THE CALTHORPE ESTATE
The Calthorpe Estate occupies the south-eastern corner of the parish
of St. Pancras between Gray's Inn Road on the west, the Fleet River on the
east, the parish boundary on the south and Battle Bridge Field on the north.
It would seem to have been part of the Prebendal manor of Portpool, the
southern part of which comprises Gray's Inn in Holborn. It certainly belonged to the Priory of St. Bartholomew in West Smithfield at the Dissolution,
but detailed records are lacking and the subsequent title is rather obscure.
It may be noted that in 1315 the Prior obtained (ref. 22) a licence in mortmain to
acquire from John, son of Reginald de Gray, 30 acres of land, 2 acres of
meadow and 10s. rent in "Kentissheton next London" and in St. Andrew
Holborn for the purpose of finding a chaplain to celebrate divine service daily
in the chapel of the manor of the said John de Pourtepole without the Bar of
the Old Temple, London, for the soul of John, etc. This chapel was doubtless
in Gray's Inn.
After the Dissolution the manor was granted (ref. 23) to Robert Fuller, the
late Prior of St. Bartholomew, but an entry in the Ministers' Accounts of the
Crown (ref. 22) for 1540 seems to indicate that the Portpool land in St. Pancras
had already been separated from the rest of the manor. This is the payment of
£6 13s. 4d. for the farm of two fields late in the tenure of William Huddeston,
in St. Pancras (26 acres), leased to Richard Hudson in 1533 for 41 years;
a property which appears to be identical with the two closes in "Porte Pole"
in St. Pancras (22 acres) previously in the tenure of William Hudson and
Richard Hoddleston, then of William Roper and Richard Clyflf, and formerly
belonging to the Priory of St. Bartholomew in West Smithfield which John
Hobson, citizen and haberdasher of London conveyed to John Robinson,
citizen and merchant taylor of London in 1585. This John Robinson,
elected alderman for Aldgate Ward in 1592, died on 19th February, 1600. (ref. 24)
His son, John Robinson, died 22nd November, 1609, holding in St. Pancras
three closes of pasture (36 acres) in the occupation of Lewis Owen, Knyston
and Smith, which he bequeathed (ref. 25) to his third son, William Robinson. He
also owned the manor of Denston Hall or Denardiston Hall in Suffolk which
went to his eldest son, John Robinson, aged 25. In 1659 William Robinson,
then of Great Stanmore, Middlesex, sold (ref. 26) the estate to his nephew, John
Robinson of Gravesend. It was then described as Middle Close (13 acres),
a close adjoining this on the north side (11 acres), formerly in the occupation
of Thomas Cotterell and then of William Blunt, and a close of 10 acres (fn. a)
adjoining the last mentioned close on the north. All were in "Portepole" in
St. Pancras, near the north end of Gray's Inn Lane, abutting west on the
highway and east on Turners Brook [the Fleet] and the "way or Comon
there belonging to Kentish Town."
John Robinson of Gravesend bequeathed (ref. 27) it to his younger son,
William, on whose death without issue it came to his elder brother, Sir John
Robinson of Denardiston, who married Amy, daughter of Sir Gervase
Elves, and died in 1704. (ref. 28) Dame Amy Robinson and her son in 1706
conveyed (ref. 11) to Richard Gough, of London, merchant, Dry John's Field now
Cotterell's Close (12a. 2r. 3p.) in the occupation of William Gray, yeoman,
Middlefield (13a. 1r. 32p.) and Old Merchant Field (9 acres) with a house,
barn, cowhouse, etc., in the occupation of Thomas Green, yeoman.
[Sir] Richard Gough of London, merchant, dying in 1728, was
succeeded by his son Henry Gough of Edgbaston, who was created a baronet
the same year. He married Barbara, only daughter of Reynolds Calthorpe,
and died in 1774. Their son, Sir Henry, added the name of Calthorpe
in 1788 and was created Baron Calthorpe in 1796. (ref. 29)
In 1745, Sir Henry Gough of Edgbaston leased (ref. 30) the three fields to
Daniel Harrison of St. Pancras, bricklayer. The property was then described
as a messuage in Gray's Inn Lane and ground (8 acres) adjoining the common
sewer dividing the parish of Holborn from St. Pancras on the south, and
Turnmill Brook [the Fleet] on the east; north of that, Middle Close (14a.
1r. 36p.) in the occupation of Daniel Harrison, abutting east on Black Mary's
Bridge; and further north, Cotterell's Close (12a. 3r. 22p.).
In Rocque's Map (1746) can be seen traces of the extensive brickearth excavations made by the Harrison family (see also the Harrison Estate,
Chapter 5). In 1773 Sir Henry Gough sold (ref. 31) to James Swinton of Greenwich,
builder and surveyor, part of Cotterell's Close on which he built the houses
in Swinton Street and Acton Street shown on Tompson's Map (c. 1803).
