Parishes
Whitby

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Victoria County History

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William Page (editor)

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1923

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506-528

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'Parishes: Whitby', A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2 (1923), pp. 506-528. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=64701 Date accessed: 16 September 2014.


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WHITBY

Streanæshalc, Streneshalc, Streoneshalch, Streoneshalh, Streunes-Alae in Lindissi (vii-viii cent.); Prestebi (xi cent.); Hwitebi, Witebi (xii cent.); Whitebi (xiii cent.); Qwiteby (xiv cent.).

The parish comprised in 1831 the townships of Aislaby, (fn. 1) Hawsker cum Stainsacre, Newholm cum Dunsley, Ruswarp, Ugglebarnby and Whitby and the chapelry of Eskdaleside. (fn. 2) Of these Aislaby became a separate ecclesiastical parish in 1865, Ruswarp in 1870 and Hawsker cum Stainsacre in 1878. A new township was separated from that of Hawsker cum Stainsacre in 1894 (fn. 3) and named Helredale (fn. 4) ; it forms part of the Whitby Urban District. The parish of Aislaby includes the hamlet of Briggswath, that of Eskdaleside cum Ugglebarnby includes Grosmont, Iburndale, Little Beck and Sleights, that of Ruswarp Boghall, Ewe Cote, Fishburn Park, High Stakesby and West Cliff, that of Whitby Burtree Cragg and Haggerlythe. The entire area is 14,844 acres, including 228 acres of foreshore. The crops are wheat, barley and oats. An Inclosure Act was passed for the moors, commons and wastes of the manors of Eskdaleside and Ugglebarnby in 1760, (fn. 5) another for Dunsley Moor in 1793. (fn. 6) Jet has been worked from Saxon times. (fn. 7) The local sandstone is excellent, and has been used in the great breakwaters at Whitby and for London Bridge, the Admiralty Pier at Dover and the facing of the old Houses of Parliament. (fn. 8) The Whitby Stone Company was formed in 1834 to work quarries of basalt, grit, ironstone and cement stone. The Brick and Tile Company, founded in 1838, had works near the railway between Ruswarp and Sleights. Alum (fn. 9) was worked from the 17th to the 19th century. (fn. 10) The fact that Whitby Abbey in about 1200 agreed to send 2,000 herrings yearly to Thornton Dale (fn. 11) suggests that the salting of herring was an early industry, and the 11th-century fish-tithe (fn. 12) is significant. Sir William Todd, kt., of York, bequeathed a mease and salt-house in Whitby in March 1502–3. (fn. 13) Saltwick, about a mile east of the abbey, where the coast begins to turn south, is mentioned in 1519, (fn. 14) but no trace of the salt industry here has been found. Salters settled in Whitby in the 17th century near the place still known as Salt Pans. (fn. 15) Their industry, however, shortly afterwards passed to Tyneside. (fn. 16)

The monoliths which exist in the parish possibly mark ancient British interments. (fn. 17) North of the lane from Whitby Lathes to Stainsacre a stone 1 ft. square and 4 ft. high stood in Robin Hood (fn. 18) Closes in 1816, while south of the lane, in Little John Closes, (fn. 19) was a second pillar 2½ ft. high. (fn. 20) The stones, with which are associated legends of Robin Hood, now stand by the fences of the same fields. (fn. 21)

The Saxon history of the town begins with the introduction of Christianity into Northumbria. King Edwin (fn. 22) and his kinswoman Hilda, then a child, were baptized in 627. Edwin's successor Oswy had vowed to grant lands for monastic purposes if he should defeat the pagan Penda, and it was possibly in connexion with his victory at Winwaed (655) (fn. 23) that Hilda obtained possession of her lands at Whitby and built the monastery. (fn. 24) Here King Edwin's headless body, which had lain since 633 at Hatfield, was brought for burial, (fn. 25) and here the famous synod of 'Streoneshalch' was held in 664. (fn. 26)

Streoneshalch was laid waste by Danes in successive inroads (867–70) under Ingwar and Ubba, and was said to have remained desolate for more than 200 years (fn. 27) ; but the existence of 'Prestebi' at the Domesday Survey may point to the revival of religious life in Danish times.

The Danish town of Whitby (fn. 28) was presumably of some importance, as close to it was apparently held the Danish Thing, (fn. 29) and nearly all the places in the district in 1086 bore Danish names. Whitby was geldable before the Conquest at the large sum of £112. (fn. 30)

Between the Conquest and 1078 a new monastery was built by Reinfrid of Jarrow, after whose death the monks, attacked by pirates and others, retired for a time to Hackness under their prior Serlo. (fn. 31) At about the same date a party of monks under Stephen left Whitby for York, and there established St. Mary's Abbey (about 1087). (fn. 32)

In the time of King Stephen King Eystein of Norway, invading England, burned the town of Whitby. (fn. 33) In 1179–80 eleven Whitby hamlets were fined for concealing the wreck of a Norwegian ship. (fn. 34) The Bastard of Orleans, (fn. 35) the seneschal of France, other French dignitaries, 200 mariners and nine ships were captured here in 1451. (fn. 36) French pirates in 1526 brought in a prize, the Jesus of Dantzig, and sold it to the inhabitants; the abbot and burgesses, summoned before the Star Chamber, pleaded, as an excuse for buying, the scarcity of corn in the district. (fn. 37) In February 1643–4 Whitby, strongly garrisoned for the king by Newcastle, surrendered to Fairfax; a Parliamentary garrison of 200 horse was placed in Sir Hugh Cholmley's 'great house and fort on the High-Clift.' (fn. 38) The inhabitants, 'in their great distress,' petitioned in 1649 for protection from pirates, (fn. 39) and in 1793 the mariners of Whitby rose against the press-gang. (fn. 40) Shortly before the Dissolution the inhabitants, in a dispute with the abbot, stated that from time immemorial, on the eves of Midsummer, St. Peter and St. Thomas, a bonfire was made in Whitby and neighbouring towns, and the mariners and fishermen went in procession with half a burning tar barrel borne before them on a staff, carrying what weapons they pleased, and that they used to sing through the streets, resort to every bonfire and there drink and make merry; but on the last St. Peter's Eve the abbot's servants, it was supposed at his command, had fallen on them and shamefully beaten them. The abbot pretended ignorance and offered to give them ale on St. Thomas's Eve, but as they climbed the narrow approach to the abbey they were again set upon, driven into the town and badly hurt. (fn. 41)

The old town of Whitby is placed on both the right and left banks of the River Esk at its mouth, the houses being built one above another on the steeply sloping banks of the stream. The estuary itself forms the harbour, and is protected by two stone jetties. The two sides of the river are connected by a modern swing bridge. (fn. 42) The streets of the old town are narrow, winding and picturesque, and the mass of irregular red-tiled roofs renders the view from the cliffs one of great beauty and interest. The buildings stop short of the crest on the east side of the stream, but on the west they extend over the top and for some way along the sea front, forming the modern portion of the town, known as the West Cliff. The opposite or East Cliff is crowned by the lofty ruins of the abbey church, with the parish church of St. Mary at a rather lower level and approached by a long flight of stone steps. The third important building on this side is the Abbey House, which lies a short distance to the south. Above the bridge the Esk widens into a broad basin filled at flood, but, with the exception of the river channel, a mud bank at ebb. Adjoining it on the west is the town station of the North Eastern railway, which is connected by a short branch with the other station on the high level of the West Cliff. The latter is approached from the south by a lofty viaduct over the Esk valley a short distance above the town.


Kiln Yard, Church Street, Whitby

The charter granted by Abbot Richard between 1177 and 1189 (fn. 43) mentioned four principal ways into the town of Whitby. These may be supposed to be identical with the four principal streets of the old town, namely, Church Street, Haggersgate, Flowergate, and Baxtergate, the three last meeting formerly on the west bank of the river. Here Flowergate and Baxtergate now meet, but a block of buildings occupies what was the south end of Haggersgate. Church Street on the east bank extends from the Church Stairs until it meets Green Lane from the east at Spital Bridge, where the leper hospital of St. Michael was established in 1109. (fn. 44) Gallows Close lies near to Spital Bridge. The whole extent of Church Street, or Kirkgate, (fn. 45) was divided into Highgate, Crossgate, and Southgate. Crossgate, probably named from the market cross, (fn. 46) and Southgate are both mentioned in 1426. (fn. 47) The present Church Street contains several houses of 17th-century date, as well as modern buildings of Elizabethan character. On the eastern side is the Seamen's Hospital, founded in 1676.

From the north part of Church Street the abbey and parish church are reached, the latter lying between the abbey ruins and the sea. Between the churchyard and the entrance to the abbey precincts is the Abbey Plain with an old stone cross. Grass fields extend eastward along the cliff. In the crowded churchyard (fn. 48) there is a new cross with Saxon ornament known as Caedmon's, erected in 1898. There was a cross in this graveyard in 1474, and in 1483 the 'great cross' of the graveyard is mentioned, this pointing, Canon Atkinson thought, to two crosses, the second possibly that now standing on the 'miscalled Abbey Plain.' (fn. 49)

At the junction of Stakesby Road and Love Lane, a short distance to the west of the town, is the stone base of a wayside cross.

A hospital of St. John the Baptist in Whitby is referred to in the 14th and 15th centuries. (fn. 50) Gilds of the Holy Trinity, Holy Cross and St. Christopher are mentioned in 1396, 1399 and 1429 respectively. (fn. 51)

Whitby Abbey

The remains of the abbey of Whitby consist of the ruins of the church only. Situated on the summit of the lofty east cliff, they must always have formed a conspicuous landmark, and even in its present shattered condition the church is visible from far out to sea. At the Dissolution the church, apart from being stripped of its lead, was suffered to remain intact probably for this very reason. In 1711, when Buck's view was published, the building was still almost entire, but since that date the destruction has been very rapid. The greater part of the nave must have fallen soon afterwards, and the central tower collapsed early in the last century, carrying with it a considerable portion of the south quire wall. Even in its present condition, however, it remains one of the finest examples of 13th-century work in the county.

The church consisted of an aisled quire 104 ft. by 62¼ ft., transepts (44¼ ft. total width), each arm having an eastern aisle and projecting 36 ft. beyond the quire, aisled nave 138¾ ft. long by about 62 ft. wide and a central tower about 30 ft. square. The total length was 286¾ ft. All the measurements are internal. A complete rebuilding of the church was begun about 1220, to which date the quire may be assigned. The north transept followed about twenty years later, and the first three bays of the nave are of the same date. The remainder of the nave, however, was not undertaken until the 14th century, the west front being the latest portion. The windows at this end are probably of the early 15th century, and at the same date a mullion and transom were inserted in the central lancet at the east end.

The walls of the quire are largely intact except for the western bays on the south side and the south aisle. The east wall is pierced by three tiers of lancet windows, three in each tier, the central light being somewhat the wider. In the two lower the windows are of equal height, but in the gable they are graduated, the lower angles being filled externally by blind arches of similar type, making five in all. The lancets of the lower stages are divided externally by shafts banded at intervals and finished with moulded capitals and gablets, below the main gable stringcourse. The arrangement inside is somewhat similar, but the shafts here spring from moulded corbels above the first tier, and the spandrels between the window heads at this level are enriched with sunk and moulded circular panels inclosing quatrefoils and sexfoils. The windows themselves are richly moulded, both inside and out, and have jamb shafts on each side with capitals and bases and a line of dog-tooth ornament between them. The centre window of the middle tier was divided up by a mullion and transom in the 15th century; the embattled transom still remains with portions of tracery in the head. The quire had a wooden roof and the windows in the gable are quite plain internally. At the base of the gable outside are two trefoil-headed niches. Opposite the arcade walls are square buttresses with the angles chamfered off, which are finished with gables inclosing trefoiled niches. The return walls above the level of the aisles have similar buttresses, and each pair supports a massive octagonal pinnacle, shafted at the angles and flanking the main gable. In the east wall are two square aumbries, one at either end. The side walls of the quire are divided into seven bays of equal size, except the westernmost, which is narrower to correspond to the width of the transept aisle. The wall on the north rises to its full height, but on the south only the three eastern bays are entire; the fourth, however, rises to the base of the clearstory, while the fifth and sixth piers are yet standing. The piers of the main arcades are composed of eight engaged shafts, of which those facing the cardinal points are larger and are in alternate piers brought to a point or keeled on the outer face. They have moulded bases and bell-shaped capitals, and support pointed arches of three deeply moulded orders. Resting on a foliated corbel in each spandrel are three engaged shafts, banded between the stories and stopped at the top of the wall with a moulded capital to support the roof truss. The triforium consists of round-headed moulded arches the full width of the bays, each inclosing two sub-arches, with an enriched trefoil or quatrefoil panel in the spandrel. Each of these arches was again subdivided into two others acutely pointed, but in every case only the heads remain. The jambs of each arch were pro- vided with detached shafts, making three orders, but of these only the capitals and bases remain. The main triforium arches are enriched with a single line of dog-toothing, and in the western bay, owing to its decreased width, the arch was pointed. The clearstory was lighted by one lancet window in the centre of each bay, the head forming the central bay of a wall arcade of five moulded arches springing from engaged shafts with moulded capitals and bases. Externally these windows have moulded hoods, and the main bays are marked by flat pilaster buttresses with gabled heads. Portions of the corbel table below the parapet are also apparent.

The north aisle is conterminous with the quire, and is roofed with a quadripartite stone vault with moulded ribs springing from vaulting shafts against the outer wall with moulded capitals and standing on corbels level with the window sills. The vault of the fourth bay has fallen in but the rest is intact. Each bay has a lancet window with detached jamb shafts and dog-tooth ornament. At the east end is an aumbry, and in the abutment of the arcade is a trefoil-headed piscina. The wall is supported externally by square buttresses, with the angles chamfered off, and apparently carried up above the parapet. The outer wall of the south aisle is destroyed, but a jamb of the eastern lancet window and the springers of the aisle vault remain.

The central tower is now only represented by the north-east pier, which is broken off just below the springing line of the arch. It consists of clustered and engaged shafts with larger keeled shafts towards the cardinal points. Numerous prints and engravings of the central tower before its fall are extant, and show that it rose one stage above the roof ridge. Each face was divided by flat buttresses into three divisions, each containing a two-light window with geometrical tracery.

The north transept is of slightly later date than the quire, the junction of the two periods being visible just to the north of the central tower pier and also to the south of the southernmost window of the chapel aisle. Here the moulding of the internal string-course changes its section, and the alteration of profile is masked by a carved boss. The transept projects three bays from the crossing and two bays beyond the quire aisle. The general character of the work is marked by a much freer use of foliage carving, the hollows between the jamb shafts of the windows being ornamented with flowers and dog-tooth ornament. The piers of the eastern arcade are similar in character to those of the quire, and the triforium arcade is similarly treated. The southern arch at this level is pointed and the other two have lost their sub-arches. The clearstory is in a ruinous state, only the wall between the windows now standing. The chapel aisle retains much of its vaulting, and on the piers are traces of the mortises for screen work. The north bay has a coupled lancet in the east wall and a single lancet at the north end, below which is a large aumbry. The second bay is lighted by a single lancet window. The first column of the arcade has the inscription, 'Johannes de Brvmtō qvondam fa[m]ulvs [Dei in hoc monasterio extructo in honorem Dei et Virginis Beate] Marie.' (fn. 52) The north transept end is entire to its full height and contains three tiers of three lancet windows, each divided as at the east end by shafts. The windows of the topmost tier are here of equal height and are inclosed under a single round-headed internal arch. The jamb shafts of these windows have foliage capitals of almost 'decorated' character, and the archivolts of the lower ones are also enriched with foliage. Below the sills of the lowest tier runs an internal wall arcade with moulded trefoiled heads and circles and quatrefoils on the spandrels above. The arcade rests on shafts with foliage capitals and is continued along the west transept wall and the north wall of the eastern aisle. In the gable is a small rose window of ten radiating lights, set in a triangle with segmental sides. The north end is supported externally by semi-octagonal buttresses with tiers of trefoil-headed panels and crowned by lofty octagonal pinnacles. In the north-west angle is a small vice. The west wall of the transept is pierced by two pairs of coupled lancet windows enriched like those in the north end. The wall above is much ruined. The south transept is almost entirely destroyed, but it seems to have followed the lines of the northern arm. The lower portion of the second pier of the eastern arcade is still standing, but has much the appearance of a reconstruction.

The nave is also much ruined, and only portions of the north aisle wall and the west end remain standing. The first three bays of the north aisle are of the same date and character as the transept. Each bay is lighted by a lancet window, and between them are the springers of a stone vault. There is here, however, no wall arcade. The remaining five bays on this side are 14th-century work, the first two retaining the pointed windows of four lights with excellent tracery of the 'Kentish' type in the heads. The arches are richly moulded and the jambs have each two shafts with foliage capitals. Triple vaulting shafts with similar capitals support the springers of a stone vault. In the next bay only the east jamb of the window remains, but below it is a pointed doorway with a moulded and trefoiled head formerly opening into a shallow north porch, of which only a fragment of the east wall remains. There are traces, however, of a vaulted roof. The remainder of the north wall is completely ruined. The nave arcades of eight bays have entirely gone except for the western responds and a reconstructed pier on the north side, the fourth from the tower. It bears the inscription, 'L. Smelt arm. erexit a.d. 1790.'

