Provisions, flesh, fish, etc.

Sponsor

Centre for Metropolitan History

Publication

Author

W. H. and H. C. Overall (editors)

Year published

1878

Supporting documents

Pages

391-406

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'Provisions, flesh, fish, etc.', Analytical index to the series of records known as the Remembrancia: 1579-1664 (1878), pp. 391-406. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=59970 Date accessed: 29 July 2014.


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Provisions (flesh, fish, &c).

I. 70. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, stating that upon being reminded as to the keeping of the laws of abstinence from flesh, (fn. 1) he had gathered together such Ordered as had been formerly observed within the City, to which he had added such others as by experience had been found most convenient; also reporting the steps taken with reference to the abuses in the purveyance of wood for Her Majesty's service.
10th January, 1579.

I. 71. Copies of the Orders heretofore observed in London for abstinence from flesh in Lent, and on Fish days. The means proposed to be observed are also annexed.

I. 88. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Bishop of London (Aylmer), in reply to his request for permission for his butcher to kill flesh. The Lords of the Council had permitted the Lord Mayor to license certain persons to kill flesh for the sick; the number so licensed were bound to give weekly an account in writing of every joint they uttered, which bond his butcher refused. In order that his Lordship might not want, order had been taken to supply him by such as had given bond.
25th February, 1579.

I. 186. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer. As Lent was approaching, he had gathered together such Orders as had been given from time to time for the abstinence from flesh, and requested his advice as to the issue and observation of the same, or others.
23rd January, 1580.

I. 300. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor. They had been informed that flesh was commonly eaten in Lent in sundry tabling houses, and that forty butchers were suffered to kill and sell flesh within the liberties of the City to all comers. The Fishmongers complained that they could not sell their wares, whereby the navigation and trade of Mariners would be discouraged and fall into decay. They desired to be informed of the truth of this statement; of the number of butchers licensed to kill flesh, and what steps had been taken by the Aldermen for restraining of the tabling and other houses.
9th March, 1581.

I. 301. Reply of the Lord Mayor. The number of butchers had been restrained to five, four for the whole City, namely, two in either shambles and one for the borought of Southwark, and these had been bound not to utter flesh to any but such as were, by sickness or otherwise, lawfully licensed to eat flesh. As touching table-keepers, cooks, innholders, and other victuallers, a great multitude had been already dealt with according to former usage and the rest would be proceeded against at once, and restrained from infringing Her Majesty's proclamation.
11th March, 1581.

I. 332. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Chancellor. It had been the custom, in order to carry out the Queen's proclamation for the observation of abstinence from flesh in Lent and other forbidden times, for the Aldermen of the City to make certificate of the number of offenders in their wards to the Court of Chancery at the beginning of Easter Term, which certificates had been received by the Officers in Chancery without fee or charge. The Officers now demanded a fee of 2s. for every presentment which would amount in the whole to 5l. He begged that directions might be given to the Officers to receive the presentments without charge.
5th May, 1582.

I. 463. Letter from William Lord Burghley to the Lord Mayor, acknowledging his Letter requesting instructions touching the abstaining from flesh in Lent, and recommending that the former Orders of the Council should be observed. As to licensing butchers to kill flesh, he thought it quite unnecessary, infirm persons being allowed poultry. In a large liberty where he had jurisdiction, he did not permit any butchers' wares to be killed.
26th January, 1582.

I. 468. Letter from Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, requesting that a licence to kill flesh in Lent might be granted to David Newholt, of Little Eastchcap.
24th January, 1582.

I. 469. Letter from the Lord Mayor in reply, regreting that he had not the power, except by warrant from the Council, under which three butchers had been already appointed. The Lord Treasurer had refused to license any in Westminster.
1st February, 1582.

I. 470. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, requesting his instructions as to the number of butchers to be licensed to kill flesh in Lent. At present he had only appointed two for the one shambles and one for the other, and none for Southwark.
25th January, 1582.

I. 574. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, complaining, of the non-observance of the Orders issued by the Council for the killing of flesh in Lent, and directing steps to be at once taken to carry the same into execution, and the names of those to whom licences had been already granted to be forwarded to them.
30th January, 1586.

