[See "Ecclesiastical and Theological."]
Trade and Merchandize.
I. 3. Letter from the Lord Mayor to Sir Francis Walsingham.
The Cutlers of the City had complained to him and his brethren of
the great loss they had sustained by obeying the Proclamation (fn. 1) issued
by Her Majesty for the regulation of their trade, which not being
enforced in other cities and towns, rendered their wares unsaleable.
He prayed that the Orders might be made general, and universally
27th April, 1580.
I. 25. Letter from William Lord Burghley to the Lord Mayor.
He had caused search to be made among the Cutlers in Westminster
for swords and daggers exceeding the length limited by Her Majesty's
Proclamation. Finding some disorders there in having blades in their
shops contrary to the said Proclamation, the Cutlers had excused themselves, alleging that others of the same trade in London sold both
swords and daggers exceeding the length prescribed. He requested
that scarch should be made, and no one permitted to have any blades
in their shops not reformed according to the before-mentioned Order.
28th April, 1580.
I. 54. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council.
Agreeably to their wishes the Court of Aldermen had called before
them the Soapmakers, and entreated them to purchase Lawrence
Mellow's oils at a price at which he might be a reasonable gainer.
They found the Soapmakers very loth to take his oils at any price,
alleging that they were inferior to the worst and cheapest sort of fish
oils, except blubber oil. Mellow's hemp oil, whereof he had the greatest
quantity, would make no soap alone to last, but such as would grow
liquid, unless train oil were mixed with it, this they could not do unless
they were discharged of their bonds, and allowed to use train oil in the
making of soap, which liberty being granted to them, they would be
contented to give Mellow 13l. per ton for his seed oil. Mellow stated
that although his seed oil stood him in 21l. 10s. per ton, he would be
contented to take 18l. per ton. The Court of Aldermen being unable
to bring the parties to better terms, had directed the articles brought
before them to be forwarded to their Lordships for their consideration.
I. 77. Letter from (the Lords of the Council) to the Lord Mayor.
One Lawrence Mellow had lately, at great charge and trouble, set forward an invention for the making of seed oil, a design very beneficial
and profitable to the common weal. Having made about one hundred
tons, and offered the same to the Soapmakers at a cheaper rate than
they could buy Spanish oils, they refused to purchase it, unless at so
low a rate as to entirely overthrow his trade in oil. They desired the
Lord Mayor to examine into the matter, and call before him the Soapmakers, and endeavour to induce them to buy the oil at a fair and
reasonable rate. If he should not succeed, he should report to the
Council the steps taken.
I. 420. Letter from the Queen, under Signet, to the Lord Mayor,
Sheriffs, and Aldermen, directing that the fine of 10l. inflicted by the
Court held at Guildhall, before Sir James Havey, Knight, then Lord
Mayor, upon Thomas Price, and Collect his wife, for shipping 200 dozen
of old shoes, with intention to transport them beyond the seas, contrary to a statute made in the 5th year of Edward VI., (fn. 2) should be
remitted on account of their poverty, and that they should be discharged.
Windsor Castle, 31st October, 24 Elizabeth, 1582.
II. 307. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council,
upon the Petition of divers Merchants, complaining that Sir Thomas
Bartlett, Knight, had exhibited an information in the Crown Office
against Richard Ellis, for transporting into this realm pins to the
value of 90l., contrary to the statute the 5th of Elizabeth, (fn. 3) and praying
that as of late the same had been tolerated, the Citizens might be
permitted to trade freely in that commodity.
5th February, 1607.
II. 311. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council,
reporting the results of his inquiries as to the price of brimstone and
Danske coporis. He found the best and cheapest brimstone was
brought from foreign parts, the refined in rolls, and the unrefined in
lumps, and was usually sold for 12s. or 12s. 6d. a hundred (weight),
accounting 102 to the 100, and in times of war much dearer; the
coporis was brought from Danskes in Poland only, and was sold at
12s. 6d. the hundredweight, and was far finer and better than any
yet made in England.
II. 325. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Earl of Salisbury,
Lord Treasurer, enclosing a Petition from the shopkeepers of the
Exchange, concerning a building in course of erection at Durham
House, (fn. 4) in the Strand, which they considered was meant to be employed
as a Pawne or Exchange, for the sale of things usually uttered in the
Royal Exchange, and which, being situated near to Whitehall and in
the highway, would be injurious not only to the shopkeepers but
to the Citizens at large, and tend to the destruction of trade, and
beseeching his Lordship to consider the consequences to the City.
