XCII THE FOUNDLING HOSPITAL
The Foundling Hospital, which owed its inception to Captain
Thomas Coram, has an honourable place in the long chain of charitable
institutions, generally known as "hospitals," which extends back through
the Middle Ages and reaches forward to the present day. London's hospitals
were famous, and it was singularly appropriate that the Governors of the
Foundling Hospital should incorporate, in the decoration of their Court
Room, eight medallion paintings of the general hospitals of St. Bartholomew
and St. Thomas, founded in the 12th century, Bedlam (for the insane),
Christ's Hospital (for children), Charterhouse, the 17th century Royal
Hospitals at Chelsea (for soldiers) and at Greenwich (for sailors), as well as
the Foundling. In the first half of the 18th century illegitimacy was rife and
there was an appalling increase in the number of infants abandoned by their
mothers. Concealment of birth was the chief motive, since only in this way
could these unfortunate women have any hope for their future. That society
was not unmoved by this spectacle is proved by the wide support which
Coram got for his scheme, but as so often happens, it needed the zeal and
single-minded devotion of one man to point the way to a remedy and his
untiring advocacy to secure its adoption. (fn. *)
Thomas Coram was a sea-captain who spent much of his life in New
England. He retired in 1719, and from the following year lived at Rotherhithe. He devoted himself to philanthropic work and his sympathies must
have early turned towards the children. For many years he laboured to get
support, and eventually engineered an influentially-signed petition to the
King by ladies, followed by one by noblemen and gentlemen in 1735. Two
years later Coram petitioned the King himself and was successful in obtaining
a royal charter for incorporating his "Hospital for the Maintenance and
Education of Exposed and Deserted Young Children." At a memorable
meeting at Somerset House on 20th November, 1739, he presented
the charter to the Duke of Bedford and a distinguished company, including William Hogarth and Dr. Richard Mead. Coram was then about 70
The interesting story of how the hospital was started, the rules for
the admission of the children, the anxious consideration of their diet, upbringing, and preparation to earn their livelihood is told by R. H. Nichols
and F. A. Wray in their History of the Foundling Hospital (1935). Temporary
premises were taken in Hatton Garden, the first admission being on 25th
March, 1741. The site for the permanent buildings in Bloomsbury
Fields was purchased from the Earl of Salisbury and comprised 56 acres.
The architect selected was Theodore Jacobsen, of the family long connected
with the Steelyard in the City of London. He was a Fellow of the Royal
Society and his only other known architectural work was the Haslar Royal
Hospital for sick soldiers at Gosport. The general superintendence of the
buildings was undertaken by James Horne, who acted as surveyor without
fee. Another architect employed was John Sanderson, who presented the
marble table in the Court Room. The foundation stone was laid on 16th
September, 1742, the buildings being completed in 1747. (ref. 9)
Although the Foundling Hospital received state recognition and at
times was in receipt of public grants, it was remarkable how widespread was
the private support accorded it. Men of wealth and position were honoured
by election to the Board of Governors and eminent physicians helped with
their professional advice and services. The patronage of the hospital by
distinguished people was facilitated, too, by the benevolence of artists of high
rank, and not only did the chapel become famous for its musical performances,
initiated by Handel, who presented the organ and conducted his Messiah
there in person, but the court room and picture gallery were filled with
paintings by Hogarth, Gainsborough, Reynolds, and many other artists.
These pictures drew a large number of visitors, and the artists themselves
met here to confer with one another and to dine. These meetings are said to
have been an important factor in the founding of the Royal Academy. (ref. 9)
Both concerts and exhibitions were most useful in augmenting the funds of
One of the most striking things about the design for the Foundling
Hospital was its lay-out, which was simple, practical, and remarkably effective
as a setting to the whole scheme (Plate 12). The site was some 400 feet wide
and its southern frontage to Guilford Street had a pleasant screen-wall
broken in the centre by a wide stretch of gates and railings in the middle of
which was the statue, by William Calder Marshall, of Coram on a high pedestal
(Plate 39). This screen superseded the earlier circular wall and archways
removed when Guilford Street was laid out (Plate 11). Behind the walls,
and for some 350 feet on the returns northwards, was a continuous colonnade,
supporting the roof of a covered walk, so that the whole of this part of the site
was a wide court enclosed on three sides. The side walks, where the children
were employed in rope-making, had each a central pedimented pavilion
(Plate 41); on the south the walk was enclosed to form two lodges, flanking
the entrance, with storerooms, etc. At each end of each section of the frontage
was a small square building with pyramidal roof, the easternmost having
been replaced later by a large room to accommodate the college band.