I. 580. Letter from the Lord Mayor to Sir Francis Walsingham. Great disorders had been yearly committed by the butchers of the City, who, being of a rude and uncivil kind, could hardly be kept from killing flesh in Lent. A number of honourable persons usually made request to have certain persons licensed, who were dissatisfied upon refusal. He had therefore thought it better that the Council should take the power of granting licences into their own hands, and for their information he enclosed a list of those who had been recommended to be licensed.
24th January, 1587.

I. 588. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer. He had been charged before the Council by Mr. Ashley, one of the Clerks of the Council, with some indirect dealing in the admittance of the butchers to be licensed to kill flesh this Lent, and had sent a reply, which, by some mischance had not been laid before their Lordships. He enclosed a copy, with a request that it might be read at their next meeting.
9th March, 1590.

I. 606. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council. Upon receipt of their charge concerning the killing and eating of flesh, he had taken every precaution to restrain the same, and had taken bonds of all victuallers, innholders, and other such like traders within the City's jurisdiction. The principal cause of the disorders committed was the great number of butchers licensed to kill flesh within the privileged places, and the licentious behaviour of such victuallers and tablers as dwelt within the said liberties and exempt places, who set open their houses and kept common tables for all sorts of people. He requested that some further order might be taken for their restraint or moderation.
12th March, 1590.

I. 613. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer. He had been already importuned about the licensing of butchers in the coming Lent. There being only six to be selected, he anticipated much dissatisfaction would be felt by the persons recommending their butchers; the late Lord Mayor had been reviled and threatened by certain officers of the Court and others of high place, for not being able to comply with their requests.
12th December, 1591.

I. 614. Letter from the Lord Mayor to Sir Robert Cecil. In accordance with his Letter he had licensed Nicholas Simons to kill flesh next Lent. As there were only six to be appointed, he requested him to intercede with those who would be disappointed by not having similar requests gratified.
13th December, 1591.

I. 625. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Chamberlain, acknowledging his Letter, recommending Richard Wise, butcher, of St. Nicholas shambles, for a licence to kill flesh in Lent. The number (limited by the Council to six) had been already appointed, but he would license Wise if his lordship would stand between him and any displeasure which might arise at the Council. As the Lord Treasurer had directed that every butcher so licensed should pay a certain sum of money towards the relief of maimed soldiers, he requested that Wise should be directed to repair to him and pay the fine before being licensed.
11th January, 1591.

I. 630. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, acknowledging the receipt of their Orders for the restraint of killing and eating flesh during Lent, in which provision had been made that certain persons should watch at the gates of the City and other like places in the suburbs, to intercept all flesh brought in for the supply of persons not licensed to cat the same, the flesh to be sold to the use of the hospitals and prisons within the City. The watchmen hired to perform this duty had not carried it out strictly, and the Lord Mayor recommended the Council, for the encouragement of the men in diligence, to allow them half the flesh so taken instead of wages, the other half to be used for the establishments before named.
8th February, 1591.

I. 642. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer. He had received a Letter from Mr. Awbrey, Master of the Court of Requests, signifying the Queen's pleasure for granting a licence to kill flesh in Lent to John Scrogge, butcher, at the suit of one Froe Gilham, an attendant upon Her Majesty. The number of butchers to be appointed being already full, and the liberty and disorder of killing flesh in exempt places and suburbs being very great, he had suggested that a portion of the money gathered from the butchers should be given to the said Froe Gilham instead of increasing the number of licensed butchers.
29th January, 1591.

I. 653. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Chamberlain. It had always been the privilege of the Lord Mayor to appoint and license the several butchers within the City to kill flesh in Lent. During the mayoralty of Sir John Abbott, his predecessor, the Lords of the Council had bestowed the privilege upon the Clerks of the Council, to the prejudice and injury of the City. It was therefore not in his power to appoint the person named by his Lordship.
17th March, 1591.

