prices. The dispute between the Lieutenant of the Tower and the wharfingers having been referred to the Lord Chief Justice, the Lord Mayor had felt it right to acquaint him with these inconveniences.
20th January, 1615.

IV. 50. Order of the Privy Council, reciting that complaint had been made to them on behalf of the towns of Newcastle-on-Tyne, Lyme Regis, Yarmouth, Harwich, and Woodbridge, and of the Masters of the Trinity House, concerning an office lately crected for the survey of coals to be shipped at Newcastle, and that it had been much controverted as to whether coals shipped from Newcastle were mixed with any black earth, slate, or other unmerchantable stuff, which pretence had been the ground and motive for erecting the office, and that many oastmen and mariners had been prosecuted in the Star Chamber for such pretended deceit, to their trouble and disturbance. The Council therefore require the Court of Aldermen to hear the parties, and such other traders and retailers of coals in the City as could best speak of the business and certify their opinion thereon. The Council further order the stay of the proceedings in the Star Chamber, and direct that if Mr. Andrew Boyde, (fn. 8) the Patentee and Officer for Search and Survey of Coals shipped at Newcastle, should find cause to bring any man before the Star Chamber for such deceit, he should make himself relator to the Bill.
11th February, 1616.

IV. 51. The allegations made by the Patentee in favour of the creation of the office, and for payment to him of 4d. per chaldron for a certificate, and the objections and answers made thereto by the several towns above mentioned. (These are entered at considerable length.)

IV. 52. Allegations against the Patent submitted by the Masters of the Trinity House.

IV. 53. The like submitted by the Merchants of Newcastle, Lyme Regis, Yarmouth, and others.

IV. 55. Letter from the Duke of Lenox to the Lord Mayor with respect to the reference to him to inquire as to the mixture of coals, and requesting him duly to examine the matter on account of one of His Majesty's servants, whom the Duke desired to pleasure as far as he could with equity and reason.
(Marginal note says "On behalf of Mr. Boyde.")
Whitehall, 17th February, 1616.

IV. 59. Letter from the Lord Mayor and Aldermen to the Lords of the Council, certifying that having heard the parties to the controversy concerning the mixture of coals at Newcastle, and also the coal meters of the City, they did not find any pretence for the suggestion. But they found that there were several sorts of coals in those parts, sometimes arising from one and the same mine,—that such coals were usually mixed together, and that it could not well be otherwise when they came from the same mine. They were of opinion such mixture was necessary for the good of the subject, both for increasing the quantity and keeping coals at a reasonable price, and were informed by men of experience that such mixed coals burned better and were a more lasting fuel. No complaint had been made to the Court of Aldermen of such mixture, which they thought a great argument that no grievance or inconvenience was found from it. The worst coals were not unmerchantable stuff, being used by lime-burners, brick-makers, and dyers. Moreover, it was generally confessed by traders in coals that those unserviceable for the hearth could not be distinguished by view, but only by trial by fire. They therefore left for the consideration of the Council the necessity or use of the office of Surveyor of Coals.
21st February, 1616.

V. 117. Petition of the Mayor, Commonalty, and Citizens of the City of London to the King, reciting that they had for many years past, at their own charge, provided a stock of sea-coals to be sold to the poor in winter at easy rates, and that, to encourage them to continue the practice, His Majesty had been pleased to grant by Letters Patent that they might buy and provide 4,000 chaldrons at Newcastle-onTyne, or elsewhere within the realm, for conveyance to London free of all tolls, dues, &c. In the Letters Patent, however, Newcastle had been described as in the County of York, whereas it was a county of itself, and a question had arisen as to whether they might have allowance of such coals according to the measure of Newcastle. A doubt had also been raised whether the farmers of the Customs could make allowance of the 12d. in the chaldron on the said 4,000 chaldrons without forfeiture of their lease.
In margin, October, 1621.

(Note.—This Petition is apparently incomplete, no prayer being inserted.)

VI. 171. A General Warrant from Richard Weston (fn. 9) (Lord Treasurer) to the Comptrollers and Searchers of Customs at the Port of Newcastle, reciting that the late King had, by Letters Patent, granted to the City of London that they might provide for the use of the poor 4,000 chaldrons of sea-coal free of impost or other charge, and requiring the said officers to permit such persons as the Mayor and Commonalty of the City of London should appoint to buy and provide yearly such quantity for such purpose, and transport them to the Port of London, and to take entries of the quantities shipped, and record them in the quarter books returned to the Surveyors of the outposts, that allowance for defalcation might be made to the farmers for duties due to them by their lease for each chaldron so shipped.
Whitehall, 24th April, 1629.