The great front court had a wide central approach between two
stretches of turf around which stood trees. The main buildings formed a
courtyard open to the south looking on to this approach (Plate 17), but
originally closed by a dwarf wall, railings, and gates. The broad scheme of
the hospital plan embraced a large chapel, built 1747–1753, forming an
independent north block, and two long three-storey ranges to the east and
west, the former allocated to girls and the latter to boys. The ground floor
of the chapel was surrounded by an open cloister which was utilized later to
support galleries above. The southern section preserved its open character
and consisted of seven vaulted bays opening on to the courtyard by semicircular headed arches (Plate 23). East and west of the chapel was originally
a barrel-vaulted passage, fifteen feet wide between the piers. These were later
enclosed to form lobbies, the western being the main entrance. This was
furnished with a two-way stair to the galleries and a pair of arches north and
south of an inner lobby. The eastern section, known as the chapel cloister
(Plate 23), which contained a number of memorials, was also enclosed by
doors and communicated with a lobby on the north side that gave access to
the chapel and to the chaplain's vestry. Another vestry was accommodated
in the northern section towards the west. The east and west galleries were
an extension in 1754 of the original plan.
The ground floor had three sets of enclosed pews, set longitudinally,
on each side of the central aisle, facing one another. The altar, within
ornamental iron altar rails (presented by Mr. Wragg, His Majesty's smith),
was at the east (Plate 20). The lofty pulpit and clerk's reading desk (Plate 26)
stood north and south of the central aisle respectively, and the font was
placed east of the desk. The walls were lined with long panels above a
moulded dado, and the doors had pediments over a carved frieze, with pairs
of swags of fruit and flowers above them. Similar carved drops divided the
panels. The gallery surrounded the chapel on all sides and was protected by
an elaborate wooden balustrade over the wall cornice. From the balustrade
rose tall Ionic columns carrying an entablature on the north and south and
three arches on the east, where the columns were coupled (Plate 21), a feature
repeated towards the eastern and western ends of the side galleries. The
eastern gallery communicated with the side galleries by doors with pediments
beneath swags of fruit and flowers. To the north and south the gallery walls
were pierced by five large windows, the centre window being of Venetian
type—a central circular-headed light flanked by small rectangular openings
between columns carrying an entablature. The remaining windows were
plain circular-headed, and all were fitted with stained glass, most of it
heraldic (see p. 20 and Plate 22). The side galleries (Plate 21) and that to
the east were vaulted with groined plaster vaults with enrichment, and the
flat ceiling of the centre of the chapel was raised above a bold plaster cove
high enough to be intersected by the arches of the eastern gallery. It had an
elaborate centre design. The western gallery, which held the organ in a
handsome organ case (the gift of Handel to the hospital, but rebuilt in 1769), (fn. a)
was curved in plan and was given sufficient depth in 1774–5 (enlarged in
1813) to accommodate the choir. It projected into the chapel over two
columns and the main cove of the ceiling was originally carried behind it in
apsidal form, but this was replaced later by a high arched vault. The chapel
was designed with a view to musical performances which, as stated above,
brought large sums of money to the hospital funds, and the organ was first
used by Handel himself at a special performance of the Messiah.
The east and west wings were originally independent buildings,
touching the chapel only at the ground floor where they adjoined the open
lobbies. They were each planned in two long parallel rooms, back to back,
on all floors (except the ground floor, west), and adjoined rectangular blocks,
north and south, which projected very slightly from the main wings on the
outer sides, and in a more pronounced manner towards the courtyard (see
plans, Plates 12 and 13). The wall dividing the wings into parallel sections
was not in the centre, the outer compartments being wider than the inner,
nor were the two wings planned alike. On the ground floor the long room
facing the courtyard had groined plaster ceilings, the west being the boys'
dining room (Plate 37) and the east the girls' play room, each being over
100 feet long by 20 feet wide. The girls' dining room adjoined their play
room, with a section on the south allocated to infants. A large boys' play
room was added later to the north of the west wing, and the whole outer
section of the west wing on the ground floor was devoted to the principal
administrative rooms, the court room and sub-committee room to the south,
and the picture gallery to the north of an entrance hall. These rooms are
described below. In the centre of the blocks north and south of the west
wing and north of the east wing were spacious staircases (Plate 38) which
rose to the top of the building, with rooms on each side. In the south part
of the east wing a smaller stair was planned in the north-west angle of the
block. The first and second floors of the wings were occupied almost entirely
by the boys' and girls' wards or dormitories respectively.
The above gives a general idea of the lay-out of the hospital, which is
shown in detail in Mr. Sheppard's drawings reproduced here. The internal
arrangements had no doubt been altered from time to time and additional
buildings were constructed, such as the boys' play room, already mentioned,
to the north of the west wing, and an infants' school-room to the east of the
offices built north of the east wing.