II. 93. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, touching the scarcity of fresh and salt fish, and the intercepting by pirates of fishing boats coming to the City, and suggesting the repeal of the statute made in the 23rd of Elizabeth. (fn. 2)
3rd April, 1595.

II. 116. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, enclosing petition from the Company that traded for butter and cheese within the City, complaining that restraint had been made by the Justices of the Peace within the counties of Suffolk, Norfolk, and Essex, whereby they were inhibited from bringing from thence such provisions, to the great distress of the poor housekeepers of the City, and requesting their Lordships to direct their warrant to the Justices and officers of the ports within those shires to remove the restraint.
29th October, 1595.

II. 129. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, requesting them to grant a warrant for the bringing of a small quantity of butter and cheese out of the counties of Suffolk and Essex.
31st December, 1595.

II. 130. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, as to the number of butchers licensed to kill flesh during Lent within the City and Liberties.
4th January, 1595.

II. 143. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Commissioners, appointed by the Privy Council, for the County of Suffolk, requesting them to direct the transporting of 646 wey of butter and cheese for the use of the City in this time of scarcity, and enclosing a Schedule of Traders, and the quantity to be supplied to each.
31st January, 1595.

II. 146. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Earl of Essex, explaining the reasons why Andrew Woodcock had not been appointed among the number of butchers to kill flesh in Lent.
7th February, 1595.

II. 148. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord Treasurer, touching the application of the Queen's musicians to license two butchers for this Lent time, above the number ordered by the Privy Council.
2nd March, 1595.

II. 192. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, requesting the withdrawal of their prohibition against the transportation of herrings from Yarmouth.
18th October, 1602.

II. 226. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lord High Admiral, in answer to his communication soliciting a butcher's place during this Lent for his servant, and informing him of the Orders received from the Council thereon.
20th January, 1602.

II. 244. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council. According to their commands, he had taken bond from the Poulterers of the City, prohibiting them from selling pheasants, partridges, and rabbits before the 6th of June. The Poulterers of Westminster and the suburbs sold the same at all times, to the injury of the Citizens. He prayed that they might be restrained.
20th May, 1604.

II. 281. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Board of Green Cloth, as to the conduct of the buyers of bacon for the supply of His Majesty's household from the Markets.
15th February, 1606.

III. 3. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, referring to the Laws made and Orders published every year for the due observation of Lent, "because it is the time of increase which supplieth the rest of the year with provision of victuals." They had from time to time written to his predecessors to see such Orders and Directions duly observed, and to restrain the excessive killing and eating of flesh, yet they found the Orders every year neglected and less observed. They requested him to confer with the Justices of the Peace for Middlesex and Surrey, and consider how the same might be suppressed, and to attend with the Recorder and some of the Aldermen at the Council on the next Sunday.
14th January, 1610.

III. 4. Further Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, reminding him of the former Orders, and of the following additions which they thought meet to be effectually observed, viz.: That the printed Orders should be more duly kept, for the better performance whereof he should not suffer any butchers that were to be allowed within the City to take partners, whereby they might kill a greater proportion, and should cause an oath to be administered to each of them, according to a form conceived and presented to the Council by the Recorder. Whereas the butchers had been accustomed to provide and kill against Shrovetide an excessive proportion of all manner of flesh, more than could be uttered in any reasonable time, he should take order that if any butcher, not licensed, should be found with any flesh after Shrove Tuesday at night, such flesh should be disposed and given to the prisons and other poor, as might be thought meet. Further, whereas keepers of taverns, inns, and ordinaries in time of Lent dressed and uttered flesh in their houses, he should direct that such places should be often visited and searched, and the offenders proceeded against without favour or connivance.
28th January, 1610.

A Postscript directs that the Lord Mayor should take the same course with the Poulterers as with the Butchers.

III. 37. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, with respect to the restraint of killing and eating of flesh in Lent, and exhorting them to carry a strict hand over taverns, ordinaries, and tippling-houses, on account of the late high prices of victuals, without any known or apparent cause.
19th February, 1611.

