Statistical material, 1086-1768

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Victoria County History

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Mary D. Lobel (editor)

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1959

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353-361

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'Statistical material, 1086-1768', A History of the County of Oxford: Volume 6 (1959), pp. 353-361. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63756 Date accessed: 24 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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STATISTICAL MATERIAL FOR PLOUGHLEY HUNDRED

STATISTICAL MATERIAL FOR THE VILLAGES AND HAMLETS OF PLOUGHLEY HUNDRED 1086–1768

ESTATES AND TENANTS IN 1086 AND 1279

The following table shows the number of Domesday estates and the number of recorded persons working on them in 1086; and the number of manors and lesser estates in 1279 with the numbers of free and unfree tenants attached to them.

DOMESDAY SURVEY 1086 (fn. 1) HUNDRED ROLLS SURVEY 1279 (fn. 2)
No. of estatesVillaniBordarsSerfsTotal no. of tenantsNo. of manorsNo. of lesser estatesFree tenantsNativiServiCottarsTotal no. of tenants
Ardley18152315914
Bicester12814547131417
Bignell (fn. 3) 272330
Wretchwick1 (fn. 4) 125732
Total2281454741062779
Bletchingdon29772321182038
Boycott (Bucks.) (fn. 5) 111113619
Bucknell16331212213419
Saxenton294132911
Total315732512422430
Charlton111526233
Fencott230840
Murcott11
Total11511632118561074
Chesterton, Great113242855 (fn. 6)
" Little2810
Total1221023415322865
Cottisford11051511515121
Finmere2105419142933
Fringford21884302419831
Fritwell21273222111414544
Godington116211912721634
Hampton Gay21118210
Hampton Poyle1722111615728
Hardwick1 (fn. 7) 527122810
Hethe18511411126229
Heyford, Lower2211920
Caulcott163339
Total21112528217331959
Heyford, Upper1101314131 (fn. 8) 738
Islip1105217163440
Kirtlington44225471143640278
Northbrook1213169116
Total54425574244249394
DOMESDAY SURVEY 1086 (fn. 9) HUNDRED ROLLS SURVEY 1279 (fn. 10)
No. of estatesVillaniBordarsSerfsTotal no. of tenantsNo. of manorsNo. of lesser estatesFree tenantsNativiServiCottarsTotal no. of tenants
Launton116464
Lillingstone Lovell (Bucks.) (fn. 11) 282111316101541
Middleton Stoney1257537118 (fn. 12) 2745
Mixbury118111301371148
Fulwell13216177
Willaston118119
Total221132363551974
Newton Purcell179622
Noke2 (fn. 13) 362112815629
Oddington11042162211314
Shelswell17721613710
Somerton31792282152843
Northbrook295142
Total5261424222152843
Souldern172532
Stoke Lyne1 (fn. 14) 349245261413235
Bainton1123151116
Fewcot44610
Total2351124834152519261
Stratton Audley18211121644858
Tusmore1 (fn. 14) 23110920
Wendlebury1453122291322
Weston1171153315351050
Total544242258072955292648201031881,375

Holders of burgagii are recorded only at Middleton Stoney, and the men known to have been 'living on the market' at Bicester were not recorded. (fn. 15) The villein tenants included nativi, servi, cottagarii, cottarii, and coterelli. Generally speaking nativi and servi appear to be alternative words for the class of villeins who held a virgate or half-virgate. At Stoke Lyne, for instance, where there were two manors, the virgaters were listed as nativi on one and as servi on the other, and their recorded services were the same in each case. (fn. 16) The other three classes of tenants have all been tabulated as cottars. Though there may have been some differences in status, the survey makes no clear distinction between them. At Wretchwick the list of those holding either cotlands or cottages is headed coterelli: the cotlander owes services and a higher rent than the cottager, who has no recorded services. (fn. 17) At Stoke those described as cottagarii are distinguished from the holders of cotlands, who mostly owed the same services as the half-virgaters, but paid 6s. rent instead of 5s. At Heyford the nativi all held cotlands. (fn. 18) In other places where tenants of cotlands are listed with the nativi or servi it appears to be merely a case of the lack of precision which often characterizes the survey. (fn. 19) Lillingstone Lovell and a few other villages had free cottars. (fn. 20)