The three principal rooms in the west wing merit a more detailed
description on account of their architectural treatment, and because they have
been reconstructed with all their main features in No. 40 Brunswick Square,
where they can still be seen. The court room (Plate 28) was lighted by four
large sash windows in its west wall, filling the space between the moulded
dado that surrounded the room and the modillion cornice above. Between
the two outer pairs of windows were swags of fruit and flowers overhanging
the busts of Caracalla and Marcus Aurelius standing on brackets, casts from
the antique presented by Richard Dalton. Between the centre windows
an enriched oval frame enclosed a mirror, surmounted by a plaster design
with pendants, within which hung a pair of chains. Below was a marble
table, supported by a group of two children and a goat (Plate 29b), presented
by John Sanderson, architect, who assisted in the construction of the hospital.
In the centre of the east wall was the fireplace with a simple stone mantel,
having a horizontal entablature and side pilasters, beneath a stone overmantel
signed and presented by J. Devall, who was responsible for the stonework
at the hospital. The centre of the overmantel had a large panel in low-relief
by John Michael Rysbrack representing children engaged in navigation and
husbandry, flanked by consoles and surmounted by a pediment, over which
were festoons of fruit and flowers (Plate 30). Each side of the chimneybreast the wall was chiefly occupied by a large eared frame, with scrolled top
and escutcheon below, in which were the paintings: (left) "The finding of
the infant Moses in the bulrushes," by Francis Hayman, R.A., and (right)
"Little Children brought to Christ," by James Wills. Similar frames on
the north and south walls held "Moses brought to Pharaoh's daughter," by
Hogarth, and "Hagar and Ishmael," by Joseph Highmore. At the sides of
these four pictures were small circular frames, carved with leaf ornament
with festoons above and below, depending from masks, eight in all, containing
paintings of the following hospitals: North wall, St. Thomas' Hospital
(Samuel Wale), St. George's Hospital (Richard Wilson); East wall, Foundling Hospital (Richard Wilson), Chelsea Hospital (Edward Haytley),
Charterhouse (Thomas Gainsborough), Christ's Hospital (Samuel Wale);
South wall, Bethlehem Hospital (Edward Haytley), and Greenwich Hospital
(Samuel Wale) (Plate 29a). They form a beautiful series and are all dated.
At the extremities of the north and south walls are two doorways (one blind
in each case) with handsome frames of architrave, cornice and enriched
frieze, with carved festoons over. The ceiling was an elaborate design in
relief, the gift of the father of Joseph Wilton, R. A., who was an ornamental
plasterer and carried out many of the ceilings of French character which were
then in fashion (Plates 28 and 31). This has been re-erected in the room
at Brunswick Square.
Adjoining the court room on the south was the committee room (or
secretary's room) with two windows looking south and one west. A simple
dado and modillion ceiling cornice surround the room and it has a good
carved fireplace, the design of which is ascribed to Hogarth, beneath an overmantel framing a landscape by George Lambert, the founder of the Beef
Steak Club (Plate 35).
North of the court room was a paved vestibule and then the picture
gallery, a long room with six windows in its west wall. The treatment was
quite simple: moulded dado, modillion cornice and plain ceiling, with sixpanelled doors within moulded architraves. The fireplace was of marble with
Ionic columns supporting its entablature, and a framed overmantel with
scrolled terminals enclosing a portrait of Thomas Emerson, by Joseph
Highmore. Over the entrance door was an oval relief with figures. This
gallery contained the important collection of pictures and statuary presented
to the hospital, including Raphael's "Murder of the Innocents," Hogarth's
portrait of Captain Coram, and Roubiliac's bust of Handel in the original
plaster, which can be seen to the right of the fireplace in Plate 34.
In 1926, consequent upon the decision of the Governors to remove
the Foundling Hospital to the country, the site was sold and the children
were provisionally accommodated at St. Anne's Schools, Redhill. (ref. 9) The new
hospital was built at Berkhamsted from the designs of Mr. John M. Sheppard,
(whose drawings of the old hospital illustrate this volume), its foundation
stone being laid in 1933 and the children transferred there in 1935. The
memorials, heraldic glass, and the statue of Coram went to the new hospital,
but the court room, picture gallery, etc., and the works of art were retained
in a new building at No. 40 Brunswick Square. When the main buildings
were removed the major part of the site was bought by Lord Rothermere
and those supporting him, to be preserved as a playground for children and
the Foundling Hospital re-purchased the remainder to provide for the
existing infant welfare centre. (ref. 10)
1. CAPTAIN THOMAS CORAM, 1751. The following inscription was
cut in stone in the south cloister of the Chapel, and has been transcribed
from a photograph:
Captain THOMAS CORAM
Whose Name will never want a Monument
so long as this Hospital shall subsist,
was born in the Year 1668.
A Man eminent in that most eminent Virtue,
the Love of Mankind.
Little attentive to his Private Fortune,
and resusing many Opportunities of increasing it,
his Time and Thought were continually employed
in Endeavours to promote the Public Happiness,
both in this Kingdom and elsewhere,
particularly in the Colonies of North America,
and his Endeavours were many Times crowned
with the desired Success.
