Of Orders and Customes
Men of all trades in distinct places.; Wine in ships and wine in tauerns. Cookes row in Thames street.
Of Orders and Customs in this Citie of old time Fitzstephen
saith as followeth: Men of all trades, sellers of all sorts of
wares, labourers in euery worke, euery morning are in their
distinct and seuerall places: furthermore, in London vpon the
riuer side, betweene the wine in ships, and the wine to be sold in
Tauerns, is a common cookerie or cookes row: there dayly for
the season of the yere, men might haue meate, rost, sod, or fried:
fish, flesh, fowles, fit for rich and poore. If any come suddenly
to any Citizen from afarre, wearie and not willing to tarrie till
the meate bee bought, and dressed, while the seruant bringeth
water for his maisters hands, and fetcheth bread, he shall haue
immediately from the Riuers side, all viands whatsoeuer he
desireth, what multitude soeuer, either of Souldiers, or straungers,
doe come to the Citie, whatsoeuer houre, day or night, according
to their pleasures may refresh themselues, and they which delight
in dilicatenesse may bee satisfied with as delicate dishes there,
as may be found else where. And this Cookes row is very
necessarie to the Citie: and, according to Plato in Gorgias (fn. 1) ,
next to Phisicke, is the office of Cookes, as part of a Citie.
Smithfield for a plain smooth ground, is called smeth and smothie. Market for horses and other cattell.; Marchants of al natious traded at this City, & had their seuerall Keyes and wharfes.; The Authors opinion of this Citie, the antiquitie thereof.; This Citie diuided into wards more than 400. years since, and also had then both Aldermen and Shiriffes.; Customes of London.
Without one of the Gates is a plaine field, both in name and
deed, where euery fryday, unlesse it be a solemne bidden holy
day, is a notable shew of horses to bee solde, Earles, Barons,
knights, and Citizens repaire thither to see, or to buy: there
may you of pleasure see amblers pacing it dilicately: there may
you see trotters fit for men of armes, sitting more hardly: there
may you haue notable yong horse not yet broken: there may you
haue strong steedes, wel limmed geldings, whom the buiers do
especially regard for pace, and swiftnes: the boyes which ride
these horses, sometime two, sometime three, doe runne races for
wagers, with a desire of praise, or hope of victorie. In an
other part of that field are to be sold all implements of husbandry, as also fat swine, milch kine, sheepe and oxen: there
stand also mares and horses, fitte for ploughes and teames with
their young coltes by them. At this Citie Marchant straungers
of all nations had their keyes and wharfes: the Arabians
sent golde: the Sabians spice and frankensence: the Scithian
armour, Babylon oyle, India purple garments, Egypt precious
stones, Norway and Russia Ambergreece and sables, and the
French men wine. According to the truth of Chronicles, this
Citie is auncienter then Rome, built of the ancient Troyans and
of Brute, before that was built by Romulus, and Rhemus: and
therefore useth the ancient customes of Rome. This Citie euen
as Rome, is diuided into wardes: it hath yearely Shiriffes in
steede of Consulles: it hath the dignitie of Senators in Aldermen. It hath under Officers, Common Sewers, and Conductes
in streetes, according to the qualitie of causes, it hath generall
Courtes: and assemblies upon appointed dayes. I doe not thinke
that there is any Citie, wherein are better customs, in frequenting the Churches, in seruing God, in keeping holy dayes, in
giuing almes, in entertayning straungers, in solemnising Marriages, in furnishing banquets, celebrating funerals, and burying
Casualties of fires when houses were couered with thatch.
The onely plagues of London, <are> immoderate quaffing
among the foolish sort, and often casualties by fire.— Most part
of the Bishops, Abbots, and great Lordes of the land haue houses
there, wherevnto they resort, and bestow much when they are
called to Parliament by the king, or to Counsell by their Metropolitane, or otherwise by their priuate businesse.
Thus farre Fitzstephen, of the estate of thinges in his time,
whereunto may be added the present, by conference whereof,
the alteration will easily appeare.
