308. [f.16] 4 Jan. 1628. A proposal [Cf SP 16/54/27 and CSPD 1627–8 58,
incorrectly dated 16 Feb. 1627.]
Ships of 3 decks are of greatest force and most useful as men-of-war if
built as follows. The lower orlop* should be laid 2 ft under the water
[line]. The bread room and all other store rooms, coiled cables, the crew's
chests and other luggage, and boarded cabins for officers should be on
this orlop, as would be the lodging for most of the crew. The second orlop
should be 6 ft or at least 5½ ft higher, and the sides made 'musket free'
[immune to musket fire] fore and aft. A ship as long and as broad as the
Lyon should have 9 ports a side, besides the 4 chase-ports*, fore and aft.
These should be at least 2 ft 9 inches square, and above 2 ft from the deck
to the sill of the port. Between every 2 ports, there should be hanging
cabins [hammocks] to fold up to the decks, as lodging for the men.
Loopholes should be cut for the firing of small shot in close fight. There
should be 22 culverins* on this orlop. The third deck should be 6½ ft
higher, between plank and plank 'but it shall not be whole through for her
waist shall be only a grating' where there will be no ordnance, only 2 or 3
great murderers* or fowlers a side; this area will be used for stowing
boats. There will be 8 demi-culverins* abaft the mast and 4 in the
forecastle. There should be a little 'rising' [? screen] out of her forecastle
and abaft her steerage, with loopholes for small shot and murderers
placed there to clear the decks if the ship is boarded. There should be a
'snug round house' aft for the master, his mates, the lieutenant and the
preacher. The bulkhead should be made musket free. Loopholes should
be cut and murderers placed to clear the decks as aforesaid; abaft, a
scuttle should be cut to enable retreat into the great cabin if they are
beaten from [the round house]. On the upper deck, there should be
stanchions in the waist upon which to hang chains to keep up the waist
cloths [coloured cloths used to conceal men in action, or as an
adornment]. No galleries should be built on her sides but only a cobbler's
shop aft. The great cabin should be divided by a bulkhead: the aft part
should be a lodging and a closet for the captain, and the fore part a dining
room and a placing for 2 pieces of ordnance. Such a ship could hardly be
captured, sunk, or set on fire, and she would be much better than those
now in service. The hold will be kept sweet and the victuals preserved.
She could not be surprised being always ready for fight, the cables, chests
and other luggage which now hinder the use of ordnance being on the
lower deck. There will be more lodging for the crew which is [f.16v] a
principal thing for the conservation of their health, and the lodging would
be snugger than now. Although less ordnance would be carried, the ship
would be of greater force because she could be employed in all weathers,
and the crew would be immune to small shot. If 500 men were to board
her, they could be beaten off because of her ability for close fighting
which none of the king's ships now built can do because they are 'all open
and have no close fights'.
309. [4 × 16 Jan. 1628. Duke of] Buckingham [lord high admiral] to the
commissioners of the navy [See 308, 310.]
They are to consult Mr Burrell, Trinity House, Capt. Pett and others of
the king's shipwrights, and others as necessary about 308, 'and
particularly to consider whether it will not be best for service that the
lower tier of ordnance lie not above five ft above the water'. A speedy
reply is requested.
310. 16 Jan. 1628. Trinity House [? to the commissioners of the navy. See
They have considered 308. The design is for the master shipwrights but it
is not new as is pretended, but has been used for all good merchant ships.
As to the proposition that 3-deck ships are of greatest force and use as
men-of-war, the most important characteristic of the king's ships is that
they should be 'good sailers'. Experience has shown that 3-deck ships
require more timber, planks and iron, adding more weight and strength
'so is it in nature of a clog and much hinders her sailing'. Nothing is more
prejudicial to a man-of-war. Ships of the Lyon's rank with 2½ decks, a fair
forecastle, 2 tiers of ordnance fore and aft (the lower being 5 ft above
water), having 4 months' victuals, are best for the king's service, both
offensive and defensive, and are best for the crew. A third deck lying 2 or
3 ft under water is alleged to provide the crew with more commodious
lodging and to be better for their [f.17] health. But it would be a dungeon
and the air would not be so sweet and clean as on the second orlop*. The
placing of storerooms on the third orlop is not worth answering because
raising them from the hold will diminish the ship's stoutness and stiffness.
