Parishes
Chaddleworth

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Victoria County History

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William Page and P.H. Ditchfield (eds)

Year published

1924

Pages

162-168

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'Parishes: Chaddleworth', A History of the County of Berkshire: Volume 4 (1924), pp. 162-168. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=62696 Date accessed: 30 September 2014.


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CHADDLEWORTH with WOOLLEY

Ceadelanuurthe (x cent.); Cedeledorde, Cedeneord (xi cent.); Chedileswrth, Chedeleswrth (xii cent.); Chedelworth (xii–xiii cent.); Chedlesworth, Cheddeworth (xiii cent.); Chadlyngworth, Chadworth (xvi cent.).

The parish of Chaddleworth, which lies on the southern slope of the Berkshire downs, contains 3,400 acres, of which rather more than half are arable, while the remainder is almost equally divided between permanent grass and woods and plantations. (fn. 1) The soil is chalk, covered in places by clay with flints; the chief crops are wheat, barley and oats. The parish consists of two townships or tithings, Chaddleworth and Woolley. The village of Chaddleworth lies round the church, upon the top of a hill, while Woolley consists only of Woolley Park and Farm and a few cottages. The highest point in the parish is at Woolley House, which stands a little more than 600 ft. above the ordnance datum, while the lowest, at the south-west corner of the parish, is 370 ft. No railway runs through the parish, the nearest station being at West Shefford, on the Lambourn Valley branch of the Great Western railway. The high road from Hungerford to Wantage forms a considerable part of the western boundary of the parish, and for a short distance lies within its borders. The population is entirely agricultural. The common lands of Chaddleworth were inclosed by Act of Parliament in 1811. (fn. 2) Woolley Park is the seat of Mr. Philip Musgrave Neeld Wroughton, Chaddleworth House is the residence of Mr. F. N. Lloyd, and Oakash of Mr. W. L. Lucas.

The site of Poughley Priory is in the extreme south-east corner of the parish, 1½ miles to the south of Chaddleworth village in a secluded spot surrounded by woods, and is now partly occupied by a farm-house. The only conspicuous fragment of the priory buildings remaining is a portion of the western range now incorporated with the farm-house, but the ground plan of the church is said to have been examined. No plan, however, appears to have been made, nor any adequate record kept, and the site is now turfed over. The east front of the farm-house consists of a wall of flint and stone, nearly 4 ft. thick, in the upper part of which is a blocked window of two trefoiled lancet lights, and near it a carved sitting figure, the latter probably an inserted fragment. The window, however, indicates this portion of the conventual buildings to have been of 13th-century date. Above the carved figure is a stone with the initials M L R I and the date 1613, which may possibly give the year of the building of the house. The other window and the doorway are modern. The house was enlarged on the west side in 1796, when 'a large heap of earth was removed and thrown into pits, probably fish ponds, about the farm.' The lid of a stone coffin inscribed 'Hieronimus Robertus Prior Primus' was then found, 'in removing the foundations of the chapel,' but was taken to East Hendred. Many other architectural remains have since been discovered, including a second coffin-lid with the full-length figure of a priest, a piscina, a carved corbel, a fragment of a clustered column and some encaustic tiles. Twelve quarries of glass from the priory are at Prior's Court, Chieveley. (fn. 3)

There are three round barrows at the south end of Woolley Down, which have been rifled but not scientifically explored; an earthenware pot containing 800 Roman coins is said to have been dug up near Poughley, (fn. 4) though it seems probable that this statement refers to a similar discovery just beyond the parish boundary in the parish of Welford (fn. 5) (q.v.).

Manors

Certain lands here were held in the 10th century by Wulfric, who was deprived of them for some offence, but they were restored to him by King Edgar in 960. (fn. 6) There were two manors in CHADDLEWORTH at the time of the Domesday Survey, and of these the most important had been held of Countess Gytha and her son Gurth as two manors by two freemen. (fn. 7) It passed afterwards to Oda of Winchester, who gave it to Robert, the steward of Hugh de Port. At the time of the Domesday Survey it was held by the abbey of Winchester, but by what right the men of the shire did not know. (fn. 8) It seems afterwards to have passed with the majority of Oda's lands to Rogerd' lvry, (fn. 9) and was included in the honour of St. Valery. (fn. 10)

It is probable that when Bernard de St. Valery founded the abbey of Lieu Dieu in France (fn. 11) he granted to the monks there his lands in Chaddleworth, for the abbot of that monastery was holding land here in 1220–1. (fn. 12) Later in the 13th century Robert de Chaddleworth held 5 hides here of the abbey for a rent of 10 marks yearly, (fn. 13) and in 1247 John, the abbot, with the convent of Lieu Dieu, sold all their rent and right in Chaddleworth to the Abbot and convent of Netley in Hampshire. (fn. 14)

The other manor of Chaddleworth, which was assessed at 4 hides, had been held of King Edward the Confessor by Edward, but at the time of the Survey it was in the hands of Robert Doyley. (fn. 15) It was held in the reign of Henry I by Ralph Basset, Chief Justice of England, and he granted it to the abbey of Abingdon with the consent of all his sons. (fn. 16) These lands were confirmed to the abbey by Pope Eugenius III in 1146. (fn. 17) Ralph was succeeded by his son Thurstan, whose son Richard endeavoured to recover the lands in 1158. The abbey appealed to the king, and Richard was compelled to confirm the monks in their possession of the manor, reserving only the right of obtaining wood from it for his manor at Letcombe Bassett. (fn. 18) The abbey continued to receive a rent from this manor (fn. 19) until the Dissolution, (fn. 20) but the manor itself was held of them as early as 1182 by Robert de Chaddleworth. (fn. 21)


Abingdon Abbey. Argent a cross paly between four martlets sable.