The survey of 1279 for this hundred gives a very detailed tenurial picture compared with that of many other hundreds, but evidence from other sources shows that in at least some cases it is unreliable. (fn. 21) It contains also a number of scribal errors, such as omissions and duplications of names, which make any accurate reconstruction of the system of tenure difficult. (fn. 22)

As a basis for the assessment of population in 1086 or 1279 the preceding figures are unsatisfactory. The difficulties with regard to the interpretation of the Domesday figures are well known and there is no reason to suppose that they were any more accurate than those of 1279. Both surveys recorded only a few of the existing priests, and even if it is assumed that most tenants were heads of families, the size of the average family can only be conjectured and there is no clue to the number of household servants, which other medieval sources indicate to have been generally numerous. Moreover, in the preceding table a few free tenants are duplicated, as they held more than one holding, either in the same or in different parishes, and there are a few villeins who also held cottages and have therefore been reckoned twice over in the list of tenants. (fn. 23)

HONORS AND KNIGHTS' FEES (MID-13th CENTURY)

Honor and overlordManorsFeesMesne lordsTenants
WALLING FORDBicesterLongespée
Wretchwick2LongespéeAudley
Earl of ConwallStratton AudleyAudley
Chesterton2De Chesterton
Lower Heyford1De La Mare
Upper Heyford1Redvers
D'OILLYBletchingdon1Damory
Earl of WarwickBucknell and part of Tusmore1DamoryDamory
Pateshull
Fulwell1DamoryOseney Abbey
Hardwick1Fitz WythAundeley
Kirtlington½ Dives
De La Grave
Tusmore½Fitz WythAundeley
Weston-on-the-Green2? DamoryOseney Abbey
ARSICFringford Grey
Gardiner
FritwellGrey
Newton PurcellSergeantyGreyPurcel
Somerton Grey
Gardiner
CHESTER Earl of ArundelArdley with Northbrook in Somerton1Earl of WarwickFitz Wyth
RICHARD'S CASTLE MortimerSouldernDe Arderne
GIFFARDStoke Lyne with lands in Tusmore1Earl of OxfordDe Lisle
½De Cokefield
HONOR OF GLOUCESTERFinmere1De Turri—De Broke
Hampton Gay with Otley in Oddington½ChampernounDe Gay—Oseney
Thame Abbey
Hethe½De Verdun
Lower HeyfordChampernounHenred
Newton Purcel Shelswell1 Purcel
De Weston
De Newton
HONOR Of ST. VALERYHampton Gay½De Gay—Oseney Abbey
MixburyOseney Abbey
Newton Purcell½Purcel
Willaston½(demesne manor)
ISLIP LIBERTYIslip with Fencott and Murcott
Launton
Northbrook in Kirtlington¼De Gay
Noke½De Williamscote
Oddington½Le Poure
DEVON AND THE ISLEFritwellFoliot
Noke½Foliot
HONOR OF WARENNEStratton Audley¼Gargate—Bicester Priory
STAFFORD De StaffordBletchingdon½ (Mortain)GrenvilePrescote
MANDIVILLE Earl of HerefordWendlebury2De OsevilleSt. Fey
Fitz Aumary
ANCIENT DEMESNEKirtlington Bignell½Tenants in chiefBasset
Le Bret—De Langley
LESSER TENANTS IN CHIEFGodingtonLongespéeCamville
Middleton StoneyLongespée
BaintonDe HampdenCarbonel
Cottisfordfree almsAbbey of BecPriory of Ogbourne
Charltonfree almsAbbey of St. Evroul—Priory of WareLe Poure
Hampton Poyle1De Hampton—De la Poyle
BletchingdonSergeantyGrenevile—Prescote
'Saxinton'BoffinDe Blakeville