30th June, 1608.
II. 340. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Earl of Salisbury,
Lord Treasurer, as to the price of alum and pewter.
18th January, 1608.
II. 342. Letter from the Lord Mayor to Sir Edward Cooke,
Knight, Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, touching a suit
pending before his Lordship, between Richard Joanes, of the parish
of St. Botolph without Bishopsgate, and Richard Giles, of the same
parish, concerning a penal statute of buying and selling wool.
Giles was a very honest Wool-comber, and very useful in his craft.
He besought his kind consideration in his behalf.
4th February, 1608.
II. 355. Letter from Lord Salisbury to the Lord Mayor and
Aldermen, in reply to Letter No. 325, giving an account of the erecting
of the Exchange, or Pawne, at Durham House, in the Strand, and
the reasons for the building.
20th July, 1608.
III. 61. Letter from the Lord Mayor (Sir James Pemberton) (fn. 5) to
the Lords of the Council, enclosing a Petition presented to the Court
of Aldermen from the Company of Silkweavers, complaining that of
late a great quantity of ribands, laces, points and other like small silk
wares had been imported from foreign parts, to the great hindrance of
many thousands of their own poor who worked at that trade, and
maintained themselves and their families thereby. Latterly, partly
by the multitude of aliens inhabiting within the kingdom who
worked in those wares, and partly through the abundance of such
wares ready wrought imported from foreign parts, the poor freemen
were brought to great want and misery. He recommended the
Petition to the favourable consideration of the Council.
III. 62. The Petition of the Bailiffs of the Guild or Fraternity of
Weavers to the Court of Aldermen, referred to in the preceding
Letter, reciting the complaints urged therein, and stating (inter alia)
that they had lately endeavoured, by way of information in the Court
of Exchequer against one Ricard, a Merchant Stranger, to put in
execution the Act of Parliament of the 19th Henry VII. (fn. 6) prohibiting
the importation of wrought silk by itself or with any other stuff, but
that he had obtained a stay of proceeding by order of the Privy
Council, pretending that they were repugnant to the treaty between
His Majesty and the French King, whereas the Petitioners alleged that
such treaty expressly excepted therefrom the importation of any
merchandizes prohibited by any special laws or statutes. The
Petitioners request the Court of Aldermen to intercede with the Privy
Council in their behalf.
IV. 21. Letter from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the Council.
In Hilary Term 1st James I., an information had been exhibited in
the Crown Office by Sir Thomas Bartlett, Knight, against one Richard
Ellis, for importing pins, contrary to a statute of the 5th Elizabeth,
revived in the 1st James I. (with an omission of a proviso contained
in the former statute, permitting subjects of the realm to import pins),
upon which information divers merchants in the same predicament
had joined with Ellis in a Petition to the Court of Aldermen, to intercede with the Council for stay of any such suits against native subjects. Since it appeared the Merchants Strangers, who were the
persons meant to be restrained by the statute, had, by special order of
Her late Majesty's Privy Council to the Barons of the Exchequer,
been allowed to import pins, the Council, in July, 1608, upon the
report of Mr. Secretary Herbert, Sir Julius Cæsar, Sir Thomas Parry,
and others, had set down an Order between the Pinners and the Merchants, and, with a view to the sale to greater advantage of pins made
within the kingdom, the Lord Treasurer had imposed a duty of sixpence on every 12,000 pins imported, since which Ellis and all other
merchants had been no further molested. Sir Thomas Bartlett
now very vehemently pursued Ellis, contrary, as was conceived, to
the Order of the Council. The Lord Mayor therefore requested the
Council to issue Letters to the Judges to stay the proceedings upon the
20th February, 1615.