In 1218–19 Henry de Bagnor and his wife sold land in Chaddleworth to Emma de Rokele and others, (fn. 22) and in 1236 to Alan de Farnham, (fn. 23) who had in 1224–5 sold an estate here to Richard and Robert de Chaddleworth. (fn. 24) In 1229–30 Robert de Chaddleworth and others conveyed lands here to Richard, (fn. 25) but in 1230 Robert was still holding property at Chaddleworth (fn. 26) of both the abbeys of Abingdon and Lieu Dieu. (fn. 27) He is referred to in 1275–6, (fn. 28) but was dead before 1281, when Thomas de la Penne held the lands as one manor in right of Mabel his wife, who may perhaps have been Robert's daughter, and sold them with her consent to Queen Eleanor, (fn. 29) widow of King Henry III. The queen, wishing to support the state of Eleanor of Britanny, then a nun at Amesbury, asked for permission in 1284 to grant this manor to the prioress and nuns there. (fn. 30) The inquisition then held states that part of the manor was held of the Abbot of Netley, who held of the honour of St. Valery, while the remainder was held of the abbey of Abingdon. (fn. 31) The Earl of Cornwall, presumably as lord of the honour of St. Valery, held view of frankpledge there once a year. (fn. 32) Licence to alienate the manor was granted in 1284, (fn. 33) and in 1286 the prioress and nuns obtained a grant of free warren. (fn. 34)

The Prioress of Amesbury purchased more lands there in 1311–12 from Reynold le Frankeleyn, (fn. 35) and was holding the manor in 1316, (fn. 36) and again in 1344 acquired more land from Geoffrey Wauncy. (fn. 37) In 1517 the nuns and their tenants had converted land here into sheep runs. (fn. 38) At the Dissolution Chaddleworth passed to the Crown. (fn. 39)

In 1542 the king granted the manor to William Sharyngton, (fn. 40) groom of the privy chamber, who had licence in June 1544 to sell it to Henry Brouncker and John Pert. (fn. 41) Henry Brouncker was holding the manor in 1568, when the capital messuage was held of him by William Hyde, (fn. 42) and died at Erlestoke, co. Wilts., 18 July 1569, when he was succeeded by his son William. (fn. 43) In 1577 William Brouncker sold the manor to William Nelson, (fn. 44) chief prothonotary of the Court of Common Pleas. (fn. 45) William died 13 August 1590 seised of this manor, which passed under a settlement of the previous month to his widow Dorothy. (fn. 46) She afterwards married William Rankyn, and in 1597 granted her interest in the manor with his consent to Thomas son and heir of William Nelson, (fn. 47) who had attained his full age a few months earlier and had livery of the manor. (fn. 48) Thomas died in 1647, (fn. 49) when he was succeeded by his son William, who placed the manor in settlement in 1656. (fn. 50) He was twice married, and died before 1682, when his eldest son Thomas Nelson was dealing with the manor. (fn. 51) Thomas died 27 May 1692, leaving a son Thomas, (fn. 52) who was holding the manor in 1704 (fn. 53) and 1740, (fn. 54) and died 6 April 1748, leaving a widow Isabel and two daughters Mary and Elizabeth, (fn. 55) who were living unmarried in 1759. (fn. 56) Mary subsequently married Richard Walter, and their son Richard Walter, who assumed the additional name of Nelson, was holding the manor in 1806. (fn. 57) He seems to have died without issue, when the manor passed to his nephew George Kerr, the son of his sister. George Kerr took the name of Nelson, built the present Chaddleworth House between 1809 and 1811, and died in 1821, leaving two sons, both under age. The elder of these seems to have died soon afterwards, for it was the younger, George Kerr Nelson, who sold the manor in 1837 to Bartholomew Wroughton of Woolley Park, (fn. 58) since which date the manor of Chaddleworth has passed with that of Woolley (q.v.).


Nelson. Or a cross paty sable with a baston gules over all.

The hermitage of Elenfordesmer, in this parish, was granted by Ralph de Chaddleworth before 1181 for a foundation of Augustinian canons, who built there the house later known as POUGHLET PRIORT. (fn. 59) The priory was dissolved in 1524 and the site was granted to Wolsey's college at Oxford. (fn. 60) After the fall of the cardinal it was taken into the king's hands and given to the Abbot and convent of Westminster in exchange for certain lands at Westminster now forming part of St. James's Park. (fn. 61) At the Dissolution the site was transferred to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. (fn. 62) In 1649 it was sold to Adam Jordan, who sold it to John Elwes, (fn. 63) but at the Restoration it returned to the Dean and Chapter. It was purchased about 1900 of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners by the late Mr. Philip Wroughton.