Stockfish-monger row, old fishstreete, and new fish-street.
Men of trades and sellers of wares in this City haue
often times since chaunged their places, as they haue found
their best aduantage. For where as Mercers, and Haberdashers vsed to keepe their shoppes in West Cheape, of later
time they helde them on London Bridge, where partly they
yet remaine. The Goldsmithes of Gutherons lane, and old
Exchange, are now for the most part remooued into the
Southside of west Cheape, the Peperers and Grocers of Sopers
lane, are now in Bucklesberrie, and other places dispersed.
The Drapers of Lombardstreete, and of Cornehill, are seated
in Candlewickstreete, and Watheling streete: the Skinners
from Saint Marie Pellipers, or at the Axe, into Budge row,
and Walbrooke: The Stockefishmongers in Thames streete:
wet Fishmongers in Knightriders streete, and Bridge streete:
The Ironmongers of Ironmongers lane, and olde Iurie, into
Thames streete: the Vinteners from the Vinetree into diuers
places. But the Brewers for the more part remaine neare to
the friendly water of Thames: the Butchers in Eastcheape,
Saint Nicholas Shambles, and the Stockes Market: the
Hosiers of olde time in Hosier lane, neare vnto Smithfield,
are since remooued into Cordwayner streete, the vpper part
thereof by Bow Church, and last of all into Birchouerislane
by Cornehil: the Shoomakers and Curriors of Cordwayner
streete, remoued the one to Saint Martins Le Grand, the other
to London wall neare vnto Mooregate, the Founders remaine by
themselues in Lothberie: Cookes, or Pastelars for the more
part in Thames streete, the other dispersed into diuerse
partes. Poulters of late remooued out of the Poultrie betwixt
the Stockes and the great Conduit in Cheape into Grasse
streete, and Saint Nicholas Shambles: Bowyers, from Bowyers row by Ludgate into diuers places, and almost worne out
with the Fletchers: Pater noster makers of olde time, or
Beade makers, and Text Writers, are gone out of Pater
noster Rowe, and are called Stationers of Paules Church
yarde: Pattenmakers of Saint Margaret Pattens lane, cleane
worne out: Labourers euerie worke day are to bee founde in
Cheape, about Sopers lane ende: horse coursers and sellers of
Oxen, Sheepe, Swine, and such like, remaine in their olde
Market of Smithfield, &c.
Marchants of all nations.; Thomas Clifford; William of Malmesbury.
That Marchants of all nations had theyr Keyes and wharfes
at this Citty whereunto they brought their Marchandises
before, and in the raigne of Henry the second, mine author
wrote of his owne knowledge to be true, though for the
antiquity of the Citty, he tooke the common opinion. Also
that this Citie was in his time and afore diuided into wards,
had yearely Sherifs, Aldermen, generall courts, and assemblies,
and such like notes by him set down, in commendation of
the Cittizens, whereof there is no question, he wrote likewise
of his owne experience, as being borne and brought vp
amongst them. And to confirme his opinion, concerning
Marchandises then hither transported, whereof happily may
bee some argument. Thomas Clifford (before Fitzstephens
time) writing of Edward the Confessor, sayeth to this effect:
King Edward intending to make his Sepulchre at Westminster, for that it was neare to the famous Cittie of London,
and the Riuer of Thames, that brought in all kinde of Marchandises from all parts of the world, &c. And William of
Malmsberie, that liued in the raigne of William the first
and seconde, Henry the first, and king Stephen, calleth this a
noble Cittie, full of wealthy citizens, frequented with the trade
of Marchandises from all partes of the world. Also I reade in
diuers records that of olde time no woade was stowed or
harbored in this Citty, but all was presently solde in the ships,
except by licence purchased of the Sheriffes, till of more latter
time, to witte in the yeare 1236. Andrew Bokerell being
Mayor, by assent of the principall cittizens, the Marchants of
Amiens, Nele and Corby, purchased letters insealed with the
common seale of the Cittie, that they when they come, might
harborow their woades, and therefore should giue the Mayor
euery yeare 50. marks starling: and the same yeare they gave
100. l. towardes the conueying of water from Tyborn to this cittie.