IV. 39. Order in Council reciting that a Petition had been presented to them from the Master, Wardens, Assistants, and Commonalty
of the art or mystery of Pinmakers of the City of London, showing
that, the importation of foreign pins being prohibited by the laws of
the realm, the King had, for divers good considerations, incorporated
the Petitioners into a Company, limited to the City and three miles
thereof, and had authorized them and their successors to seize all
foreign pins imported, but a subsequent Order had directed that the
Haberdashers should weekly take of the Petitioners such pins as they
should make ready for sale, and should also have liberty to import and
trade in foreign pins. The Haberdashers failing in the performance
of such Order, a second had been passed, leaving the Pinmakers to
help themselves by course of law. But the Pinmakers alleged that,
being a poor company, they were unable to carry on their trade for
want of stock; they had therefore entered into an agreement with
certain persons of good ability in London, who had engaged to take
their pins weekly for eight years, finding stock and money and other
necessaries, whereby the kingdom would in a few years be supplied
with home manufactured pins, provided that until then some toleration of a moderate importation of foreign pins might be permitted,
which the Petitioners prayed might be granted for eight years, before
the end of which time the terms of their apprentices would have
expired, and they would have become masters able to employ a much
larger number of persons in that manufacture. The Council being
favourably inclined to the proposition, so far as it might be found
reasonable, therefore ordered the Petition to be sent to the Lord
Mayor, Sir Thomas Middleton, Sir Thomas Bennett, Sir John Jolles,
Mr. Alderman Bennett, and Mr. Alderman Pyott, (fn. 7) that they, calling
before them and advising with the Farmers of the Customs as to any
injury to His Majesty in his Customs by the decrease of the importation of foreign pins, and also hearing the Petitioners and others
interested, might report forthwith to the Council their opinions how the
home manufacture might be increased and the use of foreign pins
abolished, and in the mean time what quantity of foreign pins might
be imported; how long such toleration should be continued, and how
the Council might best be informed yearly of the increased quantity of
pins made in the kingdom.
20th November, 1616.
IV. 62. Certificate from Sir Thomas Middleton and other
Aldermen to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen, upon the
reference to them concerning the Petition of the Pinmakers' Company.
1st.—As to the injury to His Majesty in his Customs by decrease
of importation of pins. They had received from the Farmers of the
Customs a medium of the subsidy impost and custom of pins in the
Port of London, amounting to 1,288l. per annum. The Farmers were
unable in so short a time to give a precise certificate as to the outports, but estimated them at 300l. or 400l. per annum. These sums
would be lost if the importation were wholly decayed; but it was said
the King would receive an increase of Customs for wire.
2nd—As to increase of the manufacture. The promoters of
the Patent had offered, if they had the sole right of importation, to
take from the Pinmakers, weekly, all pins made by them: the Haberdashers had also offered, agreeably to the former Order of the Privy
Council, to do the same, and to give security to continue it without
any breach in future, and to pay on receipt of the pins, either in money
or wire, at the option of the Pinmakers. The Pinmakers had pretended they would yearly increase the number of their apprentices,
and so increase the manufacture, and for that purpose had offered to
take three more apprentices every year until each of them employed
thirty, but would give no security to that effect, so that it did not
appear the State could rest assured of the expected increase of
3rd.—As to how the Council could be certified yearly of the
increase of pins made by the Pinmakers (amounting at that time to
eleven thousand and one hundred dozen thousand yearly). They were
of opinion the buyers, whether the Haberdashers or the promoters of
the Patent, should keep a perfect account of all pins bought.
4th.—As to toleration of importation. They were of opinion a
toleration was necessary, three times as many pins being imported
as were made by the Pinmakers. But if the Haberdashers were
appointed to take the pins and gave condition as promised, a Patent
of sole importation would be needless, injurious to the King in his
Customs, and to the subject.
5th—As to the proportion of Foreign pins to be imported. It
could not then be tied to any proportion, but must change yearly as
the home manufacture increased. If, however, the Haberdashers took
the pins, it would be most beneficial to the King in his Customs not
to set any limit to the importation.
IV. 63. Letter from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to
the Lords of the Council, embodying the foregoing Certificate.
IV. 70. Order of the Privy Council, reciting that, having considered the Certificate of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen upon the suit
of the Pinmakers, they had ordered that the Pinmakers should accept
the offer of the Haberdashers, provided the latter gave sufficient
security, and took the pins weekly from the workmen as suggested,
but if the Haberdashers failed, the Council thought it reasonable the
Pinmakers should be left to the benefit of the law.
24th March, 1616.