III. 38. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, with reference to their determination not to permit licences to be granted as heretofore to butchers to kill and utter flesh during Lent, and setting out several reasons against the same, such as the scarcity and dearness of fish, butter, cheese, bacon, and eggs, the prevalence of ague, &c. Did not the necessity of the time, both in policy and discretion, move him, he should pray their Lordships that all licences might be forborne, there being nothing that brought to the City more displeasure from great persons, whom they refused to gratify, or more blame from the Council, than the licensing of butchers to sell flesh in Lent.
14th February, 1611.

A note in the margin states in effect that, upon consideration of this Letter, the Lords allowed the Lord Mayor to license eight butchers.

III. 72. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor. So great had been the abuse and contempt of the former Orders for the keeping of Lent, that His Majesty had been enforced to prohibit absolutely the killing of flesh by any butcher or other person in the City, or any other part of the kingdom, during this Lent, and had therefore caused certain new Orders to be printed and published for that purpose.
9th February, 1612.

III. 73. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council with reference to the foregoing, requesting them to prescribe with certainty the manner in which he should carry out the Orders for keeping Lent, otherwise he should fear that he was left to the strict performance of His Majesty's directions.
10th February, 1612.

III. 78. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, suggesting sundry reasons, such as the scarcity and dearness of fish, butter, cheese, and bacon, the prevalence of ague and other infirmities, for the allowance of some flesh to be killed and uttered during Lent.
18th February, 1612.

III. 82. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor. It was not intended that all poulterers should be restrained from killing and uttering their wares, but that, for the comfort of the infirm and sickly, he might freely license as many poulterers within the City and Liberties as he deemed meet and convenient.
25th February, 1612.

III. 91. Letter from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to the Lords of the Council. They were informed the Council had given warrant to certain messengers to search within the City for such butchers as killed and sold flesh during Lent, and to bring the offenders before them to answer the contempt. They hoped the Council would not grant any warrants to messengers to search within the City, but would address their letters and warrants to the Lord Mayor. It was a matter which much concerned their charter and the ancient customs and franchises of the City, for any foreign officer to execute, in person, any warrant in the City without the assistance and direction of the Lord Mayor. The messengers having attached the body of a butcher dwelling within the shambles, without acquainting the Lord Mayor or requiring his aid or direction, the Court of Aldermen had committed the butcher to prison, till the pleasure of the Council should be further signified.
11th March, 1612.

III. 134. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, authorizing him, for the service of the Ambassadors here resident, and sick persons, to license one butcher to kill and utter flesh in Lent, and to give notice at the Ambassadors' houses of the name and address of such butcher.
12th March, 1613.

III. 144. Letter from the Lords of the Council to Sir Edward Coke, Knight, Chief Justice of England, Sir Henry Hubbart, (fn. 3) Knight and Baronet, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and Sir Lawrence Tanfield, Knight, Chief Baron of the Exchequer, informing them that the Council, having authorized the Lord Mayor to appoint a butcher to kill flesh during Lent for the service of Foreign Ambassadors, he had, for the relief of three poor men, allowed them to join in partnership to make provision of flesh in a private place within Guildhall, for the use of the said Ambassadors. These butchers had since been served with process to appear to some information for uttering flesh in Lent. The Council required that orders should be given for stay thereof, and that they should be no further troubled.
Whitehall, 13th May, 1614.

IV. 13. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council. Their lordships having for the last three years thought fit to restrain the licensing of butchers during Lent, the Court of Aldermen had considered the inconveniences and contrary effects produced thereby. The butchers without number sold flesh, and all manner of people, weak and sound of body, bought it, as commonly as in open time, which would not be the case if some few butchers were licensed, and forbidden to sell to other than those licensed to buy. A special eye should also be had to the great excesses and abuses committed in taverns, tabling houses, victualling houses, and inns, and also to the abuse of Friday night suppers. The Fishmongers made an extraordinary use of the time in the price of all manner of fish. Eggs were six and seven a groat, butter 8d. per pound, and cheese and bacon excessively dear. If Essex and Herts had no sale for their calves, as they had been accustomed to have in Lent, butter and cheese would rise to an excessive rate.
26th January, 1615.