The curious manorial custom by which an incontinent widow recovered her freebench is said to have prevailed at Chaddleworth as at Enborne (fn. 64) (q.v.).

Oakash, a house in this parish, is called Ockendishe in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. (fn. 65) In 1664 it was owned by Gabriel Pile, third son of Sir Francis Pile of Compton Beauchamp. (fn. 66) It has lately been restored by its present owner, Mr. W. L. Lucas.

The manor of WOOLLEY (Olvelei, xi cent.; Olvelay, Wolvel, Wulay, Wolvelay, xii cent.; Wolvey, xiv cent.; Wolleighe, Wolley, xvi cent.) was held by Earl Ralph of King Edward the Confessor, but at the time of the Domesday Survey it was in the hands of William Peverel, (fn. 67) who gave it to his daughter Adeliza or Alice on her marriage with Richard de Rivers. Between the years 1142 and 1155 Adeliza, with the consent of her sons and grandsons, gave the manor to the abbey of Montebourg. (fn. 68) This grant was subsequently confirmed by William Peverel, Adeliza's brother, (fn. 69) by her son Baldwin de Rivers, first Earl of Exeter, (fn. 70) and by his son Richard. (fn. 71) In 1171 the gift was confirmed by King Henry II, (fn. 72) and about 1196 by William de Vernon Earl of Devon, the second son and ultimate heir of Baldwin the first earl. William, it would seem, had resumed the manor and was then restoring it to the abbey. (fn. 73)

In 1204 the manor was taken into the king's hands owing to the wars with France, (fn. 74) but it was restored later, for the abbey was holding it in 1220–1, (fn. 75) and Ralph de Woolley, who had purchased lands here from Joan le Breton about the year 1240, (fn. 76) was at the same time holding the manor at farm of the abbey, (fn. 77) into which he entered as a brother a few years later (fn. 78) ; he was, however, allowed to continue holding the manor, with which we find him connected in 1256 (fn. 79) and 1265. (fn. 80)

The priory of Appuldurcombe in the Isle of Wight was a cell of the abbey of Montebourg, (fn. 81) and though in 1316 Wolley was held by the abbey (fn. 82) it was described as the property of the priory of Appuldurcombe in 1324 when it was in the king's hands as land belonging to an alien priory. (fn. 83) The manor was confirmed to the abbey in 1330 (fn. 84) and 1333, (fn. 85) but was finally seized when the priory of Appuldurcombe was dissolved by King Henry V in 1414, when it was given with the rest of the priory lands into the custedy of the Nuns Minoresses without Aldgate. (fn. 86) The priory and lands were granted to the Minoresses in perpetuity in 1443 and confirmed to them in 1461. (fn. 87) They remained in possession till 1539, (fn. 88) when the convent was surrendered to the king by Elizabeth Savage, the last abbess, and the manor of Woolley passed to the Crown. (fn. 89)

The abbess leased the manor in 1501 to Richard Deacons for sixty years, (fn. 90) and Richard sold this lease in 1503 to Robert Tate. (fn. 91) This Robert may, perhaps, be the Sir Robert Tate, mercer, who was Mayor of London in 1488. (fn. 92) He died before 1528, when his heir, Richard Tate, usher of the king's chamber, used Richard Eden, clerk, for deeds relating to this manor, which Eden also claimed. (fn. 93) The dispute was settled 6 February that year in favour of Richard Tate, (fn. 94) and the lease was confirmed to him by the abbess in 1529. (fn. 95) On 24 July 1537 the abbess sold the reversion, after the expiration of Tate's lease, to George Gyfford, (fn. 96) but two years later had to surrender the manor to the king. (fn. 97)

Richard Tate leased the manor to John Blandy of Chaddleworth for twenty years and in 1540 sold the reversion of this lease to Thomas Smith (fn. 98) ; on 9 September 1540 the received from the king a grant of this manor in exchange for jewels to the value of £220. (fn. 99) In 1543 Richard purchased the reversion of the lease that had been granted to George Gyfford, (fn. 100) and in 1549 bought the chapel of Woolley with its tithes, (fn. 101) which he leased with the manor in 1550 for sixty years to John Blandy. (fn. 102) In 1552 a marriage was contemplated between Bartholomew Tate and Eleanor daughter of Richard Pauncefoot, Richard Tate's great-niece, and the manor was settled upon them. This marriage seems not to have taken place, perhaps owing to the death of Eleanor, for a few months later Richard made a settlement in favour of his nephew Richard Pauncefoot, Bartholomew Tate being a party to the transaction. (fn. 103) Richard Tate was knighted in 1553, and died 27 March 1554, when this manor passed under the settlement of 1552 to his nephew. (fn. 104)