The west front is 14th-century work and the great west door had originally a central pier dividing two trefoil-headed openings. The tympanum above is enriched with blind tracery and the arch is flanked internally by two smaller pointed wall arches with similar tracery. Of the west window above only the north jamb remains standing, but it was a 15thcentury work of many lights, and traces of a transom remain. Along the sill of this window ran a wall passage with a pierced and traceried parapet on the inside finished with a coping. It was approached by a vice in the north-west angle. The west window of the north aisle is also 15th-century work. It is pointed and had formerly three lights, and much of the tracery remains in the head. Above it is a lozenge-shaped window filled with four quatrefoils and formerly lighting the space above the aisle vault. Externally the buttresses of the west front have been richly ornamented with arcading and niches, but here the work is very much weathered.

The area of the church is encumbered with fallen masonry, and no trace of the south nave aisle is visible. The nave was, however, standing to its full height early in the 18th century, and Buck's view shows a row of clearstory windows on the south side. The axis of the eastern arm of the church is deflected considerably to the north from that of the nave. In the absence of excavation, nothing can be said of the domestic buildings, except that they lay on the south side of the nave. The modern porter's lodge probably stands on the site of an old gate-house, and on a green outside it is the stone cross of the 14th or 15th century already referred to. There still exists a fluted shaft standing on six steps. The head has gone, but the moulded capital is yet in position.

The Abbey House, the former residence of the Cholmley family, is a building of three periods. It was apparently at first an open quadrangle on plan facing north, but the east side has now gone. The south and west wings date from the latter part of the 16th or early in the 17th century, but were considerably altered at the end of the following century when the large and now roofless building was added on the north side closing in the quadrangle. This building, which formed the main front, is approached through a spacious fore-court surrounded by a coped stone wall pierced by two gateways with handsome piers. Those to the north gate were formerly crowned by heraldic supporters, of which one only now remains. The north wing is a two-storied building of brick faced with ashlar. In the centre is a narrow projecting façade or portico with a square-headed door flanked by Ionic half-columns, with Corinthian halfcolumns above, supporting a small voluted pediment. On either side the wall is pierced by five windows to each story, each with a moulded architrave and horizontal cornice. At the west end the character is changed, the windows here—four to the first floor and two below—having each a small pediment above them. The wing has rusticated angles and is roofless and gutted, the windows being all now blocked. The south and west sides of the quadrangle formed part of the 16th-century house, and in several places the original mullioned and transomed windows remain partially blocked. Many of the windows towards the courtyard appear to have been altered about 1660 to conform to the style of the north wing. This part of the house has been very extensively restored in recent times, and an entirely modern block in the Tudor style has been added at the east end of the south wing There is ample evidence of the existence of an east wing, now destroyed, which abutted against the east end of the north wing. To the west of the forecourt is a large courtyard with a row of early 17th-century buildings along its north side. These are of one story only with attics, and have two or three-light stone-mullioned windows with moulded dripstones over and doors with depressed pointed heads. When the house was rebuilt (1583–93) by Francis Cholmley and his wife, this lady 'would have the sides, even to the ground, all of wood, saying "that would serve well enough for their times"; knowing she should not bring a child.' Moreover, 'Upon the porch, at the entrance of the hall door, she had set the first letter of her name before his; for where it should have been F. J. she had made it J. F.' (fn. 53) Sir Hugh Cholmley stayed at the Gate House from 1633 to 1636 until the Abbey House was 'repaired and habitable.' The latter, he relates,

was very ruinous and all unhandsome, the wall being only of timber and plaster, and ill contrived within; and besides the repairs, or rather the reedifying of the house, I built the stable and barn. I heightened the outwalls of the court double to what they were, and made all the wall round about the paddock; so that the place hath been improved very much, both for beauty and profit, by me more than all my ancestors; for there was not a tree about the house but was set in my time, and almost by my own hand. (fn. 54)

The north side of the mansion-house was built by Sir Hugh's son Sir Hugh, after his return from Tangier in 1672. (fn. 55) A hundred years later a storm demolished the roof of the new part, and it was never repaired, the family using the south wing in their occasional residences. (fn. 56) The house is still owned by the lord of the manor, but occupied by the Co-operative Holidays Association.

From the top of Church Street the East Cliff and Pier are reached by Henrietta Street, (fn. 57) a picturesque slum, and the crazy Spa Ladder. The position of the East Pier athwart the tide produces during rough weather some of the finest effects to be seen on the east coast. The north-west corner of the East Cliff used to be called Haglyth or Haggerlyth. (fn. 58)

Grape Lane (mentioned under a similar name in 1395) (fn. 59) curves round from Church Street to the east end of the town bridge. The house now belonging to Whitby Cottage Hospital and inscribed [D MS 1688], was the residence of John Walker when Captain Cook lived with him as apprentice. (fn. 60) The square formed round the town hall, or tollbooth, by the adjoining market-place connects Sandgate with Church Street. (fn. 61) Sandgate was so called in 1519, and already contained the tollbooth, which belonged to Whitby Abbey. (fn. 62) As the tollbooth was said in 1540 (fn. 63) to be in Crossgate, it must have been where the town hall now stands. (fn. 64) The tollbooth built by Sir Hugh Cholmley in 1640 (fn. 65) was rebuilt by Nathaniel Cholmley in 1788. (fn. 66) It is a rectangular building of two stories. The ground floor is open with rusticated piers at the angles and two columns of the Doric order to each side. In the centre is a circular stone stair leading to the room above, which is lighted by three windows on each side and a threelight window at either end. On the west wall is an inscription recording the erection of the building by Nathaniel Cholmley, 1788, with his arms in the pediment above. The building is crowned by a picturesque wooden lantern or cupola with a vane. Facing the town hall on the west of the square is the market hall. Several houses round the market-place are of some age. Ellerby Lane, said in 1816 to have been anciently called Anningson's Lane, (fn. 67) and Brewster Lane (mentioned in 1426) (fn. 68) connect Church Street with Sandgate. The New Way, already so named in the early 18th century, (fn. 69) leads from Church Street to the harbour a little north of Fish Pier. Where Church Street ends at the church stairs Tatehill Buildings stood in 1816, when they were said to have been named in comparatively recent times from a family called Tate. (fn. 70) Tatehill Pier now stands at this point.

The western town contained the mediaeval market-place, which still stood in 1609 (fn. 71) at the old meeting-place of the three ways, where the noted Golden Lion Inn stood in the 18th century, (fn. 72) and Golden Lion Bank now stands.

On the west side of the river few of the houses are of any great age, but at the west end of Baxtergate is Bagdale Hall, (fn. 73) a stone-built T-shaped Elizabethan house, two stories high with attics. It has mullioned windows, but has been drastically restored.

From Bagdale Hall Bagdale Lane leads west to Chubb Hill Road, which ascends north to Flowergate Cross. Downdinner Hill (mentioned in 1709) (fn. 74) leads south. Wayngate in Bagdale is mentioned in 1432. (fn. 75) Skate Lane (Scate Lane, 1595) (fn. 76) formerly led from Bagdale to the top of Flowergate.

On the New Quay, which leads north from the town station to the bridge, is the Angel Inn. On the ceiling of its commercial room a red rose is painted on a circular board with the motto 'Under the rose be it spoken.'

The first mention found of Whitby Bridge is in 1351, when the king gave permission for tolls to be taken for three years for its repair from merchandise passing over. (fn. 77) During the 15th century there were several bequests to the bridge. (fn. 78) James Conyers in 1541 bequeathed the shops he had built on it to the bridge for ever. (fn. 79) This bridge was probably near St. Ninian's Chapel, in Baxtergate, south of the present bridge. (fn. 80) In 1609 a surveyor was paid 'for trial of the fit ground for the placing of the new bridge.' (fn. 81) In 1628 it was stated that time out of mind the bridge had been a drawbridge, with bridgemasters who employed men to raise planks to let vessels pass and collect toll. (fn. 82) In 1766 this bridge was rebuilt, at a cost of £3,000, with stone pillars instead of wooden props (fn. 83) ; it was replaced by a swivel bridge in 1833–5, (fn. 84) and again in 1908–9 by an electric drawbridge under the control of the Urban District Council instead of the county. (fn. 85)

In March 1306–7 the Abbot and convent of Whitby received a grant of quayage for three years. (fn. 86) The quay was broken down by the sea by 1341, when the bailiffs of Whitby received a grant of quayage for seven years, (fn. 87) and similar grants were made in the 15th century. (fn. 88) John Ledum in February 1530–1 bequeathed money to the pier 'if it go furthwardes,' (fn. 89) and Leland remarked that a new quay and port were in process of construction. (fn. 90) There were complaints in 1544 of the decay of the harbour. (fn. 91) There was more than one pier in 1632, when a collection was made throughout England, at the instance of Sir Hugh Cholmley, and the part of the pier at the west end of the harbour erected. (fn. 92) Sir Hugh's son Sir Hugh set up a pier on a new plan, possibly on the west of the harbour, starting at Scotch Head. (fn. 93) Acts of Parliament for the repair of the piers were passed in 1702, 1734–5 and 1780–1. (fn. 94) In 1778 the piers were the West Pier with the projection at its commencement known as the Scotch Head, the Burgess (now Tate Hill) Pier on the opposite bank a little south of the Scotch Head, and the East Pier descending from Haggerlythe. (fn. 95) About ten years later the Fish Pier was built on the east side, stretching at the land end from Brewster Lane to the New Way (fn. 96) ; in that space stood the Fish House. (fn. 97) Under the Whitby Urban District Council Act of 1905 the East and West Piers were extended 500 ft. in 1911–12. The lighthouse on the West Pier, designed by Francis Pickernell, (fn. 98) was erected in 1831. (fn. 99) It is a fluted Doric column 75 ft. high, including the rusticated base and octagonal light room. Two lighthouses were erected on the East Cliff in 1858, one of which was pulled down in 1892; the other, the High Lighthouse, has a fog syren known as the Stainsacre Bull. The wharves are principally above the bridge. The two chief wharves in 1816 were near Boulby Bank and between Boulby Bank and the bridge respectively. (fn. 100) The latter, Sander's Wharf, was made the recognized place of landing and lading in 1823. (fn. 101) The Custom House is mentioned in 1638. (fn. 102)

The history of the shipping begins in 1301, when the town was called upon to furnish one vessel against the Scots. (fn. 103) In 1544 Whitby possessed four vessels between 30 and 50 tons burden. (fn. 104) In this year, on the demand for ships of war, the burgesses stated that they would provide good ships if the harbour were mended, that they possessed only six demihakes, sixty bows and sixty sheaves of arrows, seven balingers and fisher boats of 30 and 40 tons, and that their chief mariners were on the king's service in the south. (fn. 105)

Three war-ships (two of 110 and one of 170 tons) were certified in 1626–7 to have been built here, (fn. 106) and at the close of the 18th century Whitby ships enjoyed great repute. There were then always twelve or thirteen large ships on the stocks, half belonging to the inhabitants, half orders for other ports, many being, since the opening of the new and wider bridge in 1767, of 400 tons burden, and others going up to 600 tons. (fn. 107) Two hundred and fifty-one ships then belonged to Whitby, and were engaged in the coal trade, transport service to America, and the whale fishery. (fn. 108)

The first mention found of the Whitby fisheries is in the beginning of the 13th century, when the abbot and convent agreed, in consideration of exemption from tithes from their demesnes, to pay yearly to the master of the hospital of St. Leonard (St. Peter), York, at Thornton in Pickering Lythe, 2,000 herrings. (fn. 109) These were paid to the Archbishop of York at Bishopthorpe in 1778 and 1816. The exemption did not include fish-tithes, for which composition money is paid. (fn. 110) In 1901 there were 122 fishermen and 333 persons employed in the construction of ships and boats. (fn. 111)

The whale fishery, of which Whitby was the centre, commenced in 1753. (fn. 112) The town owed much to the two Scoresbys. William Scoresby the elder (1760–1829) (fn. 113) was the son of a small farmer at Cropton. (fn. 114) Besides making thirty voyages to the Arctic regions, at a net profit of about £90,000, he reached 81° 30' north latitude in 1806 in the Resolution, launched at Whitby in 1803. This was for some decades the most northerly point attained by any vessel. (fn. 115) He resigned his command in favour of his son William in 1810. (fn. 116) Between 1767 and 1816, 2,761 whales were brought to Whitby. (fn. 117) In 1816 there were four oil-houses by the Esk, a small distance above the town. (fn. 118) Whale fishing had ceased to be profitable by 1830 (fn. 119) and ended at Whitby in 1837. (fn. 120)

Sail-making began about 1756. (fn. 121) There were four canvas factories (sail lofts) in 1778, with about 700 spinners and a good number of weavers. (fn. 122) Spinning was carried on in private houses until factories were specially built for this part of the process from 1807 onwards.

Whitby possessed in 1086 a mill of the value of 10s. (fn. 123) The abbey received from the founder before 1096 a grant of 'Agge Milne' (? Rigg Mill in Sneaton, q.v.), Cock (Kocche) Mill, (fn. 124) Ruswarp Mill, the 'New' Mill and Fyling Mill. (fn. 125) In 1540 the windmill on the east cliff near the monastery was mentioned (fn. 126) ; in the grant by John York to Richard Cholmley two water-mills and two windmills were conveyed. (fn. 127) The Union Mill, 'a conspicuous object on the west side of Whitby' in 1816, (fn. 128) has lately been taken down to the ground floor. (fn. 129) Wren's Mill, pulled down in 1862, stood between Whitby Town and West Cliff stations. (fn. 130)

At the foot of the West Cliff there was a mineral well which was destroyed by the sea before 1734. (fn. 131) A chalybeate spring and brick baths at the foot of the East Cliff, where the Spa Ladder now stands, met with the same fate. (fn. 132) The present Victoria Spa at Bagdale is a chalybeate spring. The excellent sea bathing at Whitby is mentioned in 1773. (fn. 133)

A diligence commenced in 1788 to run twice a week from the 'Turk's Head' and 'White Horse and Griffin' at Whitby to York and another to Scarborough began in 1793. The mail-coach started in 1795 and ran three times a week. A Sunderland coach commenced in 1796. All the coaches ran from the Angel Inn. (fn. 134) The railway from Pickering was constructed in 1833–6. (fn. 135)

Whitby has a long list of distinguished inhabitants. 'The Lady Hilda,' as she is still called, has always been the dominating personality in Whitby history. The ammonite fossils found in large quantities in the cliffs were long thought to be snakes turned into stone by St. Hilda's prayers. (fn. 136) Three ammonite shells appear on a late 18th-century representation of the abbey shield, (fn. 137) in place of the better known three coiled snakes. (fn. 138) Caedmon almost approaches St. Hilda as a Whitby celebrity.

General Peregrine Lascelles was born at a house in Staithside, Whitby, in 1685. (fn. 139) His monument in the parish church states that he served his country in the battles of Almanara, Saragossa and Villa-viciosa and in the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, and that he died in 1772.

Lionel Charlton (c. 1722–88), author of History of Whitby (1779), became a teacher and land surveyor at Whitby about 1748, and kept his excellent school in the tollbooth. (fn. 140) On his tomb in the churchyard he is described as 'Lionel Charlton, philomath.'

Robert Edmund Scoresby-Jackson (1835–67), biographer and medical writer, was a native of Whitby. (fn. 141) Mary Linskill the novelist, daughter of a Whitby constable, was born at a house in Blackburn's Yard, and died at her house in Stakesby Vale in 1891 (fn. 142) ; a monument has been erected over her grave.

The first printing press here was established by Charles Plummer in 1770 at the west end of the bridge. (fn. 143) The Whitby Gazette started in 1854. (fn. 144) A Quaker school was founded by Francis Salkeld in 1703. (fn. 145) There existed in 1816 a public school for boys, erected in 1810, and a Lancasterian school for girls. (fn. 146) The former, the Mount School, enlarged in 1888 and 1896, is now a council school.

Roman Catholicism was never crushed in this district. Catholic missionaries used to land secretly at Whitby during the 16th and 17th centuries. (fn. 147) In 1678 the priest Nicholas Postgate was arrested at Sleights (fn. 148) and hanged. His rosary is still preserved in the priest's house at Whitby; other relics are at Egton Bridge, and it is stated that the informer was drowned with the reward in his pocket. (fn. 149) Late in the 18th century a room for worship was taken by the Roman Catholics in Baxtergate, (fn. 150) and in 1805 the chapel in Bagdale was opened. (fn. 151) The present Roman Catholic church of St. Hilda, Bagdale, was opened in 1867.

George Fox came to Whitby in 1651, 1663, 1666 and 1669. In 1659 the Quakers purchased land for a cemetery in Bagdale. (fn. 152) In 1676 they opened a meeting-house in Church Street, (fn. 153) where they still assemble.

Presbyterians began to meet in 1695, and in 1715 built their chapel at the lower end of Flowergate (fn. 154) ; the present church was erected at the higher end in 1877–8. John Wesley preached on the hill near the parish church in 1772, and the bells were rung in vain to drown his voice. He came again in 1774 and 1788. (fn. 155) The Wesleyans built a meeting-house in Henrietta Street in 1764 (fn. 156) ; their chapel in Church Street, reached by forty steps, was built in 1788, the Mission chapel, Flowergate, in 1857, Brunswick Wesleyan church in 1891, the Primitive Methodist chapel in Cleveland Terrace in 1866, that in Church Street in 1903. The Congregational chapel, built in Silver Street in 1770, has been superseded by the church on West Cliff (1868). The Congregational mission hall in Grape Lane was opened in 1898. The Unitarians occupy the old Presbyterian chapel in Flowergate, already mentioned. The Salvation Army uses the town hall.