IV. 98. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor
and Court of Aldermen. The differences between the Pinmakers'
Company and the traders in pins had long been pending before the
Board, and many orders and references had been made thereon, none
of which had had any effect, owing to the default of one or other of
the parties interested, except to give occasion for new complaints.
Having heard all the parties and considered a Certificate from some
of the Aldermen, the Council found that the Court of Aldermen were
fully acquainted with the questions in difference, and had already made
some overtures for settlement thereof. They had therefore thought it
good to declare their opinions to the Court, and request them to order
a final course in the matter according to the following directions:—
1st—As the Council thought it not meet that any Patent for the
sole importation of pins should be permitted, so they held it not fit
there should in future be any further seizure by the Pinmakers of
foreign pins imported, but that importation should be permitted,
seeing the Pinmakers were no way able to serve the kingdom in any
2nd.—Since it was very just that the Pinmakers and their workmen should be relieved and encouraged by finding convenient sale for
their pins, which had hitherto been neglected, the Council required the
Court of Aldermen to direct that the Haberdashers or traders in pins
should take all their pins ready for sale, and that the pins should be
weekly brought to Pinmakers' Hall to be viewed, received, and
bought by the traders, to be paid for in ready money unless otherwise
voluntary agreed between buyer and seller.
3rd.—To prevent disputes as to the quality and value of the pins,
the Lord Mayor should appoint such as he thought fit of the traders
in pins, together with such as should be chosen by the Pinners, to be
weekly present when and where the pins were brought, and, on view
thereof, to judge of their quality and price, and to arbitrate and settle
any differences arising; and in the event of their absence, or being
unable to agree, the Lord Mayor should determine the matter. Since
the parties for the most part were under the Lord Mayor's jurisdiction, they desired him and the Court of Aldermen to put these
measures in execution with such care and diligence that they might
report their proceedings and any hindrances they experienced in the
matter, and by whose default they were occasioned, to the Council.
1st February, 1617.
IV. 104. Order of the King in Council, directing the Lord
Treasurer to write to the Lord Mayor and the rest of the Aldermen
for a speedy ending of the controversy between the Pinners and the
Haberdashers according to the Orders of the Privy Council, and if
they should be unable to do so, to certify the differences between
them to the Lord Treasurer and the Attorney-General, who were to
hear and determine such controversies according to Law and Equity.
Whitehall, 25th March, 1618.
IV. 105. Letter from the Lord Treasurer (the Earl of Suffolk) to
the Lord Mayor, Sir Thomas Bennett, Knight and Alderman, Sir
John Jolles, Knight and Alderman, and others, reciting that the Privy
Council had referred to them the settlement of the differences between
the Pinners and the Haberdashers, and that he had been specially
directed by the King to require them speedily to determine the matter,
and if unsuccessful to certify thereon to the Attorney-General and
Suffolk House, 26th March, 1618.
IV. 107. Order of the Court of Aldermen upon receipt of the
foregoing Letter, referring it to the Lord Mayor and sundry Aldermen
named to meet at Guildhall on the 9th April ensuing, and to hear and
finally determine the matter.
31st March, 1618.
IV. 108. An explanation of the state of the Pinners, and their
humble Petition to the Lord Mayor and the rest of the Committee.
It recites in detail the proceedings taken by the Privy Council, and
their Order to the Haberdashers to take the pins weekly of the
Pinners, and states that the Haberdashers had declined to perform the
same; that thereupon the Pinners had agreed with one John Tallcott
Citizen of London, to take their pins, who had given bond not to sell
them at a higher rate than the Pinners sold them to the Haberdashers twenty years previously. Since the Pinners found the Committee had no authority to give them the benefit of the law, or
restrain the sale of foreign pins, they had prayed the King that if the
Committee could not determine the differences they should forthwith
certify to that effect to the Lord Treasurer and the Attorney-General.
They therefore prayed the Committee to certify and refer the same
V. 23. Letter from the Company of Merchants Adventurers of
England to the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen. They had been
informed of a contract made by their deputy for the sale to the Court
of two thousand pounds' worth of gunpowder, at elevenpence per
pound, lately received from Hamburgh, with which contract the Company (though it was to their loss) were contented. Since there was
cause for suspicion of something ill intended against the said gunpowder, they requested the Court forthwith to give order for the
receipt and disposal of their portion thereof, the risk of which the
Company conceived belonged to them.
29th April, 1619.