Richard Pauncefoot of Hasfield, Gloucestershire, was a son of John Pauncefoot by Bridget, one of the sisters of Sir Richard Tate. He died 20 December 1558 seised of the reversion of this manor, apparently after the death of Margaret Byllyngton, widow. (fn. 105) John Pauncefoot, his son and heir, had livery of the manor 8 January 1559. (fn. 106) and leased it 20 April to his mother Dorothy for nine years. (fn. 107) He sold the manor in 1560 to his sister Margaret and John Read her husband with remainder to his other sisters. (fn. 108)

John Read and Margaret were holding the manor in 1561, (fn. 109) but sold it 20 August 1566 to Thomas Tipping and his son Bartholomew. (fn. 110) Bartholomew married Martha daughter of Robert Doyley of Merton, co. Oxon., and they placed this manor in settlement in 1610. (fn. 111) In 1617 he leased certain lands here for nineteen years to his elder son Thomas, (fn. 112) and died 24 February 1632, when he was succeeded by Thomas, who had livery of the manor 27 January 1634. (fn. 113)

Thomas married Catherine daughter of Henry Sambourne of Moulsford and died in 1655. His only daughter Catherine, wife of William Dewy, quitclaimed her interest in this manor in 1662 to her cousin John, son of her father's brother Bartholomew Tipping. (fn. 114)

John Tipping held the manor from 1662 till his death, which occurred early in the following century, (fn. 115) when the property passed to his elder son Bartholomew, (fn. 116) who was succeeded in 1718 by his son Bartholomew. This Bartholomew married Mary daughter of Mr. Alnut of Ibstone, Berks., and was hold ing the manor in 1729 (fn. 117) ; he died 11 May 1737, when he was succeeded by his eldest son Bartholomew, who married Anne daughter of Philip Henshaw of Bussocks Court, in the parish of Chieveley. Bartholomew died 11 July 1757 and his widow 2 January 1775. They were succeeded by their son Bartholomew, (fn. 118) who died unmarried 13 December 1798.


Tipping of Woolley. Or a bend engrailed vere charged with three pheons or.

Bartholomew Tipping's only sister Catherine had married John Chardin Musgrave, D.D., Provost of Oriel College, Oxford. She died 27 February 1795, leaving an only daughter Mary Ann, who became heir to her uncle. Mary Ann Musgrave married the Rev. Philip Wroughton, (fn. 119) and they rebuilt the house in 1799, employing as architect Sir Jeffrey Wyatville. (fn. 120) The Rev. Philip Wroughton died 6 January 1812, leaving two sons Bartholomew and Philip, the former of whom inherited this manor. Bartholomew Wroughton died childless in 1858 and the manor passed to his brother Philip. Philip Wroughton died 28 December 1862, leaving by his second wife Blanche daughter and co-heir of John Norris of Hughenden Manor, co. Bucks., a son Philip who succeeded to the manor. This Philip Wroughton was M.P. for Berkshire 1876–85 and for the Abingdon Division 1885 to 1895. He married, 4 February 1875, Evelyn daughter of Sir John Neeld of Grittleton, Wilts., and died 7 June 1910, when the manor passed to his only surviving son Philip Musgrave Neeld Wroughton, the present owner. (fn. 121)


Wroughton of Woolley. Argent a cheveron gules between three boars' heads proper.

Church

The church of ST. ANDREW consists of chancel, nave, south porch and west tower. There is also a vestry on the north side of the chancel and two large square pews built out from the nave on the north side.

The building has been very much altered from time to time, but appears to be substantially of late 12th-century date, to which period the present nave and lower part of the tower belong. The nave, however, represents both the chancel and nave of the original church, to which a new chancel was added in 1851. The old church is described in 1849 (fn. 122) as having been much altered and the nave modernized, and in 1881 a restoration of the entire building carried the modernization a step further, a west gallery being then removed. The Blandy pew was erected towards the east end of the north wall of the old nave in 1706, and the Wroughton pew adjoining it to the west in 1810. Both are under separate gabled roofs. The upper stage of the tower may have been rebuilt in the 15th century, a stone below the parapet bearing the date 1637 probably indicating only a restoration or renovation in that year. The porch is modern.

Being covered with rough-cast outside and internally with plaster, the old walls offer very little architectural evidence as to their age, but they appear to be of flint rubble. The south doorway is of the usual Norman type and rather earlier than other detail remaining in the old chancel and tower, but a local tradition to the effect that the doorway was brought from Poughley Priory, though apparently never corroborated, makes it difficult to argue an earlier date than c. 1195 for the fabric as a whole. The modern chancel, which measures internally 22 ft. by 16 ft. 6 in., is built of blue brick with stone dressings and has a high-pitched roof covered with blue tiles, the ridge of which is considerably higher than that of the nave. The east window is of four lights in the style of the 14th century and there is a three-light window on the south side.