His unwearied Solicitation, for above Seventeen Years together
which would have baffled the Patience and Industry
of any Man less zealous in doing Good,
and his Application to Persons of Distinction of both Sexes,
obtained at length the Charter of the Incorporation
bearing Date the 17th. of October, 1739,
FOR THE MAINTENANCE AND EDUCATION
OF EXPOSED AND DESERTED YOUNG CHILDREN,
by which many Thousands of Lives
may be preserved to the Public, and employed in a frugal
and honest Course of Industry.
He died the 29th. of March, 1751, in the 84th. Year of his Age,
poor in Worldly Estate, rich in Good Works,
and was buried at his own Desire in the Vault underneath this Chapel
(the first there deposited) at the East End thereof,
many of the Governors and other Gentlemen attending the Funeral
to do Honour to his Memory.
The Actions will show whether thou art sincere
in the Praises thou may'st bestow on him,
and if thou hast Virtue enough to commend his Virtues,
forget not to add also the Imitation of them.
The following tablets, which were formerly to be seen in the vaulted lobbies
to the east and north of the chapel and in the vault below, are now preserved
at Berkhamsted. The names are given in alphabetical order.
2. CHARLES ABBOTT, first Lord TENTERDEN, 1832, Lord Chief
Justice and vice-president of the hospital, 1821–1832, and his wife, MARY,
daughter of John Langley Lamotte. The memorial consists of a bust on a
pedestal within an architectural frame standing on a sarcophagus, and is
signed by P. Sarti. The inscription is in Latin and was composed by himself.
He was buried in the chapel vault. (Tablet originally on east wall of east
lobby, see Plate 24a.)
3. FANNY ARDEN, 1836, wife of Richard Edward Arden (elected
governor, 1834), and their daughter CLARA HIRST ARDEN, 1835,
and son Alfred Mason Arden, 1836. Marble tablet surmounted
by an urn, originally on west wall of east lobby (see Plate 24a).
4. ROBERT ATCHISON, 1818. He was appointed schoolmaster in
1780 and was for 39 years a "diligent and affectionate master of the boys."
A plain stone; he was not buried here.
5. HENRY BLANSHARD, 1870, elected governor 1858, and his wife,
Miriam, 1871. A marble tablet within a cusped pointed arch, originally
on the west wall of the east lobby.
Shield of arms: gules a chevron or between two bezants in chief and a griffin's
head erased or in base, a crescent for difference (Blanshard), impaling azure
a chevron or between three lozenges or. Crest: a griffin's head erased.
6. JAMES KENDLE BROWN, 1854, elected governor in 1845. Plain
marble tablet on dark ground, originally on north wall of east lobby (see
Plate 24a), signed S. Manning.
7. JOHN BROWNLOW, 1873. He was a foundling and was employed
in the secretary's office in 1814, became treasurer's clerk in 1828 and was
appointed secretary in 1849 and held the office until 1872. He wrote a
history of the hospital. The tablet is marble of gothic design, formerly on
the west wall of the east lobby, and is signed by Burke of 17 Newman Street,
8. SAMUEL COMPTON COX, 1839, treasurer of the hospital for
33 years (1806–1839) and formerly a master of the High Court of Chancery.
Also Anna, 1829, his wife, daughter of Percival Pott, senior surgeon of
St. Bartholomew's Hospital. Samuel Cox was vice-president in 1805–6 and
Colonel commanding the Bloomsbury and Inns of Court Association. His
memorial is in the form of a sarcophagus with a relief depicting himself
seated with three foundlings. It is signed J. Lough, whose full name was
John Graham Lough (1806–1876). The memorial was formerly fixed over
the door in the west wall of the north lobby (see Plate 24b).
9. HENRY DEALTRY, 1823, secondary of the Crown Office, his wife
ELEANOR, 1831, their eldest son, PEREGRINE, 1842, master of the
Crown Office and elected governor of the hospital, 1826, and their youngest
son, WILLIAM, 1826. A marble tablet erected by Frances and Anne
their surviving daughters.
10. HUGH EDWARDS, 1839. Elected governor, 1804. Plain marble
11. THOMAS EVERETT, M.P., 1810. Vice-president 1797–1810 and
a generous benefactor to the hospital. A marble tablet surmounted by an
urn, formerly on the west wall of the east lobby.
Shield of arms: gules a chevron ( ) between 3 mullets ( ) (Everett)
impaling party per chevron or and ( ) 2 mullets ( ) in chief and a
crescent ( ) in base. Cansick gives his wife, Martha, also (d. 1825).
12. PETER FADDY, 1848. A foundling apprenticed to an "Enamelled
and Dial Plate Painter" in Old Street in 1808, who was afterwards employed
for 20 years as messenger in the hospital. A plain stone commemorates him
as "Honest Peter Faddy."