VII. 1. Letter from Richard Weston, Lord Treasurer, to Sir John Mildrom, (fn. 10) 1 Knight, similar in effect to Volume VI., No. 171.
20th August, 1629.

VII. 34. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, stating that a Petition had been presented to them from masters and owners of coal ships, acknowledging the King's care of them in the ships employed for their safeguard under the command of Sir Henry Mervin, (fn. 11) Knight, and affirming that they could not be sufficiently secured without a constant convoy to waft them as they had had for two years past. The Council finding, by divers complaints and late experience, the excessive rates of coals, and having regard to the great prejudice and danger that might befall the City through the scarcity and want to coals, had thought fit to send to them Captain James Duppra, who had been formerly employed in that service, to advise as to some course for the safety of coal ships by settling a constant convoy for them.
Whitechall, 26th April, 1630.

VII. 41. Letter from the Lord Mayor, &c., to the Lords of the Council, acknowledging receipt of their letter of 13th April last as to the safe fetching of coals from Newcastle. Finding the business overdifficult for the City of London, they had called before them the Master of the Trinity House and several of the principal men of that Society, whose opinion they submitted, and being of the same mind with them, thought six ships would be a sufficient convoy. As to the return of the ships lately arrived from Newcastle, such as were ready might go sufficiently wafted by the Greenland fleet, now ready to depart. For the rest, seeing it was a work that concerned all the maritime parts of England in rateable proportion, they prayed the Council to mediate with the King in the business as fittest to be carried on by a Royal undertaking.
Dated in margin 18th May, 1630.

Annexed is an estimate of six ships, of 240 or 250 tons each, or thereabouts, furnished with munition and ordnance, for the guard and convoy of the Newcastle trade:—

"The pay of 6 Shipps at £70 ye Shipp ps month is£42000
"The pay of Wages for 65 men in each Shipp is in all for 690 men at 22s. the month£42900
"Victualls for the said proportion & nombr men at 22s. the man prmonth is£42900
"The whole charge of 6 Shipps prmonth£1,27800
"The total of the 6 Shipps for 6 months£7,66800"

VII. 42. Letter from the King to the Lord Mayor, &c., stating that he had been informed that ships laden with coals from Newcastle were cleared without certificates from the collectors of the subsidy of tonnage and poundage outwards, and without certificate for the payment of the duties for lights at Wintertonness, (fn. 12) according to the Letters Patent granted by King Charles the First to Sir William Earskin and Sir John Mildrum, and requiring them, upon sight of the letter, to pay to the former collectors or their assigns whatever had been omitted since the 21st of April inst. In future no entry of such ships should be taken without a certificate from the collectors. The letter should also be published in the Court of Aldermen, and there registered, and then returned to the assignees aforesaid to be shown to the collector of the subsidies of tonnage or poundage in the Port of London inwards, that he might suffer no ship-master or merchant liable to pay for the said lights to pass an entry till the dues were paid.
Whitehall, 30th April, 1630.

VII. 193. Petition of the Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London to the King, reciting that by Letters Patent of the 29th April, 20th James I., they were authorized to buy yearly, for ever, for the relief of the poor of the City of London and Borough of Southwark, 4,000 chaldrons of sea-coals, stone-coals, or pit-coals, of the water measure of Newcastle-on-Tyne, at Newcastle, or elsewhere, and bring them to London free of toll, tallage, or any charge whatever; that of late a new charge had been demanded of every chaldron, which would tend to prejudice the poor. The petitioners, therefore, pray that they may enjoy the benefit of the said Letters Patent.

A note is appended that the King had referred the Petition to the Lord Treasurer and Lord Cottington, to consider and order as they should think fit.

Note in Margin.—Delivered to the King, 20th April, 1637.

VII. 194. Letter from William, (fn. 13) Lord Bishop of London, Lord Treasurer, to the Bishop, the Governor, and the rest of the Society of Oastmen (fn. 14) of Newcastle-on-Tyne, reciting the foregoing Petition and reference, and directing them to permit the petitioners to bring in the said 4,000 chaldrons of coals, free of all duties and impositions whatsoever.
Fulham House, 9th August, 1637.

