Provisions, corn etc.

Sponsor

Centre for Metropolitan History

Publication

Author

W. H. and H. C. Overall (editors)

Year published

1878

Supporting documents

Pages

372-391

Citation Show another format:

'Provisions, corn etc.', Analytical index to the series of records known as the Remembrancia: 1579-1664 (1878), pp. 372-391. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=59969 Date accessed: 30 September 2014.


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Provisions (Corn, &c.).

I. 55. Letter from William Lord Burghley to the Lord Mayor, enclosing a copy of Orders to be observed by him and his officers, and by the Queen's officers of the Port, touching grain, victual, and fuel laden on the coasts, to be brought to London by water, and the warrants, bonds, cockets, &c., concerning the same.
(Circa 1580–1).

I. 56. Letter from William Lord Burghley to the Queen's officers of the Port (officers of the Customs), enclosing a copy of the Orders to be observed by the Lord Mayor and his officers, &c., as above, and requiring the same to be observed by the Queen's officers and their deputies.
(Circa 1580–1)

I. 57. Letter from William Lord Burghley to the importers of grain, enclosing copies of the Orders above mentioned, and directing them, to assemble together and consider of convenient proportions of grain, &c., which each county might spare from time to time for the victualling of the City of London, or to be carried to other places within the realam, having need thereof, and to signify the same to the Queen's officers of the Custom-house.
(Circa 1580–1.)

I. 58. Copy of the Orders referred to in Letter. 55.

I. 59. Copy of the Orders referred to in Letter. 57.

I. 66. Letter from William Lord Burghley to the Lord Mayor, informing him of certain ships upon the River Thames laden with wheat, ready to be transported, which he had directed to be stayed, that the City might be better furnished with provisions.
Greenwich, 14th November, 1579.

There is a Postscript to this Letter referring to Letter No. 62, (fn. 1) viz., "I will let Her Majesty understand of your lordship's diligence in executing the Orders committed to you by my Lord Chancellor and me, and I think the best way to recover the books is to receive them with silence of the names of those bringing them."

I. 67. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer. thanking him for his care in staying certain wheat at Queenboro and at Ratcliff for the relief of Her Majesty's subjects, and reporting the steps taken to ascertain its value. It was unfit for making bread, but, being desireous that it should not pass away, he had sent the Brewers to view it. The parties had been called before the Aldermen to treat as to a reasonable price for the cargo. Being unable to bring them to terms, he had referred them to his lordship to determine the matter.
24th November, 1579.

I. 75. Letter from the Lord Mayor to (the Lord Treasurer). The Bakers of the City had complained of the increased price of wheat and also of its quality, and that the supply from Kent and other places near the City had fallen short of the usual quantity, and prayed for some abatement in the assize of bread. He requested that the transportation of what out of Kent and place near might be restrained, so that a competent assize might be kept.
22nd September, 1579.

I. 78. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer. Sundry bakers of the City had made provision of wheat in Kent to be delivered in the City, but the officers at Faversham and Milton had interpreted the late general restraint to extend to the provision of London, and so had prevented its being sent. It was feared that the wheat laden, if not speedily discharged, would decay, and become unfit to make bread. He therefore besought his lordship to give directions that the wheat for London might be allowed to pass.
9th January, 1579.

I. 173. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer. Richard Tillman. Mayor of Faversham, had informed the Court of Aldermen that he and many others had been restrained from bringing wheat to the City as they had been wont to do. As the principal supply for the City came from Faversham and those parts of Kent, it would cause great inconvenience at this time of parliament and of term approaching, and he begged that the restraint might be removed.
17th January. 1580.

I. 429. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, as to the scarity of wheat for victualling the City, and the failure of the crops in Sussex and Kent, whereby the price had risen to 23s. and 24s. a quarter, and was likely to grow still higher, and requesting him to stop the exportation of wheat from those counties.
21st November, 1582.

I. 451. Letter from Sir Francis Walsingham to the Lord Mayor, intimating that Mr. Tomkins had been licensed to transport a certain quantity of grain to Dover Haven, and requesting his lordship to assist him.
17th December, 1582.

I. 452. Letter from the Lord Mayor to Sir Francis Walsingham, in reply. Of late there had been a large quantity of wheat transported out of Kent and Faversham, and owing to the great scarcity, prices, had much increased. He had written to the Lord Treasurer, praying his assistance to restrain the transportation of wheat, specially out of Kent, which he had assented to, and charged him to prevent its transportation out of the port of London. Under these circumstances, he could hardly assist Tomkins, but recommended that he should apply to the Lord Treasurer.
16th January, 1582.