Also the Marchantes of Normandie made fine for licence to harbor
their Woades till it was otherwise prouided, in the yeare 1263.
Thomas Fitz Thomas being Mayor, &c. which proueth that then,
as afore, they were here amongst other nations priuiledged.
plagues of London imoderat quaffing and casualties by fire.; Lib. Constitutionis. Lib. Horne. Lib. Clarkenwell.; Purpresture in and about this Citty. W. Patten.
It followeth in Fitzstephen, that the plagues of London in
that time were immoderate quaffing among fooles, and often
casualties by fire. For the first, to wit of quaffing, it continueth
as afore, or rather is mightily encreased, though greatlie
qualified among the poorer sort, not of any holy abstinencie,
but of meere necessitie, Ale and Beere being small, and
Wines in price aboue their reach. As for preuention of
casualties by fire the houses in this citty being then builded all
of timber and couered with thatch of straw or reed, it was
long since thought good policie in our Forefathers, wisely to
prouide, namely in the yeare of Christ, 1189. the first of
Richard the first, Henry Fitzalwine being then Mayor, that all
men in this Citty should builde their houses of stone up to
a certaine height, and to couer them with slate or baked tyle:
since which time, thanks be giuen to God, there hath not
happened the like often consuming fires in this cittie as afore.
But now in our time, instead of these enormities, others are
come in place no lesse meete to bee reformed: namely, Purprestures, or enchrochmentes on the Highwayes, lanes, and
common groundes, in and aboute this cittie, whereof a learned
Gentleman, and graue cittizen hath not many yeares since
written and exhibited a Booke to the Mayor and communaltie,
which Booke whether the same haue beene by them read, and
diligently considered vpon I know not, but sure I am nothing
is reformed since concerning this matter.
Then the number of carres, drayes, carts and coatches,
more then hath beene accustomed, the streetes and lanes
being streightned, must needes be daungerous, as dayly experience proueth.
Carts and Drayers not wel gouerned in this Citty dangerous.; Lib. S. Mary Eborum. Riding in Wherlicotes.; Riding in side sadles, that were wont to ride a stride. Riding in Coaches.
The Coach man rides behinde the horse tayles, lasheth
them, and looketh not behind him: The Draye man sitteth
and sleepeth on his Drea, and letteth his horse leade him
home: I know that by the good lawes and customes of this
Citty, shodde carts are forbidden to enter the same, except
vpon reasonable causes as seruice of the Prince, or such like,
they be tollerated. Also that the fore horse of euery carriage
should bee lead by hand: but these good orders are not
obserued. Of olde time Coatches were not knowne in this
Island, but chariots or Whirlicotes, then so called, and they
onely vsed of Princes or great Estates, such as had their footmen about them: and for example to note, I read that
Richard the second, being threatned by the rebels of Kent,
rode from the Tower of London to the Myles end, and with
him his mother, because she was sicke and weake in a Wherlicote, the Earles of Buckingham, Kent, Warwicke and Oxford,
Sir Thomas Percie, Sir Robert Knowles, the Mayor of London,
Sir Aubery de Vere that bare the kinges sword, with other
Knights and Esquiers attending on horsebacke. (fn. 2) He followed
in the next year the said king Richard, who took to wife (fn. 2)
Anne daughter to the king of Boheme, that first brought
hether the riding vpon side saddles, and so was the riding in
Wherlicoates and chariots forsaken, except at Coronations
and such like spectacles: but now of late yeares the vse of
coatches brought out of Germanie is taken vp, and made so
common, as there is neither distinction of time, nor difference
of persons obserued: for the world runs on wheeles with
many, whose parents were glad to goe on foote.