VII. 200. Warrant from the Lord Treasurer to the Farmers of the Customs, authorizing the 4,000 chaldrons of coals for the poor of the City to be brought in free of all charges, till further order.
London House, 12th July, 1637.

VIII. 215. Order in Council, reciting certain Orders made by the Governor, Deputy-Governor, Wardens, and Assistants of the Society of Coal Merchants, with respect to the vend and delivery of coal within the City, and for regulating the discharge of coal vessels in the river, and suspending the said orders which tended to the private profit of those of the said Corporation, and to the keeping up of the price of coal, and directing that, for better observance of the Order of Council, copies should be sent to the Lord Mayor, to be published in such ports and places as he should think fit, and a copy to the Governor of the said Corporation.
15th May, 1639.

IX. 48. Letter from Edward Nicholas, by command of the King, to the Lord Mayor and Common Council, directing that, on account of the increased consumption of sea-coal, three additional coal meters should be appointed, upon the nomination of Sir John Robinson, (fn. 15) Knight and Baronet, Lieutenant of the Tower, increasing the number to fifteen.
2nd August, 1662.

IX. 61. Order in Council (signed Robert Southwell (fn. 16) ), directing the Lord Mayor to consider the petition of John Grey and Edward Dorsell, masters of ships trading for coals to Newcastle, who had been committed to the Fleet Prison, for refusing to sell coals at the rates set down by Act of Parliament, and if he conceived it reasonable, to enlarge the petitioners. His warrant to the Warden of the Fleet would be a sufficient discharge for their release.
19th April, 1663.

IX. 105. Order from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, requesting their attendance, with some of the Justices of the Peace of Middlesex, Westminister, and Southwark, at the Council on the 13th of March ensuing, to give an account of their proceedings under the late Act of Parliament, entitled "An Act for regulating the measures and price of coals." (fn. 17)
10th March, 1664.