I. 457. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, informing him of the high price of grain, which he believed arose from two causes, transportation and the bad season, and praying him to have his usual care for the City.
15th January, 1582.

I. 517. Letter from William Lord Burghley to the Lord Mayor. He had been informed by certain poor men of Ware, and other neighbouring ports, that of late the Lord Mayor had given orders that all vessels coming up the river Lee to the City, laden with malt, should, before being discharged, obtain his licence, and pay certain duties to the Measurer, which they alleged had not been used to be demanded. He requested the same might be stayed until the question should be indifferently examined and settled by the Justices of the County.
9th June, 1583.

I. 532. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, as to the store of wheat remaining at the Bridge-house, and beseeching that, on account of the prospect of a plentiful harvest, it might be transported, and sold secretly, to the advantage of the Companies.
26th July, 1583.

I. 533. A Note of the quantity of wheat seen and viewed by the Master, Wardens, and Ancients of the Bakers' Company at the Bridge-house, on the 19th and 20th of July, 1583, the total being 1,000 quarters.

I. 534. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer (in reply to Letter No. 517). It had been the ancient usage and right of the City to take from every vessel coming thereto, either from above or below the Bridge, a sample and an account of the bulk (that the Mayor might be privy to the store provided and the quality), and thereupon to give a bill of discharge, and for the measurage to take ijd. a quarter, and the Measurer to take an obolus a quarter for putting it into the sacks, which right had been allowed by the Court of Star Chamber, a copy of whose Decree was enclosed. As to the complaint of the conduct of the officers of the City, if the parties would bring the same before the Court of Aldermen, it should be immediately redressed.
11th July, 1583.

I. 540. Letter from the Lord Mayor to Sir Francis Walsingham, thanking him for giving permission to transport the nine hundred quarters of wheat remaining in the Companies' stores without payment of the Customs dues.
10th August, 1583.

I. 541. Letter from Sir Francis Walsingham to the Lord Mayor, upon upon the same subject.
11th August, 1583.

I. 542. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, starting that he had heard from Mr. Secretary (Walsingham) that when Her Majesty signed his vension warrants she expressed her satisfaction at his government of the City, specially in the provision of grain and meal, and requesting his help for staying the transport of grain, which, if carried out, would greatly increase the price.
11th August, 1583.

I. 575. Letter from ..................... to ..................... upon information given by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, as to the provision of corn lately made by the Bakers in the several markets, which had been stayed by the Justices of the Peace and other officers, and directing them to suffer the bakers, bagers, (fn. 2) and sellers of corn and grain to buy and pass with the same without further hindrance.
February, 1586.

II. 11. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, requesting him to purchase for the City's store 1,000 quarters of wheat of Mr. Beecher and Mr. Leicester, at 30s. per quarter.
12th August, 1594.

II. 13. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, regretting his unwillingness to purchase the above-mentioned wheat, and requesting him to see to the Assize of Bread within the City.
19th August, 1594.

II. 26. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, directing him to furnish from the City store, for the use of Her Majesty's fleet, provision of biscuits.
26th July, 1594.

II. 31. Letter from Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord High Admiral, to the Lord Mayor, informing him that he had sent three ships laden with corn, to be brought up to the Wall for the relief of the citizens suffering from the death.
3rd July, 1594.

II. 59. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, acquainting him that twenty ships laden with corn had arrived in the river Thames from the East Countries, and directing the same to be disposed of to the poor, and not engrossed by such persons as used to buy great quantities to sell again at excessive prices, making thereby unlawful gains to the oppressing of the poor.
Richmond, 31st October, 1596.

II. 60. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council as to the distribution of corn.
3rd November, 1596.

II. 62. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, complaining of the want of Granaries in the City for the storing of corn, &c, and signifying the fitness of Leadenhall for that purpose, which the Staplers claimed a right to occupy; also directing him to view the place, and point out to the Staplers such rooms as would suffice for their necessary use, and to employ the others for storing corn.
9th November, 1608.

II. 64. Letter from the Lords Mayor to Lord Buckhurst, thanking him for sending, for the relief of the City in this time of scarcity, 2,000 quarters of corn.
22nd July, 1594.

II. 66. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord High Admiral, thanking him for sending three ships laden with corn for the relief of the City.
4th August, 1594.

II. 69. Letter from the Lord Mayor, in reply to the Lords of the Council, touching the price of corn and the Assize of Bread.
22nd August, 1594.

