These were granted from time to time by the Royal Charters given to the City and were jealously guarded by the Mayor and Commonalty.
It was decided by Inquisition taken 8 Ed. II. that none of the King's Justices could hold pleas on behalf of the King in the City (Ch. I. p.m. 8 Ed. II. 68).
A hostel for the use of the King's household could not be taken by force in the City, but only by grant of the Mayor and Sheriffs, 19 Ed. II. (Cal. L. Bk. E. p. 206).
London Provident Institution
On the east side of Blomfield Street (O.S. 1880).
These are perhaps sufficiently indicated in the list of authorities set out at the commencement of this work, but it may not be amiss to deal with them somewhat more in detail.
London is rich in municipal records, and in spite of numerous fires that have devastated the City from time to time, these records have been preserved in wonderful completeness to the present day.
The earliest records relating to the City are to be found in charters, grants, etc., contained in the MSS. in the British Museum, the MSS. of the Dean and Chapter of St. Paul's in Chartularies and other private collections, and in the Ancient Deeds, etc., in the Record Office. These have been made available in : Kemble, "Codex Diplomaticus, Aevi Saxonici," 6 Vols. Birch, "Cartularium Anglo Saxonicum," 3 Vols. and Index of Names. Thorpe, "Diplomatarium Anglicum Aevi Saxonici." Calendar of Ancient Deeds in the Record Office, 6 Vols., and other publications of the Record Office, viz. the Rolls Series, etc.; Historical Manuscripts Commission, Reports and Appendices in progress. Dugdale's "Monasticon Anglicanum," 8 Vols.
Numerous original charters and grants at present unpublished can be consulted in the Record Office, in the MS. room at the British Museum, in the Guildhall and elsewhere.
The municipal records proper commence with the "Liber de Antiquis Legibus" (pub. Camden Society), containing the Chronicle of the Mayors and Sheriffs, 1188 to 1274, with some records of an earlier date, including extracts from various chronicles of events relating to London, etc.
The admirable series of Letter Books of the Corporation, as they are called, commence with the reign of Edward I., and as a contemporary record of events form an invaluable series illustrating the government of the City, and the social, political and commercial life of the citizens. The MSS. are preserved in the Guildhall, but the contents of the earlier ones have been made available by Dr. R. R. Sharpe in the "Calendars of the Letter-Books of the Corporation of the City of London," 11 Vols., A-L, and by Mr. W. H. Riley in his "Memorials of London Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries."
The records of the Court of Hustings are preserved in the Hustings Rolls in the Guildhall, and some of these records have been published in the "Calendar of Wills of the Court of Hustings," 1258-1688, 2 Vols., ed. by Dr. R. R. Sharpe, published by direction of the Corporation of the City of London.
The Corporation have also published "Munimenta Gildhallae," containing the "Liber Albus," and "Liber Custumarum," 4 Vols. of records relating to the trade, commerce and government of the City from the time of Henry III. The Analytical Index to the "Remembrancia," 1579-1664, was published 1878.
Besides these published works there are in the Guildhall other records of the City such as the Repertories and Journals of the Court of Aldermen, etc.
In addition to these admirable municipal records much information with regard to property in London can be derived from the Patent Rolls, Close Rolls, Charter Rolls, Inquisitions post mortem, made available in the invaluable series of Calendars published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls, alluded to above.
Other records of London containing much valuable information have been available in : "The French Chronicle of London," extending from 44 Henry III. to 17 Edward III., published by the Camden Society, from a MS. in the Cottonian Collection. "The Chronicles of London," 1189 to 1483, published 1827. "Annales Londoniensis." "Annales Paulini" (13th and 14th century records) contained in "Chronicles of the reigns of Edward I. and II.," ed. Rolls Series. "Chronicles of London," ed. C. L. Kingsford.
This list does not pretend to be exhaustive, but it will serve to indicate the masses of material that are available to the student and to assist in directing him to the original documents, so invaluable for purposes of historical study and research.
The privilege of sanctuary, or refuge, for those who were guilty of manslaughter, etc., was frequently included in the charters of privileges granted to the monastic houses, and in many cases the rights survived within the precincts of these establishments even after the house and its surroundings had been swept away. The most notable were St. Martin's le Grand and St. Mary le Bow Church, but many others survived as late as the 8 and 9 Wm. III., such as White Friars, Salisbury Court, Ram Alley, Mitre Court, Fuller's Rents, Baldwin's Gardens, Montagu Close, Minories, Mint, Clink, Deadman's Place (N. and Q. 11th S. VI. 306 and 372).