Newholm, a mile and a half west of Whitby, is a pretty village in the valley of Newholm Beck with a green, a mill mentioned in 1540, (fn. 157) and a Wesleyan Methodist chapel, erected in 1832. By the sea, between Newholm Beck and Raithwaite Gill, is Raithwaite Hall, a modern building in a fine situation, the residence of Mr. Walter Herbert Septimus Pyman. At the end of Dunsley Lane, which ascends from the cliff, is Dunsley Hall, a modern building, the residence of Mr. Frederick Haigh Pyman. The village of Dunsley is grouped irregularly on a hill. Only the foundation of the mediaeval chapel remains in the centre of a large green. The walls hardly rise in any part above the ground level, but sufficient is left to indicate a building consisting of an aisleless nave 22 ft. 10 in. by 17 ft. and a quire 19 ft. by 12 ft. 2 in. There are traces of an external plinth to the east wall. William de Percy, grandson of the founder of Whitby Abbey, established Mulgrave hermitage in his wood here in honour of St. James the Apostle, in performance of his vow and in atonement of various sins. (fn. 158)

A lane leads out of Whitby from St. Hilda's Terrace and runs due west to Love Lane with the Wishing Chair, thence to Ewe Cote hamlet with the old hall, (fn. 159) and on to Newholm. Near the Wishing Chair, at the junction of three roads, is High Stakesby (where the abbey had a grange), (fn. 160) composed of the manorhouse, an old farm-house and a few cottages. On the opposite side of the road stands a house with Gothic towers and battlements called Sneaton Castle, built by Colonel James Wilson in the early 19th century, (fn. 161) and now used as a large preparatory school for boys.


Newholm Mill, Whitby (now dismantled)

Low Stakesby, in Stakesby Vale, where Mr. John Henry Harrowing, J.P., lives, is close to Whitby. The road south from High Stakesby leads to Ruswarp, on the Esk. Ruswarp Hall stands at the northern end of the village, and is an interesting example of domestic work of the period of the Restoration. A plain oblong on plan, it is built of red brick with stone dressings, and is two stories high, with attics in the roof. The main entrance, in the centre of the front facing the road, has a well-moulded stone architrave supporting an entablature with a broken voluted pediment above. The two-light windows to this front are placed symmetrically, there being seven in the width. They have alternately straight and curved cleft pediments above them with stone mullions and transoms. The rear elevation is similar, but with fewer openings and a large three-light window in the centre lighting the staircase. St. Bartholomew's Church is on the opposite side of the road, and near the iron bridge (built in 1873) is the station. The large corn-mill, formerly standing a little further up the stream, was erected by Nathaniel Cholmley in 1752, (fn. 162) but was destroyed by fire in September 1911. A mill here was granted to the abbey by the founder (fn. 163) before 1096. The abbey possessed three mills at Stakesby in 1396, one a fullingmill, another the New Mill, (fn. 164) and the third perhaps that of Ruswarp. (fn. 165) 'Walkemylne' in Ruswarp Carrs is mentioned in 1540. (fn. 166)

At Carr End, a mile up the river, is the hamlet of Briggswath, where a Wesleyan chapel was built in 1820. It takes its name from the bridge over the Esk to Sleights (fn. 167) railway station. This, though modern, is on the site of one of the mediaeval bridges over the Esk, five of which still stood in the middle of the 19th century. (fn. 168) Reginald de Rosels, lord of Aislaby c. 1190–1211, (fn. 169) granted the ford here to Whitby Abbey, with passage through the land near his mill, and permission to make a bridge over the Esk where the water was common between them; Reginald and his heirs were to have Aislaby mill-pool on the abbey lands. (fn. 170) Woodlands, north of the stream, the residence of the ladies of the manor of Eskdaleside, was originally built in 1470. The north wing was pulled down in 1904 and rebuilt of the old material. The new south wing, built in the 18th century, is higher than the rest of the house. On the other bank the village street of Sleights runs south from the bridge, passing Esk Hall. A house called Eskdale Hall is mentioned as abbey property in 1540. (fn. 171) The parsonage and Sleights Hall are further on to the east. In 1347 Robert de Vesci and Alice his wife, lessees, were sued by the Abbot of Whitby for destroying a hall, a chamber and out-buildings at Sleights and cutting and selling the timber. (fn. 172) At the junction of the roads from the village and from Iburndale are St. John's Church, the church-house, National school and pinfold, and the steep Blue Bank, from which Whitby Abbey is visible.

On the right bank of the Esk, some distance above the village of Sleights, stands the ancient chapel of St. John, Eskdaleside. It is now quite a ruin (39 ft. 9 in. by 17 ft. 7 in.), but an engraving in Grose's Antiquities (fn. 173) shows that it was then (1774) intact and covered with a thatched roof. Three blocked openings and a door are shown in the south wall and another window in the west gable, but they are quite featureless. The west wall still stands to some height and part also of the north, but the east and south sides are ruined to the ground level. The base of the south door remains with a roll moulding to the outer angle of each jamb. The walls, some 2½ ft. thick, were faced with ashlar and a chamfered plinth-course is carried round externally. On the hill-side above the chapel is a substantial stone-built farm-house, dated 1697, with rusticated window openings.

In Newton Hall Wood is the great stone cave known as the Hermitage, possibly the dwelling of the hermits of Eskdaleside which was granted to Whitby Abbey by the founder. (fn. 174) Somewhere in this district dwelt St. Godric the hermit, who died in 1172. (fn. 175) Near the Hermitage are Newton Hall and Newton House, stated in 1816 to have been built by 'the late Jonas Brown'; an obelisk near the house commemorates his achievement of turning wild moors into pleasure grounds. (fn. 176) Little Beck divides Sleights from Ugglebarnby, the Little Clock Mill of which was said in 1595 to have been in the possession of the Elringtons; they also held 'Tincker Garth,' (fn. 177) probably in the neighbourhood of the modern Tinkler Hall. Dean Hall (fn. 178) lies south of the village.

Aislaby, north of Sleights, is on a moor about 600 ft. above the ordnance datum, ascending abruptly from the Esk Valley. Aislaby Hall, a stone building with grey slates at the east end of the village, is the residence of Mrs. De Wend. The disused 18thcentury chapel is in the middle of the village. At the end of the pretty street, composed of old redtiled stone cottages, is the new church of St. Margaret. The 12th-century mill by the Esk (fn. 179) stood until the 19th century. (fn. 180) The road which ran past it from Briggswath can be traced in the flagged pathway from Sleights to the railway station south of the Esk and in the ancient causeway north of the Esk up Strait Lane to Aislaby village. (fn. 181)

Ancient causeways are to be found in several of these villages. A Monk's Causeway, much grassed over, leads from the abbey by the side of the high road from Whitby to Scarborough nearly as far as Robin Hood's Bay. On this road about 1½ miles south-east of the abbey is Whitby Lathes, a hamlet of three houses. The manor-house is a moated farm to the east of the road. At the cross-roads to the south a lane to the east runs through High Hawsker, while the road to the west is the village street of Low Hawsker. Hawsker Old Hall, opposite Low Hawsker windmill, is a typical farm-house of the district; in its grounds where the old chapel probably stood (fn. 182) is a pre-Conquest cross-shaft of which the head is wanting. The shaft (16 in. by 13 in. at the base) tapers slightly towards the top and is 6½ ft. high. It is set in a rough socket formed of two large stones, and each face is ornamented with interlaced knotwork, now much weathered. On the east and west sides are traces of figure subjects, the carving on the east apparently representing a cock. The Wesleyan chapel, which was built in 1831, stands opposite the mill.

North-west of Hawsker is Stainsacre, from which a lane leads north-west along a beck through Cock Mill Wood (Kocche Mill, xi cent.), Golden Grove, and Glen Esk. Larpool Hall is in Glen Esk.


Whitby Abbey. Azure three coiled serpents or.

Whitby Abbey. Azure three coiled serpents or.

Borough

Henry I in or before 1128 granted to the abbey burgage in Whitby. (fn. 183) Richard de Waterville (abbot 1177 to 1189) (fn. 184) granted the town in free burgage to the burgesses, who were to have four ways of entrance to the borough and freedom from all customs. If any quarrel arose among the burgesses, the injured party was to request the wrong-doer three times at his own house to do him right, and after three refusals he was to seek justice of the vill. Pleas were to be held thrice a year. (fn. 185) This charter was confirmed by King John, (fn. 186) but was very displeasing to the succeeding abbots. In 1199 the abbot gave 100 marks that the burgesses should not use their new liberties until the case had been tried. (fn. 187) The burgesses on their side gave 80 marks for a confirmation. (fn. 188) In 1201 the king refused to confirm the charter as injurious to the dignity of the church of Whitby. (fn. 189) Still the struggle went on until in 1200 John Abbot of Whitby gave a further 100 marks that the dispute might be tried before the king. (fn. 190) An agreement of 1351 shows that the abbot ultimately prevailed against the burgesses, who conceded the claims of the abbey to all franchises in the vill, including the merchant court and the grand court of common pleas, held thrice yearly, to which all the inhabitants must come, the sheriff's tourn twice yearly, amendment of the assize of bread and measures, infangentheof, fair and market; they also agreed that widows were not to marry without the abbot's consent, that the abbot was to appoint all officers, and that the community was to make no ordinances which might put outsiders or inhabitants outside the common course of the law. (fn. 191) The abbey also had tallage and 'burmells' or 'burghmales.' (fn. 192)

The quarrel (fn. 193) as to privileges was afterwards renewed, but the Earl of Northumberland, as descendant of the founder, intervened in 1386 and decided the matter in favour of the abbot. (fn. 194)

The burgesses seem to have had little independence under the abbey, but it is noteworthy that while grants of quayage were made to the abbot and good men, grants of pontage were made to the bailiff and good men. (fn. 195)

After the Dissolution the inhabitants made a great effort to obtain self-government, stating in 1629–30 that 'of late years, by reason that the inhabitants of the said town have not a settled and constant government and power to make ordinances and wholesome laws within themselves for the well-ordering of their town and river, the same is . . . likely in short time to come to utter ruin.' (fn. 196) They petitioned for liberty to have a recorder and town clerk, their own justices of the peace and all officers necessary for the government of the town, court leet and baron, the government of the harbour and river with the waterbailiwick, their ancient fairs and markets, all new cattle fairs, and a gaol in their town. (fn. 197) The king ordered Letters Patent to be drawn up granting these requests with some modifications, (fn. 198) but nothing further was heard of the matter. As things remained in 1635 the owners of the liberty had the government of port and town, receiving harbour dues and selecting the twenty-four burgesses, who had as of old (fn. 199) the privilege of buying and retailing goods brought in by the sea, while the other inhabitants might not buy more than served for their own provision. The burgesses also paid two-thirds of all ordinary charges levied by the constables, the body of the town paying the rest, (fn. 200) and by the late 17th century they controlled all assessments—land tax, highway cess, pier cess (on shipowners), (fn. 201) constable's cess, church cess, chapel cess and poor cess; but by 1801 their privileges had disappeared. (fn. 202) Burgage tenure, however, continued. (fn. 203) By an Act of 1837 (fn. 204) the government of the town was entrusted to a board of Improvement Commissioners, elected by the ratepayers. A Local Board was formed in 1872, and remained the governing authority till an Urban District Council was formed under the Local Government Act of 1894.

The townships of Whitby, Ruswarp and Hawskercum-Stainsacre were formed into a Parliamentary borough under the Reform Act of 1832, (fn. 205) returning one member until disfranchised under the Redistribution of Seats Act, 1885. (fn. 206)

Henry I in or before 1128 granted to the abbey a fair at the feast of St. Hilda (fn. 207) (her Translation, 25 August). (fn. 208) After the Reformation the Whitby fair was said to be held on the three days following St. Bartholomew's Day, and came to be called 'Bartlemytide Fair.' (fn. 209) The second fair, which came in by custom, was close to St. Hilda's winter feast (17 November), that is, at Martinmas. (fn. 210) Neither is now held, though there is a hiring fair in November.

The market rights belonged to the abbey from the Conqueror's days, (fn. 211) and descended with the liberty, being confirmed by an Act of Parliament of 1872 passed for the erection of the covered market. (fn. 212) They cover all markets except the wholesale fish market on the quay, but there is actually only one market, sold by the lord of the manor in 1906 to the Urban District Council. It is held inside and outside the market hall, which consists of two stories, the upper part used for produce of a general character, the lower by the butchers. In the square outside vegetables and occasionally fish are sold. (fn. 213) The market has been held on Saturday since Henry VI forbade it to be held on Sunday. (fn. 214)

Forest

In Whitby and Sneaton in 1086 there was pasturable wood 7 leagues (leugae) long by 3 wide (fn. 215) ; in Aislaby 1 square league (nearly the whole manor) was pasturable wood, (fn. 216) which in Hackness, Suffield and Everley was 2 leagues by 1. (fn. 217) Alan de Percy granted to the abbey all woods and pastures in their lands of his grant, (fn. 218) and William II forbade any of his ministers to enter the same (fn. 219) ; but the Abbot William granted to Henry I all stags, hinds and boars, and the king afforested the lands to himself and heirs. (fn. 220) Richard I, however, in 1190 granted the abbey freedom from wastes, assarts and regards, (fn. 221) and King John in March 1203–4 restored these forests. (fn. 222) Henry III gave the abbey permission to have separate verderers, elected in the county court. (fn. 223)

Horngarth

The abbot's monopoly of common within the 'acredike' of various vills in the liberty was one of the matters of dispute with the burgesses in the 14th century. (fn. 224) Canon Atkinson connected the acredike with the horngarth, a foreign service, implying wardship and marriage, (fn. 225) reserved by the abbot in the 12th century grants of Dunsley, (fn. 226) Ugglebarnby (fn. 227) and Everley, (fn. 228) and also due from Sneaton and from lands in Newholm, Ruswarp, Stainsacre, Stakesby and Fylingdales. (fn. 229) About 1315, in consequence of the men of Sneaton taking too much wood for the purpose of making the horngarth and selling the residue, it was agreed that the wood should be delivered by the abbot's servants. (fn. 230) It was then made on Ascension Eve, (fn. 231) and appears to have been a hedging duty. (fn. 232) The ceremony which commemorated it was called bond dike in the 17th century. (fn. 233) A document of doubtful authority of the 16th or 17th century records the manner of its performance:

Thomas Cockrill, being bailiff to the abbot, did meet by sunrise the Conyers, the Strangways, the Eldringtons and Allatsons, (fn. 234) who were bound to this service, in the Strye Head hard by Little Beck, and the said Cockrill did see every one cut down with a knife, he appointing the wood, so much as should serve. From thence they came not the nearest way, but bringing them upon their back, went a good way before they came into the way. So coming to the water at the town end they made the hedge which should stand three tides, and then the officer did blow out upon they. (fn. 235)

Further light was thrown on this custom in 1613 by two former stewards of the liberty. One stated that there were 9 yards of hedging called bond dike made at 9 o'clock of the forenoon every Ascension Eve at Whitby by inhabitants of the place; the second deposed that the inhabitants of Ugglebarnby on St. Ellen's Day yearly at 8 o'clock in the morning made a hedge called the horn hedge at Whitby within the full sea mark, to last for three tides. (fn. 236) The owner of Sneaton Manor paid quit-rents twice yearly. (fn. 237) Again, in 1753, a 'learned clergyman' witnessed the ceremony, and related that 'the tenant of the last of the name of Allatson, who had a piece of land in Fylingdales . . . brought 5 stakes, 8 yethers, and 6 strut-stowers; and, whilst Mr. Cholmley's bailiff, on an antique bugle-horn, blew Out on you! Out on you! Out on you! made a slight hedge of them a little way into the shallows of the river.' (fn. 238)

In 1779, as now, the hedge was 'vulgarly' called 'the Penny Hedge,' (fn. 239) and it was probably so known two centuries earlier. (fn. 240) The Herberts of Whitby purchased the Allatsons' lands in Fylingdales in 1755, (fn. 241) and now perform the service for Harton House Farm, the hedge being made by Mr. Isaac Hutton of Straggleton near Newholm. The wood was formerly obtained from South House Farm, Fylingdales. (fn. 242) The hedge is made on the east side of the Esk, above Whitby Bridge.

Manors

In the time of the Confessor WHITBY and its berewick Sneaton, where 15 carucates of land were at geld, belonged to Siward Earl of Northumbria. In 1086 it was held by William de Percy of Hugh Earl of Chester (fn. 243) as one manor with soke in Fylingdales, Hawsker, 'Prestebi,' Ugglebarnby, 'Sourebi,' (fn. 244) 'Brecca' ('Breche'), (fn. 245) Baldby, (fn. 246) 'Florun' ('Flore'), (fn. 247) Stakesby and Newholm; in all 28 carucates and 6 oxgangs of land were at geld, all waste except the Abbot of York's (that is, St. Hilda's) (fn. 248) lands. (fn. 249) Earl Hugh and William de Percy joined in enfeoffing Whitby Abbey. (fn. 250)


Cholmley. Gules two steel helms in the chief and a sheaf or in the foot.

Cholmley. Gules two steel helms in the chief and a sheaf or in the foot.