13. EDWIN JAMES FAIRLAND, Colonel A.M.S., 1909. Elected
governor 1894. Lead plate mounted on marble.
Shield of arms: argent a saltire engrailed gules between four roses gules
barbed and seeded proper.
14. JAMES FARRER, 1826. Elected governor 1819. Shaped marble
tablet with shield of arms which Cansick gives as or cotised sable 3 horseshoes ( ) (Farrer) impaling argent a griffin sable, on a chief sable 3 stars or.
15. JOSIAH FORSHALL, 1863. Keeper of the Manuscripts (1827–1837)
and secretary (1828–1850) of the British Museum. Chaplain to the hospital
(1829–1863). Also his wife Frances, 1865. An arched marble tablet
in the gothic manner with a Latin inscription recording his publications,
formerly on the north wall of the north lobby.
16. Sir STEPHEN GASELEE, 1839, Justice of the Court of Common
Pleas, elected governor, 1815, and vice-president of the hospital, 1824–1838.
Also HENRIETTA, 1838, his wife, daughter of James Harris of the East
India Company, and their two daughters HENRIETTA, 1840, and EMMA
1841. Plain marble tablet formerly on the west wall of the east lobby.
17. Rev. JOHN WILLIAM GLEADALL, 1882, morning preacher in
the hospital chapel, 1845–1882. Marble tablet with portrait in relief by
Thomas Woolner, R.A. (1825–1892). There is a bust of Gleadall by
S. J. P. Haydon at the hospital.
18. CHARLOTTE JOSEPHINE GREGORY, 1859, daughter of George
Burrow Gregory (see No. 19 below) and Maria Teresa his wife. Marble
tablet with arched head to panel, signed J. S. Farley.
19. GEORGE BURROW GREGORY, 1892, for eighteen years M.P.
for Sussex and treasurer of the hospital 1857–1892. Marble tablet enclosing
alabaster escutcheon with inscription, formerly on north wall of east lobby
(see Plate 24a).
20. ROBERT GREY, 1914. Treasurer of the hospital 1892–1914. Lead
plate with portrait in relief on marble tablet.
22. WILLIAM HAMMOND, 1834, his wife ANN, 1824, and their
son WILLIAM, 1855, elected governor of the hospital, 1824.
Tablet with scrolled pediment and shield of arms: argent a chevron sable
between 3 mullets ( ) impaling argent a saltire engrailed gules between
4 roses gules (? Fairland).
23. MARK HEALEY, 1912. Private, 19th Hussars. A foundling who
was drowned at Aldershot in trying to save a comrade. Brass plate.
24. JOHN HEATH, 1830, Justice of the Peace for Middlesex and elected
governor 1814. Also his wife, Jane Louisa, 1834. Marble tablet
shaped like a sarcophagus supporting an urn.
25. Rev. JOHN HEWLETT, 1844. Morning preacher at the hospital
1798–1826. He was a biblical scholar and professor of belles lettres at
the Royal Institution. He was instituted to the rectory of Hilgay, Norfolk,
His marble tablet bears a shield of arms: ermine on a chevron ( )
3 hinds' heads rased, a quarter ( ) charged with a lion ( ) impaling
azure 3 arrows in pale fesswise, points to chief ( ), a quarter ( )
charged with a lion ( ). (Cansick draws the coat, he does not show the
arrows fesswise and the quarter in the impalement has a leopard rampant).
26. CLEMENT HUE, M.D., 1861, and his wife LUCY, 1851. He was
physician to St. Bartholomew's, Christ's Hospital, and the Foundling
Hospital. He was elected governor in 1819 and was vice-president,
1847–1861. The memorial, which used to be on the south wall of the north
lobby, consisted of a large inscribed slab between two tall urns standing on
a base supported by corbels (see Plate 24b). The hospital possesses a portrait
of Dr. Hue by R. Buckner.
27. JAMES CHICHELEY HYDE, 1867. Lieut.-Colonel, Indian Army,
elected governor, 1862.
Shaped marble tablet with shield of arms: azure a chevron between 3
lozenges or (Hyde). Crest: an eagle rising wings addorsed and inverted.
28. Rev. CORRIE JACKSON, 1895, chaplain to the hospital for nine
years. A lead plate fixed to marble.
29. CHARLES JAMES JOHNSTONE, M.B., 1838. Attended at the
hospital. He died at the age of 28. Memorial consists of an inscribed
tablet surmounted by a large relief with an angel descending to the dying
30. JOSEPH KAY, 1847, architect. He was appointed surveyor of the
hospital buildings and superintendent of the estate in 1814. He is described
on the simple tablet that was on the east wall of the east lobby as a "faithful
officer of this institution." The design of the east side of Mecklenburgh
Square was his work (see p. 28). The tablet is signed J. S. Farley.