A fair depth between decks is about 6 ft, 'one inch or 2 more or less breaks
no square'. As for the sides of the ship being musket free, that is already
so in all the king's ships; more timber plank would be prejudicial. The
proposals about the number and sizes of ports are good instructions for
carpenters who have never seen ports or built ships. 'And for galleries we
allow not, neither those great cabins which is cause of the displacing of 4
pieces of ordnance, and of the weakening of the force of the ship's
quarters.' A neat cabin for the captain with a little dining room 'that so all
room be disposed for ordnance' and the contriving proposed for greater
defence against being surprised, sunk or fired add no security. How a ship
can carry less ordnance, yet be of greater force, is beyond their
understanding. As for boarding a king's ship, the only case is that of the
Revenge in the time of queen [Elizabeth]; the enemy lost then many 100
men and at last gained her, only 'by composition'. Seamen in merchant
ships fear not boarding, even though the crew number only 40 or 50. The
king's ships with 200 and 250 men and well furnished have much less
cause for fear; 'neither want they close fights', having half decks,
forecastles and ports to scour with ordnance fore and aft. Nothing can be
bettered for close fights.
Walter Coke, Sir Michael Geere, Capt. Best, Messrs Case, Totton,
Hockett, Tompson, Salmon, Bennett, Bushell, Tuchen, Swan, Bell.
311. [f.17v] 27 Jan. 1628. [Sir] Ro. Heath [attorney general] to Trinity
House [See 312.]
He has been directed to ask whether they make a charge of 7d a ton on all
strangers' ships entering the Thames, and 8d for every foot of water they
draw, and if so, by what authority.
312. [After 27 Jan. 1628] Trinity House [to Sir Robert Heath, attorney
In reply to 311 they assign pilots to take all strangers' ships out of the
Thames clear of the sands for which they demand 7d a ton according to
ancient custom, but not 6d a ton is received. Likewise at coming in they
demand 8d for every foot of water drawn which is in the nature of
'loadmony' [cf 430] or poundage. Their authority is their charter which
empowers them to appoint pilots for all strangers' ships at such a
reasonable rate as they think fit, according to the size of the ship.
Strangers are not wronged because charges for ships of the king and
merchants are no less. Pilotage charges abroad are much greater. Apart
from a small charge of 2s 6d, 4s or 5s, as their duty to the corporation, fees
are not levied on small pinks and hoys which draw little water and come
over the sands at high water regardless of channels. The greatest part of
the money is spent on the strangers' poor shipwrecked men who come
daily for relief.
313. [f.18] 31 Jan. 1628. Whitehall. [Privy council to Trinity House. Cf
APC 1627–8, 254.]
Because of continual advertisement of preparations by foreign enemies,
the king has ordered the writers to instruct the addressees to cause all
shipowners to make ready their ships, in case they are required for the
defence of the realm. Owners of ships taken up will receive such pay as
will content them.
[Lords] Mandevill, (fn. 1) Pembroke, [Burly (fn. 2) erased], 'Bi Dearham' [? bishop
of Durham], bishop of Bath and Wells, [Sir] T. Edmundes, [Sir] John
Coke, [Sir] Richard Wiston, 'Francis' [? recte Sir Humphrey] May.
314. [ff.18v–19] 5 Feb. 1628. Survey by Trinity House [Cf SP 16/92/45;
CSPD 1627–8, 546.]
Ships now in the Thames which could be made fit for the king's service are
[(a) tons; (b) 'ordnance capable'; (c) ordnance aboard]
Ships appertaining to the East India company:
Greate James (a) 900, (b) 40, (c) nil, and Charles (a) 700, (b) 36, (c) nil, in
Blackwall dock; Jonas (a) 700, (b) 36, (c) 36, and Expedition, (a) 200, (b)
10, (c) 10, prepared for sea; London (a) 800, (b) 38, (c) nil, and
Reformation (a) 300, (b) 24, (c) nil, riding at Erith; Greate Neptune (a)
600, (b) 34, (c) 34, earl of Warwick.