A rounded block of stone set in a large stone case, in which is an oval opening through which it can be seen. Built into the south wall of St. Swithin's Church on the north side of Cannon Street (O.S.).
Earliest mention : Stow says it is mentioned in a Gospel book given by King Athelstan to Christ's Church Canterbury (S. 226).
He describes it as on the south side of Cannon Street, where it is shown in Leake's map, opposite the south-west corner of St. Swithin's Church. But it appears from the Vestry Minute Book of St. Swithin's that in 1742 the stone commonly called London Stone was ordered to be removed and placed against the church on the east side of the door (Price, Rom. Pavement in Bucklersbury, p. 60).
In 1798 it was again removed and placed in its present position (p. 63).
It is oolite stone, such as was used by the Romans in their buildings (p. 62), and Strype tells us that it was much worn away and only a stump remaining, so that to preserve it it was cased over with stone "cut hollow underneath, so that the old Stone might be seen, the new one being over it, to shelter and defend the old venerable one" (Strype, ed 1720, I. ii. 200).
Stow tells us that in his time the stone was fastened very deeply into the ground with bars of iron and so strongly set that if carts ran against it the stone remained unshaken (S. 226).
Many suggestions have been made as to the origin of the stone : That it formed part of a large upright stone, or of a monument or building of the Romans (Price, p. 56). Camden calls it a "Milliarium" or milestone, from which the British high-roads radiated and from which the distances on them were reckoned, similar to the one in the forum at Rome. Wren agrees with this, but suggests that it was not simply a pillar but a building like the Milliarium Aureum at Constantinople (ib. 58-9).
Perhaps used for proclamations, etc., or a monument of heathen worship (Strype, ed. 1720, I. ii. 194).
The stone is frequently alluded to in London records to mark the situation of adjacent houses and property, etc., and appears from early times as a surname of London citizens.
The first Mayor of London was named Henricus Filius Eylwini de Londenestane, 1188 (Lib. de Antiq. Leg. p. 1), his house being situated near at hand.
See Oxford Place ; Waetmundes Stone.
South out of Fenchurch Street at No. 59 and west to 74 Mark Lane (P.O. Directory). The northern portion in Aldgate Ward, the southern in Tower Ward (O.S.).
Earliest mention : P.C. 1732.
Other name : "New London Street" (Horwood, 1799).
Parish boundary stone in the street, ALL
The following extract as to the rebuilding of the City after the Fire may be of interest :
To provide for the rebuilding of the streets after the Fire of 1666, an Act was passed in 1667 deciding which should be accounted high and principal streets, which streets or lanes of note, which bye-lanes, six only were accounted high and principal streets, 214 lanes, alleys, etc. (L. and P. Chas. II. 1666-7, p. 577).
London Tavern, Bishopsgate
On the west side of Bishopsgate. In Bishopsgate Ward Within, on the western boundary of the Ward (1765-1876).
Designed by W. Jupp. Famous for its dinners, etc.
The Royal Bank of Scotland is said to have been erected on the site 1877-8.
London Tavern, Mark Lane
At the north-west corner of Mark Lane at its junction with Fenchurch Street, at Nos. 53 and 54 (P.O. Directory).
Formerly called the King's Head Tavern and Henry the Eighth's Head Tavern, lately rebuilt (Povah's Annals, p. 306).
See Wall of London.
London Wall (Street)
West from Old Broad Street to Cripplegate (P.O. Directory).
A street on the line of the old Wall of London (q.v.). In Broad Street Ward, Bassishaw Ward, Coleman Street Ward and Cripplegate Ward Within.
First mention of the street : In 1388 mention is made of the "highway near London Wall" (Ct. H.W. II. 269). Stow seems to apply the term "London Wall" to the street (p. 82). In 1386 there seems to have been a street here called "Babeloyne" (q.v.).
The houses and buildings adjoining to and opposite to the City Wall, formed prior to its removal in the 17th century a continuous row of houses on the south side. The ruins of the wall occupied the north side as late as 1761 (Dodsley). Then a heap of rubbish and no Roman work visible.