W. Fitzstephen.; The causes of greater shewes and musters in this Citie of olde time, more then of late.
Last of all mine Author in this chapter hath these words:
Most part of the Bishops, Abbots, and great Lordes of the land,
as if they were Citizens and free men of London, had many
fayre houses to resort unto, and many rich and wealthy Gentlemen spent their money there. And in an other place hee hath
these words Euery sonday in Lent a fresh companie of young
men comes into the fields on horsebacke, and the best horseman
conducteth the rest, then march forth the Citizens sonnes, and
other young men with disarmed launces and shieldes, and
practise feates of warre: many Courtiers likewise and attendants of noble men repaire to this exercise, & whilst the hope
of victorie doth enflame their mindes, they doe shew good proofe
how seruiceable they would be in martial affaires, &c. Againe
he saith: This Cittie in the troublesome time of King Stephen
shewed at a muster 20000. armed horsemen, and 40000. footmen, seruiceable for the warres, &c. All which sayings of the
said Author well considered, doe plainely proue that in those
dayes, the inhabitants & repayrers to this Citie of what estate
soeuer, spirituall or temporal, hauing houses here, liued
together in good amity with the citizens, euery man obseruing
the customes & orders of the Citty, & chose to be contributary to charges here, rather than in any part of the land
wheresoeuer. This citty being the hart of the Realme, the
Kinges chamber, and princes seate whereunto they made
repayre, and shewed their forces, both of horses and of men,
which caused in troublesome time, as of king Stephen, the
Musters of this Cittie to be so great in number.
Great families of old time kept.
Great families of old time kept.; Tho. Earle of Lancaster, his housekeeping, and charge thereof for one yeare. Record of Pontfract, as I could obtaine of M. Cudnor.
And here to touch some what of greater families and
householdes kept in former times by noble men, and great
estates of this Realme, according to their honours or dignities.
I haue seene an account made by H. Leicester, cofferer to
Thomas Earle of Lancaster, for one whole yeares expences in
the Earles house, from the day next after Michaelmasse in the
seuenth yere of Edward the second, vntill Michaelmasse in
the eight yeare of the same king amounting to the sum of
seuen thousand, nine hundred, fiftie seuen pound thirteene
shillings foure pence halfe penny, as followeth,
To wit, in the Pantrie, Buttrie, and Kitchen, 3405.l. &c.
for 184. tunnes, one pipe of red or claret wine, and one tunne
of white wine bought for the house, 104. pound, xvij.s. vi.d.
For Grocerie ware, 180.li. 17.s.
For sixe Barrels of sturgeon, 19.li.
For 6800. stockfishes, so called, for dried fishes of all sorts,
as Lings, Habardines, and other, 41.li. 6.s. 7.d.
For 1714. pound of waxe, with Vermelion and Turpentine
to make red waxe, 314.li. 7.s. 4.d. ob.
For 2319. li. of Tallow candles for the houshold, and 1870.
of lights for Paris candles, called Perchers, 31.li. 14.s. 3.d.
Expences on the Earles great horses, and the keepers wages,
486.li. 4s. 3.d. ob.
Linnen cloth for the L. and his Chapleins, and for the
Pantrie, 43.li. 17.d.
For 129. dosen of Parchment with Inke, 4.li. 8 s. 3.d. ob.
Summe, 5230. li. 17.s. 7.d. ob.
159. clothes in liueries against Christmasse.
Item for two clothes of Skarlet for the Earle against
Christmasse, one cloth of Russet, for the Bishop of Angew,
70. clothes of Blew for the knights, (as they were then
termed) 15. clothes of Medley for the Lords clearkes, 28.
clothes for the Esquiers, 15. clothes for Officers, 19. clothes
for Groomes, 5. clothes for Archers, 4. clothes for Minstrels
and Carpenters, with the sharing and carriage for the Earles
Liueries at Christmasse, 460.li. 15.d.
Item for 7. Furres of variable Miniuer (or powdred Ermin)
7. whoodes of Purple, 395. Furres of Budge for the Liueryes
of Barons, Knights, and Clarkes, 123. Furres of Lambe for
Esquiers, bought at Christmasse, 147.li. 17.s. 8.d.
104. cloathes in liueries in Sommer.