II. 72. Fragment of a Letter to the Lord Treasurer as to provisions for the City.
30th October, 1594.

II. 77. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, requesting him to order the Mayor of Sandwich to deliver 100 quarters of wheat detained by him, belonging to John Storer, of this City.
13th December, 1594.

II. 79. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, complaining that he had received a message from Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Hawkins, requiring for the use of Her Majesty's fleet the garners and ovens (fn. 3) within the Bridge-house, which had been erected by the City for the storing of corn in time of death and for baking bread for the poor, and requesting them to direct the knights to use Her Majesty's garners at Tower Hill, Westminster, of Winchester Palace for that purpose.
20th December, 1594.

II. 81. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Keeper (fn. 4) of the Great Seal, complaining of several kydders, badgers, and suchlike persons, who laid in wait on the River Thames to intercept the ships laden with corn from foreign parts, whereby the price was very much enhanced, to the great disadvantage of the City; and praying him to entreat Her Majesty for further authority to restrain and punish all such persons.
4th January, 1594.

II. 95. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord High Admiral, thanking him for sending certain ships laden with corn for the City's use in this season of death.
15th May, 1595.

II. 96. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord High Admiral, defending himself against the charges brought against him by a Dantzic merchant who had brought corn and rye to the City.
10th June, 1595.

II. 99. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, in answer to the complaint made by Francis Lc Torte concerning the sale of rye brought by him to the City.
29th June, 1595.

II. 104. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer. stating that the late harvest not having proved so plentiful as had been expected, and the City's store of wheat being spent, they had made certain arrangements with the merchants trading with the East Countries for the supply of wheat and rye, provided that, if wheat should be under 26s. 8d., and rye under 20s. a quarter, they should be permitted to transport the same into foreign parts. He solictied him to use his influence with Lord Cobham, (fn. 5) Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, to remove the restriction placed by him upon the importation of wheat from the county of Kent.
27th September, 1595.

II. 106. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, begging him to intercede with Lord Cobham, for the release of the corn ships detained at Sandwich in Kent; also to advise Her Majesty to restrain all licences for the transportation of corn out of the realm for the present year, on account of the great scarcity.
6th October, 1595.

II. 108. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, with a note of the wheat provided and bought in Kent for the use of the City, the names of the bakers by whom it had been bought, and the port whence it was to be shipped, and requesting his Lordship to issue his warrant for the discharge thereof from the ports named.
10th October, 1595.

II. 109. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, with a note of the quantity of wheat weekly spent within the City and suburbs, and complaining of the injustice suffered by the citizens by reason of the restraint enforced against the importation of corn from the counties of Kent and Essex.
14th October, 1595.

II. 111. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, reporting that he had taken counsel with the Aldermen, the wardens of the several companies, the brewers, and bakers, as to the quantity of corn provided and furnished, and from what counties it came; and beseeching that a speedy provision might be made for the removal of the restraint imposed by the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports upon the corn imported from the county of Kent, the late warrant issued to the officers of Sandwich and other ports not having proved sufficient.
22nd October, 1595.

II. 112. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, He had received private information that certain English merchants had sent their ships to Stoad to be freighted with corn, under the pretence of brionging the same to the City, but with the full determination to transport it into France, there to sell it to their own advantage, and to the disadvantage of the realm in this time of scarcity. He requested his Lordship to send to the Governor of the Merchant Adventurers, and order that all corn laden by English merchants should be brought into this country.
25th October, 1595.

II. 114. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, requesting him to order the corn ships lately taken upon the coast of Spain by the Earl of Cumberland, (fn. 6) to be brought to the Port of London for sale.
28th October, 1595.

II. 115. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord High Admiral, requesting that if any corn should be met with in the narrow seas, it might be sent for sale to the City on account of the scarcity.
29th October, 1595.

II. 117. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, praying that the restraint of corn made in Kent, and the other maritime shires might be removed on account of the great secarcity; and that forasmuch as the scarcity of wheat and rye compelled the use of other grain, especially barley, a great quantity of which was converted into malt for the brewing of sweet and strong beer, either for transportation or to be drunk in ale and tippling houses, the brewers might be restrained, or ordered to brew a less quantity for the present.
30th October, 1595.

II. 120. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, praying them to issue a warrant to the Customs Officers of Kingstonupon-Hull, to permit Robert Dalton of that town, who had been annually accustomed to bring corn to this City, to embark the 700 quarters provided by him, the same being greatly needed.
12th November, 1595.