31. LUKE LYNCH, 1892. "Faithful Servant in the Hospital." A brass
let into a stone tablet with scrolled pediment.
32. GEORGE PARDOE, M.D., 1850. Plain marble tablet with pedimental head.
33. ROBERT RAINY PENNINGTON, 1840. Elected governor, 1810.
Monument in stone with carving in relief.
35. CHARLES PLUMLEY, 1860, second son of William Plumley of
Shepton Mallet, elected governor, 1841. Also LOUISA, his widow, 1868.
Marble tablet with shield of arms: ( ) floretty ( ), a bend checky
( ) and ( ). Crest: a dexter arm vambraced embowed holding a
spear, point to dexter.
36. CHARLES POTT, 1864, treasurer, 1839–1852, vice-president, 1856–1864, and Anna, his wife, 1876. Marble tablet of gothic design formerly
on north wall of north lobby.
37. DANIEL ROWLAND, 1859. Elected governor, 1810. Plain marble
tablet, formerly on west wall of east lobby, signed Bedford. (Cansick gives
38. WILLIAM GEORGE SIBLEY, 1807. Treasurer to the East India
Company, elected governor of the hospital, 1790, and his wife, Jane
Marble tablet with shield of arms: per pale ( ) and ( ) a griffin
( ) between 3 crescents ( ) impaling ( ) a chevron gules between
in chief 3 mullets ( ) and in base 3 ermine spots. Crest: a demi-lion
( ) holding in its paws a ducal coronet.
39. JOHN STEPHENSON, 1822, elected governor 1795, and his wife,
Mary, 1814. Marble tablet surmounted by urn formerly on west wall of
Shield of arms: gules on a bend argent 3 leopards' faces ( ) (Stephenson)
impaling ( ) a chevron sable.
40. JOHN THOMAS, 1849. Elected governor, 1818, and his wife, ANN,
1833, daughter of Josias le Marchant. Marble tablet surmounted by an
urn, formerly on the east wall of the east lobby.
Shield of arms: or on a pale azure a lion ( ) between two oak trees
( ), a crescent for difference impaling azure a chevron or between 3 owls
argent legged or (le Marchant).
41. WILLIAM WATSON, F.R.S., 1818. Serjeant at Arms attendant on
the Great Seal at the House of Lords, Senior Common Pleader of the City
of London. Vice-president of the hospital, 1813–1818. Also his wife,
Susan, 1814. Stone tablet with urn, formerly on west wall of east lobby.
42. THOMAS WEEDING, 1856, merchant of the City of London.
Elected governor 1818, also his first wife, Sarah, 1835, and his second
wife, Mary, 1860. White marble tablet surmounted by an urn, formerly
on the east wall of the east lobby.
Shield of arms: or 2 bars gules, in chief 3 martlets gules impaling argent
on a saltire azure 5 crescents ( ) between 2 buckles ( ), and two
stags' heads erased one in chief and the other in base ( ). Crests: dexter,
a martlet, sinister a tower. (Cansick gives the saltire engrailed.)
The following is a list of coats of arms of governors and others connected with the hospital,
formerly in the windows of the chapel. The glass has been re-fixed in the chapel and hall at Berkhamsted and has been listed as it stands. The original position of the glass has been given wherever
known. The blazon of each shield is given in a list compiled by Mr. Albert Manchester and
deposited in the library of the London County Council. The dates (except those in brackets) appear
with the names in the windows, and seem usually to be the year of election as governor.
Chancel, north side. A window to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales, president, 1809. Royal arms.
Chancel, south side. A window to H.R.H. Arthur, Duke of Connaught, president, 1904.
Nave, north side: Window No. 1 (from the east). Nos. 1 to 11 formed the upper part of the second
window from the east on the south side of the old chapel. The remainder of the shields
are now No. 21 (window north 2) and Nos. 22, 21, 23, 24 (window north 4).
Centre achievement. H.R.H. Frederick, Duke of York, president 1820, royal arms of
|1.||John Aldridge, 1802.|
|2.||Henry Alexander, 1819.|
|3.||James Alexander, 1813.|
|4.||Richard Edward Arden, 1834.|
|5.||Peter Carthew, 1853.|
|6.||James Bentley, 1835.|
|7.||William Nash, 1833.|
|8.||Sir Charles Cockerell, Bt., 1792.|
|9.||Patrick Black, M.D., 1842.|
|10.||Arthur Brown Blakiston, 1835.|
|11.||Sir Thomas Bernard, Bt., 1787.|
Window No. 2. This (excepting No. 21) appears to have been the second window from the east
on the north side of the old chapel.