Footnotes

1 Sir Thomas Egert on.
2 Sir Edward Coke.
3 In 1570, James, Bishop of Durham, granted a lease of coal mines within the ground called Cross Moor, in Whickham, to Bertram Anderson, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, for twenty-one years, at the annual rent of 30l. In 1575, he granted a lease of coal mines within the south field of Whickham to Henry Smith for twenty-one years, at 18l. per annum. In 1582, a lease of the Manors of Gateshead and Whickham, with the coal mines, common wastes, and parks in both was granted by the Bishop of Durham to Queen Elizabeth for ninety-nine years, at the annual rent of 90l. This lease was afterwards given to the Earl of Leicester, and by him assigned to Thomas Sutton, Esq., the Founder of the Charterhouse. He made an assignment of it to Sir William Riddle and others, for the Mayor and Burgesses of Newcastle, for 12,000l.—Brand's 'History of Newcastle-upon-Tyne.'
4 Skinner, elected Alderman of Portsoken, May 7th, 1584; chosen Sheriff, August 1st, 1584; removed to Coleman, Street, September 15th, 1586; Lord Mayor, 1595; removed to Broad Street, July 15th, 1596. Sir Thomas Lowe elected Alderman,loco Slaney, deceased, February 7th, 1608. Sir Stephen Slaney was descended from John Slaney, of Staffordshire, where the Alderman held property, but, being captured by the Turks, it was sold to redeem him. His wife, Lady Margaret, was a liberal benefactor to the Grocers' Company. He was President of Bridewell. Hospital in 1599, and of Christ's Hospital from 1602 till his death. He was buried at St. Swithin's London Stone.
5 Clothworker, elected Alderman of Aldergate, November 13th, 1589; chosen Sheriff, June 24th, 1590; translated to Landbourn Ward, October 8th, 1594; elected Lord Mayor, September 29th, 1599. Robert Lee, elected Alderman of Langbourn, Loco Moseley; discharged April 20th, 1602. He was the son of Edward Moseley, of Ancoats, Lancashire. He died December 10th, 1612, and was buried in the church of Didsbury, in the county of Lancaster. For the very interesting pedigree of this family and its alliances, see Baines's 'History of Lancaster,' vol. ii. p. 353. From him are descended the present Earl of Buckinghamshire, and Sir Tonman Mosley, Baronet, of Ancoats, Lancashire, the present baronet.
6 Draper, chosen Sheriff, 1591; elected Alderman of Bread Street Ward, October 14th, 1591. Sir Richard Martin elected Alderman of Bread Street, loco Barham, May 2nd, 1598. He died April 3rd, 1598, aged 39, and was buried in St. Clement's, Eastcheap. (See his epitaph in Stow, edit. 1720, book ii., p. 183.) His children thereupon become wards of the City, under the custom of orphanage. He was a younger son of Alderman Francis Barham, Draper, elected Alderman of Farringdon Without, December 14th, 1568; Sheriff, 1570. Who married Alice, daughter and heir of . . . . Bracebridge, of the county of Sussex. Francis Barnham was the son of Stephen Barnham, of Southwick, in the county of Southampton. Stow, edit. 1720, book ii. p. 183, says, he died aged 60, May 10th, 1576, and that his monument was at St. Clement's Eastcheap. By his marriage with Alice, daughter of Humphreys Smith, of Cheapside, Queen Elizabeth's silkman (who is said to have been of an ancient family in Leicestershire), Benedit Barnham had four daughters. Elizabeth, the eldest, married to Mervin, Lord Audlery, Earl of Castlehaven, executed on Tower Hill, May 14th, 1631, ancestor of the Touchets, Barons Audley (which barony is now in abeyance); —Alice, his second daughter, married Lord Chancellor Bacon, the son of Sir Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper, and Alice, his wife, daughter, of Sir Anthony Cooke, of Gigea Hall, Essex, tutor to King Edward the Sixth, the grandson of Alderman Sir Thomas Cooke, Lord Mayor in 1462; —Dorothy, his third daughter, married Sir John Constable, of Dromonby, Yorkshire; —and Bridget, the youngest, married Sir William Soame, grandfather of Sir William Soame, Baronet, of Little Thurlow, Suffolk, of which family Alderman Sir Stephen Soame, Lord Mayor in 1598, was member, (see Hasted's 'Kenr,' vol. ii. p. 372; iii., p. 561; Gloveros' 'Visitation of Yorkshire,' p. 1493.) For an account of the widow of Alderman Benedict Barham, and her subsequent alliances, see Orridge's Citizens and their Rulers, pp. 167–170.
7 Made Lieutenant of the Tower, May 6th, 1612; beheaded on Tower Hill, for complicity in Overbury's death, November 20th, 1615. He was the brother of Geoffrey Elwes, Merchant Taylor, elected Alderman of Farringdon Within, December 14th, 1605; Sheriff in 1607; removed to Walbrook, January 9th, 1610; died, May 14th, 1616. He left by his will, dated 8th April, 1616, 400l. to the poor of his Company. Sir Jervis Elwes, son of Sir Geoffrey and nephew of the Lieutenant of the Tower above mentioned, was elected Alderman of Cordwainer, June 15th, 1629, but was discharged on payment of a fine of 500l., June 18th in the same year. A Pedigree of this family is given in Clutterbuck's 'Hertfordshire.' vol. iii. (See also Burke's 'Landed Gentry and Extinct Baronetcies.')
8 One thousand pounds was granted to him by the King as a free gift, March 15th, 1615. The office of Surveyor of Coals at Newcastle for life granted to him February 26th, 1616; regranted July 6th, 1619; knighted, July 18th, 1620; grant, with survivorship, of an annuity of 500l. to him and his wife, Mary, in consideration of services, March 15th, 1621. On the 15th, June, 1622, he petitioned the King for a grant of two-thirds of the bonds forfeited by divers shippers for transporting coals from Newcastle without submitting to survey, on account of his not having reaped any benefit from his patent, owing to the obstinate resistance to it. This request was subsequently complied with. In a letter from Secretary Conway to the Lord Treasurer, dated June 29th, 1623, Boyd is stated to have purchased his pension from the Lord Privy Seal.—See 'State Papers' (Domestic), 1611–18.