IV. 14. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, forwarding to him the same Orders for the keeping of Lent as last year. As the execution thereof would wholly depend upon him, so the contrary would be imputed to him as a great neglect of the King's commands.
28th January, 1615.

IV. 16. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, authorizing him to license as many poulterers as he might think meet for the provision of the sick and infirm within the City during Lent.

4th February, 1615.

IV. 19. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Archbishop of Canterbury (Abbott). He had been very much importuned by divers physicians, who stated there was an absolute necessity, for the safety of men's lives, that some mutton and veal should be killed, to make broth for the diet of the sick during the present Lent. He had therefore thought it his duty to address himself to the Archbishop, to whom he conceived the matter most especially appertained.
10th February, 1615.

Note in margin.—Upon this Letter my Lord of Canterbury very honourably procured the Lords to assent for the licensing of one butcher.

IV. 20. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, authorizing him during the present Lent to license one butcher to kill mutton and veal only, and to sell the same to such as had licence according to law.
20th February, 1615.

IV. 27. Letter from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to the Lords of the Council, forwarding a Petition from Freemen of the City trading in butter and cheese, complaining that they were vexed and sued by informers upon two penal statutes of the reign of Edward the Sixth, against such as bought butter and cheese and other dead victuals to sell again. Since they found the putting of those statutes strictly in force would not only hinder the victualling of the City and adjoining parts, and also the navy and merchant shipping, but would enforce the Petitioners either to give up their trade or fall into the hands of informers, they recommended their Petition to the Council, and requested that they might be heard by counsel thereon.
13th April, 1616.

IV. 60. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, authorizing him to license as many poulterers as he might think necessary, and one butcher to kill mutton and veal only, during Lent, for the service and provision of Foreign Ambassadors, and to such others as were licensed according to law.
23rd February, 1616.

IV. 61. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, enclosing the same Orders as formerly for the keeping of Lent.
23rd February, 1616.

IV. 95. Similar Letter to No. 60.
23rd January, 1617.

V. 12. Copy of Warrant from the Lords of the Council to Nicholas Stott and Edmund Perce, Messengers of His Majesty's Chamber, requiring them to repair to any place within the City of London and the exempt and privileged places thereof, or within the City and Liberties of Westminster and the counties of Middlesex, Surrey, Essex, Kent, and Herts, and to search for and make stay of all manner of cattle, flesh, poultry, and other wares prohibited by the Orders of the Council to be killed and eaten, and to apprehend all graziers, drovers, and others offending, and bring them, together with all such victuallers, innholders, vintners, and keepers of ordinaries dressing or uttering any flesh meats contrary to such Orders before the Council to answer their contempts; and to require all butchers, poulterers, &c., killing or uttering flesh or poultry in the cities and counties aforesaid to produce to the Clerk of the Council their licences; and further to call upon all mayors, sheriffs, justices of the peace, &c., to be aiding and assisting them in the execution of the warrant.
7th February, 1618.

V. 33. Suggestions from the Company of meere Poulters to the Lord Mayor (Sir Sebastian Harvey) for the prevention of forestalling and engrossing of their wares in the markets; for limiting the times within which such wares should be sold therein; for preventing their sale by haglers, carriers, and chapmen in shops, inns, or hostelries; and for punishing such as maintained haglers, &c., without entering them according to Acts of Common Council and their own Orders.
(Circa 1618–9.)

V. 61. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen as to the keeping of Lent, authorizing the Lord Mayor to license three butchers and four or five poulterers to kill and utter flesh and poultry, and requiring them to call the Fishmongers before them, and give order that the City should be stored with fresh and salt fish at reasonable prices and rates.
Whitehall, 16th February (1619).

V. 98. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council, acknowledging the receipt of their Letters and Orders for the due observance of Lent, with authority for the licensing of three butchers and three or four poulterers, and stating his reasons for desiring the number to be enlarged.
4th February, 1620.

VI. 80. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, authorizing him to license eight butchers and eight poulterers during the ensuing Lent.
Whitehall, 14th February, 1625.