|1.||Joseph Pulley, 1802.|
|2.||Anthony Van Dam Searle, 1818.|
|3.||Edward Wright, 1806.|
|4.||Charles Robinson, 1829.|
|5.||Samuel Wheeler, 1838.|
|6.||Beriah Botfield, 1847.|
|7.||H. S. Roots, M.D., 1843.|
|8.||Mrs. Sarah Wakefield.|
|9.||The Rt. Hon. Sir William Keppel.|
|10.||Mrs. Charles Pym.|
|11.||Edward Weyman Wadeson, 1842.|
|12.||Anthony Van Dam, 1801.|
|13.||William Beetson, 1824.|
|14.||Thomas West, 1830.|
|15.||John Charles Constable, 1838.|
|16.||W. A. Armstrong White.|
|17.||Sir T. Wodaston White, Bt.|
|18.||Stephen Prescott White, 1830.|
|19.||William Foster White, 1841.|
|20.||Henry White, 1865.|
|22.||Thomas Everett, 1780 (Vice-president
|23.||Joseph Hague Everett, 1801.|
|24.||Benjamin Kenton, 1797.|
Window No. 3. This appears to have been the easternmost window on the south side of the old
chapel, with additional shields.
|1.||Iltid Nicholl, 1814.|
|2.||Rev. Charles Lawson, 1826 (Morning Preacher).|
|3.||John Mackenzie, 1821.|
|4.||Major Patrick William Forbes,
|5.||Edmund Hyde, 1870.|
|6.||Henry Blanshard, 1858.|
|7.||Jonas Hanway, 1750 (Vice-president 1772–1787).|
|8.||Henry Dexter Truscott, 1892.|
|9.||Colonel Edward Matthey, 1888.|
|10.||John Abercrombie, M.D., 1897.|
|11.||Sir Gabriel Goldney, 1869.|
|12.||Edward Terry, 1896.|
|13.||George H. Kinderley, 1845.|
|14.||George Kinderley, 1845 (?).|
|15.||Joseph Compton Pott, 1837.|
|16.||Lucas E. Ralli, 1894.|
|17.||Francis Mercier, 1819.|
|18.||John Noble, 1843.|
|19.||Morris Lievesley, 1799 (Secretary 1799–1849).|
|20.||John Edward Johnson, 1862.|
|21.||William Samuel Jones, 1836.|
Window No. 4. With some exceptions at the end, the shields in this window seem to correspond
with the second window from the west, on the north side of the old chapel.
|1.||Jeremiah Olive, 1814.|
|2.||Woodbine Parish, 1808.|
|3.||William Everett, 1810.|
|4.||George Pardoe, M.D., 1842.|
|5.||The Rt. Hon. Sir Robert Peel, Bt.,
1832 (Vice-president 1833–1850).|
|6.||George C. Croft, 1886.|
|7.||The Rev. Prebendary R. Whittington, 1879
|8.||William Pennington, 1845.|
|9.||Lord North, 1771 (President 1771–1793).|
|10.||John Pepys, 1824.|
|11.||Henry James Perry, 1846.|
|12.||John George Perry, 1834.|
|13.||Louis Hayes Petyt, 1813.|
|14.||John T. Pickard, LL.D., 1825.|
|15.||Charles Plumley, 1841.|
|16.||Sir Frederick Pollock, 1830.|
|17.||Arthur Pott, 1839.|
|18.||Charles Pott, 1817.|
|19.||John Frederick Pott, 1809.|
|20.||William Pott, 1839.|
|21.||William Burra, 1836.|
|23.||John Capel, M.P. (Vice-president 1832–1847).|
Nave, south side. Window No. 1 (from the east).
Centre: achievements of H.R.H. Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, president 1827, and
H.R.H. George, Duke of Cambridge, president 1851.
|1.||John Hanson, 1805.|
|2.||George Hathorn, 1812.|
|4.||Clement Hue, M.D., 1819 (Vicepresident 1847–1861).|
|5.||Sir George Baring, Bt., 1803.|
|6.||Thomas Weeding, 1818.|
|7.||John Benjamin Heath, 1817.|
|8.||R. E. Van Heythuysen, 1838.|
|9.||Patrick Kelly, M.D., 1812.|
|10.||George Wigg, 1837.|
|11.||Samuel Compton Cox, 1798.|
Window No. 2. This window was the northernmost of the three windows in the east wall of the
old chapel (see Plate 22).
Upper part: royal arms of King George III.
|1.||Lord John Cavendish, 1768.|
|2.||Sir John St. Aubyn, Bt.|
|5.||Taylor White (Treasurer 1745–1772).|
|7.||Sir George Armitage, Bt.|
|8.||Rev. Richard Kaye.|
|10.||Rev. Charles Plumptre.|
|12.||Rev. Richard Neat, 1769.|
|20.||Sir Charles Whitworth, Kt.|
Window No. 3. This was the centre window in the east wall of the old chapel. It contains no
heraldic glass but is composed of three shaped panels in the centre of which is a group of
Faith, Hope and Charity by Wilmshurst.