VILLAGE TAX ASSESSMENTS AND NUMBERS OF CONTRIBUTORS 1306–1523

1306 (fn. 26) a 30th 1316 (fn. 27) a 16th 1327 (fn. 28) a 20th 1377 (fn. 29) Poll Tax 1415 (fn. 30) a 15th 1523 Lay Subsidy
1st Payment (fn. 31) 2nd Payment (fn. 32)
£s.d. Contributors £s.d. Contributors £s.d. Contributors Contributors £s.d. £s.d. Contributors £s.d. Contributors
Ardley.11910½2571253 (fn. 33) 2082021258810667
Bicester, Market End115219171227610106140101910915118483453
King's End41810353185287355210102118015
Bignell1223 (fn. 24) 2011111135919231130833042
Wretchwick(109½)5 (fn. 24)
Total(384¾)49 (fn. 24) 1614168121851442321881113175108121870
Bletchingdon2141013 (fn. 24) 39135441026100678 (fn. 34) 94637811240
Boycott (Bucks.) (fn. 35) 1210¾1116413312535241124
Bucknell and Saxenton258273032631073792506418153171012
Charlton31931413128410825610710617101014
Fencott201117115916234164057211811101012
Murcott(115¾)8 (fn. 24) 11510152114171121510013
Total(7111)56 (fn. 24) 8485995458111791134431101039
Chesterton, Great11011½11 (fn. 24)
Little(1510¼)17 (fn. 24)
Total(2169¾)28 (fn. 24) 610544510645796629562293020
Cottisford110152051615215271160758106084
Finmere(160½)12 (fn. 24) 317629447325301542115821
Fringford(150¼)13 (fn. 24) 31573121002235419425110225
Fritwell2146½22 (fn. 24) 625343101032605665321740621
Godington1195192841621523432174114108116210
Hampton Gay1191091219101267846074386
Hampton Poyle182221202521362567528217813215813
Hardwick1810 (fn. 24) 71253208173729101134711347
Hethe2186292701636092119813
Heyford, Lower199¼19 (fn. 24) 20913112820
Caulcott(118½)14 (fn. 24) 316928213728
Total(215¾)33 (fn. 24) 517644634884513435623217817
Heyford, Upper116102841010383043456 (fn. 38) 415418425161023
Islip4610¼26 (fn. 24) 58639414244628621049518641
Kirtlington41 (fn. 24) 58936488315188
Northbrook(98)11(149)1216113142
Total318052 (fn. 24) (6136)485149447210971053717057
Launton3188¾24 (fn. 24) 55149417054621218834301033
Lillingstone Lovell (Bucks.) (fn. 35) (181½)21 (fn. 24) 29421312535313571602480225
Middleton Stoney2610¼292643121063541581541112425
Mixbury and Fulwell3175¾32 (fn. 24) 3962720924801138
Willaston100½16 (fn. 24) 1103131101032150
Total4176¼47 (fn. 24) 419940319341122882602725025
Newton Purcell1711¼12124911611114106107827
Noke211223252233629431199 (fn. 37) 1701812015
Oddington(1111½)22 (fn. 24) 3282621503272310017101718220
Shelswell12101601412811101982410611746
Somerton(1811¼)31 (fn. 24) 6305331702910851201315836135839
Souldem(1143½)22 (fn. 24) 4703437631925273302634426
Stoke Lyne118312311530115523316113091548
Bainton1510½182103184110 (fn. 39) 3121591160611285
Fewcot551311810611231083
Total45356157565173 (fn. 39) 5469712430218218816
Stratton Audley317½45 (fn. 24) 1442119332101035
Tusmore(50½)5 (fn. 24) 71253 (fn. 33) 1287116
Wendlebury489243124235952810101819417
Weston-on-the Green(1110¾)15 (fn. 24) 53036317637310101186341151025

CLERICAL AND SECULAR RETURNS FROM 1662 TO 1811

In the following table the first column shows the total number of householders (including those exempted) returned for each village and hamlet in Ploughley hundred in accordance with the Act of 1662 for establishing an additional revenue. (fn. 40) These returns are the fullest of any made for the Oxfordshire hearth taxes. In spite of intervening attempts to tighten up the administration, the figures returned in 1665 show a decline of from 30 to 50 per cent. (fn. 41) The second column gives the number of conformists, papists, and non-conformists of sixteen years and over returned by the incumbents in 1676 in response to Archbishop Compton's request. (fn. 42) The third and fourth columns contain the clerical answers made in 1738 and 1768 to the bishop's question 'What number of houses doth it [i.e. the parish] comprehend?' The numbers of houses and families recorded in the official census of 1811 are listed in the fifth and sixth columns.