London (a) 500, (b) 30, (c) 10, and Unicorne (a) 450, (b) 24, (c) nil, new
ships; Dragon (a) 450, (b) 30, (c) 30; Hector (a) 350, (b) 28, (c) 28;
Assurance (a) 300, (b) 22, (c) 22; George (a) 300, (b) 24, (c) 24, Peter and
Andrew (a) 260, (b) 26, (c) 26, Seahorse (a) 260, (b) 18, (c) 18, Paragon,
(a) 250, (b) 24, (c) 24, and Merchant Bonaventure (a) 220, (b) 20, (c) 20,
newly come home from the king's service; Neptune, (a) 200, (b) 19, (c)
19, Lyones (a) 200, (b) 16, (c) 16, and Merchant Bonaventure, (a) 160, (b)
16, (c) 16, newly come from Cornwall with tin; Ann (a) 160, (b) 14, (c) 14;
Plaine John (a) 180, (b) 14, (c) 14; Speedwell (a) 140, (b) 12, (c) nil, a
prize ship; Increase (a) 160, (b) 12, (c) 6; Pilgrim (a) 160, (b) 14, (c) 6;
John and Francis (a) 120, (b) 12, (c) 12; Litle Neptune (a) 140, (b) 12, (c)
9; Hopewell (a) 200, (b) 16, (c) 16, newly come from Hamburg; Neptune
of Chester (a) 140, (b) 12, (c) nil.
Ships ready and bound to sea:
Abigall (a) 300, (b) 26, (c) 26, Faith (a) 250, (b) 20, (c) 20, Endeavor (a)
180, (b) 16, (c) 16, Blessinge, (a) 200, (b) 16, (c) 16, Elizabeth and
Maudlyn (a) 160, (b) 10, (c) 10, and Charity (a) 200, (b) 20, (c) 18, ships
ready; Exchange (a) 200, (b) 18, (c) 16, Lemmon (a) 140, (b) 11, (c) 11,
Jonas (a) 250, (b) 20, (c) 18, Blew Dove (a) 150, (b) 14, (c) 12, Susan (a)
180, (b) 16, (c) 16, and St Peter (a) 240, (b) 12, (c) 12, newly come from
Desire of Ipswich (a) 250, (b) 16, (c) 16, Elizabeth (a) 200, (b) 14, (c) 6,
Ann (a) 250, (b) 18, (c) 18, Susan and Ellyn (a) 250, (b) 16, (c) 16,
Hopewell (a) 150, (b) 10, (c) 10, Ann Speedwell (a) 240, (b) 14, (c) 5,
Mathew (a) 240, (b) 14, (c) 14, Recoverie (a) 240, (b) 12, (c) 6, Mary (a)
240, (b) 14, (c) 7, Resolution (a) 240 (b) [14 in SP], (c) [nil in SP], Josias
(a) 200, (b) [12 in SP], (c) [5 in SP], Seaflower (a) 240, (b) 12, (c) 9,
Constant Mary (a) 240, (b) 14, (c) 6, William (a) 240, (b) 16, (c) 10,
Patient Adventure (a) 240 [210 in SP], (b) 16, (c) 16, William and
Thomasin (a) 240 (b) 14, (c) 5, Camelion (a) 250, (b) 16, (c) 16, Abraham
(a) 240, (b) 16, (c) 10, Francis (a) 200, (b) 12, (c) 3, and Convert (a) 240,
(b), 16, (c), 11, newly come home from the king's service; Sara of
Newcastle (a) 150, (b) 10, (c) 4; Hope, a flyboat, (a) 200, (b) 10, (c) 6,
come home from the king's service.
To further the service, they have given a warrant to each master or owner
in accordance with 313.