Item 65. clothes saffron colour, for the Barons and
Knights: in sommer, 12. red clothes mixt for Clearkes, 26.
clothes ray for Esquiers, one cloth ray for Officers coates
in sommer, and 4. clothes ray for carpets in the hall, for
345.li. 13.s. 8.d.
Item 100. peeces of greene silke for the knights, 14. Budge
Furres for surcotes, 13. whoodes of Budge for Clearks, and
75. furres of Lambs for the Lordes liueryes in sommer, with
Canuas and cords to trusse them, 72.li. 19.s.
Item Sadles for the Lords liueries in sommer 51.li. 6.s. 8.d.
Item one Sadle for the Earle of the Princes armes, 40.s.
Summe, 1079.li. 18.s. 3.d.
Item for things bought, whereof cannot be read in my
note, 241.li. 14.s. 1.d. ob.
For horses lost in seruice of the Earle, 8.l. 6.s. 8.d.
Fees payde to Earles, Barons, knights, and Esquiers,
623.li. 15.s. 5.d.
In gifts to knights of France, the Queene of Englands
nurces, to the Countesse of Warren, Esquiers, Minstrels,
Messengers and riders, 92.li. 14.s.
Northren Russet halfe yarde & half quarter brode, I haue seene sold for foure pence the yard, and was good cloath of a mingled colour.
Item 168. yeards of russet cloth, and 24. coates for poore
men with money giuen to the poore on Maundie Thursday,
8.li. 16.s. 7.d.
Item 24. siluer dishes, so many sawcers, and so many
cuppes for the Buttrie, one paire of Paternosters, and one
siluer coffen bought this yeare, 103.li. 5.s. 6.d.
To diuerse Messengers about the Earles businesse, 34.li.
19.s. 8. pence.
In the Earles chamber, 5.li.
To diuerse men for the Earles olde debts, 88.li. 16.s. ob. q.
Summe, 1207.li. 7.s. II.d. ob.q.
The expences of the Countesse at Pickering for the time
of this account, as in the Pantrie, Buttrie, Kitchen, and other
places, concerning these Offices, two hundred fourescore and
fiue pounds, thirteene shillings, halfepennie.
In Wine, Waxe, Spices, cloathes, Furres, and other things
for the Countesses Wardrobe, an hundred fiftie foure poundes
seuen shillings, foure pence, halfepennie.
Summe, 439.li. 8.s. 6.d. q.
Summa totalis of the whole expences, 7957.li. 13.s. 4.d. ob.
Thus much for this Earle of Lancaster.
Record tower. Hugh spencer the elder, his prouision for housekeeping, which sheweth a great family to be kept in houshold.
More, I read that in the 14. of the same Edward the
second, Hugh Spencer the elder (condemned by the communaltie) was banished the Realme, at which time, it was
found by inquisition, that the said Spencer had in sundrie
shires 59. Mannors: he had 28000. sheepe. 1000. Oxen and
steeres, 1200. Kine, with their Calues, 40. Mares with their
Coltes, 160. drawing horse, 2000. Hogges, 300. Bullockes, 40.
Tunnes of wine, 600. Bacons, 80. carkases of Martilmasse
beefe, 600. Muttons in larder, 10. Tuns of Sidar. His
armour, plate, iewels, and ready money, better then 10000.li.
36. sackes of wooll, and a librarie of bookes. Thus much
the Record: which prouision for houshold sheweth a great
familie there to be kept.
Rob. Fabian's manuscript.
Nearer to our time, I reade in the 36. of Henrie the sixt,
that the greater estates of the Realme being called vp to
The Earle of Salisburie came with 500. men on horsebacke,
and was lodged in the Herber.
Richard Duke of Yorke with 400. men lodged at Baynards
The Dukes of Excester and Sommerset, with 800. men.
The Earle of Northumberland, the Lord Egremont, and
the Lord Clifford, with 1500. men.
Neuell earle of Warwicke his housekeeping.
Richard Neuell Earle of Warwicke, with 600. men, all in
red Jackets, imbrodered with ragged staues before and behind,
and was lodged in Warwicke Lane: in whose house there was
oftentimes six Oxen eaten at a breakfast, and euery Tauerne
was full of his meate, for he that had any acquaintaunce in
that house, might have there so much of sodden and rost
meate, as hee could pricke and carrie vpon a long Dagger.