The manor passed with the liberty to the Cholmleys, (fn. 251) who held it until the 19th century. Sir Richard son of Sir Henry Cholmley (fn. 252) vindicated his claim to the liberty in the reign of James I. His son and successor Sir Hugh, created a baronet in 1641, (fn. 253) was author of the Memoirs, and distinguished himself in many ways, fighting at first on the side of the Parliament, but in 1644 for the king. His estate was discharged on his payment of a fine in February 1649–50. (fn. 254) Sir Hugh died in 1657, leaving sons William and Hugh. William died in 1663, his infant son Hugh in 1665, when the uncle Sir Hugh (born at Fyling Hall in 1632) succeeded. (fn. 255) He superintended the building of a mole to protect Tangier from the sea, taking with him Whitby people, who had much experience in this kind of work, and a village near Tangier received the name of Whitby. After his return he completed the Abbey House. (fn. 256) He received a confirmation of all charters (fn. 257) in 1673 (fn. 258) and died in January, 1688–9, when the baronetcy became extinct. His heir was his daughter Mary, whose husband, her 'cousin' Nathaniel Cholmley, had died in 1687. (fn. 259) Their eldest son Hugh (fn. 260) succeeded, and in 1724 was Sheriff of Yorkshire. (fn. 261) He married Katharine, daughter and ultimately heir of Sir John Wentworth, bart., (fn. 262) and when Sir Butler Wentworth died childless in 1741 (fn. 263) obtained the Wentworth estates and removed to Howsham, where the Cholmleys thenceforth lived. He had twelve children and died in 1755. (fn. 264) Nathaniel, the eldest son, received a visit from the Duke of York at Whitby (fn. 265) and died in 1791, leaving four daughters. Of these, Katharine had married in 1774 Henry Hopkins Fane of Barmbrough, Mary married Abraham Grimes of Coton House, Warwickshire, (fn. 266) and Anne Elizabeth in 1787 married Constantine John Phipps, Lord Mulgrave, and died in the following year. (fn. 267) Katharine received Whitby, her husband assuming the name Cholmley, and died in 1809; she left sons Charles and George, who succeeded in turn, (fn. 268) and both died childless, the latter in 1857. Robert son of Abraham Grimes and Mary held the manor till his death, when Sir George Strickland, bart., of Boynton, whose mother was Henrietta Cholmley, the third daughter of Nathaniel, succeeded to Whitby. (fn. 269) He changed his name with royal licence to Cholmley in 1865, and died in 1874. His son Sir Charles William Strickland (fn. 270) was succeeded in the title in 1909 by his son Sir Walter William Strickland, ninth baronet, (fn. 271) but Whitby passed by Sir Charles's will to his daughter the Hon. Mrs. Tatton Willoughby.


Strickland of Boynton, baronet. Gules a cheveron or between three crosses formy argent and a quarter ermine charged with a hart's head razed sable.

Strickland of Boynton, baronet. Gules a cheveron or between three crosses formy argent and a quarter ermine charged with a hart's head razed sable.


Brus. Argent a lion azure.

Brus. Argent a lion azure.


Thweng. Argent a fesse gules between three popinjays vert.

Thweng. Argent a fesse gules between three popinjays vert.

AISLABY (Asvlvesby, Asuluebi, xi cent.; Ascilbi, Assillaby, xiii cent.; Aselby, xiiixv cent.; Haselby, xiii-xvii cent.; Aslaghby, xvi cent.), where 3 carucates of land were at geld, was held before the Conquest (fn. 272) as one manor by Ughtred; in 1086 it was held by Richard Surdeval of the Count of Mortain. (fn. 273) The count forfeited his fees, and his son was finally attainted in 1106. (fn. 274) A considerable part of their lands was in the hands of the Brus family early in the reign of Henry I. (fn. 275) Aislaby was among the possessions of the third Peter de Brus on his death in 1272. (fn. 276) From Peter de Brus the overlordship descended to Lucy de Thweng and her heirs. (fn. 277)

Arnald de Percy (of Kildale, q.v.) appears as mesne lord in 1301–2, (fn. 278) possibly because the undertenant held elsewhere of him. (fn. 279)


Darcy. Azure crusilly and three cinqfoils argent.

Darcy. Azure crusilly and three cinqfoils argent.


Dacre. Gules three scallops or.

Dacre. Gules three scallops or.

The Surdevals were soon replaced as under-tenants by the Rosels, possibly early in the 12th century. (fn. 280) Reginald de Rosels, lord of Newton under Roseberry (q.v.) 1190–1211, was lord of Aislaby, (fn. 281) and his descendants held the manor until 1320–1, (fn. 282) when John son of William de Rosels conveyed it to Nicholas de Meynell for life with remainder in fee to Nicholas his son by Lucy de Thweng. (fn. 283) The manor then descended with that of Yarm (q.v.), and was settled in 1353 on Elizabeth daughter of Nicholas (called in one place Hugh) Meynell and her husband John Darcy and their heirs with reversion to the Crown. (fn. 284) The Darcys and their descendants, the Strangways of Harlsey, (fn. 285) held Aislaby (fn. 286) until in 1540–1 Sir James Strangways, kt., conveyed it with Whorlton and other places to William Lord Dacre, (fn. 287) with successive remainders to his sons Thomas, Leonard, Edward and Francis in tail-male. (fn. 288) Thus when Leonard, then the head of the family, and his brother Francis were attainted for their part in the Rising of the North (1569) the Crown had merely an interest in their lands for their lives. Francis died in February 1632–3, leaving a son Randolph, on whose death childless in 1634 the estates devolved on Lord William Howard of Naworth and Elizabeth (Dacre) his wife and Thomas Earl of Arundel, son of Ann Dacre, the other co-heir. (fn. 289) Meanwhile the Crown had made various grants of its interest, (fn. 290) and in 1633 Sir Hugh Cholmley of Whitby purchased the manor. Within half a year of his purchase he was ousted by the co-heirs, but after waiting twenty years he purchased it again. (fn. 291)

The manor then descended with Whitby Liberty until 1685 at least. (fn. 292) In 1745–6 George Ridley and his wife Elizabeth conveyed it to Henry Paramor and Thomas Cordley on a ninety-nine years' lease terminable at their deaths. (fn. 293) In 1786 it was in the hands of Elizabeth Burdett and Robert Burdett, (fn. 294) who sold it to Mark Noble 'of Whitby,' already resident at Aislaby Hall. (fn. 295) His son Mark died in 1832, (fn. 296) leaving daughters Rebecca and Elizabeth (afterwards Mrs. Hatt) and sons Mark and Robert. Robert was lord of the manor in 1859, (fn. 297) and in 1890 it belonged to Mrs. Hatt and Mrs. Burnett, who was a daughter-in-law of Robert. (fn. 298) In 1905 it was sold by the representatives of Robert Noble and Mrs. Hatt to Mr. F. H. Pyman of Dunsley, the present owner. (fn. 299)

DUNSLEY (Dunesle, Duneslay, xi cent.; Denslee, xiii cent.; Dounslay, xiv cent.) was called a manor in the 13th century in the Mauley claim, (fn. 300) and seems to have been held as such by the Percys until 1326, but it was held as a member of Stakesby from 1394, (fn. 301) and is now annexed manorially to Stakesby. From the 16th to the 19th century, however, the old abbey lands descended separately from the manor of Stakesby under the name of the manor of Dunsley.

Before the Conquest Torolf held 3 carucates of land here which were terra regis in 1086, when Berengar de Toni held a fourth carucate. (fn. 302) William de Percy speedily became enfeoffed of these lands, and included them in his second donation to Whitby Abbey. (fn. 303) The abbey seems to have made a life grant to Richard de Percy, younger son of the founder, called 'of Dunsley,' (fn. 304) and the Abbot Benedict (c. 1139–48) (fn. 305) granted this place to Richard's son William in fee for the sole payment of 2 marks yearly, besides horngarth. (fn. 306) William's son Richard (fn. 307) granted the abbey 1 carucate of his lands here in about 1214– 20. (fn. 308) A William de Percy seems to have succeeded between 1223 and 1244, and to have been followed by a Richard de Percy. (fn. 309) In 1281 William de Percy held all the vill except the carucate granted to the abbey, (fn. 310) and he was witness to a charter in 1305. (fn. 311) Simon son of William de Percy of Dunsley granted lands in Eskdale and other places to the abbey in 1308. (fn. 312) He, his son Peter, Robert Man of Sneaton and his wife Margaret de Percy (probably daughter of Simon), his nearest heirs, granted all right in the lordship to the abbey. (fn. 313) The manor then probably merged in that of Stakesby, the court of which its tenants now attend. No manor is admitted, and at the time of the inclosure award the Cholmleys as lords of Stakesby received the lord's share of Dunsley. (fn. 314)

The demesnes, however, which passed with the manor until the Dissolution, (fn. 315) afterwards descended separately and were called 'the manor.' In 1545 Henry VIII granted all the abbey's possessions here in fee simple to William Ramsden of Longley and Edward Hoppey, jun., of Halifax, clothier, who in the same year received licence to alienate the same to Sir Nicholas Fairfax, kt., (fn. 316) of Gilling (q.v.). Most of these lands were settled in fee on Cuthbert, third son of Sir Nicholas, 'of Acaster,' in 1588. (fn. 317) He died in 1606 seised of four-sixths of the manor and various tenements here, leaving a son and heir Nicholas, (fn. 318) who died in 1609 seised of three-sixths and the reversion of one-sixth on the death of Henry son of George Fairfax without male issue. (fn. 319) This was possibly the Henry called of Dunsley who in 1599 refused to allow the tax on recusants to be levied on his goods, but drove his cattle into the fold and armed 'with stave and caliver,' assisted by about a score of men with staves, defended them, while the various recusants of the district (fn. 320) wounded the officers and seized their warrants. (fn. 321) Henry was stated in 1614 to have been a recusant for fourteen years. (fn. 322) Cuthbert's heir Nicholas, of Sand Hutton Grange, (fn. 323) left a son and heir Hungate who died seised of four-sixths of the manor in 1637 and was succeeded by his brother and heir Thomas, (fn. 324) living at Dunsley in 1665. (fn. 325) Isaac, his eldest son, (fn. 326) conveyed the manor in 1686 to John Earl of Mulgrave. (fn. 327) Other parts of the estate, now apparently united by Isaac, had been meanwhile in the hands of various members of the Fairfax family and of others. Edward brother of Cuthbert (fn. 328) held one-sixth, and in 1588 conveyed it to trustees for Cuthbert and his heirs. (fn. 329) In the same year Cuthbert's elder brother Henry (fn. 330) died seised of one-sixth which he held of Cuthbert; his heir was his elder brother Sir William Fairfax of Gilling. (fn. 331)


Fairfax. Argent three gimel bars sable with a lion gules over all.

Fairfax. Argent three gimel bars sable with a lion gules over all.

In 1599 Cuthbert's successor Nicholas conveyed one-sixth to John Blanchard, (fn. 332) who died seised of a quarter in 1618, leaving a son and heir John. (fn. 333)

Another member of the Fairfax family, William, died seised of a sixth in 1620, leaving a son and heir Thomas. (fn. 334) Richard Etherington of the Inner Temple, London, Thomas Fairfax of Dunsley, Thomas Fairfax of Oswaldkirk, and John Blanchard were said to be joint lords during the Commonwealth, though it was suggested that Henry VIII, from whom they drew their title, was never possessed of the manor. (fn. 335)

From 1686 to at least 1829 this estate continued to be called a manor and descended with Mulgrave. (fn. 336)

ESKDALESIDE (Eschedale, xi-xiii cent.; Esshedale, xiv-xvi cent.; Eskedaleside alias Eskedale Hall, xvi cent.; Eastdaleside, xvii cent.; Eskdale alias Eshcale alias Sleights, xviii–xix cent.; Ashdaleside, xviii cent.; the capital messuage called Eskhouse xviii cent.) is not mentioned in Domesday Book, but was in the possession of the first William de Percy, (fn. 337) of whom the Everleys probably held it. (fn. 338) About the middle of the 13th century Geoffrey de Everley quitclaimed all his right in the manor to Whitby Abbey, (fn. 339) and in the early half of the 14th century William de Everley, jun., of Ugglebarnby quitclaimed all right in Eskdale and Iburne to the abbey, (fn. 340) which retained them until the Dissolution. (fn. 341) In March 1545–6 the manor was granted to Sir Richard Cholmley with one of the manors of Ugglebarnby (q.v.), with which it seems to have always subsequently descended (though not always specifically mentioned). The Cholmleys probably conveyed it with their manor of Ugglebarnby to the owners of the second manor of Ugglebarnby, in which it is now merged. (fn. 342)

The manorial court is mentioned in 1394 and 1396. (fn. 343) It is now held alternately at the Station Hotel (formerly the Fox Inn, Sleights) and at the Plough Inn, Ugglebarnby.

Richard Burdett (of the family of Burdett of Osgodby), who died in 1744, was seised of a capital messuage called Eskhouse near the river and an estate in Sleights. His widow lived there until her marriage with James Wilson. (fn. 344) Richard's daughter and coheir Tabitha married Robert Bower of Welham and Sleights, who died in 1777. (fn. 345)

HAWSKER (Ghinipe, Gnipe, (fn. 346) xi cent.; Houkesgart, Hokesgart, Hauchesgard, xii cent.; Houkegarth, Aukesgarth, (fn. 347) xiii cent.; Hakisgarth, Haukeswer, xiv cent.; Hauskarth, Hastkar, xvi cent.; Hausegarth, xvii cent.; Hawscar, xviii cent.) was in the soke of Whitby in 1086. (fn. 348) Early in the 12th century it was sold by Tancred, the Fleming, who had also obtained possession of Fyling (fn. 349) (whether by grant of the Earl of Chester or of the first William de Percy is not known) to William de Percy, (fn. 350) nephew of the founder and first Abbot of Whitby. (fn. 351) Alan son of the founder confirmed the grant, (fn. 352) William de Newholm and his son Aschetin de Hawsker witnessing Alan's charter. (fn. 353)

The Abbot William subenfeoffed this Aschetin in Hawsker and Normanby in exchange for Newholm. (fn. 354) Aschetin had two sons, possibly William and Roger. (fn. 355) Roger de Hawsker had sons Reginald, Adam and William. (fn. 356) Between 1223 and 1244 a Thomas de Hawsker with his wife Julia and son Thomas granted land to the abbey in exchange for what Aschetin had given in Hawsker. (fn. 357) Thomas de Hawsker in 1251–2 remitted to the abbot all hunting rights in Whitby Forest, with tenements in Normanby, in exchange for all the latter's possessions, including a capital messuage, in Hawsker. (fn. 358) The second Thomas had a son Nicholas who granted the manor in fee-tail to Stephen Belbarbe, with remainder to the abbey. (fn. 359) Stephen was assessed for 6s. 2d. subsidy here in 1301–2, (fn. 360) but by 1299 seems to have disposed of the manorial rights. In that year Sir Henry de Percy, (fn. 361) possibly as mesne lord, granted the manor, worth £5 yearly, to Whitby Abbey. (fn. 362) Nicholas de Hawsker and his son Adam remitted to the abbey in 1308 all right in the manor, (fn. 363) and Stephen Belbarbe did the same. (fn. 364) The abbey retained the manor until the Dissolution. (fn. 365) It afterwards passed with the liberty (q.v.) as a separate manor and has still a separate court.

LARPOOL (Leirpel, Lairpelle, Layerpelle, xi-xv cent.) was granted to the abbey by the founder and his son, (fn. 366) continued to be held by the abbey in demesne, (fn. 367) and passed as a manor with the liberty (q.v.) after the Dissolution. It is now represented only by Larpool Hall in the township of Hawskercum-Stainsacre, and no manor is known.

LATHGARTH GRANGE (fn. 368) is referred to as the manor of Lathgarth in 1396, (fn. 369) but no manor is now known.

NEWHOLM (Neueham, xi–xv cent.; Newham, xii-xvi cent.), where Lesing held 2 carucates 2 oxgangs at geld as two manors before the Conquest, was land of the king in 1086. (fn. 370) It was also in the soke of Whitby, (fn. 371) and the overlordship was granted by the founder to Whitby Abbey. (fn. 372)

William de Newholm was presumably the undertenant of the Percys here, his son Aschetin granting the manor to the Abbot William (who died c. 1125) (fn. 373) in exchange for Hawsker. (fn. 374) It was one of the manors claimed by Peter de Mauley, (fn. 375) but retained by the abbey, and by 1394 had become absorbed in the manor of Stakesby. (fn. 376)

The vill of STAINSACRE (Neðherby, Netherby, Steinsecher, xii cent.; Steynsekerr, xiii cent.; Staynseker, xiv cent.; Staneseycarre, xvi cent.; Staneskarre, xvii cent.) was granted to the Abbot and convent of Whitby by the founder, (fn. 377) and Richard son of Quinild de Stainsacre (with the assent of his wife Hawise), Maud his daughter, and William son of Richard son of Fulk de Stainsacre, granted to the abbey all their rights in this territory. (fn. 378) It was a member of the manor of Whitby Lathes in 1394–6, (fn. 379) but passed with the liberty as a manor after the Dissolution. No manor is now known.

The soke of 2 carucates 6 oxgangs of land in STAKESBY (Staxebi, Stachesby, xi cent.; Stoxbie, Stokesbie, xvii cent.; Staxby, xvi-xviii cent.) was appurtenant to the manor of Whitby in 1086, when 2 oxgangs of land there were held by the Count of Mortain. (fn. 380) The vill was granted by the founder to Whitby Abbey. (fn. 381) William de Percy is said to have afterwards taken away the manors of Stakesby and Everley, (fn. 382) and given them to his esquire Ralph de Everley, who kept them for many years. (fn. 383) Stakesby was among the manors claimed by Peter de Mauley in 1281, (fn. 384) and afterwards descended with the liberty (fn. 385) (q.v.). The court is always held at the manor-house here for the tenants of Stakesby, Ruswarp and Newholm-cum-Dunsley.


Conyers. Azure a sleeve or with the difference of a crescent or charged with another gules.

Conyers. Azure a sleeve or with the difference of a crescent or charged with another gules.