VI. 16. Letter from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to
the Lords and others, Commissioners for Trade, expressing their
approval of the orders made by the Commissioners for reforming
abuses by factors, a kind of people aiming only at their own profit,
and who had begotten all the complaints which had been made by
clothiers, merchants, and drapers concerning trade. Until there were
factors they were all quiet, and they did, even when taken at their
best, rather harm than good. If left to themselves the inconveniences
they occasioned would be insufferable. The Court particularly recommended to the notice of the Commissioners, Maximilian Dancy and
Thomas Starkey, as men who for their several misdemeanours should
be removed from their employments, and forbidden to act as factors.
27th June, 1623.
VI. 17. Letter from the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to
the Commissioners for Trade, enclosing Petitions presented to them by
Citizens of London, using the trades of merchandizing, grocers, drugsters, confectioners, and distillers, which they conceived came within the
compass of the Commissioners' powers, and expressing their anticipation that by their mediation such clauses in the King's grant to the
Apothecaries as might receive a doubtful interpretation might be
explained, and each Company content themselves with what was proper
for them, without encroaching upon the others' rights.
VI. 88. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor,
on behalf of Philip Grewen, a Merchant Stranger, who was desirous of
disposing of a parcel of wine by retail, but was willing it should be
sold by a Freeman, and requesting that steps might be taken to comply
with his application, which was not intended to be used as a precedent.
Whitehall, 27th June, 1626.
VI. 160. Order of the Privy Council, reciting that they were
informed, by the officers and farmers of the Customs, that divers merchants of the Company trading into the Levant and Turkey had
offered to give bills for the payment of the 4s. 10d. per cwt. due upon
currants, but refused to pay the 2s 2d. also due thereon, whilst others
obstinately refused to pay any duty at all; and that the porters
and carmen frequenting the waterside occasioned tumults and
disorders, to the disturbance of the officers, by attempting and
helping to carry away uncustomed goods; and directing the said
officers to receive ready money or bills from the merchants for the
4s. 10d. per cwt., payable at reasonable and convenient times: and as
to those who refused to pay the 2s. 2d., to detain three times the
value in currants, and deliver the residue to the owners. As to
those who refused to pay any duty, the whole of their currants
imported should be retained till payment was made. The officers
should also warn all carmen and porters, on pain of the King's
high displeasure, to forbear to attempt the landing, &c., of any
merchandize until discharged by warrant from the Custom House.
Whitehall, 9th January, 1628.
VI. 169. Order of the Privy Council, reciting that the Board
had been informed that a Merchant Stranger, dwelling in London,
had received a quantity of French wine, some of which had already
been ordered by the Lord Mayor to be destroyed as corrupt, and some
had been in other parts refused, as unwholesome and hurtful. It had
therefore been thought fit that the whole of it should be tasted and tried,
to prevent the danger which might arise to the King's subjects by
reason of the sophisticating and falsifying used by unwholesome roots
and other mixtures, of which Parliament had taken notice. The
Council, having heard the Merchant, desired the Lord Mayor and
Court of Aldermen to proceed according to the constitutions of the
City for reformation of the abuse, and to ascertain where such wines
had been sold.
Whitehall, 11th March, 1628.
VI. 174. Petition of Thomas Crosse, Goldsmith, on behalf of
himself and the whole body of Goldsmiths within the realm, to the
Lords of the Council, reciting abuses practised in purloining and
pawning plate, jewels, chains, &c., and praying that a Royal Proclamation should be issued, prohibiting, under penalty, persons from
selling or wearing counterfeit pearl, or stones, or coarse gold, or transporting silver in bullion, jewels, &c., beyond seas, contrary to law,
and prohibiting all persons, other than goldsmiths, or officers of the
Mint, or persons licensed by the Mint, from wilfully defacing, melting,
or burning any gold or silver, or stuff of gold or silver, or altering the
property of any jewels, or from covertly buying or selling, changing or
pawning such articles, except with free Goldsmiths, at their stalls or
shops, being the market overt for such commodities, according to the
Charter of the City of London, and the Goldsmiths' Charter of the
said City, confirmed by Act of Parliament of the I Edward III.
The Proclamation should contain other provisions for regulating
the trade of Goldsmiths throughout the realm, for the apprehension
of suspected persons, and for preventing brokers or others from dealing
in such commodities.