Ric. Redman Bishop of Ely.
Richard Redman Bishop of Elie, 1500, the 16. of Henrie
the seuenth, besides his great familie, house keeping, almesse
dish, and reliefe to the poore, wheresoeuer he was lodged.
In his trauailing, when at his comming, or going to or from
any towne, the belles being rung, all the poore would come
togither, to whom he gaue euery one 6.d. at the least.
Tho. Wolsey Arch. of York.
And now to note of our owne time somewhat. Omitting
in this place Thomas Wolsey Archbishop of Yorke, and Cardinall, I referre the Reader to my Annales, where I haue
set downe the order of his house, and houshold, passing all
other subiectes of his time. His seruants dayly attending
in his house were neare about 400. omitting his seruants
seruants, which were many.
Lib. Ely. West bishop of Ely.
Nicholas West Bishop of Ely, in the yeare 1532. kept continually in his house an hundred seruants, giuing to the one
halfe of them 53.s. 4.d. the peece yearely: to the other halfe
each 40.s. the peece, to euery one, for his winter Gowne,
foure yeards of broad cloath, and for his Sommer coate thre
yards and a halfe: he dayly gaue at his Gates besides bread
and drinke, warme meate to two hundred poore people.
Edward Earl of Darby.
The housekeeping of Edward late Earle of Darbie, is not
to be forgotten, who had 220. men in checke roll: his
feeding aged persons, twice euery day, sixtie and odde besides
all commers, thrise a weeke appoynted for his dealing dayes,
and euery good Fryday 2700. with meate drinke and money.
Thomas Lord Audley.
Thomas Audley Lord Chauncellor, his familie of Gentlemen
before him in coates garded with veluet, and Chaines of
gold: his yeoman (fn. 3) after him in the same liuerie not garded.
Euery liuerie coat had three yards of broad cloath.
William Powlet Lord great maister, Marques of Winchester, kept the like number of Gentlemen and yeoman in
a liuery of Reding tawny, and great reliefe at his gate.
Thomas Lord Cromwel
Thomas Lord Cromwel, Earle of Essex kept the like, or
greater number in a liuery of gray Marble, the Gentlemen
garded with Veluet, the yeoman (fn. 4) with the same cloth, yet
their skirtes large inough for their friends to sit vpon them.
Duke of Sommerset.
Edward Duke of Sommerset was not inferiour in keeping
a number of tall and comely Gentlemen, and yeoman (fn. 4) though
his house was then in building, and most of his men were
Earle of Oxford.
The late Earle of Oxford, father to him that now liueth,
hath beene noted within these fortie yeares, to haue ridden
into this Citie, & so to his house by London stone, with 80.
Gentlemen in a liuery of Reading Tawny, and chaines of gold
about their necks before him, and 100. tall yeomen in the
like liuery to follow him without chaines, but all hauing
his cognisance of the blew Bore, embrodered on their left
Of charitable almes in old times giuen.
Almes giuen at the Lorde Cromwels gate.; Bede.; Almes dish set on Tables.; Almes dish giuen to the poore.
These as all other of their times gaue great relief to the
poore: I my selfe, in that declining time of charity, haue oft
seene at the Lord Cromwels gate in London, more then two
hundered persons serued twise euery day with bread, meate
and drinke sufficient, for hee obserued that auncient and
charitable custome as all prelates, noble men, or men of
honour and worship his predecessors had done before him:
whereof somewhat to note for example, Venerable Bede
writeth that Prelates of his time hauing peraduenture but
wodden Churches, had notwithstanding on their borde at
theyr meales one Almes dish, into the which was carued some
good portion of meate out of euery other dish broght to
their Table, all which was giuen to the poore, besides the
fragments left, in so much as in a hard time, a poore Prelate wanting victuals, hath caused his almes dish, being siluer,
to be diuided amongst the poore, therewith to shift as they
could, til God should send them better store.