HEARTH (fn. 43) TAX 1662COMPTON (fn. 44) CENSUS 1676 DIOCESAN RETURNS (fn. 45) CENSUS RETURNS 1811
17381768
HouseholdersAdultsHousesInhabitantsHousesInhabitantsInhabited housesFamilies
Ardley115119 (fn. 46) c. 202830
Bicester, Market End112305377438
King's End124760
Wretchwick5
Total124844c. 400 (fn. 46) 400–500 (fn. 47) 424498
Bletchingdon31160c. 60 (fn. 48) 42 (fn. 49) 109116
Boycott (Bucks.) (fn. 50) 655
Bucknell23782818 (fn. 51) 4345
Charlton246175
Fencott295759
Murcott
Total5322895450c. 80118134
Chesterton, Great32
Little11
Total288243c. 507385
Cottisford94613c. 18993233
Finmere288134c. 402195472
Fringford3510534422235257
Fritwell4025266c. 668585
Godington96516c. 13 (fn. 52) 8585
Hampton Gay10281317
Hampton Poyle1763c. 212224
Hardwick223511 (fn. 47) 14 (fn. 53) 16 (fn. 53)
Hethe25203c. 49c. 25 (fn. 47) 2006759
Heyford, Lower41
Caulcott12
Total391485324070 (fn. 54) 360 (fn. 54) 7171
Heyford, Upper207832c. 305556
Islip65207c. 100 (fn. 46) c. 140137139
HEARTH (fn. 55) TAX 1662COMPTON (fn. 56) CENSUS 1676 DIOCESAN RETURNS (fn. 57) CENSUS RETURNS 1811
17381768
HouseholdersAdultsHousesInhabitantsHousesInhabitantsInhabited housesFamilies
Kirtlington92c. 90 (fn. 58)
Northbrook7
Total6528599c. 90115131
Launton46151706686
Lillingstone Lovell (Bucks.) (fn. 59) 2764c. 2232 (fn. 60) 3131
Middleton Stoney2890c. 4040–50 (fn. 60) 7073
Mixbury40c. 60
Fulwell2
Willaston2
Total3410644c. 617473
Newton Purcell17601222 (fn. 61) 2424
Noke2543c. 20c. 303131
Oddington16105.2530 (fn. 62) 3434
Shelswell22143 (fn. 61) 77
Somerton26242c. 40c. 405555
Souldern25130c. 50609396
Stoke Lyne201663740 (fn. 60) 7177
Bainton
Fewcot
Stratton Audley4112650–606063
Tusmore1 (fn. 63) (fn. 63)
Weston-on-the-Green5112550508285
Total1,0244,557 (fn. 64) (fn. 64) 2,2732,473

In cases where there is other contemporary evidence for assessing the number of families in a village, it has been found that the Oxfordshire hearth-tax figures give far fewer. (fn. 65) This is not surprising as the tax is known to have been very unpopular, to have been 'much obstructed for want of true and just accounts' from the occupiers of houses, and by the 'negligence' of the constables. (fn. 66)

The accuracy of the clerical returns was likely to vary in proportion to the degree of conscientiousness possessed by the various incumbents. In the 18th-century returns the frequency of the appearance of round numbers and the use of terms such as 'about' or 'upwards of' certainly suggests that the returns were only approximately accurate.