The old chancel, now the eastern part of the nave, was 25 ft. in length and the nave 32 ft., giving an internal length to the present nave of 57 ft. The old chancel arch, if one existed, has disappeared, the former division being now only marked by a thinning of the walls in the eastern portion, which gives a width of 19 ft. to the former chancel as against 17 ft. 6 in. to the nave. The construction of the roofs differs inside, but externally the whole of the former nave and chancel is under a single red-tiled eaved roof. The modern chancel arch is in the style of the 13th century. No ancient ritual arrangements remain in the old chancel, but in the north wall are two lancet windows, both a good deal restored, but substantially original work of c. 1195–1200. The window on the south side is modern, and the modern boarded roof retains two old principals, the remainder to the west being entirely new.

In the south wall is an old priest's doorway with chamfered segmental head, to the west of which in the old nave is a modern three-light window. The south doorway has a semicircular arch of two orders below a quirked and chamfered hood mould, the face of the chamfer being carved with a wavy moulding set between large beads or pellets and terminating in carved heads. The outer order has a rich double cheveron moulding along either face, and the inner a plain cheveron forming a lozenge pattern in the angle. Both orders spring from enriched imposts, below which the cheveron is carried down the outer jambs to the ground. The inner jambs are badly weathered and mutilated, but have been enriched with a semicircular studded ornament. There are no shafts. The imposts of the inner order are mutilated and cut away on the inner face, but those to the outer order have a series of scallopings immediately above the jambs and are continued along the wall on either side with an egg ornament. The width of the opening is 3 ft. 6 in. and in the eastern reveal inside is a roundheaded stoup, above which are cut three small votive crosses. Above the doorway within the porch is a 15th-century canopied niche, the lower part of which has been cut away.

At the west end of the north wall of the nave is a mutilated square-headed window, apparently of 16th-century date, now of two lights, the easternmost having been blocked or removed when the Wroughton pew was erected.

The tower is of two unequal stages divided by a string-course, and measures internally 12 ft. by 7 ft. 6 in., the greater length being from north to south. It is without buttresses and has a projecting oblong vice in the north-east corner weathering back below the upper stage. The plinth is of flint-rubble, above which the walls are entirely covered with rough-cast; the west window is an old pointed opening under a round-billeted hood mould, now divided into two lights by a modern mullion. The lower stage is blank on the north and south, except for a later singlelight opening near the top on the south side, and the string has carved heads at the angles and in the middle of each side. The total height of the tower is 33 ft., the lower stage being about two-thirds of the whole, and the belfry is lighted on the north, south, and west sides by square-headed windows of two trefoiled lights without hood moulds, and on the east by a single-light cinquefoiled sanctus bell opening. The tower terminates in a straight parapet above a string-course and has a flat leaded roof. The dated stone already mentioned on the west side bears also the initials M.B., A.M. The ogee tower arch is of two chamfered orders springing from older jambs, probably an insertion when the upper stage was added. The jambs are of c. 1195. A carved head remains at the line of springing on the south side, but one on the north side has been cut away.

The font consists of a plain circular stone basin, apparently of 12th-century date, on a modern stone base, and is lined with lead. There is also a small 18th-century pillar font with fluted shaft.

A fragment of a carved 15th-century piscina, found at Poughley Priory in 1896, is preserved in the church.

The pulpit is hexagonal in plan and is a modern adaptation of an 18th-century 'three-decker' which stood to the east of the two pew 'chapels' on the north side of the nave. The sides have inlaid star panels.

The 'Blandy pew,' which belongs to the owners of Oakash, is 11 ft. 6 in. deep by 11 ft. wide and opens to the nave by a semicircular arch. The floor is 2 ft. above that of the nave, towards which it has a rail with turned balusters. The north wall is of 2½–in. brickwork, with a blocked elliptical window in the gable, and there is a curved plaster ceiling. The east wall is of flint rubble, in which a modern door has been inserted. The 'Wroughton pew,' which was built against its west wall, measures internally 11 ft. 3 in. by 11 ft. 6 in., and has a large square-headed opening to the nave with Tuscan pilasters and entablature and balustrade at floor level. The walls are panelled to a height of 4 ft. 9 in., and there is a modern window on the west side. The opening was originally much smaller and there was a glass window over the steps from the nave which could be opened and shut. Externally the walls are rough-casted. These two 'pews,' which are in the nature of rooms raised well above the floor level of the church, occupy nearly the whole of the north wall of the old nave and somewhat mar the architectural beauty of the building.

On the north wall of the old chancel are two large black marble tablets, each with the figure of a woman kneeling, to Mary wife of Thomas Nelson (d. 1618) and Dorothy wife of William Nelson (d. 1619), both of whom had seven children, who are represented in each case behind their mother. (fn. 123) There are several tablets to the Tipping, Musgrave, Nelson, Wroughton, Blandy and Humfrey families. (fn. 124) Over the chancel arch are the royal arms and a tablet of benefactions dated 1815, originally on the front of the west gallery, and on the south wall of the nave the Lord's Prayer and Commandments on two large boards, 'put up by order and at the cost and charge of Isabella Nelson, Lady of the Mannor' in 1757.