II. 162. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, requesting him, on account of the great scarcity within the City, to permit the passage, with all speed, of the corn purchased in Kent, and also to allow the City to buy the 100 quarters of beans landed in Southwalk, near the Bridge-House.
22nd July, 1596.

II. 164. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, rendering an account of the quantity of grain lately arrived from Zealand and the East Countries.
15th August, 1596.

II. 166. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, requesting him to issue his warrant to the Customs officers of the Town of Harwich, to release the ship which had put in there, laden with 800 quarters of rye from the East Countries for the City's use.
5th October, 1596.

II. 167. Letter from (Sir Thomas) Skinner, Lord Mayor, to the Lords of the Council, informing them that, on account of the high price of malt, he had issued a proclamation throughout the City increasing the price of beer for the present from 4s. and 6s. a barrel to 5s. and 8s.
1st December, 1596.

II. 170. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, requesting him to issue his warrant to the Officers of the Customs of the different ports and towns, to pass the corn purchased by the several Companies for the provision of the City in this time of scarcity.
23rd May, 1600.

II. 197. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, complaining of their neglect to provide a good proportion of corn to be kept in the City's store for the relief of the citizens in time of dearth or scarcity, and directing them to remedy the same immediately, and to make a return of the quantity so provided.
22nd January, 1602.

II. 250. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, enclosing a Petition to the Court of Aldermen complaining of the excessive price of wheat in Kent and other places adjoining, by reason of the great quantity lading there for transportation into foreign countries, and requesting that steps might be taken to prevent the same.
22nd February, 1604.

II. 257. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, acknowledging the receipt of their letter directing him to assist the officers and purveyors for the provision of his Majesty's house, and to cause the doors of the cellars and warehouses of such as should be disobedient to be opened, and to see such goods delivered as should be marked for His Majesty's service. He had called the merchants and others before him, who expressed their willingness to supply the goods needful, and prayed that they might be reasonably rated, and the time of payment made known to them, and that no more goods might be taken than were wanted.
—December, 1605.

II. 269. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Board of Green Cloth, in answer to their application for 100 quarters of wheat out of the City's store; the City had no store, and the Companies' store was brought into the market for sale at certain times, to keep down the prices for the benefit of the poor.
(Circa 1606–7.)

II. 299. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer enclosing a Petition from the Brewers with in the City, complaining of the transportation of Barley out of the countries of Norfolk, Kent, and Sussex, which had caused great distress to their trade, and increased the price of grain, and praying that the transportation might be stayed.
(Circa. 1606–7.)

II. 301. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer requesting him to restrain the transportation of corn out of the kingdom, on account of the high price thereof.
(Circa 1606–7.)

II. 302. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Board of Green Cloth, concerning the supply of one hundred and fifty loads of billets, and fifty loads of faggots, for His Majesty's use, by the woodmongers of the City; and requesting that, on account of the scarcity of fuel, no more than was actually necessary might be taken, and that the same price might be paid as the woodmongers themselves gave.
(Circa 1606–7.)

II. 313. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, reporting that, on account of the exceeding high price of corn, and the scarcity, the bakers were hardly able to keep eleven ounces weight in the wheaten penny loaf; and requesting that licence might be granted to those who would bring corn to this port from foreign parts, to ship out again such quantities as should not be vended or uttered without paying customs.
19th March, 1607.

II. 314. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, concering a parcel of wheat belonging to Mr. Wallis, to be transported into foreign parts, and the condition of the same. Upon further examination, by the desire of their Lordships, the wheat was found to be mildewed, very foul, light, and ill-conditioned, but he had offered to give 28s. a quarter for the same.
30th March, 1607.

II. 316. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Mayor of Sandwich, requesting information as to the prohibiting of a parcel of corn from being sent to the City.
13th April, 1608.

II. 320. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, enclosing a Petition from the bargemen and others of the town of Ware, complaining that the River Lea had been drawn so low (fn. 7) by Sir Robert Wroth (fn. 8) and others, that their barges could not pass with provisions for the City; and praying them to take some course to remedy the evil complained of.
26th May, 1608.

II. 324. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Earl of Salisbury, Lord Treasurer, requesting that, on account of the high price and scarcity of corn, the making of starch might be forborne during this time of dearth.
20th June, 1608.

II. 328. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, concerning the high price of sugar.
16th September, 1608.

II. 330. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, touching the high price of corn, and reporting the steps taken for reducing the Assize of Bread.
28th September, 1608.