Footnotes

1 V.C.H. Oxon. i. 400–28.
2 Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), ii. 822–38.
3 Probably included in Kirtlington.
4 Included in Bicester.
5 See above, p. 3.
6 Represents probable minimum; see above, p. 96.
7 By 1279 Tusmore included 2½ hides of Hardwick.
8 Seven of the 31 also held cottages and are listed twice.
9 V.C.H. Oxon. i. 400–28.
10 Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), ii. 822–38.
11 See above, p. 3.
12 Fourteen held burgagii.
13 The Westminster estate of Noke is not recorded.
14 Three virgates in Stoke Lyne formed half of the Tusmore estate.
15 See above, p. 25.
16 Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), ii. 825.
17 Ibid. 828.
18 Ibid. 825, 826.
19 Holders of a few acres only or of messuages are often classed as cottars, e.g. at Stratton: ibid. 828.
20 Ibid. 826, 834, 835.
21 See above, pp. 149, 213.
22 e.g. Hethe: Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), ii. 837; Hampton Gay: ibid. 836; Tusmore: ibid. 825. For total numbers cf. E. A. Kosminsky, Studies in the Agrarian Hist. of England in the 13th Century, 205.
23 e.g. Kirtlington: Rot. Hund. (Rec. Com.), ii. 822–3.
24 Mutilated: number of names incomplete incomplete Italics. Rubric missing, village identified by the names of contributors.
25 Mutilated. The total given is the sum of the surviving payments.
26 E 179/161/10.
27 E 179/161/8.
28 E 179/161/9. For these Edwardian taxes, see J. F. Willard, E.H.R. xviii. 517–21; xxix. 317–21; xxx. 69–74.
29 E 179/161/39; E 179/161/40. The receipts for the hundred are incomplete: some are missing and others are illegible or partly destroyed. No lists of contributors have survived.
30 E 164/7: an example of the assessments fixed in 1334. Cf. E 179/161/17.
31 E 179/161/204. Cf. E 179/161/198.
32 E 179/161/176. See V.C.H. Oxon. v. 319.
33 Total for Ardley, Hardwick, and Tusmore.
34 Total for Bletchingdon and Hampton Gay.
35 See above, p. 3.
36 Total for Lillingstone Lovell and Boycott.
37 Includes the 'non geldable' half of Noke (i.e. Westminster's manor).
38 The name of the village on the receipt is partly illegible, but 'constable de — ford et John Heyford' can be read.
39 Part of Tusmore included with Bainton and Fewcot.
40 Statutes of the Realm, v. 390–3.
41 Ibid. 493–5. For a comparative table of figures for 1662 and 1665 see Hearth Tax Oxon. 235.
42 For a discussion about the use of the Census for estimating population see D. V. Glass, 'Greg. King's Estimates of the Pop. of Engl, and Wales,' Pop. Studies, iii (4), 338–74.
43 E 179/255/4 (constables' returns). Cf. Hearth Tax Oxon. 235.
44 Compton Census.
45 Oxf. Dioc. d 552–4, d 558–60.
46 Number of families.
47 Oxf. Dioc. d 561–3: 1771 return as no figure given in 1768.
48 Some of which were stated to be empty.
49 Cf. 60 houses returned in 1771: Oxf. Dioc. d 561.
50 See above, p. 3.
51 Cf. 35 houses given in 1771: Oxf. Dioc. d 561.
52 Inf. given in return for Middleton Stoney.
53 Hardwick and Tusmore are combined.
54 Oxf. Dioc. d 564: 1774 return as no figure given in 1768.
55 E 179/255/4 (constables' returns). Cf. Hearth Tax Oxon. 235.
56 Compton Census.
57 Oxf. Dioc. d 552–4, d 558–60.
58 Oxf. Dioc. d 561–3: 1771 return as no figure given in 1768.
59 See above, p. 3.
60 Oxf. Dioc. d 555–7: 1759 return as no figure given in 1768.
61 Number of families.
62 Number of houses and families.
63 Hardwick and Tusmore are combined.
64 No total given as parish returns are incomplete.
65 See above, pp. 34, 113, and Hearth Tax Oxon. pp. xvii, 256–9.
66 Statutes of the Realm, v. 493–5.


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