The tower contains a ring of three bells, the oldest of which was cast by Oliver Cor of Aldbourne in 1725, the third is by Robert Wells of Aldbourne, 1788, and the treble by John Warner & Sons of London, 1865. A little bell which hangs in the sanctus bell opening is dated 1635. (fn. 125)

The plate consists of a cup and cover paten of 1585, with the usual floral band around the bowl, a cup of 1717 inscribed, 'In honorem Dei B. Wroughton de Woolley Arm. in Fest. Pentecost A.D., 1844,' (fn. 126) a salver paten of 1790, and an ordinary paten of 1788, both with the same inscription. There are also a pewter flagon and a small plated paten.

The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) baptisms, marriages and burials 1538 to 1651; (ii) all entries from 1653 to 1675; (iii) mixed entries from 1678 to 1689, marriages separate from 1684 to 1714, baptisms from 1689 to 1733, and burials from 1689 to 1732; (iv) marriages to 1756 and baptisms and burials to 1797; (v) baptisms and burials from 1798 to 1812; (vi) marriages from 1756 to 1812.

On the south side of the building is the base and lower part of the shaft of a churchyard cross on two square steps. The shaft is octagonal in section and remains to a height of 28 in. The churchyard also contains a mediaeval grave cover with cross, very much weathered, and two 'fair raised arched monuments' (fn. 127) or tombs of late 16th or early 17th-century date to members of the Blandy family.

Advowson

The earliest mention of a church at Chaddleworth occurs towards the end of the 12th century, when Ralph de Chaddleworth granted it to the newly-established priory of Poughley. (fn. 128) At the Dissolution the priory still held the advowson, which followed the descent of the priory lands in the parish, (fn. 129) and now belongs to the Dean and Canons of Westminster.

In 1291 and 1340 the church was valued at £5. (fn. 130)

A chapel was erected at Woolley at an early date, for it formed part of the original endowment of Poughley given by Ralph de Chaddleworth in the 12th century. (fn. 131) At the dissolution of the priory this came into the hands of the king, who granted it in 1549 to Richard Hall and others, (fn. 132) who sold it in that year to Richard Tate, (fn. 133) owner of the manor. In 1549 it was returned as a free chapel founded by Richard Tate for a priest to say mass at certain times in the year. There was then no incumbent, and the Tates took the profits for their own use. (fn. 134) Richard Tate leased it in 1550 to John Blandy the younger, (fn. 135) and the chapel with the tithes attached to it have since gone with the manor. The chapel was pulled down before 1759, (fn. 136) and the site is still known.

Charities

The school, founded and endowed in 1719 by will of William Saunders, now consists of a school and master's house erected upon a site conveyed by deed 14 June 1823, endowed with 50 acres in Lambourn known as Foxbury Farm and with 35 acres in Brightwalton, producing with the rent of the master's house about £95 a year. The official trustees also hold a sum of £133 10s. 5d. consols arising from accumulations of income, producing £3 6s. 8d. yearly.

Susannah Wynne, by her will 1710, gave £10 a year for the benefit of a schoolmaster, issuing out of the Marridge Hill estate at Ramsbury. (fn. 137)

In 1871 Ruth Coventry, by her will proved at Oxford 29 December, bequeathed £50, the income to be applied for the instruction of two poor children to be called 'The Coventry Scholars.' The legacy, less duty, is represented by £48 10s. consols with the official trustees, producing £1 4s. yearly.

The fuel allotment containing 12 acres was acquired in 1813 under an inclosure award for the benefit of the poor in lieu of their right in cutting furze or turf from the commons. The land is let at £11 a year, and is subject to a rectorial tithe rent-charge of £2 7s. a year. The net income is applied in the distribution of coal.

The poor are also entitled to a yearly sum of £1 6s. 8d. received out of land in the parish of Lambourn, comprised in a deed of 1 January 1650. The annuity is also applied in the distribution of coal.

By the award above mentioned an allotment of 2 rods situated in Buckham Field was made to the surveyors of the highways for furnishing gravel, &c., for the repairs of the roads of the parish.