II. 349. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, as to the quantity and price of corn supplied for this City's use.
24th August, 1609.

II. 357. Letter from the Earl of Salisbury (Lord Treasurer) to the Lord Mayor, touching the supply, price, and transportation of corn.
11th August, 1609.

III. 69. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, requiring him to see that the several Companies speedily provided their full proportions of corn, and expressing their belief that he would act therein as might be most desirable, according to what had been so worthily performed by his predecessors, by whose care had of late been built fair and large granaries for stowage at Bridewell. The Council further required him to take measures that neither regrators nor forestallers enhanced the markets and thereby raised the price of corn.
7th January, 1612.

III. 70. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor referring to the preceding letter, and acquainting him that a Petition having been presented to them by the Company of Eastland Merchants for bringing in of corn from abroad free of custom, they had given orders accordingly, with this addition, that if, by reason of plenty, such corn could not be sold by them at remunerative rates, they might transport it elsewhere within the kingdom, or into foreign parts, free of custom. Special order should be taken that the granaries at the Bridge-house and Bridewell should be ready for the stowage of corn.
21st January, 1612.

III. 110. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, suggesting that, on account of the anticipated scarcity of corn, the several Companies of the City should be forthwith required to make their provisions of wheat according to their several proportions, and that the supply should be obtained from foreign parts.
24th September, 1613.

III. 111. Reply of the Lords of the Council, approving of the course suggested by the Lord Mayor, and requesting him to give directions to the Companies accordingly.
26th September, 1613.

III. 118. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, with respect to their recent Order for the provision of corn, and requesting that the Farmers of the Customs might be prevented from permitting the transportation of corn without his knowledge or authority.
11th December, 1613.

III. 141. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, acquainting them that, on account of the great and increasing scarcity of corn, he had endeavoured to induce several merchant strangers to import corn rather than other commodities, assuring them of a quick sale and ready money, but finding them backward, he had thought if the King would permit all merchants to import corn custom free till the next Midsummer, it would encourage the merchant and be a great comfort to the people. He therefore requested the Council to move His Majesty to grant such permission.
9th April, 1614.

V. 50. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, stating that the King had considered complaints from several parts of the kingdom of the great inconvenience incurred by farmers and husbandmen by the extraordinary low price of corn. The Council had thereupon, by the King's command, had divers conferences for remedy of the inconvenience, and had taken notice of a notable abuse in the assize of bread in and about the City, the best wheat being about 4s. the bushel, yet bread had been assized all last year after the rate of 8s. the bushel, which inequality and disproportion was so intolerable that the Council could not but blame them for their neglect, and require them in the King's name to take means for the effectual remedy of the abuse, and for assizing bread as provided by statute. The Council thought it strange that their intimation last year of the King's pleasure for providing certain quantities of gunpowder and match for the City's use was not thought worthy of any answer or account, and that the scarcity was as great as ever, and they desired that the proportions mentioned in their former letter should be forthwith supplied and furnished.
Whitehall, 25th January, 1619.

V. 54. Letter from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to the Lords of the Council, in answer to the foregoing. The assize of bread had been raised four times since January, 1618, as the price of wheat had abated, viz., from thirteen ounces the penny wheat loaf to fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, and lately to seventeen ounces, the present assize, as would be seen by what they now enclosed. They thought it would be found that some adjacent parts sought to cover their own neglect by drawing the Council's attention to the City. As to the provision of powder and match, they had directed the several Companies to provide themselves such proportions as would in the whole amount to the quantities directed by the Council, and had themselves agreed with certain merchants for furnishing the same from beyond seas, which had been done. Since the receipt of their last Letter, orders had been given to the Companies to certify what store they had, which should be reported to the Council.
(Circa 1619–20.)

V. 55. Petition (fn. 9) of the Master and Wardens of the Company of Whitebakers to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, complaining that the assize of bread had been set by their Order of the 18th January last at seventeen ounces, which the bakers were unable to keep, as had already been shown by their former petitions, yet they were daily punished, amerced, and imprisoned, and their bread taken from them and given away, to their great reproach, hindrance, and undoing. The petitioners always kept as great an assize as was generally kept throughout the kingdom. Their gains in their trade at the present time were very small, on account of their small return and of the low price of wheat, the greatest part of the common people now making their own provisions. As they had formerly shown the Court, the assize of seventeen ounces was not set after the second price of wheat in the market as required by law, and they were unable to take a quarter of wheat with bare 6s. allowance, as by a computation of a baker's weekly charges in the annexed note would appear. And upon their former humble petition for a better allowance the Court had directed they should have 8s. per quarter. They therefore prayed that such an assize might be made as would enable them to maintain themselves and families by their labours, and serve the City with the better sort of stuff, which would otherwise be bought up by foreigners and others dwelling out of the City and liberties, who mostly kept their assize two or three ounces lower than they and others in the City were compelled to do.
(Circa 1619–20.)