VI. 130. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, requiring him to take effectual means for the due execution of the orders against killing and eating of flesh during Lent, and admonishing him to cause sufficient provision and other Lent victuals to be made, that the want thereof might not be a cause for the breach of order, as it had been in former years; and further authorizing him to take the same steps as last year for the licensing of butchers.
Whitehall, 26th January, 1627.

VI. 161. Similar in effect to No. 80.
Whitehall, 22nd January, 1628.

VII. 85. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor. They had been informed that the Fishmongers and others within the City and suburbs, dealing in fresh and salt fish, had taken advantage of the late Proclamation prohibiting the eating of flesh in Lent, on vigils and other fasting days, to raise the price of fish to excessive rates, and required him and all whom it might concern to take such effectual order for the future, that there might be no further cause of complaint.
Whitehall, last of January, 1632.

VII. 86. Letter from the Lord Mayor in reply, reporting his proceedings, and requesting the Council to stop the killing and selling of flesh in the outskirts of the City, whereby the Fishmongers would be encouraged to make plentiful provision of fish, which would fill the markets at reasonable rates.
Dated in margin, 9th February, 1632.

VII. 102. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, and Recorder, with respect to the abuses owing to the excessive number of taverns, and the exactions used in the immoderate prices of provisions in ordinaries and hostelries, which had appeared in nothing more than in the excessive price of poultry of all sorts; requiring them to set prices for all small acates (fn. 4) and other provisions, setting up the same in public tables, and varying the prices from time to time as they should think fit, reporting thereon quarterly.
30th December, 1633.

VII. 104. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, approving of the Orders given by them with respect to the prices of small acates, and requesting them to see the same strictly enforced; further directing their attention to the excessive prices of butter, candles, and all sorts of fuel, especially charcoal, and the abuses in the measuring, and requiring them, when they had resolved upon a set moderation for prices, to cause a schedule to be printed and published.
17th January, 1633.

VII. 109. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, with reference to their former directions touching the regulating the prices of small acates. They had forborne to require so strict an account as otherwise they would have done in regard to the intervention of the time of Lent; but now that Lent was past they required that their former directions should be exactly performed, and all offenders indicated at the next Quarter Sessions.
7th April, 1634.

VII. 119. Order in Council directing the Lord Mayor, or such as he should appoint, with a view to the further prevention of abuses concerning the excessive prices of small acates, to call before them all innkeepers, or such as should be thought fit, and cause them to give bond, with good sureties, not to permit any small acates, butter, &c., to be sold within their houses, or any other places belonging to them, by country people; also to take bonds of the poulterers not to sell any small acates above the rates limited, and if any refused to conform, to report them to the Council.
30th May, 1634.

VII. 124. Order in Council, reciting that it appeared by information taken on oath by Sir Hugh Hamersley, Knight, (fn. 5) and pre sented to the Board, that the prices of oysters had so much increased within eighteen or twenty years, that Whitstable oysters, which then sold for 4d. per bushel, were now sold at 2s.; that the best and largest oysters were transported, and none but the refuse left for His Majesty's subjects, and that at a very dear rate. The Council, therefore, order that this being a droit d' Amiral, the Lords and Commissioners of the Admiralty should be required to take the same into their care, and if they deemed fit, direct the Judge of the Admiralty and the Farmers of the Customs to attend them, and, after hearing their opinions, to advise some fit course to prevent the abuse complained of, and speedily to put the same into execution.
Hampton Court, 27th September, 1634.

VII. 126. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, complaining of his remissness in carrying out the former Order of the Council for the rating and apprizing of small acates, &c., and requiring him to forward a list of offenders, and to report his proceedings by the first of the next month; and to state what had been done under their former Order, by the ensuing Wednesday.
15th October, 1634.