Footnotes

1 Statistics from Bd of Agric. (1905).
2 Priv. Act, 51 Geo. III, cap. 69 (not printed).
3 a Trans. Newbury Dist. Field Club (1872), ii, 49–60; v, 184. A description of the existing remains and the glass at Prior's Court is given in vol. ii. The carved figure is illustrated in Hist. of Newbury (1839), 261. A loose stone in one of the out-buildings is dated 1677.
4 Whistler, MS. Hist. of Chaddleworth; Arch. Journ. vii, 87; Hist. and Antiq. of Newbury (1839), 268; V.C.H. Berks. i, 205.
5 Trans. Newbury Dist. Field Club, ii, 60, 62; Cat. Borough of Newbury Museum; V.C.H. Berks. i, 219.
6 Chron. Mon. de Abingdon (Rolls Ser.), i, 289, 290.
7 V.C.H. Berks. i, 342–3.
8 Ibid.
9 V.C.H. Hants, iii, 457; iv, 655, 657.
10 Pipe R. 13 Hen. II (Pipe R. Soc.), 8. See the descent of this honour in Harwell in Moreton Hundred.
11 a Kennet, Parochial Antiq. (ed. 1695), 128; Dugdale, Baronage, i, 454.
12 Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 133.
13 Ibid. 124.
14 Anct. D. (P.R.O.), D 153.
15 V.C.H. Berks. i, 359.
16 Chron. Mon. de Abingdon (Rolls Ser.), ii, 170.
17 Ibid. 191–2.
18 Ibid. 188–90, 224. In 1397 the manor of Chaddleworth was said to be held of William Montagu, Earl of Salisbury, as of the castle of Christchurch Twyneham, and it is returned as a fee of the Earls of Salisbury until 1513 (Chan. Inq. p.m. 20 Ric. II, no. 35; 10 Hen. IV, no. 54; 7 Hen. VI, no. 57; [Ser. 2], xxviii, 34).
19 Chron. Mon. de Abingdon (Rolls Ser.), ii, 300, 312, 326.
20 Dugdale, Mon. i, 528.
21 Rymer, Foed. (Rec. Com.), i, 60.
22 Feet of F. Berks. 3 Hen. III, no. 38.
23 Ibid. 20 Hen. III, no. 5.
24 Ibid. 9 Hen. III, no. 51.
25 Feet of F. Berks. 14 Hen. III, no. I.
26 Cal. Pat. 1225–32, p. 367.
27 Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 124, 125.
28 Hund. R. (Rec. Com.), i, 12.
29 Feet of F. Berks. 10 Edw. I, no. 1; De Banco R. 47, m. 50d.
30 Dugdale, Mon. ii, 334, 338.
31 Inq. a.q.d. file 7, no. I.
32 Ibid.
33 Cal. Pat. 1281–92, p. 128.
34 Cal. Chart. R. 1257–1300, p. 336.
35 Inq. a.q.d. file 88, no. 12; Cal. Pat. 1307–13. P. 510.
36 Parl. Writs (Rec. Com.), ii (3), 356.
37 Cal. Close, 1343–6, p. 321; Chan. Inq. p.m. 18 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 56.
38 Leadam, Dom. of Incl. (ed. 1897), 112.
39 Dugdale, Mon. ii, 343.
40 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvii, g. 1154 (3); Pat. 34 Hen. VIII, pt. xi, m. 12.
41 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xix (1), g. 812 (114).
42 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cl, 194.
43 Ibid. clii, 166.
44 Pat. 19 Eliz. pt. iv, m. 23; Com. Pleas D. Enr. East. 19 Eliz.
45 For the earlier part of the account of this family see Visit. of Berks. (Harl. Soc.), i, 114–15, 248–9.
46 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cxxx, 24.
47 Feet of F. Berks. Hil. 39 Eliz.
48 Fine R. 38 Eliz. pt. ii, no. 8.
49 His son Thomas was buried in November 1644; the following entry was made in the parish registers: 'This was that Thomas Nelson that fought two dragoons in Hangman Stone Lane in the time of the Civill Warr and was never well afterwards' (Bibl. Topog. Brit. iv, 63).
50 Feet of F. Berks. Mich. 1656.
51 Deed in possession of Mr. J. J. Green.
52 Ashmole, Antiq. of Berks. (ed. 1723), ii, 325.
53 Recov. R. East. 3 Anne, m. 75.
54 Ibid. Mich. 14 Geo. II, m. 21.
55 Trans. Newbury Dist. Field Club, ii, 229; Bibl. Topog. Brit. iv, 59.
56 Bibl. Topog. Brit. iv, 59.
57 Lysons, Mag. Brit. i, 257.
58 Hist. of Newbury (1839), 254; Trans. Newbury Dist. Field Club, ii, 229.
59 Dugdale, Mon. viii, 1630; vi, 408, 409. The patronage of the priory was purchased by Queen Eleanor and granted with the manor of Chaddleworth to the nuns of Amesbury (ibid. ii, 338).
60 L. and P. Hen. VIII, iv, passim, v, 173.
61 Ibid. v, g. 627 (23), 404; Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. iv, App. 176b.
62 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvii, g. 714 (5).
63 Feet of F. Berks. East. 1649; Close, 1650, pt. xi, no. 40.
64 Lysons, Mag. Brit. i, 257; Hist, of Newbury (1839), 254; Quart. Journ. Berks. Arch. Soc. i, 18, 42; Cowell, Interpreter; Blount, Law Dict. (Nelson's edit.); Tomlin, Law Dict.; Wite's Mag. April 1785; Spectator, 614, 623; Barclay, Engl. Dict. under 'Bench'; Gomme, Prim. Folk-moots, 115; N. and Q. (Ser. 9), xii, 483; (Ser. 10), i, 35–6; Letters, &c., from and to Chas. Kirkpatrick Sharpe, ii, 21.
65 Cal. Chan. Proc. Eliz. (Rec. Com.), iii, 77.
66 Visit. of Berks. (Harl. Soc.), i, 261.
67 V.C.H. Berks. i, 352.
68 Dugdale, Mon. vi, 1097; Cal. Doc. France, i, 314; Extract from Chartul. of St. Mary Montebourg made by Mr. Percy Stone; ibid. from Chartul. of Loders.