Gregory Conyers stated in 1540 that his ancestors had held his dwelling-place (Bagdale Hall in Stakesby) time out of mind. (fn. 386) It was held of the lord of Whitby as a free burgage. (fn. 387) Christopher Conyers of Hornby in 1426 bequeathed half his lands in Whitby to his son Thomas in fee. (fn. 388) In 1527 the abbot granted the office of bailiff of the liberty to James Conyers for life, with remainder to his nephew (fn. 389) Gregory Conyers and Gregory's son and heir George. (fn. 390) The abbot complained in 1536 to Cromwell of the 'malicious' conduct of James as bailiff, (fn. 391) and in 1538 of the insatiableness of Gregory. (fn. 392) Gregory made his will in 1540, (fn. 393) bequeathing the ceiling and carved work of the hall to his eldest son as heirlooms, and died the same year seised of the capital messuage called Bagdale Hall and a horse-mill, leaving a son and heir George, (fn. 394) who 'being of great birth' expelled the king's patentee from the bailiwick of the liberty. (fn. 395) George was succeeded in 1570 by his son Nicholas, (fn. 396) who in 1595 sold Bagdale Hall to Nicholas Bushell of Whitby, merchant. (fn. 397) The purchaser was probably the son of Robert Bushell, who died in 1585. (fn. 398) He sold Bagdale Hall in 1631 to Isaac Newton of Ruswarp, (fn. 399) who married his daughter Hester. (fn. 400) They had a son Isaac living at Bagdale Hall in 1665. (fn. 401)

The soke of UGGLEBARNBY (Ulgesberdesebi, Oggelbergesby, xi cent.; Hugelbardebi, Uglebardebi, xii cent.), where 3 carucates of land were at geld, was appurtenant to the manor of Whitby in 1086. (fn. 402) The place was granted to the abbey by the founder and his son Alan, (fn. 403) and confirmed before 1135 by Alan's son William. (fn. 404) Two manors of Ugglebarnby seem to have then developed. The first was retained by the abbey until the Dissolution, (fn. 405) when it was in the occupation of Thomas Elrington, (fn. 406) and was granted with the manor of Eskdaleside in 1545–6 to Sir Richard Cholmley of Whitby. (fn. 407) The Cholmleys were said to hold a manor here until 1616, (fn. 408) but had probably conveyed it before then to the tenant of the other manor.

The second manor was granted with Everley (fn. 409) by Richard, Abbot of Whitby (1177–89), to William de Everley in fee. (fn. 410) William de Everley, son of Sir William de Everley, kt., was lord about 1268. (fn. 411) In 1270 Robert, Abbot of Whitby, granted to Alan de Everley estover in the wood of Iburne for building Alan's manor here. (fn. 412) John de Everley, aged sixty, was witness in the great Whitby lawsuit in 1283. (fn. 413) William de Everley was lord in 1311 (fn. 414) and 1316. (fn. 415) In 1334 it was stated at the forest eyre that William de Everley, jun., was the representative of William de Everley of Ugglebarnby, deceased. (fn. 416) In 1361 the manor was settled on John de Wandesford, jun., (fn. 417) and Joan his wife and the heirs of Joan. (fn. 418) No further mention of this estate is found until Gregory Conyers between 1518 and 1529 complained that John Elryngton refused to carry out an agreement with him concerning the manor of Ugglebarnby Hall. (fn. 419) In 1545–6 Thomas Elrington conveyed to John Swinburne, jun., the remainder of a moiety of the manor held by Christopher and William Elrington for their lives, with successive remainders to John Swinburne, jun., in tail-male, John son and heir of Christopher Swinburne in tail-male, and the heirs of John Swinburne, deceased, father of John, jun. (fn. 420) John Swinburne of Chopwell, Durham, was attainted in 1570 for his share in the Rebellion of the North. (fn. 421)


Swinburne of Chopwell. Argent a chief gules with three cinqfoils counter coloured and a border gobony argent and azure.

Swinburne of Chopwell. Argent a chief gules with three cinqfoils counter coloured and a border gobony argent and azure.


Bolles of Scampton, baronet. Azure three cups or with a boar's head argent in each of the bowls.

Bolles of Scampton, baronet. Azure three cups or with a boar's head argent in each of the bowls.

In 1604 John Swinburne, brother of Roger Swinburne, deceased, showed his title to the manor, which was restored to his possession. (fn. 422) In the same year he and Ralph Elrington of Ugglebarnby (fn. 423) sold it to George Bolles. (fn. 424) Sir George Bolles, Lord Mayor of London 1617–18, obtained Scampton in Lincolnshire by marriage with Joan Hart. He was succeeded in 1621 by his son John, created a baronet in 1628 and succeeded in March 1647–8 by his son Robert, one of the jury at the trial of the regicides. (fn. 425) Sir Robert Bolles was succeeded in March 1663–4 (fn. 426) by his son Sir John, lord of Ugglebarnby, Eskdaleside, Newton and Sneaton. (fn. 427) Sir John at his death in March 1685–6 left an only son John, who, dying unmarried in 1714, was succeeded by his sister Sarah of Shrewsbury, (fn. 428) who died in 1746, leaving co-heirs Sir Cyril Wych, bart., John Washer, and Mary Turton. (fn. 429) Sir Cyril Wych, who was of an old diplomatic family, was English Resident at the Hans Towns, and in 1729 was created a baronet. (fn. 430) In 1752 he mortgaged his share to John Matthews of Stokesley, and arranged for the absolute sale; when the manors were divided in the same year this share consisted of the manors of Ugglebarnby and Eskdaleside. (fn. 431) In 1790 John Matthews, bankrupt, (fn. 432) conveyed the manor to Henry Walker Yeoman (fn. 433) of Woodlands, son of John Yeoman of Whitby by Rachel daughter of Henry Walker of Whitby, brother of Captain Cook's patron. (fn. 434) He died in 1801 and was succeeded by his son Henry Walker Yeoman (d. 1875) father of the Ven. Henry Walker Yeoman, Archdeacon of Cleveland, who died unmarried in 1897. The second son, Thomas Laurence, died unmarried in 1901, when the heirs of the third son, the Rev. Constantine Bernard Yeoman, vicar of Manfield, succeeded. These were his five daughters, Margaret Constance Yeoman now deceased, Sophia Bruce, Eva Dorothy, Charlotte and Mary, (fn. 435) and Margaret Winsome, daughter of his deceased daughter Emily Harriot by Mr. W. H. A. Wharton of Skelton. (fn. 436)

The manor of WHITBY LATHES seems to be first mentioned in 1394, when a court was held there. (fn. 437) It was retained by the abbey until the Dissolution, (fn. 438) and afterwards passed with the liberty (q.v.). The court is always held at the Manor House, a farm.

Churches

The church of ST. MARY, originally a 12th-century building, has been much altered and added to, and the interior is cumbered with square pews and numerous galleries, which give an excellent idea of the arrangement prevailing in the 'Churchwarden' period. The church was originally an aisleless building with a western tower, to which transepts were subsequently added. The chief modern additions are a large annexe to the north of the nave and the two porches.

The quire, 38 ft. by 17 ft. 11 in., dates from the middle of the 12th century, and is lighted by three round-headed, deeply splayed windows in the east end, that in the centre being a modern restoration. A roll moulding is carried up the jambs and round the heads internally. The side walls were originally of three bays each, with a window of similar character to those already described. Of these the first and third on the north and the easternmost on the south still remain, the central light on this side being blocked. Two windows and a door in the south wall are 15th-century insertions. Two aumbries or lockers appear in the north wall and a third with a small piscina opposite them. The 12th-century chancel arch, recessed in three orders on its western face, springs from responds, the shafts of which have capitals rudely carved with the volute ornament. The southern abutment is pierced by a squint from the south transept. Externally the quire is finished on the north and south with a plain corbel table and a late embattled parapet.

The nave, 97 ft. 6 in. by 26 ft. 2 in., of five bays, is of similar date to the quire (c. 1140). Two only of the original windows remain in the south wall, one blocked and the other considerably lengthened, and three flat pilaster buttresses of the same date remain on the outside. With the exception of the two western bays, the north wall was entirely removed in 1818, when the large aisle was built on that side, extending out as far as the transept end. The roof is supported by clustered columns of a nondescript character on the line of the destroyed wall. About the same period four large square-headed windows were inserted in the south wall, the south porch added and a small north porch built to the west of the new annexe. The ceilings of this part of the church are boarded and pierced with several skylight openings. The original entrance to the nave appears to have been in the centre bay on the south side, where there are traces of the former existence of a gabled stone pediment.

The transept, 93 ft. 9 in. from north to south by 26 ft. 5 in. wide, was added to the church in the first half of the 13th century. The northern arm still retains three tall lancets of this date in the end wall; they have, however, been lengthened and otherwise tampered with. The west wall was taken down when the northern annexe was added in 1818. The southern arm is of similar character, but has been more seriously altered. The windows here are all of modern date, but an ancient trefoil-headed piscina remains in the south wall.

The western tower, though three stages high, has a somewhat squat appearance. The outer corners are supported by flat buttresses with attached shafts at the angles, and the building appears to be a little later in date than the nave. In the west wall are remains of a large doorway, now blocked and almost obliterated. The tower arch opening into the nave is recessed in three orders, the side shafts having capitals with voluted angles and square abaci of about 1180. The belfry stage is lighted by a window opening of late date in each face, and the tower is finished with a 15th-century embattled parapet.

The ring of eight bells consists of six inscribed, 'Whitby 1762 Lester and Pack of London fecit,' and two small bells added in 1897.

The nave and transept are fitted with large galleries, mainly of early 19th-century date, and approached by staircases internal and external and openings cut in the old walls. On the ground floor is a curious 'three-decker' pulpit of the same date and numerous square pews. The latter are of various dates, many being of the early 18th century, while to the north of the chancel arch is a large pew with moulded rail and strapwork of Jacobean character. Immediately in front of the chancel arch is a small gallery, erected about 1700 and supported on four twisted Corinthian columns. The front is ornamented with carved cherubim, fruit and foliage. The large iron-bound parish chest in the vestibule dates from about 1700.

The church contains few ancient monuments, the only one of importance being a tablet on the north wall of the quire to Sir Richard Cholmley (d. 1631). Numerous later memorials to this family exist elsewhere in the quire and north transept. The indent of an elaborate canopied brass remains in the quire floor.

The plate belonging to the church includes a paten (London, 1710), the gift of Mr. James Yeoman in 1742; a cup and flagon (both London, 1743), inscribed, 'Whitby Church Yorkshire 1743'; two almsdishes (London, 1759), bought in 1759, and a modern cup and paten.

The registers before 1812 are as follows: (i) all entries 1608 to 1676, except the years 1649 to 1669 (fn. 439) ; (ii) all entries 1653 to 1660; (iii) all entries 1676 to 1704 (baptisms to 1703); (iv) all entries 1705 to 1729 (baptisms from 1704); (v) 1730 to 1739; (vi) 1740 to 1755; (vii) marriages 1754 to 1763; (viii) baptisms and burials 1755 to 1768; (ix) marriages 1763 to 1779; (x) baptisms 1768 to 1782 and burials 1768 to 1781; (xi) marriages 1779 to 1795; (xii) baptisms 1783 to 1799, burials 1782 to 1799; (xiii) marriages 1795 to 1812; (xiv) baptisms and burials 1799 to 1812; (xv) marriages 1812. (fn. 440)

There are four modern churches in the town, the earliest being ST. NINIAN in Baxtergate, which was opened in 1778. It is a plain rectangular brick building with galleries on three sides and a semicircular apse. It was restored in 1881–90, and has a modern open oak rood screen and a small bellcote. This church is not orientated.

ST. JOHN THE EVANGELIST, further down Baxtergate, was built in 1848–9 and consecrated in 1850, and consists of a nave of five bays with aisles and two shallow projections in the form of transepts opposite the second bay from the east. The style is 13th-century Gothic, and the arcades are lofty with tall coupled lancet windows to the aisles. At the east end is a chancel arch, but the chancel itself has never been completed. Behind the altar is a carved stone reredos with a mosaic of the Last Supper. It is a chapel of ease to the parish church.

The church of ST. MICHAEL, Church Street, was consecrated in 1856, and is a stone building consisting of nave with aisles, chancel and western bellcote containing one bell. The style is Gothic of the 13th century, and the east window is a triple lancet. There are also three lancets at the west end with a circular light in the gable over. It is a chapel of ease.

ST. HILDA'S Church, on the west cliff, was built in 1885 from the designs of Mr. R. J. Johnson at a cost of £18,500. It is a large, lofty and handsome example of modern work in the 'Decorated' style, consisting of chancel with side chapels, nave with aisles and narthex, and a central tower not yet completed. The quire has a fine seven-light east window, the west window being of six lights and filled with a Jesse tree in stained glass. The nave is five bays long, with a narthex of three bays across the west end, containing a dark marble carved font in the style of the 15th century. The fittings of the church are carried out with great magnificence and include a carved and painted reredos, a carved oak rood screen under the western tower arch, a carved stone pulpit with an oak sounding-board and a bishop's seat, of the same material, to the north of the altar, with an ornate canopy reaching nearly to the roof. The quire roof is of wagon form with carved angels to the cornice, and on the south side are three stone sedilia and a piscina. This also is a chapel of ease.

The church of Aislaby, built in 1732 to replace a mediaeval chapel, is now disused. It is a plain rectangular stone building. It has been superseded by the new church of ST. MARGARET, built in 1897 of stone and consisting of nave and chancel.

The modern church of ST. JOHN EVANGELIST, Eskdaleside, has taken the place of one erected in 1762 on the abandonment of Eskdaleside Chapel. (fn. 441) It is a stone building in the Early English style, standing in an extensive churchyard, and consists of a quire and nave of four bays with a north aisle and porch. The tower, three stages high, stands to the north of the quire.

The modern church of ALL SAINTS serves the hamlets of High and Low Hawsker. It stands at the cross roads, a short distance to the north of the latter village. It is a stone-faced building in the Gothic style of the 13th century and consists of an aisleless nave of three bays, a quire with a three-light east window and an organ chamber on the north side. The central tower, crowned by a gabled slate roof, rests upon two arches, the soffits of which are cinquefoiled with poor effect. The chancel is fitted with a pitch pine rood screen.


Ugglebarnby Church from the South-west

The modern church of ST. BARTHOLOMEW, Ruswarp, is a stone-faced building in the late 13thcentury Gothic style. It consists of a nave of five bays, an apsidal quire with a tower on the south side and a south porch. The apse is, externally, semicircular, but within it forms a half octagon, and the tower is capped by a stone spire of some height. The living is a vicarage in the gift of the Archbishop of York, to whom the rectorial tithe belongs.

The church of ALL SAINTS, Ugglebarnby, is a modern stone-faced building in the 13th-century Gothic style with a tiled roof. It consists of an aisleless nave of four bays, a quire of two, and a tower to the north-west of the former. It stands on or near the site of an ancient chapel, and built into the walls of the quire and vestry are a few fragments of cheveron ornament, shafts and small capitals from the earlier structure and dating from the 12th century.

The Roman Catholic church of ST. HILDA in Baxtergate stands north and south, and is a heavy building in the 13th-century Gothic style, consisting of nave of five bays with aisles, quire with side chapels and an octagonal spirelet at the south end of the east aisle. At the entrance to the chancel is a timber gable supporting the rood, and the pointed barrel roof is painted. The church was built in 1867.

Advowsons

There is no mention in the Domesday Survey of a church at Whitby, but it has been suggested (fn. 442) that one of the three churches entered under Hackness (q.v.) was in this parish.

The abbey church of Whitby was dedicated in honour of SS. Peter and Hilda, the parish church to St. Mary. The latter was granted with its six chapels to Whitby Abbey in the second donation of William de Percy (1096–7). (fn. 443) These were retained by the abbey until the Dissolution. (fn. 444)

The reversion (on the expiration of a lease) of the rectory and church, with its chapels of Aislaby, Dunsley, Eskdaleside, Hawsker, Ugglebarnby and Fylingdales, was granted in exchange in March 1544–5 to Robert Holgate, Archbishop of York, and his successors. (fn. 445) Philip and Mary renewed the grant in 1555–6, (fn. 446) and the patronage has descended to the present archbishop. The 'vicar' was mentioned in 1468–9. (fn. 447) The living was a perpetual curacy until 1866, when it was declared a rectory. (fn. 448) The lay rectory has descended with the advowson. (fn. 449)

Peter de Lincoln of Whitby received licence in 1323 to grant £4 15s. rent in Whitby to a chaplain to celebrate divine service daily in the parish church in honour of St. Mary. (fn. 450) There was an altar of the Holy Trinity in the church. (fn. 451) John Ledum, burgess of Whitby, bequeathed in 1530 £2 'to the church hallowing if it go forwards,' 13s. 4d. to the church work, and wax for lights before the Sacrament, the Rood, Our Lady of Pity and St. Katharine. (fn. 452)

In 1483 Margaret Tod granted three burgages in Scarborough to William Tod for the payment of 20 marks for the ornamentation of a chapel in Whitby to be established in honour of the Archangel Gabriel (fn. 453) ; this may be one of the disused chapels mentioned below.