Window No. 4. This was the southernmost of the three windows in the east wall of the old chapel.
Upper part, the present royal arms.
|2.||Timothy Lee, D.D.|
|3.||Sir Griffith Boynton, Bt.|
|4.||Sir Joseph Ayloffe, Bt.|
|12.||Robert Hucks (Treasurer 1741–1745).|
|13.||J. B. Littlehales.|
|14.||Peter Burrel (Vice-president 1739–1756).|
|16.||Sir William St. Quintin, Bt., 1771.|
|17.||William Webber, F.R.S.|
|18.||Rev. R. Kaye, LL.D., (Sub-almoner).|
|19.||Taylor White, Justice of Chester
North side (from the east). Window No. 1.
|1||John Tidd Pratt, 1856.|
|2.||Thomas Mitchell Shadwell, 1857.|
|3.||Alderman David Salomons, 1858.|
|4.||Michael Wills, 1862.|
|5.||John Green Elsey, 1864.|
|6.||Sir James Tyler, 1866.|
|7.||Luther Holden, F.R.C.S., 1868.|
|8.||William Samuel Wintle, M.A.,
Window No. 2.
|1.||William Tooke, M.P., 1834.|
|2.||George Haldimand, 1837.|
|3.||Alexander Tweedie, M.D., F.R.S.,
|4.||William James Thompson, 1839.|
|5.||Henry Denton, 1843.|
|6.||George John Steer, 1854.|
|7.||Daniel Cronin, 1855.|
|8.||George Burrow Gregory, M.P. (Treasurer
Window No. 3.
|1.||John Curteis, 1821.|
|2.||George Francis Travers, 1825.|
|3.||J. Trenchard Trenchard, 1825.|
|4.||Peregrine Dealtry, 1826.|
|5.||Charles Gibbes, 1827.|
|6.||Bonamy Dobree, 1823.|
|7.||George Leith Roupell, M.D., 1833.|
|8.||John Vale, 1834.|
Window No. 4.
|1.||Donald McLean, 1815.|
|2.||Henry Pownall, 1817.|
|3.||John Stevenson Salt, 1817.|
|4.||Sir Charles Forbes, Bt., 1817.|
|5.||John Francis Maubert, 1817.|
|6.||John Thomas, 1818.|
|7.||Thomas Dyke, 1820.|
|8.||Daniel Rowland, 1820.|
Window No. 5.
|1.||Rev. Stephen White, LL.D.
|2.||Plowden Presland, 1806.|
|3.||Joseph Kay, 1806.|
|4.||Sir William Curtis, Bt., 1807.|
|5.||Claude George Thornton, 1810.|
|6.||Abraham John Valpy, 1812.|
|7.||Sir John Nicholl, 1813.|
|8.||Mr. Justice Gaselee, 1815.|
South side(from the east). Window No. 1.
|1.||Robert Grey, 1878.|
|2.||Augustus Thorne, 1884.|
|3.||Sir Charles Forster, Bt., 1884.|
|4.||P. de L. Long, 1887.|
|5.||Sir Edward Letchworth, 1887.|
|6.||Percy Arden, 1888.|
|7.||Sir Reginald Hanson, M.P., LL.D., 1892.|
|8.||Lieut.-Col. Edwin Fairland, 1894.|
Window No. 2.
|1.||Sir Walter Vaughan-Morgan, Bt.,
|2.||Edward Norton, M.D., 1896.|
|3.||Thomas Fenn, 1898.|
|4.||Lieut-Col. Clifford Probyn, 1900.|
|5.||H. D. Greene, K.C., M.P., 1901.|
|6.||Rev. H. T. Cart de Lafontaine, 1905.|
|7.||Sir Squire Bancroft, 1906.|
|8.||Samuel S. Berger, 1906.|
Window No. 3.
|1.||Walter Reginald Wilkin, 1907.|
|2.||Henry L. Florence, 1909.|
|3.||Charles R. Bland, 1917.|
|4.||W. Ellis Gosling.|
|5.||Robert B. Yardley, 1917.|
|6.||W. W. Worthington, 1923.|
|7.||Rt. Hon. Earl Baldwin, K.G., 1929.|
|8.||Alfred C. Bossom, M.P., 1929.|
Window No. 4.
|1.||W. J. Thompson, 1927.|
|2.||Lord Harris, 1937.|
|3.||Walter R. Wilkin, 1907.|
|4.||F. Arnold Greene, 1929.|
|6.||Sir William Davison, M.P., 1908.|
|7.||Lord Blanesburgh, 1914.|
|8.||G. Stanley Pott, 1924.|
Window No. 5.
|1.||Rt. Hon. Viscount Hampden, 1934.|
|2.||Sir Roger Gregory (Treasurer 1914–1938).|