9 Born 1577; sent as Ambassador to Bohemia, 1619; Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1621–4; Ambassador to Brussels, 1622; created Baron Weston, of Keyland, Essex, 13th April, 1628; made Lord Treasurer of England, 1628; K.G., April 18th, 1630; Earl of Portland, 17th February, 1633; died, March 12th, 1635.
10 Knighted at Windsor, August 6th, 1622. He fought in the Royalist Army, at Newark, Hull, and Scarborough; in the latter engagement he received his death wound, 1645.
11 Of Petersfield, Hants; Knighted by King James the First, at Royston, April 19th, 1619. Admiral of the Narrow Seas. Married Christian, one of the daughters of George, first Earl of Castlehaven.
12 It would appear that a light formerly hung upon the steeple of the church to guide vessels; for in February, 1581, a bill was brought into the House of Commons for maintaining a light upon Winterton Steeple, "for the more safety of such ships as pass by that coast." In 1585, Thomas Graye, in his own name and in the names of the Masters of Her Majesty's Navy, and others on behalf of the seamen of Norfolk and Suffolk, petitioned the Council for the maintenance of a watch light on the steeple of Winterton. James the First granted a patent to Sir John Meldrum, for erecting lighthouses off the coasts, with a charge upon coals, besides a penny per ton duty on all shipping. Petitions were presented to the House of Commons against the patent, February 21st, 1621; the Master of the Trinity House also petitioned against it, March 22nd, 1621, when, after a great debate, the patents for Winterton and Dungeness were condemned, April 18th, 1621. The controversy, however, continued for many years afterwards, with what result does not appear. Some interesting statements for and against the Patentees, issued at the time, are contained in a volume preserved in the Guildhall Library, entitled 'Petitions and Parliamentary Matters,' 1620–1621. Beta.
13 William Juxon, born at Chichester in 1582; educated at Merchant Taylors' School; Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, 1598; B.C.L., 1603; Dean of Worcester, 1632; consecrated Bishop of Hereford, 1633; translated to London, September 19th, 1633; Lord High Treasurer, March 6th, 1635; the only Churchman who had held that office since the time of Henry the Seventh; attended King Charles the First, during his imprisonment in the Isle of Wight, and at his execution, at Whitehall, in 1649. He lived in privacy at Little Compton, in Gloucestershire, until the Restoration, when he was raised to the Archbishiprie of Canterbury, September 20th, 1660. Died at Lambeth, June 4th, 1663.
14 A Society of Ostmen or Hostmen existed as a fraternity at Newcastle-upon-Tyne from time immemorial. They were incorporated, by Queen Elizabeth in 1559. They agreed to pay to Her Majesty, her heirs and successors, for ever, one shilling per chaldron upon all coals exported. In the charter of Queen Elizabeth to the town of Newcastle, March 22nd, 1600, forty-eight persons are named therein as a society, with the title of Governor, Stewards, and Brethren of the Fraternity of Hoastmen of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a common seal being granted to them. In February, 1602, there appear to have been twenty-eight acting Fitters or Hoastmen, who were to vend by the year 9,080 tons of coals, and to find eighty-five ships for that purpose. A curious theory as to the origin of the word Oastman will be found in Brand's 'History of Newcastle-upon-Tyne,' Vol. ii. pp. 270–273.
15 Clothworker; elected Alderman of Dowgate, December 18th, 1655; chosen Sheriff, June 24th, 1657; removed to Cripplegate, December 7th, 1658; Lord Mayor, 1662; removed to Tower, September 22nd, 1663. Sir John Chapman removed to Tower, loco Robinson, deceased, February 12th, 1679. He was the eldest son of the Rev. William Robinson, Archdeacon of Northingham, and was Knighted at Canterbury, May 26th, 1660; created a Baronet, June 22nd, 1660. He was the nephew of Archbishop Laud, and married Anne, the daughter of Sir George Whitmore, Knight, Alderman. He was Lieutenant of the Tower of London from 1661 till 1678; King Charles the Second and his Queen, the Queen mother, and the Duke and Duchess of York, dined with him at Clothworkers' Hall (where he kept his Mayoralty), on the 23rd of June, 1663. The pageant performed by his Company at his inauguration was entitled 'London's Triumph.' The Gazette of April 23rd to 26th, 1666, contains an account of the trial of certain persons for high treason, for conspiring to kill him and other officers of the Tower, and to fire the City. He was a benefactor to the Clothworkers' Company, who still preserve his portrait at their ball, Sir John Blencowe Robinson, Baronet, of Cranford Hall, near Kettering, Northampton, the present baronet, is his lineal descendant.
16 Of Kingsale, Cork, educated at Oxford; B.A., 1655; D.C.L., 1677; appointed Clerk of the Privy Council, September 27th, 1664; Knighted, November 20th, 1665; in the same year he was sent as Envoy Extraordinary to Portugal, and in 1671 in the same capacity to Brussels; appointed Commissioner of Customs, 1688; Secretary of State for Ireland, 1690; resigned, 1702; chosen President of the Royal Society, 1691; died, 1703.
17 16 & 17 Charles II., c. 2.


<--Previous:
Cloth
Next:-->
Coinage