The chapel of St. Ninian in Scotland (fn. 454) mentioned in 1395–6 (fn. 455) may have been the chapel at the Baxtergate end of the first Whitby bridge; this was rented from its proprietor in the 18th century by the burgesses, who imposed a chapel cess on the inhabitants. (fn. 456) The premises, used as a chapel until 1778, (fn. 457) were afterwards conveyed to Christopher Richardson, whose wine cellars they constituted in 1816. Workmen discovered at this spot in 1815 'a very solid foundation of some ancient building of hewn stone, and also found some neatly carved stones.' (fn. 458) From the fact that the receipt of St. Ninian's box in 1460–1 was seven times as great as that of St. Mary's, (fn. 459) Canon Atkinson thought that St. Ninian's was certainly this bridge chapel. (fn. 460) The site of this chapel is now occupied by Falkinbridge's wine shop in Baxtergate. There was, however, another old chapel, not identified, in Whitby, conveyed in 1595 with Bagdale Hall by Nicholas Conyers to Nicholas Bushell; it was situated on the west side of Highgate, (fn. 461) that is, on the south side of the present market-place. (fn. 462) It has been formed into tenements, in the stairs and partitions of which its old oak pews may be traced. (fn. 463) The present chapel of St. Ninian in Baxtergate, on the opposite side of the road to Falkinbridge's wine stores, was erected by thirty subscribers and opened in 1778; the subscribers were proprietors and patrons and received each a free pew. (fn. 464) It is a chapel of ease, still proprietary, to the parish church. The hospital at Spital Bridge had its own chaplain with cure of souls in its Whitby lands and at Billery. (fn. 465)

The six chapels appurtenant to the parish church at the close of the 11th century were those of Aislaby, Dunsley, Hawsker, Ugglebarnby, Fyling and Sneaton, (fn. 466) of which the two last-named soon became independent. (fn. 467)

The abbey granted the chapel of Aislaby to Reginald de Rosels, (fn. 468) and between 1190 and 1211 (fn. 469) Reginald quitclaimed to the abbey all right in the chapelry, restoring the charter by which it was granted to him and the key of the chapel. (fn. 470) William de Rosels towards the close of the 13th century made a further quitclaim, and bound himself and his heirs to pay all tithes of hay, mills, fishery, &c., while the abbey undertook responsibility for the performance of all services in the chapel. (fn. 471) The abbey retained the chapel until the Dissolution (fn. 472) (when the priest's house in Aislaby is mentioned). (fn. 473) It passed with the mother church to the Archbishop of York, but, becoming ruinous 'in Sir Hugh Cholmley's time,' i.e., 1632–57, it was rebuilt by subscription in 1732, (fn. 474) and the advowson has ever since been a matter of dispute. The subscribers were John Burdett, James and Thomas Yeoman, Mark Noble and others. Mrs. Noble, wife of Mark, endowed the new chapel with £10 for the maintenance of a curate. (fn. 475) By virtue of this endowment Mark Noble obtained from the archbishop a grant of the patronage of the chapel, (fn. 476) but bitter litigation ensued, especially after the representatives of the Nobles' claim (Mark Noble handed over the living to his sister, Mrs. Boulby) parted with Aislaby Hall, for it was asserted that patronage of the chapel went with ownership of the Hall. (fn. 477) The Boulbys were, however, returned as patrons until 1875 (fn. 478) ; in 1878 the Rev. T. Walker was said to hold the advowson, (fn. 479) which was stated in 1888 to be in dispute, (fn. 480) and in 1889–90 to be in the possession of Mr. R. Harrowing, (fn. 481) the owner of Aislaby Hall. It afterwards became the subject of a Chancery action, but in 1913 it was bought by the Misses Yeoman of Woodlands and was given by them to the see of York. (fn. 482) The rectorial tithe belongs to the archbishop. The living was erected into a vicarage in 1865, (fn. 483) when the ecclesiastical parish of Aislaby St. Margaret was formed. Before that time nobody was interred there, and christenings and churchings were charged double fees, half due to the parish church. (fn. 484) There is no evidence to prove that the chapel had been dedicated in the honour of St. Margaret. The suggestion was first made (1779) by Charlton on the strength of a piece of land near Aislaby called in his time 'St. Margrett's Launde alias Thorncrossebutts,' which, he continues, 'an old deed says, "was formerly given and used to maintain a light in the church or chapel of Aislaby, called St. Margrett's light."' (fn. 485)

In the latter half of the 12th century Dunsley Chapel is mentioned in connexion with the establishment of Mulgrave hermitage (fn. 486) ; it received a bequest from John Ledum in 1530 (fn. 487) and was conveyed with the parish church to the archbishop. (fn. 488) It afterwards fell into ruins and the materials were used for repairing roads; it possessed a grave-yard (grave-stones and bones being visible in the early 19th century (fn. 489) ), now open to the common. Service is held in the National school near by.

The chapel of Eskdaleside, not included in the six granted by the founder, was presumably not in existence, but Pope Honorius III (1216–27) confirmed it with the others to the abbey. (fn. 490) The ruins of this old chapel of St. John have already been described (fn. 491) ; on the hill above the new church of Sleights was built to replace it in 1762 by Robert Bower, his wife Tabitha and her sister Gertrude Burdett; the old chapel was closed and the new one opened in 1767. (fn. 492) It was separated from the parish church except for church rates; the advowson became the property of the Bowers, (fn. 493) was in the hands of the heirs of J. Ness in 1816, (fn. 494) and now belongs to the Rev. H. P. D. Walker. The living is a vicarage with Ugglebarnby annexed. The new church of St. John the Evangelist was consecrated 20 September 1895.

A chapel at Hawsker was among the original six granted to the abbey by the founder, and its site is probably marked by the Anglo-Saxon churchyard cross-shaft in the grounds of the Hall. (fn. 495) It must have been in decay when (1140–50) (fn. 496) Aschetin de Hawsker received permission from the abbey to build a chapel here in honour of All Saints. (fn. 497) Reginald de Hawsker, son of Roger (Sir Adam de Hawsker witnessing the grant), endowed it with lands for lights and for the celebration of mass on Saturdays and on the feast days of the Virgin Mary on her altar there. (fn. 498) There is nothing to show whether or not this chapel, standing in the 16th century, (fn. 499) was on the site of the first one. The abbey always presented to the cure, (fn. 500) and the patronage has descended with that of Whitby Church (fn. 501) (q.v.). The present church of All Saints was consecrated in 1877, and when Hawsker was formed into a parish in the succeeding year a vicarage was instituted.

The chapel of Ugglebarnby was granted to the abbey by the founder and passed at the Dissolution to the archbishop, (fn. 502) who remained the patron until the church of All Saints was built in 1872, since when the Rev. H. P. D. Walker has been the patron. The living was formerly a perpetual curacy. (fn. 503)

Charities

Distributive Charities.—In 1719 Mrs. Margery Boyes by her will devised a house in Whitby known as Barwick House for two poor widows. The house is supposed to be a tenement in Ellerby Lane, now let as a warehouse at £3 10s. a year, which is applied towards the payment of rent for two poor widows.

The same donor gave £6 per annum to put four poor children to trades, £3 4s. per annum to put eight poor children to school, 12d. a week to twelve poor widows, making together £11 16s. a year. This amount is paid out of land and hereditaments in Fylingdales by the devisees of the late Col. Sibthorpe. The annual sum of £3 4s. was by an order, dated 3 January 1905, made under the Board of Education Act, 1899, directed to be set aside under the title of 'The Boyes Educational Foundation,' and is paid to the elementary schools.

Mrs. Susanna Atty, by will proved 1806, bequeathed a legacy for widows, now represented by £504 consols, and in 1832 Mrs. Joanna Barker, by will, bequeathed for the benefit of spinsters of the townships of Whitby, Ruswarp, Hawsker and Aislaby a sum now represented by £332 11s. 7d. consols. By a scheme, dated 18 November 1904, the income of Atty's charity, amounting to £12 12s., is divided quarterly amongst six poor widows of the age of fifty years, being natives and inhabitants of the ancient parish of Whitby, and the income of Barker's charity, amounting to £8 6s., is divided half-yearly amongst four spinsters of the age of forty-five years, natives and inhabitants of the above-named townships. The sums of stock are held by the official trustees.

The charities founded by Alice Galilee consist of (a) £277 17s. 3d. consols arising from the sale of a messuage given by deed dated 1 November 1847, producing £6 18s. 8d. a year; (b) £303 consols, by deed dated 19 June 1852, producing £7 11s. 4d. a year; and (c) £213 3s. 11d. consols, by deed dated 20 October 1856, producing £5 6s. 4d. a year The sums of stock are held by the official trustees. Under the provisions of a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 17 February 1893 the yearly income of the charities is applicable in the supply of clothes, linen, bedding, fuel, tools, medical or other aid in sickness, food or other articles in kind for the benefit of the poor, and in the proportions indicated in the abovementioned deeds respectively, viz., as to (a) sixsevenths by the rector of Whitby and the ministers of each of the chapels in Baxtergate, the Wesleyan chapel in Church Street, the Primitive Methodist chapel and the chapel in Flowergate, and the remaining oneseventh part by the vicar of Fylingdales; as to (b) four-sevenths in the township of Whitby, and in Ugglebarnby, Sleights, and Egton, and three-sevenths by the ministers of Silver Street Chapel, Cliff Lane Chapel, and Brunswick Lane Chapel; as to (c) fiveeighths in the township of Whitby and in Sleights, Egton and Aislaby, and three-eighths by the ministers of the three last-mentioned chapels.

In 1854 John Robinson by will, proved at York, bequeathed a legacy, which was invested in £721 1s. 10d. consols, the income to be applied in the purchase of coals to be distributed yearly between 1 November and 1 March at two different times amongst poor aged or infirm inhabitants of both sexes within the town of Whitby without distinction of religious creed. The stock is held by the official trustees, and the dividends, amounting to £18 a year, are distributed by the ministers and churchwardens in coals.

John Robertson by will, proved in 1869, left onetwelfth part of his residuary estate for gifts of 2s. 6d. each to four persons of respectable character, with preference to ropemakers and their widows, on Christmas Eve. The trust fund consists of £1,115 3s. 9d. consols, producing £27 17s. 4d. a year. In 1905 meat and grocery tickets to the value of 2s. 6d. each were distributed among 216 recipients.

In 1884 George Trattles Knaggs by will left £4,000 consols, the dividends to be applied in twelve equal portions among twelve respectable persons in Whitby or within half a mile thereof, being either decayed masters of ships, or decayed master tradesmen, or their widows, during the lives of the beneficiaries, so long as in the judgement of the trustees they should be proper objects of the trust. The income of £100 a year is divided equally among twelve annuitants. The several sums of stock are held by the official trustees.

Charities for seamen or seamen's widows.—In 1722 William Pearson gave two houses, and in 1770 a William Pearson gave two tenements. These houses are situated, two in Loggerhead Yard, Baxtergate, let at 5s. a week each, and two tenements made into one in the New Gate Ghaut let at 1s. 6d. a week. In 1747 by deed, dated 20 April, confirmed by deed of 23 April 1748, Adam Boulby settled a house situate in Cliff Street, divided into two little tenements one above the other, for the occupation of two poor seamen or seamen's widows. The lower tenement is let as a warehouse at £1 10s. a year, the upper tenement being unoccupied.

In 1770 Adam Boulby gave six tenements in Flowergate, which are let at 10s. a year each.

In 1831 Isabella Chilton gave six tenements situate between Flowergate and Cliff Lane to trustees for the benefit of seamen's widows, the nomination being vested in the churchwardens and overseers of Whitby. These are all occupied at small rents, amounting together to £3 9s. a year. The tenements are in a poor state of repair, and there are no funds except the rents available for the upkeep of the property.

The Seamen's Hospital Almshouses consist of fifty tenements occupied by merchant seamen and their families. In 1906 the trust funds amounted to £924 7s. 6d. consols, producing an annual dividend of £23 2s., which with £3 received as rent was applied in repairs, &c., and coals distributed to inmates. (fn. 504)

In 1789 Benjamin Hunter gave £100 to the churchwardens and overseers, the interest to be annually expended in clothing four poor fatherless boys, sons of seamen, when put apprentices, being thirteen years old. The fund is secured by a mortgage in the Whitby Waterworks at 3 per cent., the income being applied in accordance with the trusts.

In 1808 William Rymer bequeathed £100, the interest thereof to be annually distributed in coals among superannuated seamen, or their widows, not exceeding one bushel to each. The legacy was invested in £105 consols, which is held by the official trustees.

In 1868 Joseph Hunter, by will proved at York, bequeathed a legacy, represented by £531 9s. 3d. consols with the official trustees, for providing annuities for widows of masters and mates of ships belonging to the port of Whitby, being resident within the ancient borough limits. In 1905 annuities of £1 each were paid to fourteen recipients.

See also charity of George Trattles Knaggs above.

The public dispensary, founded in 1786, is now carried on in a building on the east side of Church Street, held under a deed, dated 2 August 1854, for the residue of a term of 1,000 years. It is supported in part by voluntary subscriptions, and is endowed with the following sums of stock, with the official trustees, arising from the investment of legacies and donations, and of surplus income, namely, £3,000 consols, including a legacy of £100 by will of William Reynolds, 1825, £340 17s. 3d. Jubilee Fund of 1888, and £1,561 4s. 11d. by will of William Stonehouse, 1892; £160 2½ per cent. annuities; £50 India 3 per cent. stock; and £700 North Eastern Railway 3 per cent. stock, including a legacy of £66 by will of Miss Eleanor Pearson, 1903, and £100 by will of Miss Emily H. Pearson. An annual income of £101 10s. is derived from these sources.

Educational Charities.—The public school for boys and girls in Ruswarp, founded by deed, 1822, is endowed with a sum of £200 consols, with the official trustees, bequeathed in 1825 by will of William Reynolds. The charities are regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners, dated 30 May 1893, as varied by a scheme of 11 November 1898. The dividends are applicable in prizes to children attending elementary schools.

See also under Margery Boyes's charity above.

Nonconformist Charities—The Old Chapel in Flowergate Street. In 1732 Leonard Wilde, by his will, bequeathed one-third of his personal estate for the poor members of this chapel and the residue of such estate for the minister of the same chapel. The sum of £130 arising under the bequest for the poor was in 1812 applied towards rebuilding the chapel, and the residue left for the support of the minister was laid out in the purchase of a small farm at Stepney, near Upgang, in Ruswarp. The farm with land at the foot of the cliff at Whitby was in 1900, with the sanction of the Charity Commissioners, sold for £5,000 and the net proceeds invested with the official trustees in £1,881 North Eastern Railway 3 per cent. debenture stock and £1,500 Great Northern Railway (Leeds, Bradford and Halifax Railway 6 per cent.) stock, producing together an income of £146 8s. 8d. a year, which is paid to the minister for the time being. The minister receives a portion of Alice Galilee's charity for distribution among the poor (see above).

The Wesleyan chapel in Brunswick Lane, founded in 1814, is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 1868. The minister receives a portion of Alice Galilee's charity for distribution amongst the poor (see above).

The Wesleyan chapel in Church Street, founded by deed poll 1789, is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners, 1877. An annual payment of £2 is received from the trustees of the Brunswick Lane Chapel in respect of a legacy of £86 5s. 9d. left by will of Mrs. Hannah Swales, 1819; and a further payment of £2 a year in respect of the same legacy is made to the poor of the Wesleyan Methodist Society.

The Society of Friends have a meeting-house and trust property near Church Street acquired by deeds of lease and release of 21 and 22 July 1800. In 1869 a portion of the trust property was sold for £300, which sum was invested in £325 4s. 1d. consols with the official trustees, by whom the annual dividends, amounting to £8 2s. 4d., are remitted for the purposes of the trust.

Miss Emily Matilda Sanders by will, proved 15 March 1905, bequeathed £250 to be invested and the income applied for the benefit of deserving and aged poor residing in the town of Whitby in the month of January in every year, the charity to be entitled 'The Quaker Sanders Charity.' The legacy was invested in £256 7s. 1d. India 3 per cent. stock, which was subsequently transferred to the official trustees, by whom the annual dividends, amounting to £7 13s. 9d., are remitted to the administrator named in the will.

Township of Aislaby.—For the charity of Mrs. Tabitha Bower see under the township of Sleights below. In 1907 the sum of £8 15s. (one-fourth part of the dividends) was distributed among eighteen persons in sums varying from 5s. to £1 each. In 1874 Henry Swinton Walker by will, proved at York 27 April, bequeathed £200 to be invested and the income applied for the benefit of the National school. The legacy was invested in £225 19s. 8d. consols, producing an annual income of £5 12s. 10d.

The Wesleyan chapel at Briggswath with trust property consisting of the chapel, school and three cottages, was founded by deeds of 7 October 1820 and 14 September 1868, and is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 9 May 1890, whereby the trust premises were settled upon the trusts of the Skircoat model deed, dated 3 July 1832 (duly enrolled).

Township of Ruswarp.—The poor of this township are entitled to the following rent-charges, namely, £2 a year and £1 a year issuing out of Ashes Farm, originating under the wills of Robert Bushell and Henry Lemon, both dated in 1695, and 12s. a year out of a farm at Stokesley, being a donation by Gregory Marley. In 1906 the sum of £3 was distributed in sums of 5s. to each of twelve poor people. The sum of 12s. a year in respect of the last-mentioned charity appears to have been lost sight of.

Township of Sleights or Eskdaleside with Ugglebarnby.—By deed, dated 14 October 1769, Robert Bower and Tabitha his wife charged a certain close called Farr Croft with an annuity of £4 6s., whereof £2 was to be applied in or about the ornamentation of the inside of the chapel at Sleights, £1 to the parish clerk, and £1 6s. a year for the poor in bread. By the same deed the said close was settled upon the minister for the time being of the said chapel. The charity is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners of 1 December 1796.

By deed, dated 8 October 1784, Mrs. Tabitha Bower, widow, gave £1,400 stock, one-fourth part of the dividends to be paid to the poor not receiving alms of each of the respective townships of Aislaby, Eskdaleside, and Ugglebarnby in Whitby, and Holy Trinity, Micklegate, York. The trust fund is now £1,400 consols with the official trustees; two-fourths of the dividends, amounting to £17 10s., were in 1906 distributed among forty-five poor persons of the townships of Eskdaleside and Ugglebarnby in sums varying from 4s. to 1s. 9d.