315. [f.19v] 13 Feb. 1628. Report by Trinity House
Their opinion has been asked on whether the loss of the Samuell of
London (John Gibbins master and part-owner), burnt during the
'briminge' (fn. 3) or drying of the breadroom, should be borne by the owners or
by the hirers. They know of many such casualties but never that the hirers
had to compensate the owners for the ship, because the master and not
the hirers has charge of her. The master is trusted by the owners and the
hirers, for his skill and diligence, to have the care of the ship, her
furniture and goods. If casualty happens owing to fire, ill mooring, or a
sailing error, 'the master will be found short in point of good discretion,
of care, or of skill, but the indiscretion of the master hath ever passed for
good discretion … because it was the master his best discretion'. The
owners must bear the loss of their ship; the hirers the loss of their goods.
Messrs Best, Totton, Ewins, Bell, Goodlad, Coke, Salmon, Bennett,
Swann, Doves, Hockett, Tutchin, Thompson.
316. [f.20] 23 Apr. 1628. Memorandum [by Trinity House]
John Goodladd has sundry times spoken very scandalously and to the
detriment of the corporation, as appears by sworn testimony of Messrs
Doves, Tompson, Hart  and Steevens. Goodladd was called before
the company, and it was agreed to commit him to the Marshalsea until he
gave better satisfaction. A warrant dated 16 Apr. was sent to Solomon
Smith and the keeper of the prison. On 18 Apr. he went to the Marshalsea
and stayed there for 5 or 6 days. He was then sent for again by the House,
confessed his fault, and asked forgiveness, promising not to offend again.
[Marginal note] John Goodlades was released from the Marshalsea upon
317. 2 Apr. 1628. Concerning the abusive speech of John Goodladd,
master of the Talbott of London
On Shrove Tuesday 1626 [sic], they were on Tower Hill with inhabitants
of that place. Goodladd told divers disorderly seamen there that they
were a company of fools and that if they would be ruled by him, and did
not get their wages that day, he would counsel them (some 400 or 500 of
them) to come down to the Trinity House and pull it down unless those
[of Trinity House] took action to secure wages for them. To prevent
danger, Mr Bernard Mootam took him to the Rose tavern, and there
Goodladd disparaged the corporation and particular members.
Samuel Doves, John Tompson, Timothy Hart.
[Note] Doves and Hart testified on oath to the truth of the above;
Tompson swore that Goodladd came to him afterwards and told him that
he had spoken thus on the Hill.
318. [f.20v. As in 294.]
319. [f.21] 27 June 1628. Trinity House to Mr Walter Cooke and Mr
William Ewins, members of the company
According to an order of 25 June they are to repair to Yarmouth,
Lowestoft, Caister and Winterton; inspect the keeping of the lights and
buoys; sound the channels; consider whether the lighthouses and buoys
are well placed as leading marks and repair any defects. They are to direct
the erection of a new lighthouse as an upper light in Lowestoft (the other
being in daily danger of being swept away by the sea). Mr Wylde and
whoever they think fit should be asked to oversee the completion of the
work once they have arranged the supply of material and workmen, who
should be paid either on a daily basis or by great [i.e. by the piece]. They
are empowered to act on behalf of the corporation, and whatever is spent
will be repaid on submission on their accounts or those of their
contractors, or by assignment.
320. [f.21v] 2 Aug. 1628. Agreement between Trinity House and John
Eaglefeild of Stratford Bow and John Howland of London, gentlemen
and customary tenants of Stepney
Eaglefeild and Howland on behalf of themselves and of many other
customary tenants of the manors of Stepney and Hackney obtained an
exemplification under the great seal of a statute of 21 James I for the
confirmation of the copyhold estate and customs of divers copyholders of
those manors, according to an agreement and decree in chancery
concerning the lord of the manors and the copyholders. At a court held at
Trinity House on 2 Aug., the exemplification was delivered to Trinity
House for safe keeping so that it can be produced and used for the benefit
of the tenants as necessary. Trinity House acknowledge receipt and agree
to produce it for any tenants, on reasonable request. They also promise
not to let it leave their possession unless the borrower deposits at least £5
so that [f.22] a new exemplification can be obtained if it is not returned
within 2 months.