69 Montisburgh Chartul.
70 Cal. Doc. France, i, 314; Montisburgh Chartul.; Loders Chartul.
71 Montisburgh Chartul.; Loders Chartul.
72 Cal. Doc. France, i, 316; Montisburgh Chartul.; Dugdale, Mon. vi, 1097.
73 Cal. Doc. France, i, 321, 322; Montisburgh Chartul.; Loders Chartul.
74 Rot. Norman. (Rec. Com.), i, 135; Cal. Rot. Pat. (Rec. Com.), 10.
75 Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 133.
76 Montisburgh Chartul.; Loders Chartul.
77 Testa de Nevill (Rec. Com.), 125.
78 Loders Chartul.
79 Ibid.
80 Ibid.
81 Dugdale, Mon. vi, 1000.
82 Feud. Aids, i, 50.
83 Mins. Accts. bdle. 1126, no. 16.
84 Cal. Chart. R. 1327–41, p. 159.
85 Cal. Pat. 1330–4, p. 396; Loders Chartul.
86 a Cal. Pat. 1413–16, p. 280.
87 Ibid. 1441–6, p. 235; 1461–7, p. 88.
88 Wroughton MSS. Wolley, 1, 2, 4, 5; Leadam, Dom. of Incl. (ed. 1897), 112.
89 Dugdale, Mon. vi, 1553.
90 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, I.
91 Ibid. 2.
92 Visit. of Notts. (Harl. Soc.), 84.
93 Ct. of Req. bdles. I, no. 41; 4, no. 123; 5, no. 186.
94 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 4.
95 Ibid. 6.
96 Ibid.
97 Dugdale, Mon. vi, 1553.
98 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 7.
99 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xvi, g. 107 (33); Pat. 32 Hen. VIII, pt. iii; Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 8.
100 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 9.
101 Ibid. II, 14.
102 Ibid. 15–17.
103 Ibid. 18; Com. Pleas D. Enr. Trin. 6 Edw. VI, m. 3 d.; Feet of F. Berks. Trin. 6 Edw. VI; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), c, 5.
104 Shaw, Knights of Engl. ii, 67; Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), c, 5.
105 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), c, 5; cxxii, 62.
106 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 24.
107 Ibid. 22, 23.
108 Ibid. 25.
109 Ibid. 26.
110 Pat. 8 Eliz. pt. iv, m. 18; Feet of F. Berks. Hil. 9 Eliz.; Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 27–36.
111 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 38; Notes of F. Div. Co. Mich. 8 Jas. I; Visit. of Berks. (Harl. Soc.), i, 293.
112 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 39.
113 Ibid. 40, 42.
114 Feet of F. Berks. East. 14 Chas. II; Visit. of Berks. i, 134. This John had been a party to a fine of 1647, when Thomas Tipping and his second wife Elizabeth were dealing with the manor (Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 43, 49, 50; Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 22 Chas. 1).
115 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 54, 57, 58–61; Feet of F. Berks. Trin. 24 Chas. II. His will was proved II Nov. 1702 (Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 66).
116 Feet of F. Berks. Hil. I Anne; Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 67.
117 Recov. R. Mich. 3 Geo. II, m. 163.
118 Feet of F. Div. Co. East. 2 Geo. III.
119 Ibid. Berks. Mich. 40 Geo. III.
120 Dict. Nat. Biog. 'Wyatville.'
121 The history of the Tipping and Wroughton families has been compiled from notes taken from parish registers, monumental inscriptions, &c., by Miss Blanche Wroughton, sister of the late Mr. Philip Wroughton.
122 Parker, Eccl. Topog. Berks. 143.
123 The rhyming inscriptions are given in Ashmole, Antiq. of Berks. (1719), ii, 269–70, and in Hist. of Newbury (1839), 256.
124 The inscriptions on the older monuments are given in Hist. of Newbury, 255–7. See also Coll. Par. Hist. Berks. 60–3.
125 The inscriptions are: (1) 'Cast by John Warner & Sons, London, 1865'; (2) 'E. H. & I. N. C. W., O. Cor 1725'; (3) 'I. New & A. Road Church Wardens, Robert Wells Aldbourne fecit 1788.'
126 On the inside of the bowl reading backwards are the words 'Bentley Chalis.'
127 Ashmole, op. cit. ii, 271.
128 Dugdale, Mon. vi, 409.
129 See above; Inst. Bks. (P.R.O.). A list of the vicars of Chaddleworth will be found in Trans. Newbury Dist. Field Club, ii, 228; of these the only one of note was Robert Milman, vicar 1840–51 and Bishop of Calcutta 1867–76 (Dict. Nat. Biog.).
130 Pope Nich. Tax. (Rec. Com.), 188; Inq. Nonarum (Rec. Com.), 8.
131 Dugdale, Mon. vi, 409.
132 Pat. 3 Edw. VI, pt. vi, m. 42; Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 12.
133 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 11, 14.
134 a See Chant. Cert. 51, no. 39.
135 Wroughton MSS. Woolley, 16, 17.
136 Bibl. Topog. Brit. iv, 65.
137 See 'Schools,' V.C.H. Berks. ii, 284.


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