In 1781 William Coates by deed, dated 19 May, assigned to trustees £350 Reduced 3 per cent. stock, the interest to be applied in augmentation of the salary of the minister of Eskdaleside Chapel. Trustees were appointed by order of the County Court of Yorkshire held at Whitby, dated 14 February 1855, and the stock transferred to the official trustees. In 1891 the sum of £106 17s. stock was sold out and the proceeds applied in the purchase of 2 acres of grass land abutting on the churchyard, of the yearly value of £5. The trust fund now consists of £243 3s. consols, producing £6 1s. 4d. a year. An annuity of £5 devised by the will of this donor, formerly distributed amongst the poor, has been discontinued as being void in mortmain.

In 1785 Richard Chapman by will directed £100 to be invested and the income to be distributed as follows: 20s. yearly to the parish clerk, the remainder to be divided into three equal parts, onethird whereof for the poor of Sleights, one-third for the poor of Ugglebarnby, and the remaining third for the poor of Sneaton. The trust fund is represented by £99 17s. 6d. consols, with the official trustees, producing £2 9s. a year.

In 1851 Mrs. Anne Boyes bequeathed £100, the income to be applied in the distribution of fuel among the poor of Eskdaleside and Ugglebarnby. The legacy is represented by £112 0s. 11d. consols with the official trustees, the dividends of which, amounting to £2 16s., are distributed in coal. See also Mrs. Boyes's charity for the National school, below.

In 1856 the Rev. John Carter gave £50, the income to be distributed in January every year among six poor men residing in Sleights or Ugglebarnby. The trust fund consists of £52 18s. 3d. consols with the official trustees.

The National school, founded in 1834, is regulated by a scheme of the Charity Commissioners, 1871. The official trustees hold in trust for the same £224 1s. 10d. consols arising from the will of Mrs. Anne Boyes above mentioned; £101 5s. 3d. consols given by Miss Anne Wilson, 1837, for the Sunday school held therein; and £101 5s. 3d. consols bequeathed by will of Mrs. Dorothy Wilson, proved 1868. The school is also entitled to the dividends on £212 4s. consols, known as Walker's Foundation, bequeathed by will of Henry Swinton Walker, proved in 1874.

The official trustees also hold a sum of £6 7s. 6d. consols, known as the Sleights Diamond Jubilee Sick and Accident Fund (1897). For the charity of Alice Galilee see under Whitby.