321. [f.22v] 1 Aug. 1628. Thomas Wyan, deputy register [of the admiralty
court] to Trinity House
The William and John of London (250 tons), with a crew of 80, and the
Willinge Minde of Topsham (140 tons), with a crew of 92, took a French
ship, the Renee, laden with merchandise, which was sold for £1,898 7s 6d.
The sentence of the admiralty court is that this sum should be divided
between the 2 captors, ton for ton, and man for man, according to the
custom of the sea. Sir Henry Martyn, the judge, seeks the advice of
Trinity House on how the money should be divided.
322. 9 Aug. 1628. [Trinity House to Sir Henry Martyn, admiralty court
In reply to 321, £994 5s 6d should be awarded to the William and John,
and £904 1s 9d to the Willinge Minde.
William Case, Robert Salmon, Walter Cooke, John Totton, Joshua
Downinge, William Bushell.
|Great ship||405||12||8||Small ship||227||3||1|
|Her 80 men||294||6||5||Her 92 men||338||9||4|
|Their victuals||294||6||5||Their victuals||338||9||4|
[Note] The figures in the margin were not delivered to the judge.
323. [f.23] 13 Aug. 1628. Order of the privy council about the convoy of
Newcastle colliers [Printed in APC 1628–9, 101.]
324. [f.23v] 18 Oct. 1628. [Trinity House] to Sir Ro. Mansfeld
They have informed the company of Trinity House of his wishes in
respect of Croxson. All of them regret Croxson is such an unworthy
creature, but such is their respect for Mansfeld that they accept Croxson
as their tenant for 3 years from last Michaelmas at an annual rent of £10,
payable quarterly. If he fails to pay his rent, he will be dismissed. His
arrears at Michaelmas last were £28 6s 8d, which he must pay before
1 Nov. Thereupon they will withdraw from the suit against him but
otherwise will continue it and dismiss him from the office of ballastage.
They will agree on the charges he must pay when he brings his rent.
[Signed] William Case, T. Best, Walter Coke, Gervais Hockett, Ro.
Salmon, John Bennett, William Stevins, Robert Bell.
325. [f.24] 20 Oct. 1628. Yarmouth. Benjamin Couper [to Trinity House.
They asked him to nominate a man as keeper of Caister lighthouse and
accepted his choice. However, the keeper has neglected the work
himself, and employed a poor woman who has failed to maintain the
lights properly. No doubt they have heard how prejudicial this has been.
Since the keeper has not performed the work himself, but found other
employment within Yarmouth, and has appointed an unfitting deputy,
Couper suggests the appointment in his stead of the bearer, Robert Hill,
an honest fisherman of Yarmouth, who knows the importance of keeping
the lights, and is willing to perform the service himself, and to reside
326. [f.24v] 8 Nov. 1628. Trinity House to Benjamin Cooper, esquire, at
They thank him for 325 and his care. Hill has been accepted on the same
condition as his predecessor, namely £37 a year payable quarterly,
beginning on Christmas day. Meantime Hill is to move his dwelling from
Yarmouth to Caister, where he will reside as keeper. He is to burn 3
candles in 'either lighthouse . . . of 3 to the pound and not under', to be lit
at sunset and maintained until it is fair day again. He will perform the
business himself, and not employ a deputy. Cooper is asked to see that
Hill moves to Caister, and to inform Alborow. Hill will take from
Alborow any candles which he has left at the price that he paid for them.
Mr Case, Sir Michael Geer, Capt. Best, Messrs Salmon, Coke, Benit,
Benit [sic], Totten, Tutchen.
If Alborow fails to maintain the lights until Christmas, he should be
dismissed forthwith and replaced by Hill, to avoid just complaint.
327. [f.25] 12 Nov. 1628. Report by Trinity House
Several shipowners of Bristol and other western parts have asked
whether the vails due to captains, masters and officers of men-of-war
when a prize is taken [see 294] are due out of each prize if several are
taken on the same voyage. Trinity House answer that each officer is to
have his due from each prize and that this has been anciently allowed to
all men-of-war in queen Elizabeth's time and that the king allows it to his
captains and masters.