The Note is as follows:—

"A Computation of a Baker's particular charges ariseing uppon the bakeing of Ten quarters of wheat by weeke in London.

£.s.d.
Imprimis for howsrent after the rate of 30l. per ann. is by the weeke0116
For 4 Journeymens wages att 2s. 6d. a peace per weeke0100
For meate and drinck for them and for two apprentices at 4s. a peace per weeke140
For Yeist0100
For Woodde0120
For Salt010
For Boulters010
For Garner Rent020
For wheat bought att the waterside the porters and fillers have 2d. ob per quarter020
For Sacks010
For Wages for two maidservants018
For their dyett080
For a dyett for a mans self and his Wife0100
A commonlie man hath not lease than three or foure children, would cannot be lesse then fourepence a daie a peace for their dyett.070
And for their apparell and teaching at Schole at 12d. a peace.030
For Seacoles for fireing by the weeke after 4 Chauldron per yeare014
For Basketts after 13s. per ann. is003
For Water weeklie008
Item the Miller hath for his toll out of everie quarter for grinding half a bushell, which is in tenn quarters 5 bushells, after 24s. the quarter0150
Item for apparell for a man's self, his Wife, and two apprentices after 20l. per ann. is per weeke078
Item for duties in his parishe to the Parson, the Skavengers, for the Poore for watching and wardeing at the least weeklie010
Summa totails is per weeke (fn. 10) £6102

"Besides all duties to the Kinges Matie, charges in the Cittie and in the Warde, charges in his Companie, charges of reparacons of his house, charges for howshould stuff dailie bought into the house and amended. Also losses by stale bread, ill debtors, bad servants, and other like hindrances.

"Item there is a penny in everie shilling given away for vantage.

"Item many Bakers do scarce bake ten quarters a weeke, and yf anie man do bake more his charge is accordinglie the greater.

"And so it plainlie appeareth that a quarter of Wheat cannott be baked with 6s. allowance for charges."

V. 63. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, stating that the Companies of the City had formerly exercised a laudable custom of maintaining a magazine of 20,000 or more quarters of wheat, which had lately been omitted, and that they had thought it fit the custom should be continued. They therefore required a speedy and real supply of so many quarters of wheat in the proportions usually rated on the several Companies.
Last of February, 1619.

V. 120. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, with respect to the scarcity and high price of corn, and requiring him to see that the Companies provided their usual proportions for the supply of the City.
16th November, 1621.

VII. 8. Letter from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to the Lords of the Council, certifying that they found-flesh and fuel at reasonable rates. As to corn, they had, by furnishing the markets, kept down the prices, and yet had 1,500 quarters in store, and were also taking steps for providing 10,000 quarters from remote parts which did not usually serve their markets.
Dated in margin, November, 1629.

VII. 44. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, (fn. 11) &c., reminding him of the special charge given to him by His Majesty, when he conferred the order of knighthood upon him, for moderating the prices of victuals, then grown dear by the sinister practices of butchers, and also for care to be had about the prices of fuel and grain, Some accounts had been received, but not sufficient to satisfy the King and Council. They therefore required an exact account of what provision had been made and what further was intended in the matter, at the first meeting of the Council at Hampton Court.
Windsor, 6th September, 1630.

VII. 50. Letter from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to the Lords of the Council, in reply. They had considered what the Council had urged as to the Monday markets at Barnet, and had had the burchers before them, who prayed leave to satisfy the Council that they were free from any practice for making victuals dear. Coals were at reasonable rates, the wharves were well furnished, and there was greater store of coals for the poor than in former years. 1,500 quarters of corn were in store, and orders had been given to the Companies for the speedy provision of another 1,000 quarters.
Dated in margin, 22nd October, 1630.

VII. 54. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, stating that the City had contracted with Mr. Philip Burlimachie for 8,000, and with Mr. Southwood for 2,000 quarters of wheat out of Ireland, and requesting licenses to be granted for their transport to the Port of London.
Dated in margin, 16th November, 1630.