Footnotes

1 An incorrect foot-note in Pop. Ret. (1831), ii, 778, states that this Aislaby was partly in the parish of Middleton in Pickering Lythe. See note above, p. 502.
2 Pop. Ret. (1831), ii, 786.
3 Census Rep. (1901), 135.
4 From the mediaeval Helredale, which is known to have been in the neighbourhood of Spital Bridge (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 516).
5 Priv. Act, 33 Geo. II, cap. 27.
6 Ibid. 33 Geo. III, cap. 7.
7 See V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 330.
8 Atkinson, Ancient Aislaby (privately printed), 5.
9 See Guisborough (above, p. 355).
10 Charlton, op. cit. 359–60; cf. V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 381–7.
11 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 471.
12 Ibid. 500.
13 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), iv, 212–13.
14 Conventual Leases, Yorks. no. 956.
15 Charlton, op. cit. 78. Twelve miles from Whitby a halting-place for carriers going westward over the moors is called Saltergate.
16 Ibid.
17 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 727 n.
18 Robin Hood's Stone is mentioned in 1540 (ibid. 727).
19 Both these field-names are found in 1713 (G. Young, Hist. of Whitby and Streoneshalh Abbey, 647 n.).
20 Young, loc. cit.
21 Charlton, op. cit. 146; Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 727 n.
22 Dr. Haigh's reading of Edwin's name on the Saxon comb found at Whitby (see Whitby Museum prospectus) is not accepted by Prof. Skeat (Gaskin, Old Seaport of Whitby, 12).
23 Bede, Hist. Eccl. ii, 9; iii, 24; iv, 23.
24 Ibid. iii, 24; Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), p. xvi. The Saxon translator of Bede rendered 'comparata possessione decem familiarum' by 'gebohte tyn hida' (The O. E. Version of Bede's Eccl. Hist. [Early Engl. Text Soc.], i, 236), but this is no proof of purchase.
25 'A Monk of Whitby,' Life of Pope St. Gregory the Great (ed. Gasquet), 21–4.
26 Bede, op. cit. iii, 25.
27 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 1. The abbot Titus fled to Glastonbury with St. Hilda's relics (Leland, Coll. iv, 39). As Hackness (q.v.) was partly land of St. Hilda in 1086, before William de Percy's grant, it would seem to have been a monastic residence since St. Hilda's time.
28 The Memorial of Benefactions (an accurate document of the 12th century) states that the place was called successively Streoneshalc, Prestebi and Whitby (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 1). In Domesday Book, however (see below), in the charters of William I and William II (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 495, 528) and in a document of 1354 (ibid. 429) both Whitby and 'Prestebi' are mentioned. 'Prestebi' was probably the monastic site as distinguished from the town.
29 Among the lands granted to the abbey in the 11th century was Thingwala (Tingwal), listed between Stainsacre and Larpool (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 3).
30 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 218.
31 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), p. xxxviii, 712 n.
32 V.C.H. Yorks. iii, 101–4.
33 Snorri, Kings of Norway (trs. Morris and Magnusson), iii, 375–6.
34 Pipe R. 26 Hen. II (Pipe R. Soc.), 68.
35 John Count of Dunois.
36 Cott. R. ii, 23, no. 19.
37 Gaskin, op. cit. 75–6.
38 Vicars, Parl. Chron. iii, 156–7, 160.
39 Cal. S. P. Dom. 1649–50, p. 407.
40 G. Young, Hist. of Whitby and Streoneshalh Abbey, 605 n.
41 Star Chamb. Proc. Hen. VIII, bdle. 27, no. 131.
42 See below.
43 See Borough.
44 See V.C.H. Yorks. iii, 334. The bridge, already existing, was called Spital Bridge after 1109. It was rebuilt in 1775 (Charlton, op. cit. 341). The hospital is not mentioned after the 12th century.
45 Kirkgate is mentioned in 1318 (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 15–16) and occurs in wills in 1426 (Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 193) and 1555 (Gaskin, op. cit. 94), but is only accounted for as High Gate and South Gate in 1540 (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 721–4).
46 See below.
47 Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 188. Young states that part of Church Street, comprising Cock Pit Yard and other premises adjoining Alderswaste Ghaut, was formerly known as Fair Isle (Whitby, 484 and n.). Alderswaste Ghaut was named after the family of Alder (Young, loc. cit.) or Audus (inform. from Mr. Buchannan). An alley running down to the river is called in Whitby a 'ghaut,' a name treated as purely Anglo-Indian in Murray's New Engl. Dict.
48 Charlton copied some of the inscriptions (op. cit. 346–9), and those still legible were copied by Mr. G. W. Waddington, 1880–4 (Gaskin, op. cit. 364–5).
49 Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 193–5.
50 Cal. Pat. 1317–21, p. 407; 1396–9, p. 226; 1399–1401, p. 84; Chart. R. 9 Hen. IV, no. 40.
51 In wills at York (Gaskin, op. cit. 99).
52 Young, op. cit. 341 and Charlton op. cit. 265–6. Brumton, the historian, was abbot of Jervaulx c. 1436–64.
53 Cholmley, op. cit. 12.
54 Ibid. 54.
55 Charlton, op. cit. 323.
56 Young, op. cit. 513 n.
57 Begun in 1761 and before 1778 named after the second wife of Nathaniel Cholmley (Charlton, op. cit. 340). It suffered from serious landslips in 1785 and 1787 (Young, op. cit. 491).
58 It was still often called by that name in 1816 (Young, op. cit. 490). It probably constituted one side of the 'halch' or ravine of Streoneshalch (Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 81).
59 In a will at York (Gaskin, op. cit. 100).
60 Horne, Official Guide to Whitby (1911), 31.
61 Whitby folk call the town hall the Cross, a curious fact pointing to a former market cross and bearing on the name Crossgate as previously applied to part of Church Street (inform. from Mr. Buchannan).
62 Conventual Leases, Yorks. no. 1012.
63 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 722.
64 This point has never been made clear, as appears in Atkinson's Mem. of Old Whitby, 204–14.
65 Charlton, op. cit. 314. It had a 'hoppet' or gaol beneath (Young, op. cit. 588).
66 Young, op. cit. 589.
67 Young, op. cit. 489.
68 Gaskin, op. cit. 101.
69 Young, op. cit. 490.
70 Ibid.
71 In this year Leonard Newton of Stainsacre sold to Leonard Bushell of Whitby 'the market-stede house' in Whitby at the west of the town, having the market-place on the north, the east end of Baxtergate to the south, the staith (St. Anne's) to the east (Charlton, op. cit. 308).
72 Young, op. cit. 592 n.
73 See below, p. 520.
74 Gaskin, op. cit. 321.
75 Ibid. 102.
76 Young, op. cit. 492.
77 Cal. Pat. 1350–4, p. 167. Grants were made in 1361 for seven years (ibid. 1358–61, p. 575), in 1383 for six years (ibid. 1381–5, p. 267), and in 1391 for five years (ibid. 1388–92, p. 500).
78 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 672; Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), i, 290.
79 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), vi, 148.
80 Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 186.
81 Quart. Sess. Rec. (N. R. Rec. Soc.), ii, 319; iii, 46.
82 Gaskin, op. cit. 348.
83 Charlton, op. cit. 342.
84 Young, Picture of Whitby, 181–2; Gaskin, op. cit. 352. There is a model of the old drawbridge in the museum.
85 Gaskin, op. cit. 357.
86 Cal. Pat. 1301–7, p. 505.
87 Ibid. 1340–3, p. 306.
88 Ibid. 1408–13, p. 299; 1422–9, p. 189.
89 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), v, 300.
90 Itin. (ed. L. Toulmin Smith), i, 61.
91 See below.
92 Cholmley, op. cit. 51.
93 Gaskin, op. cit. 333 n.
94 Ibid. 334–5; Add. MS. 15927, fol. 191 d.
95 Charlton, op. cit., plan of the town.
96 Young, Whitby, 537.
97 Ibid.
98 Gaskin, op. cit. 337.
99 Young, Picture of Whitby, 186.
100 Young, Whitby, 541.
101 Exch. Spec. Com. no. 6984.
102 Exch. Dep. Mich. 14 Chas. I, no. 33.
103 Cal. Close, 1296–1302, p. 483.
104 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xix (1), 140.
105 Ibid. (2), 621.
106 Cal. S. P. Dom. 1625–6, p. 532; 1627–8, p. 500.
107 Charlton, op. cit. 358–9.
108 Ibid. 359.
109 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 471. In 1248 the number was increased to 3,000 (ibid. 235–6).
110 Charlton, op. cit. 207. Young, Whitby, 333–4 n.
111 Census Rep. (1901).
112 Young, Whitby, 562.
113 Dict. Nat. Biog.
114 In Middleton in Pickering Lythe (q.v.).
115 Scoresby, My Father, 8, 118, 161–2.
116 Ibid. 125.
117 Young, Whitby, 566.
118 Ibid. 567.
119 Scoresby, op. cit. 183.
120 Young, Picture of Whitby, 197.
121 Young, Whitby, 557.
122 Charlton, op. cit. 358.
123 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 218.
124 See p. 515, below.
125 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 3.
126 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xv, p. 565.
127 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), i, 205.
128 Young, Whitby, 628.
129 Gaskin, op. cit. 229, where representations of old Whitby mills are given.
130 Ibid.
131 Ibid. 439.
132 Ibid. 440, where extracts from a treatise in verse of 1718 on this Spa are given.
133 MSS. of Marquess of Bath (Hist. MSS. Com.), i, 336.
134 Young, Whitby, 579–80.
135 Young, Picture of Whitby, 220.
136 Leland, Coll. iv, 39.
137 Charlton, op. cit., plan of the town.
138 Tonge, Visit. of Yorks. (Surt. Soc.), 22. For other superstitions see Drayton, Polyolbion, ii, 146; Camden, Brit. (ed. Gough), iii, 18; Scott, Marmion.
139 Young, Whitby, 843.
140 Ibid. 869–70; see also ibid. 870–2; Gaskin, op. cit. 26–7.
141 Dict. Nat. Biog.
142 Horne, Official Guide to Whitby (1911), 141–50.
143 Gaskin, op. cit. 419.
144 Robinson, Whitby, 201.
145 Gaskin, op. cit. 425.
146 Young, Whitby, 630–1.
147 Gaskin, op. cit. 68; see Lythe.
148 Quart. Sess. Rec. (N. R. Rec. Soc.), vii, 22.
149 Gaskin, op. cit. 71–2.
150 Ibid. 72.
151 Young, Whitby, 622.
152 Fox, Journ. (1911), i, 25; ii, 34, 106, 134; Charlton, op. cit. 349.
153 Charlton, op. cit. 349–50; see also Gaskin, op. cit. 273.
154 Charlton, op. cit. 350.
155 Wesley, Journ. (1810), v, 70, 129; vi, 159.
156 Charlton, op. cit. 351. John Wesley called this street the 'sink' of the town, where 'people of any fashion were ashamed to be seen' (op. cit. vi, 159).
157 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 735.
158 Ibid. 525.
159 Whitby Abbey had a grange here (Pat. 13 Eliz. pt. x).
160 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 318, 404.
161 Young, Picture of Whitby, 256.
162 Inscription.
163 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 3.
164 Possibly the 'new mill' of the founder's grant (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 3).
165 Ibid. 581, 581 n.
166 Ibid. 736. There was a wood called Le Kerr in Ruswarp in 1282 (ibid. 398).
167 The name Sleights has entirely superseded that of Eskdaleside locally.
168 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 401 n.
169 See below.
170 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 401–2.
171 Ibid. 743, 762.
172 Baildon, Notes on the Relig. and Secular Houses of Yorks. (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), 224.
173 Grose, Antiq. of Engl. and Wales, iv.
174 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 3.
175 Reginald, St. Godric (Surt. Soc.), p. viii.
176 Young, Whitby, 655.
177 Exch. Spec. Com. no. 2763.
178 William Postgate of the 'Dayne' Hall made bequests to the bridges of Whitby, Grosmont and Iburne in 1547 (Gaskin, op. cit. 98 n.).
179 See above.
180 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 400 n.
181 Atkinson, Ancient Aislaby, 14.
182 See below.
183 Cart. Antiq. CC. 7. This grant is usually ascribed to Henry II, who made a similar grant (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 529), but its date is proved by the witnesses.
184 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 10.
185 Ibid. 211.
186 Ibid. 421.
187 Rot. de Oblatis et Fin. (Rec. Com.), 29.
188 Ibid. 24.
189 Cal. Rot. Chart. 1199–1216 (Rec. Com.), 84.
190 Rot. de Oblatis et Fin. (Rec. Com.), 100.
191 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 422–8.
192 Ibid. 513, 625.
193 Cf. Cal. Pat. 1272–81, p. 255.
194 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 501–5.
195 See references given above. The men of the town also appealed directly to the king and council for pontage (Anct. Pet. no. 8527).
196 S. P. Dom. clix, 43; Cal. S. P. Dom. 1629–31, pp. 177, 181, 213, 251.
197 Ibid.
198 S. P. Dom. clxii, 84, where it appears that a fee-farm rent was then paid to the Crown.
199 Baildon, Notes on the Relig. and Secular Houses of Yorks. (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), 224–5.
200 Exch. Dep. Mich. 11 Chas. I, no. 51.
201 Abolished by the Act appointing trustees of the piers.
202 Young, Whitby, 591.
203 Whitby Repository, vi, 373.
204 Local Act, 7 Will. IV & 1 Vict. cap. 10.
205 Stat. 2 & 3 Will. IV, cap. 64.
206 Ibid. 48 & 49 Vict. cap. 23.
207 Cart. Antiq. CC. 7.
208 Probably the translation of her relics from Glastonbury to Whitby (Buchannan, Feast Days of St. Hilda, 5 [privately printed]).
209 Ibid. 6.
210 Ibid. 3–4; Young, Whitby, 574.
211 Rep. of Roy. Com. on Market Rts. and Tolls, iv, 346.
212 Local Act, 35 & 36 Vict. cap. 52.
213 Rep. of Roy. Com. on Market Rts. and Tolls, loc. cit.
214 Chart. R. 21–4 Hen. VI, no. 18.
215 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 218.
216 Ibid. 220.
217 Ibid. 264.
218 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 34.
219 Ibid. 528.
220 Ibid. 155; Cart. Antiq. DD. 24. In consideration, it has been suggested, of the erection of the priory into an abbey (Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 115).
221 Cart. Antiq. DD. 28; Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 151.
222 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 157.
223 Cal. Close, 1307–13, p. 319.
224 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 425–9, 502.
225 Inq. a.q.d. file 188, no. 12.
226 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 211.
227 Ibid. 210.
228 Ibid.
229 Ibid. 129; see below.
230 Ibid. 325.
231 Ibid. 326.
232 Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 51. Atkinson's theory is that the garth was to keep in horned stock (ibid.). He calls attention to the fact that garth is Danish for hedge and suggests that horngarth was the Danish name for the Saxon thegn's service of 'deorhege,' 'neathege' or 'hyðerhege' to Northumbrian monarchs (ibid. 56). The difficulty in accepting this otherwise satisfactory explanation is that the service died out as a thing of actual use (Article by Mr. Turton in Yorks. Arch. Journ. xx, 55).
233 See below.
234 These were all important tenants in the early 16th century (see below).
235 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 340.
236 Exch. Dep. Trin. 11 Jas. I, no. 13.
237 Ibid.
238 Burton, Mon. Ebor. 79.
239 Charlton, op. cit. 96.
240 The legend, by which the purpose of this ceremonial was made more obscure, was probably constructed in the 16th century; perhaps, as Canon Atkinson thought, by some professional story-teller (Mem. of Old Whitby, 39). It first occurs in Charlton (op. cit.), and was thus known to Scott (Marmion, canto ii, stanza 13); it adds a knife 'of one penny price' with which the wood was cut (Charlton, op. cit. 126), probably as an explanation of the name already current.
241 Young, Whitby, 313.
242 Yorks. Arch. Journ. xx, 52.
243 There is a record of the earl's enfeoffment of Percy (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 312), an otherwise inaccurate document (ibid. 313 n.).
244 Probably between Ruswarp Carrs and Baldby Fields (Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 241). It was still a constabulary in 1646 (Quart. Sess. Rec. [N. R. Rec. Soc.], iv, 260). It was identified by Charlton (op. cit. 70 n.) with Sneaton Thorpe.
245 Bracken-bank, not far from Baldby Lane, is mentioned in 1540 (Atkinson, loc. cit.).
246 Marked by Baldby Fields, south-west of Whitby town.
247 Probably commemorated by Flowergate in Whitby.
248 See above, p. 503.
249 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 218.
250 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 3, 28.
251 For their early history see Roxby in the parish of Thornton in Pickering Lythe and see liberty above.
252 See above on liberty.
253 G.E.C. Baronetage, ii, 128.
254 Cal. Com. for Comp. 2062.
255 G.E.C. Baronetage, ii, 129.
256 Young, Whitby, 839.
257 See above on liberty.
258 Cal. S. P. Dom. 1673, pp. 274, 327; Pat. 26 Chas. II, pt. viii, no. 14.
259 G.E.C. Baronetage, ii, 129 and note; Chan. Enr. Dec. 1911, no. 10, where it appears that Sir Hugh was deeply in debt and Nathaniel purchased his manors.
260 The younger, John (1686–1724), was a colonel under Marlborough (Young, Whitby, 839–40).
261 P.R.O. List of Sheriffs, 164.
262 Misc. Gen. et Her. (Old Ser.), ii, 218.
263 G.E.C. Baronetage, iv, 160.
264 Young, Whitby, 840.
265 Gaskin, op. cit. 169–70.
266 Young, Whitby, 840; Misc. Gen. et Her. (Old Ser.), ii, 219.
267 G.E.C. Peerage, v, 419.
268 Young, Whitby, 840.
269 Whellan, York and N. R. ii, 281; Bulmer, North Yorks. 1134. Robert Grimes took the name of Cholmley in 1858.
270 G.E.C. Baronetage, ii, 116.
271 Burke, Peerage.
272 Charlton (op. cit. 22) states, from what legendary source is not known, that St. Hilda was born at Aislaby.
273 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 220, 308.
274 See Barton-le Street (V.C.H. Yorks. N.R. i, 472).
275 Cf. Skelton above, p. 407.
276 Cal. Inq. p.m. 1–19 Edw. I, 189; see Danby.
277 See Danby; Cal. Pat. 1338–40, p. 214; 1345–8, p. 43; Chan. Inq. p.m. 13 Hen. IV, no. 36; Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, 110. When the manor came into the hands of the descendants of Lucy de Thweng by Nicholas de Meynell it was sometimes stated to be held of the king in chief (Chan. Inq. p.m. 42 Edw. III [1st nos.], no. 44; 22 Ric. II, no. 17), probably owing to some temporary family arrangement by which the under-tenant received the overlord's services.
278 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 236. In 1300 Lucy de Thweng and her husband brought a suit against the Abbot of Whitby and William de Rosels for abducting their ward Alexander son and heir of William de Percy at Aislaby (Baildon, Notes on the Relig. and Secular Houses of Yorks. [Yorks. Arch. Soc.], 224).
279 Arnald was said to be mesne lord in Newton under Roseberry also.
280 William de Rosels in 1279–81 stated that his title to park and warren in Aislaby went back to the Conquest (Plac. de Quo Warr. [Rec. Com.], 188), and a Roger de Rosels was one of 'the three knights' of the first Robert de Brus (Whitby Chartul. [Surt. Soc.], 35).
281 See below, under advowson.
282 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 128, 236, 330; Lay Subs. R. bdle. 202, no. 7. They were said to hold part of a knight's fee here subsequently (ibid. bdle. 211, no. 23, 72).
283 Feet of F. Yorks. 14 Edw. II, no. 2.
284 Ibid. Div. Co. 27 Edw. III, no. 15, 96; Abbrev. Rot. Orig. (Rec. Com.), ii, 309; Chan. Inq. p.m. 42 Edw. III (1st nos.), no. 44; 22 Ric. II, no. 17; 13 Hen. IV, no. 36; (Ser. 2), lxvii, 81.
285 V.C.H. Yorks. N. R. i, 437.
286 Ct. R. (Gen. Ser.), portf. 211, no. 1, 2; Chan. Inq. p.m. 7 Hen. V, no. 78; Cal. Inq. p.m. Hen. VII, i, 110; Exch. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), file 223, no. 2.
287 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), i, 92.
288 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), dxxx, 161.
289 See V.C.H. Yorks. N.R. i, 438.
290 Pat. 13 Eliz. pt. iii, m. 37; 21 Eliz. pt. vi; 7 Jas. I, pt. 1, m. 2; 1 Chas. I, pt. iv.
291 Cholmley, op. cit. 53–4; Feet of F. Yorks. Hil. 15 Chas. I; East. 18 Chas. II.
292 Chan. Enr. Dec. 1911, no. 10.
293 Feet of F. Div. Co. Hil. 19 Geo. II.
294 Recov. R. Trin. 26 Geo. III, m. 25.
295 Inform. kindly given by Mr. George Buchannan. See p. 524 on Aislaby chapel.
296 Inform. given by Mr. Buchannan; Whitby Repository (New Ser.), ii, 384.
297 Whellan, York and N. R. 821.
298 Bulmer, North Yorks. 1146.
299 Inform. as above.
300 See above, p. 503.
301 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 558, 572, 734.
302 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 199, 308.
303 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 3.
304 Ibid. 3, 172, 385.
305 Ibid. 210 n.
306 Ibid. 210, 525.
307 Ibid. 527.
308 Ibid. 387 and note.
309 Ibid. 384 n.
310 Abbrev. Plac. (Rec. Com.), 201.
311 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 384 n.
312 Ibid. 390.
313 Ibid. 389–90.
314 Inform. kindly given by Mr. Buchannan; Priv. Act, 33 Geo. III, cap. 7.
315 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 734.
316 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xx (1), 1081 (28, 58).
317 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cclxxvii, 128; Dugdale, Visit. of Yorks. (Surt. Soc.), 230.
318 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxcix, 114.
319 Ibid. cccxviii, 170.
320 See Lythe.
321 Cal. S. P. Dom. 1598–1601, p. 211.
322 Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. ix, App. i, 330b.
323 Dugdale, Visit. of Yorks. (Surt. Soc.), 230.
324 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cccxviii, 70; dlxiii, 107.
325 Dugdale, loc. cit.
326 Ibid.
327 Feet of F. Yorks. East. 2 Jas. II.
328 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cclxxvii, 128; Visit. of Yorks. (Harl Soc.), 118; Dugdale, loc. cit.
329 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cclxxvii, 128.
330 Dugdale, loc. cit.
331 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cclxxvii, 157.
332 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), iv, 125.
333 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccclxxiii, 30.
334 Ibid. cccciii, 84. Possibly the conveyance of one-sixth by Thomas Lord Fairfax to Thomas Fairfax in 1631 (Feet of F. Yorks. East. 7 Chas. I) was a confirmation to him.
335 Exch. K.R. Bills and Answers (Yorks.) Commonwealth, no. 54.
336 See Lythe parish; Feet of F. Yorks. Mich. 12 Geo. II; Recov. R. Trin. 10 Geo. IV, m. 39.
337 See above.
338 See below.
339 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 407.
340 Ibid. 22–3.
341 Ibid. 558, 572, 743; Conventual Leases, Yorks. no. 987, 1010, 1023; Star Chamb. Proc. Hen. VIII, bdle. 19, no. 353.
342 Sir Henry and Sir Richard Cholmley were said in 1612–13 to have sold Eskdaleside, reserving a fee-farm rent of £20 (Exch. Dep. East. 11 Jas. I, no. 13).
343 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 558, 581.
344 Exch. Dep. Mich. 26 Geo. II, no. 4.
345 Foster, Yorks. Pedigrees; Burke, Landed Gentry.
346 Nype Close in Hawsker was conveyed by Stephen Russell in 1705 to Mark Noble, master mariner (Exch. Dep. East. 18 Geo. II, no. 5).
347 This is wrongly identified as Hogarth Hill in Cal. Pat. 1292–1301, p. 747, and Inq. a.q.d. (P.R.O. Lists and Indexes), i, 44.
348 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 218.
349 See Fylingdales.
350 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 33, 363.
351 Ibid. 2.
352 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 3, 33, 363.
353 Ibid. 364.
354 Ibid. 208. The notice at ibid. 715 must therefore refer to the chapel, not the vill.
355 Ibid. 179 n., 194; cf. Pipe R. 13 Hen. II (Pipe R. Soc.), 100.
356 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 186, 222.
357 Ibid. 132. A conjectural pedigree is given in ibid. 179–80 n.
358 Feet of F. Yorks. 36 Hen. III, no. 102.
359 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 430.
360 Lay Subs. R. 30 Edw. I (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), 110.
361 See Topcliffe.
362 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 498–9, 524–5; Cal. Pat. 1292–1301, p. 401.
363 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 432–3.
364 Ibid. 431. Adam de Hawsker is mentioned in 1334 (Honour and Forest of Pickering [N. R. Rec. Soc. New Ser.], iii, 25).
365 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 327; Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 557, 571, 729.
366 See above, p. 503.
367 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 415, 425, 557, 580, 727; Conventual Leases, Yorks. no. 1013, 1015.
368 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 318.
369 Ibid. 571.
370 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 200.
371 See above.
372 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 32.
373 Ibid. 208 n.
374 See above.
375 See above, p. 503.
376 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 558, 572, 733.
377 Ibid. 32.
378 Ibid. 125, 127, 419.
379 Ibid. 557, 580; cf. ibid. 728.
380 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 218, 307.
381 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 3.
382 In Hackness parish (q.v.).
383 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), p. xxxix. This account is not absolutely trustworthy (ibid. p. lix).
384 See above, p. 503.
385 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 558, 572, 731.
386 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), vi, 109.
387 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cliii, 54.
388 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), iii, 288.
389 Ibid. vi, 108, 148.
390 Ld. Rev. Misc. Bks. clxix, fol. 207.
391 L. and P. Hen. VIII, x, 1167.
392 Ibid. xiii (1), 722.
393 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), vi, 108.
394 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), lxii, 6. His uncle James in 1541 bequeathed 4d. to every house in the town not a burgage and gave instructions as to the disposal of his ship the Marie Janies (sic) and of one of his five-men boats (Test. Ebor. [Surt. Soc.], vi, 149).
395 Aug. Off. Proc. bdle. 23, no. 83.
396 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cliii, 54.
397 Young, Whitby, 488; cf. Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), iv, 107.
398 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), cclxxvi, 567.
399 Young, Whitby, 576–7; Exch. Dep. Mich. 16 Chas. I, no. 40.
400 Dugdale, Visit. of Yorks. (Surt. Soc.), 67.
401 Ibid.
402 V.C.H. Yorks. ii, 218.
403 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 3.
404 Ibid. 29 and note.
405 Ibid. 572, 745. The tenancy of a family of Brus alleged in the horngarth legend seems to be confirmed by a document alluded to in Foster, Yorks. Pedigrees, art. Beckwith.
406 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 745.
407 Pat. 37 Hen. VIII, pt. ii, m. 35.
408 Chan. Inq. p.m. (Ser. 2), ccxiv, 157; ccclxviii, 127. Cf. Eskdaleside.
409 In Hackness parish (q.v.).
410 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 209 and note.
411 Ibid. 408 and note; cf. ibid. 456.
412 Ibid. 24.
413 Charlton, op. cit. 226.
414 Ibid. 22.
415 Kirkby's Inq. (Surt. Soc.), 327.
416 Honour and Forest of Pickering (N. R. Rec. Soc. New Ser.), ii, 59; cf. iv, 47; Cal. Close, 1333–7, p. 365).
417 See Kirklington.
418 Feet of F. Yorks. 35 Edw. III, no. 7.
419 Early Chan. Proc. bdle. 490, no. 40.
420 Yorks. Fines, Tudors (Yorks. Arch. Soc.), i, 120–1.
421 Sharpe, Mem. of the Rebellion of 1569, pp. 229, 263; Cal. S. P. Dom. Add. 1566–79, pp. 91, 95, 177, 185, 385. In Jan. 1571–2 he was in Scotland trying to get books, 'Agnus Deis,' beads, &c., from Louvain (ibid. 381).
422 Fine R. 2 Jas. I, pt. ii, no. 37.
423 Quart. Sess. Rec. (N. R. Rec. Soc.), i, 221.
424 Feet of F. Yorks. Mich. 2 Jas. I.
425 G.E.C. Baronetage, ii, 47.
426 Ibid.
427 Chan. Enr. Dec. 1299, no. 13.
428 G.E.C. Baronetage, ii, 48; P.C.C. 344 Edmunds; Quart. Sess. Rec. (N. R. Rec. Soc.), viii, 192.
429 See above, p. 394; cf. P.C.C. 344 Edmunds.
430 G.E.C. Baronetage, v, 68.
431 Priv. Act, 26 Geo. II, cap. 33; Feet of F. Yorks. Trin. 24 & 25 Geo. II; (K.S.B.) Hil. 31 Geo. II.
432 Close, 1790, no. 8, m. 11.
433 Inform. kindly furnished by Miss Yeoman.
434 Burke, Landed Gentry; Young, Whitby, 851 n.
435 Burke, Landed Gentry.
436 Ibid.
437 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 557.
438 Ibid. 726; Conventual Leases, Yorks. no. 1034; Aug. Off. Proc. bdle. 18, no. 28.
439 A few baptisms are recorded for the years 1652–4.
440 A number of entries for the year 1601 are preserved in the York Dioc. Registry.
441 Allen, Hist. of the County of York (1831), iii, 443.
442 Young, Whitby, 91–2.
443 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 3.
444 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xv, 567; Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 725.
445 L. and P. Hen. VIII, xx (1), g. 465 (39); Mins. Accts. 36 & 37 Hen. VIII, 4628.
446 Pat. 2 & 3 Phil. and Mary, pt. vii.
447 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), iii, 339.
448 Lond. Gaz. 24 July 1866, p. 4168.
449 Exch. Dep. Mich. 35 Chas. II, no. 7; Mich. 31 Geo. II, no. 1.
450 Cal. Pat. 1321–4, p. 305; Inq. a.q.d. file 156, no. 15.
451 Gaskin, op. cit. 96 n.
452 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), v, 300.
453 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 672.
454 Cf. bequest of 1530 (Test. Ebor. [Surt. Soc.], v, 301).
455 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 576, 584.
456 Young, Whitby, 617 n.
457 Young, Picture of Whitby, 227. In 1716 they were said to have been 'formerly called the callice-house and garth, but now called the chapel-house and garth' (Young, Whitby, 372).
458 Young, Whitby, 371–3. One of these stones is in the museum.
459 Ibid. 371 n.
460 Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 185–6.
461 Young, Whitby, 616 n.
462 See above.
463 Young, loc. cit.
464 Ibid. 617.
465 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 515.
466 Ibid. 3.
467 See Fylingdales and Sneaton parishes.
468 'Sicut clerico suo.'
469 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 401 n.
470 Ibid. 401.
471 Ibid. 399–400.
472 Ibid. 567, 725.
473 Ibid. 745.
474 Charlton, op. cit. 318, 335.
475 Ibid. 335.
476 Inform. kindly given by Mr. G. Buchannan. Mark Noble was patron in 1816 (Young, Whitby, 874).
477 Inform. as above.
478 Clergy Lists.
479 Ibid.
480 Ibid.
481 Ibid.
482 Inform. as above.
483 Clergy Lists.
484 Charlton, op. cit. 335.
485 Ibid. 135.
486 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 526.
487 Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.), v, 301.
488 Mins. Accts. 36 & 37 Hen. VIII, 4628.
489 Young, Whitby, 376 n.
490 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 121.
491 There is a sketch in the Whitby Museum of this chapel commonly but erroneously (Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 242–3) called 'The Hermitage.'
492 Charlton, op. cit. 340.
493 Ibid.
494 Young, Whitby, 874.
495 Atkinson, Mem. of Old Whitby, 244.
496 Ibid.
497 Whitby Chartul. (Surt. Soc.), 179.
498 Ibid. 430, cf. ibid. p. 186.
499 Ibid. 725. John Ledum made a bequest to it in 1530 (Test. Ebor. [Surt. Soc.], v, 301).
500 Rot. Lit. Pat. (Rec. Com.), 96b, 105.
501 Clergy Lists.
502 See above.
503 Young, Whitby, 874.
504 Inform. supplied by courtesy of Mr. G. S. Fry, Board of Trade.