Bishoppe of Winchester his saying touching the reliefe of the poore.
Such a Prelate was Ethelwald Bishop of Winchester in
the raigne of King Edgar, about the yeare of Christ, 963.
hee, in a greate famine, solde away all the sacred vessels of
his Church, for to relieue the almost starued people, saying
that there was no reason that the senseles Temples of God
should abound in riches, and liuely Temples of the holy
Ghost to lacke it.
Bishoppe of Norwich solde his plate.
Walter de Suffilde Bishoppe of Norwich was of the like
minde: about the yeare 1245 in a time of great dearth, he
solde all his plate, and distributed it to the poore euery
Archbishoppe of Canterbury his charity.
Robert Winchelsey Archbishoppe of Canterbury, about the
yeare 1293. besides the dayly fragments of his house, gaue
euery fryday and sunday vnto euery beggar that came to his
gate, a lofe of bread sufficient for that day, and there more
vsually, euerie such Almes day in time of dearth, to the
number of 5000. and otherwise 4000. at the least: more, hee
vsed euery great Festiuall day to giue 150. pence to so
many poore people, to sende daylie meate, bread and drinke,
to such as by age, or sickenesse were not able to fetch his
almes, and to send meate, money and apparell to such as
he thought needed it.
Peter de Ickham. Ten thousand poore people dayly fed and sustained by Henrie the 2.
I reade in 1171, that Henrie the second after his returne
into England, did pennance for the slaughter of Thomas
Becket, of whom (a sore dearth increasing) ten thousand
persons, from the first of April, till new corne was inned, were
dayly fed & sustained.
Record of the Tower.; Henrie the 3. fed 6000. poore pepole in one day.
More, I find recorded that in the yeare 1236, the 20. of
Henrie the third, William de Haucrhull the kinges Treasurer
was commaunded, that vppon the day of the Circumcision of
our Lord, 6000. poore people should be fed at Westminster,
for the state of the king, Queene, and their children. The like
commaundement, the said king Henrie gaue to Hugh Gifford,
and William Browne, that vpon Fryday next after the
Epiphanie, they should cause to be fed in the great Hall at
Windsore, at a good fire, all the poore and needie children
that could be found, and the kings children being weighed and
measured, their weight and measure to be distributed for
their good estates. These fewe examples for charitie of kings
I reade in the raigne of Edward the third, that Richard de
Berie Bishop of Durham, did weekely bestow for the reliefe
of the poore eight quarters of wheate made into bread, besides
his almes dish, fragments of his house, and great summes of
mony giuen to the poore when he iourneyed. And that
these almes dishes were as well vsed at the Tables of Noble
men, as of the Prelates, one note may suffice in this place.
Duke of Glocesters almes dish, contained a great quantitie of siluer.
I reade in the yeare 1452, that Richard Duke of Yorke
then clayming the Crowne, the Lord Riuers should haue
passed the Sea about the kings business, but staying at
Plimmoth till his money was spent, and then sending for more,
the Duke of Sommerset sent him the Image of Saint George in
siluer and golde, to be solde, with the almes dish of the Duke
of Glocester, which was also of great price, for coyne had
Th. Cromwell at the great muster.
To ende of Orders and Customes in this Citie: also of great
families kept by honourable persons thither repayring. And
of charitable almes of olde time giuen, I say for conclusion,
that all noble persons, and other of honour and worship, in
former times lodging in this Citie, or liberties thereof, did
without grudging, beare their parts in charges with the Citizens,
according to their estimated estates, as I haue before said, and
could proue by examples, but let men call to minde sir Thomas
Cromwel then Lord priuie Seale, and Vicker generall, lying
in the Citie of London, hee bare his charges to the great
muster there, in Anno 1539. he sent his men in great number
to the Miles ende, and after them their armour in Carres, with
their coates of white cloth, the armes of this Citie, to wit, a red
crosse, and a sword on the breast, and backe, which armour
and coates they ware amongst the Citizens, without any
difference, and marched through the Citie to Westminster.