VII. 55. Letter from the Lord Treasurer (Sir Richard Weston) to the Lords Justices of Ireland, requiring them to see that the corn was transported to London, and to take bond with sureties for double its value from the masters and owners of vessels conveying it, and to forward the bonds, and the names of the masters of the ships, &c.
Wallingford House, 19th November, 1630.

VII. 57. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords Justices of Ireland, requesting their aid for the immediate transport of the 10,000 quarters of corn to the City.
Dated in margin, December, 1630.

VII. 68. Order of the Council, reciting that a Petition had been presented to them by the Eastland Merchants' Company, complaining that, in contempt of an Order of the Court of Aldermen, made pursuant to directions from the Council, the Companies of London refused to take their rye, though the Petitioners had offered to abate 6d. per bushel of the price fixed by the said Order; that the Masters and Wardens of some of the Companies had been heard that day before the Board, and had alleged that they had sufficient in store till harvest, and that the price of 6s6d. per bushed demanded by the Eastland Company was higher than the market rate, The Council therefore direct the Court of Aldermen to certify the quantities and sorts of corn then in store in the granaries of the several Companies, together with a Schedule of the proportions and sorts of grain each Company ought to have in store.
Whitehall, 29th June, 1631.

VII. 70. Reply of the Lord Mayor to the foregoing, certifying that the number of men, women, and children in the several wards within the City and Liberties was estimated at 130,280, for whom he thought eight ounces of bread each per day would be sufficient. 5,000 quarters of wheat per month would therefore be sufficient to serve the City.
Dated in margin, 6th December, 1631.

VII. 75. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor (and Court of Aldermen), complaining of their neglect in requiring the Companies to provide their proper proportions of corn, and that no steps had been taken for the punishment of delinquents, and rather there appeared a readiness to excuse and palliate their offences. The Council required that the defaulters should be punished in some exemplary manner according to their demerits, and that a certificate of the steps taken should be forwarded to the Board by the last of the next month.
Whitehall, last of October, 1632.

VII. 79. Certificate from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to the Lords of the Council, that much care had been taken to require the Companies to make up their several proportions of 10,000 quarters of corn; but that there had been negligence in the execution of the precepts. They had committed to Newgate divers of the wardens of the Companies, and intended to proceed to the punishment of others who had made default. As to the Council's letters with respect to the assize of bread, they had already caused their commands to be published, and had given strict order for their exact performance.
Dated in margin, 5th December, 1632.

VII. 107. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, renewing their former directions for causing the like provision of corn to be made for the magazines of the City this year as last; expressing their reproof and censure at their remissness, and requiring a report of their proceedings therein by the 6th of the next month.
Last of February, 1633.

VII. 118. Certificate from the Lord Mayor to the Board of Star Chamber, of the quantities of English and foreign oaths in store in the shops, storehouses, and granaries of the chanders inhabiting within London and the Liberties, viz., 312 quarters of French, and 40 quarters of English and Scottish oats, as appeared by the certificates of every ward.
Dated in margin 27th May, 1634.

VIII. 68. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, requesting them to give directions for the delivery to Sir Allen Apsley, one of the Surveyors-General for Victualling the Navy, of 2,000 quarters of wheat from the storehouses at the Bridge House, Bridewell, and elsewhere, to be made into biscuit with all expedition, to be repaid by him so soon as he could purchase it,—he, in the mean time, leaving such a sum of money in the hands of the Treasurer of the Subsidies as the wheat should be indifferently praised at. Further requesting them to permit the said Surveyor to use the granaries, bakehouses, and cellars at the Bridge House and Bridewell, as he might require, for His Majesty's service, between then and Midsummer following.
14th January, 1624.

VIII. 96. Order in Council, held at Guildhall, to take into consideration the sudden increase of the price of corn, especially in the City of London and the counties adjacent, directing certain articles to be observed for preventing future inconveniences upon like occasions.
2nd April, 1631.

VIII. 97. Order in Council directing that, during the time of scarcity and dearth, cornchandlers should be absolutely restrained from buying wheat, rye, or barley to sell again, but that they might buy peas and oatmeal to sell again in small quantities to the poor, and also provender for horses, so long as by trial it should not be found prejudical.
27th April, 1631.

VIII. 98. Order in Council directing the Lord Mayor to certify the names of all persons of the Companies of London, imprisoned by order of the Court of Aldermen for not making up their usual proportion of 10,000 quarters of corn, as also what course had been taken for making the provision, not only of the 10,000 quarters for the magazine of the City, but of the 30,000 quarters when the season should be thought fit.
5th December, 1632.