VII. 71. Certificate from Aldermen Hamersley, Fenn, (fn. 8) and
Smith, (fn. 9) to the Court of Aldermen, of their proceedings, under the
Order of the Star Chamber, as to the quantity of steel to be extracted
from Swedish iron, and requesting twenty-eight days further time to
complete their inquiry.
10th October, 1631.
VII. 92. Order in Council with respect to certain pipes of falsified
French wines brought into the port of London by Paul Barnabie,
directing the Lord Mayor to cause five or six vintners to rack and
draw off into another vessel one of the said pipes, and to certify what
drugs or ingredients they found in the said wine or cask, to sophisticate the same, from what places the wines came, and where they were
23rd August, 1633.
VII. 93. Order in Council upon the Lord Mayor's Certificate
thereon, directing him to cause the said French wines to be let out
and cast away, or further proceeded against, as in like cases had been
Whitehall, 4th October, 1633.
VII. 146. Order in Council, reciting that the Petitions of French
Merchants, and of Peter Van Payne, Merchant Stranger, concerning
eighteen pipes of white French wine, in the custody of the Lord
Mayor, which wines had had a trial at law, had been read at the
Board, and directing that the wines should be forthwith racked in
the presence of Van Payne, and Certificate made by the Lord Mayor
of what was found in them; in the mean time they should remain in
safe custody and cool cellarage.
Whitehall, 3rd July, 1635.
VII. 148. Certificate from the Lord Mayor to the Lords of the
Council, that the wines of Peter Van Payne had been racked in his
presence. In eight of the pipes had been found bundles of weeds, in
four others some quantities of sulphur, in another a piece of match,
and in all of them a kind of gravel mixture sticking to the casks; that
they were conceived to be very unwholesome, and of a similar nature
to others formerly condemned and destroyed.
Dated in margin, 10th July, 1635.
VIII. 12. Order from the Lords of the Treasury that a quantity
of logwood, the property of Hugh Jones, a merchant of London, which
he had caused to be sent to London, in ignorance of the restraint laid
upon that commodity, and which had been seized, might be delivered
up to him upon his giving good security to export the same to foreign
parts, not to be brought back again.
30th August, 1619.
VIII. 109. Same as No. 92, Vol. VII.
23rd August, 1633.
VIII. 161. Order in Council concerning certain sophisticated
and falsified French wines imported by one Peter Van Peyne, a
merchant stranger, directing the Lord Mayor and Court of Aldermen to cause the said wines to be put into safe custody, and trial to
be made and proceedings to be had concerning the same, according
to the usual course and custom of the City.
3rd June, 1635.
VIII. 188. Order in Council—upon the petition of John
Sperwent, merchant, and Garrett Day, prisoners in the Fleet,
desiring that their petition touching their wines might be referred
to some Aldermen and others of the City—directing that the
Petitioners should perform the former order of the Board thereon
within ten days, and, in default, authorizing the Lord Mayor to beat
off the heads of the casks and let the wine out. Upon the Petitioners
paying the costs the merchants had been put to in the matter, the
Board would give directions for their release.
22nd March, 1636.
VIII. 189. Order in Council concerning twenty-six pipes of wine
found to be sophisticated, directing the Recorder to take good security
from the owners or consignees thereof, forthwith to transport the said
wine beyond seas, and not re-import the same; and to give satisfaction
to the merchants for their charges in prosecuting the suit. In case of
default, the Board would give such further directions therein as should
be thought fit.
6th April, 1636.
IX. 5. Letter from the Lords of the Council to the Lord Mayor
and Aldermen. His Majesty, to encourage and maintain trade and
commerce with foreign parts, had determined to appoint, under the
Great Seal, a Committee of able persons, to take all matters into their
consideration, for which purpose they desired that the Court of Aldermen should give notice to the following Companies—the Turkey
Merchant Adventurers, the East India, Greenland, Eastland, and the
Incorporated Traders for Spain, France, Portugal, Italy, and the West
India Plantations—to present the names of four of the most active
members of their body, out of whom His Majesty would select two,
and would join to them merchants, experienced persons, and some of
the Members of the Privy Council, under whose advice might be
inserted in the several treaties such articles and clauses as should
render the nation more prosperous and flourishing in trade and
17th August, 1660.