VII. 127. Order of the Star Chamber, reciting that an account had been given them by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London and the Justices of the Peace of Westminster, Middlesex, and Surrey, as to the execution of the King's Proclamation, and the Orders of the Board, with respect to the prices of poultry, small acates, hay, oats, &c., and the taking of recognizances from innkeepers, poulterers, &c., for the observance thereof. The Board, thinking it just and reasonable that the prices to be set by Proclamation should be varied according to the change of the times, direct the Lord Mayor and certain Justices of the parts mentioned to meet and confer as to the setting down of such new rates and prices as should be indifferent, and present the same to the Council by the 14th proximo.
Star Chamber, 24th October, 1634.

VII. 131. Copy of Letter from the Lord Mayor and the Justices before mentioned, forwarding their Certificate of the prices to be set down for poultry, &c., as required by Letter No. 127.
17th November, 1634.

(The particulars of the prices are not given.)

VII. 134. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lords and Commissioners of the Admiralty with respect to the prices of oysters, requesting them to give order to Sir Henry Marten, (fn. 6) Knight, Judge of the Admiralty, and to the Marshal and all other officers of the Admiralty, not to suffer oysters to be transported by strangers or in strangers' vessels, but to cause all such vessels to be arrested, and the owners, their farmers and agents, committed to prison until they gave bond, with surety, not to offend in like manner in future.
Whitehall, 19th December, 1634.

VIII. 111. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor, to the same effect as No. 85, Vol. VII.
31st January, 1633.

VIII. 118. Same as No. 102, Vol. VII.
30th December, 1633.

VIII. 119. Same as No. 104, Vol. VII.
17th January, 1633.

VIII. 133. Same as No. 126, Vol. VII.
15th October, 1634.

VIII. 134. Same as No. 109, Vol. VII.
7th April, 1634.

VIII. 135. Same as No. 119, Vol. VII.
30th May, 1634.

And see "Vintners, Victuallers," etc.

Footnotes

1 In 1562–3 was passed the Act, 5 Elizabeth, cap. 5, intituled, "An Act touching certain politic constitutions, made for the maintenance of the Navy." By Clauses 11 and 12 of this Act, Wednesday was made a fish-day, in addition to Friday and Saturday, which had previously been the custom, the object for so doing being stated to be "the benefit of the Realm, as well in maintenance of the Navy as in sparing and increase of flesh victuals." Clause 23 expressly enacts that because no person may misjudge the intent of the Statute, but that the same was purposely intended and meant politically for the increase of Fishermen and Mariners, and repairing of Port Towns and Navigation, and not for any superstition to be maintained in the choice of meats, persons preaching, teaching, or writing anything contrary to such intent shall be punished as spreaders of false news. Under the Act, which was from time continued, licences to eat flesh were granted. by the sovereign, or the archbishops, on payment by the licenses of certain fines into the poor-box of their parish, viz., by
s.d.
A peer or Peer's wife268per annum.
A Knight or Knight's wife134"
Under that degree68"

In cases of sickness, the bishop, parson, vicar, or curate, might grant temporary licences in writing. (Vide Clause 13.) Proclamations on the subject were issued annually. There is a copy of one published in 1618 in the Guildhall Museum.
2 23 Elizabeth, c. vii, An Act for the Increase of Mariners, and for the Maintenance of Navigation.
3 Sir Henry Hobart. See Note 3, page 60.
4 "Acates" or "Cates,"— from the French Acheter— victuals, provisions purchased,—in contradistinction to those grown at home; niceties, delicacies, Hence to cater, caterer, &c.
5 Haberdasher, chosen Sheriff June 24th, 1618; elected Alderman of Bishopsgate, June 26th, 1619; removed to Aldgate, July 23rd, 1622. He was President of the Honourable Artillery Company, 1622; Lord Mayor in 1627; President of Christ's Hospital from 1634 till his death, October 19th, 1636. He was buried in the Church of St. Andrew Undershaft, where there is still a monument to his memory. His portrait is at Haberdashers' Hall.
6 Son of Anthony Marten, of London, born in the parish of St. Michael Bassishaw; educated at Wykeham's School at Winchester; removed to New College, Oxford, 1582; where he took the degree of B.C.L., 1587, and D.C.L. in 1592; appointed Judge of the Admiralty Court in 1595, and of the Prerogative Court in 1624; died September 26th, 1641.


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