VIII. 99. Order of the Star Chamber directing the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to certify what quantities of corn and grain were last year provided and put in magazine by the several Com panies, and how far any of them made default; further directing the Lord Mayor, with the assistance of certain Aldermen and others named, to devise means for reforming abuses and for better regulating the Assize of Bread; and requiring the Court to report their proceedings with respect to the Conservancy of the Thames, charitable uses, the binding of apprentices, and the punishment of rogues and vagabonds.
12th October, 1632.

VIII. 100. Same as No. 75, Vol. VII.
31st October, 1632.

VIII. 101. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, approving of their proceedings in committing to prison persons who had not made up their usual proportions of 10,000 quarters of corn towards the last year's provision, and directing that the provision for the next year should be made from remote countries, and such parts as did not usually send their corn to the City markets; and repeating their former Orders for providing 30,000 quarters when the time should serve conveniently.
31st December, 1632.

VIII. 102. Order in Council, upon the petition of cornchandlers of the City, authorizing them to buy off all foreign corn, any former orders notwithstanding; and directing that on their giving bond not to buy any wheat, rye, or barley grown in this kingdom within thirtyfive miles of the City, their former bonds should be cancelled.
29th June, 1631.

VIII. 121. Same as No. 107. Vol. VII.
Last of February, 1633.

Footnotes

1 Vide "Books," Vol. I. 62, p. 29.
2 Hucksters, persons who bought corn, &c. to sell again in other places.
3 Sir John Spencer, Lord Mayor in 1594, with the advice of the Lord Treasurer, levied a contribution upon the Civic Companies, not only for the supply of wheat, but also ovens for baking bread, biscuits, &c.—Nichols's 'Canonbury,' p. 14; also Stow, Edition 1720, Book V. p. 368.
4 Sir John Puckering.
5 William Brooke, R.G., fifth Lord Cobham, succeeded his further in 1558; entertained Queen Elizabeth at Cobham Place, July 18th, 1558; Ambassador to the Low Countries to notify the Queen's accession, 1558; Governor of the Cinque Ports, 1571 to 1586; made Lord Chamberlain, August 8th, 1596; died March 6th, 1597.
6 George Clifford, K.G., third Earl of Cumberland, eldest son of Henry Clifford, second Earl, by Anne, daughter of William, Lord Dacre, of Gillesland, born August 8th, 1558; educated at Trinity College, Cambridge. He was ward of Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford, whose youngest daughter, Margaret, he subsequently married at St. Mary Overy, Southwark, June 24th, 1577, the Queen honouring the nuptials with her presence. He fitted out a small fleet of three ships and a pinnace, the latter being under the command of Sir Walter Raleigh, to annoy the Spanish settlements in 1586. He commanded the Elizabeth Bonaventure, of 600 tons and 250 men, in the fleet which attacked the Spanish Armada, 1588. In 1589 he undertook a voyage to the West Indies in the Victory; with three other vessels, furnished at his own cost, he captured twenty-eight ships, with cargoes valued at 20,000l., and also took the town of Fyal, the inhabitants of which he obliged to pay a ranson of 2,000 ducats. He subsequently commanded several other successful expeditions. He was one of the first adventurers who formed the East India Company, in 1600. He signed the proclamation of King James I., and attended that monarch at York, April 16th, 1603, Appointed Governor of the Scottish Marches, June 8th, 1603. Died at the Savoy, in the Strand, October 30th, 1605. (Coopers 'Athense Cantabrigienses,' Vol. II.)
7 See Letter of Recorder Fleetwood to Lord Burghley on this subject,—Wright's 'Elizabeth and her Times,' Vol. II. p. 159.
8 Son of Sir Robert Wroth, of Durants, Enfield, and Loughton Hall, Essex. He was Knighted at Sion House, May, 1603. He married Mary, daughter of Robert, Earl of Leicester, and niece of Sir Philip Sidney, a lady of literary attainments and a poetess, to whom Ben Jonson dedicated his 'Alchemist,' as well as some of his Epigrams and Sonnets. He was Sheriff of Essex in 1613–14, and died whilst serving the office, March 15th in that year, and was buried at Enfield (see I. Lysons's 'Environs,' 1st Vol. II. p. 317). His father, Sir Robert Wroth, who died in 1605, was one of the Commissioners appointed by King James, February 19th, 1603–4, to forward the erection of bridges across the River Lea, between Hackney and Hoddesdon.
9 This is the enclosure referred to in the preceding letter.
10 This total should be 6l. 10s1d
11 Sir Robert Ducie.


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