In time of Chas. I. houses were built on the City Wall, from Aldgate to the Postern on both sides, without in the Minories and within the Gate to the Postern (L. and P. Chas. I. Dom. S. XXII. p. 422).
The eastern end was called "All Hallows in the wall" in Strype's time (ed. 1720, I. ii. 131).
Strype calls it "London Wall Street" (ib.). "Soe called as having the City Wall running along the north side" (ib.).
Strype describes it as consisting of old timber houses, of no great account, only curriers living there, in consequence of which this portion was known as "Currier's Row." The greatest ornaments of the street at that time were Sion College and New Bethlem Hospital.
All Hallows in the Wall and St. Alphage Church both stood on the north side adjoining the Wall in early times, and a fragment of the old Wall can still be seen enclosed on the north side of the street in the churchyard of St. Alphage, opposite Aldermanbury. London Wall is now a most important business thoroughfare.
Important Roman remains have been found in this street and neighbourhood from time to time, viz. Urns found at Finsbury (Arch. XXIX. 147).
Opposite Finshury Chambers a subterranean aqueduct was found at a depth of 19 ft. running towards Finsbury under the houses of the Circus for about 20 ft. Arch at the opening, 3 ft. 6 in. high. It took a southern course for 60 yds., the entrance was apparently above ground and open to the air. Many Roman coins, vessels, and sepulchral stones, etc., found (Arch. XIX. 152, and R. Smith, 26).
The Roman wall was found near Circus Place on the site of Old Bethlehem Hospital. Excavations were made to observe its construction over Walbrook, opposite Carpenters' Hall, at the corner of Throgmorton Avenue. The height of the wall was 133/4 ft. The base of the wall was found at a depth of 19 ft. The line of the wall ran 5 ft. south of the line marked on the O.S. map. Sand and silt found at a depth of 15 feet. Wall found also under No, 123, west of Moorgate, with the Ditch 50 feet from the wall, at a depth of 18 feet.
A sewer of Roman workmanship was found at a depth of 18 ft. 4 in. a few feet eastward of Carpenters' Buildings, embedded in masonry, 12 ft. wide. At a distance of 14 ft. south from London Wall it terminated in a mouth cut to the slope of the Ditch. Converted on the northern side into a place of sepulchre and Roman pottery and coins found (Arch. lx. 237, and Tite xxxii.).
From Great Moorgate to Little Moorgate the sewer lies in gravel.
London Wall Avenue
Out of London Wall at No. 31 (P.O. Directory).
First mention : L.C.C. List, 1901.
London Wall Buildings
On the north side of London Wall, at Blomfield Street. In Coleman Street Ward (P.O. Directory).
First mention : L.C.C. List, 1912.
On the west side of Bishopsgate Street (Strype, 1720-Elmes, 1831).
"Crown Yard" in O. and M. 1677.
Founded by Act of Parliament in 1649 for the relief and employment of the poor. Constituted a body corporate 1662, the governors being the Lord Mayor, Aldermen, etc. Recently (1831) pulled down (Elmes).
Site now occupied by Liverpool Street Station and the railway lines.
London Workhouse Yard
In Bishopsgate Street, leading to the London Workhouse (Dodsley, 1761).
Near Fleet Ditch, at Blackfriars (P.C. 1732-Boyle, 1799).
Not named in the maps.
Out of Fetter Lane, in Farringdon Ward Without (P.C. 1732).
Not named in the maps.
South of and adjoining the Wall of London, to the north of Blackfriars (O. and M. 1677).
Afterwards called "Stonecutters Alley" and "Little Bridge Street" (q.v.).
West out of Aldersgate Street to West Smithfield (P.O. Directory). In Aldersgate Ward and Farringdon Ward Without.
First mention : 24 H. VIII. (Anc. Deeds, B. 3622).
It formed one of the boundaries of Great St. Bartholomew's Close in 36 H. VIII. (L. and P. H. VIII. XIX. (1), p. 376).
So called for its length (S. 382, and Strype, ed. 1720, I. iii. 122).
Long Shop in Cheap
A long shop or shed encroaching on the high street before the wall of St. Peter's church in Cheap was licensed to be made in 1401 and to be let (S. 316).
No later reference.