South of this the same map shows Bagnigge Wells (see p. 66) bordering on
King's Cross Road and west of it two fields called at that time Upper and
Lower Bagnigge Meadows. In the angle between these meadows lay the
Welsh Charity School, removed here in 1772 and the burial ground belonging
to the Church of St. Andrew's, Holborn, which had been acquired in 1747.
These were both taken out of Middle Field and are described later. The
burial ground adjoined the old Blue Lion on the south, and then came Mr.
Leader's Coach & City Cavalry Stables below which was a farmyard with a
large pond in the occupation of George Dennett. Here was built in 1811 the
Chapel of St. Bartholomew (see p. 58). These last named properties occupied
the third and southern field of Portpool.
In 1814, George, Lord Calthorpe applied for an Act of Parliament (ref. 32)
for the paving, etc., of the streets on his estate which is therein described as
consisting of 23 acres, bounded on the north by James Swinton's land, west
by Gray's Inn Road, St. Andrew's Burial Ground and the Welsh Charity
School, east by the Fleet River, and south by the sewer dividing the parish of
St. Pancras from St. Andrew's, Holborn. This comprised the remaining
meadows that were so far unbuilt upon. In 1823 Lord Calthorpe leased (ref. 33)
the northern part (south of the Swinton property) to Thomas Cubitt who had
already established his building works (soon after 1815) in Gray's Inn Road. (ref. 34)
He built Frederick Street, Ampton Street, Arthur (now Cubitt) Street
and other thoroughfares subsequently mentioned in this Survey. Messrs.
Cubitt's works occupied a site south of Ampton Street and below this the
Royal Free Hospital was built in 1855–56.
CII—Gray's Inn Road. East side, Nos. 214–252 (even numbers)
Nos. 214–224 are early 19th century houses with shops and three
storeys over, partly renovated.
St. Bartholomew's Church, now demolished, was built in 1811, at
a cost of £9,000 by admirers of William Huntington (1745–1813), coalheaver and preacher, who added to his name the initials S.S. (Sinner Saved). (ref. 35)
His previous church, Providence Chapel in Titchfield Street, had been burnt
down. St. Bartholomew's seated about 1,300. After Huntington's death
several dissenting preachers (fn. a) occupied the pulpit, (ref. 7) but in 1837 it was opened
as an Episcopal Proprietary Chapel, having been sub-leased to the Rev.
Thomas Mortimer (ref. 36) by the trustees of George Davenport. (fn. b) A plan of the
site made in 1836 includes an almshouse. (ref. 37) The chapel was eventually
purchased, consecrated and endowed as the district church of St. Bartholomew in 1860. (ref. 36) It was almost entirely destroyed by bombing on 17th
October, 1940. Architecturally the church was of the plainest type of early
19th century meeting house with a flat ceiling of considerable span. Among
the memorial tablets was one to Clarissa Murray, Sunday School leader, d.
|1837||Thomas Mortimer (d. 1850)|
|1850||Canon Edward Garbett|
|1863||R. J. Golding-Bird|
|1907||Herbert Henry Abdy|
|1940||Sidney Gordon Dickens|
|1949||Gerald Caldecott Anthony|
Two old houses (Nos. 226 and 228 Gray's Inn Road) remain south of
Calthorpe Street. At the northern corner of the latter, No. 240, and Nos.
242–250 are of early 19th century date, No. 244 having an early shopfront,
flanked by wood columns, placed between two doorways.
CIII—Gray's Inn Road. East side, Nos. 254–294 (even numbers)
St. Andrew's Gardens. These lie north of Wren (formerly Wells)
Street, the land being purchased by the Church of St. Andrew, Holborn
as a Burial Ground under an Act of 1747. (ref. 38) It was consecrated by the
Bishop of Chester on 3rd December, 1754, (ref. 39) and was deemed a part of the
parish of St. Andrew until 1900 when it reverted to St. Pancras. On the
ground (on its northern side) was built a church dedicated to the Holy Trinity,
which was dependent on the rectory of St. Andrew, Holborn. This church,
designed by (Sir) James Pennethorne, was erected in 1837, (fn. a) and consecrated
on 13th December, 1838. It seated 1,500 people. It was restored in 1880 and
re-opened in 1881. (ref. 40) During the 1914–18 war it was closed, but was in use
again about 1921 and finally closed in 1928. (ref. 41) The parish is now united
with St. George the Martyr, Queen Square. The drawing by Mr. F. A.
Evans, on this page, which is based on a photograph in the possession of the
late verger of the church, Mr. Jackson of Holsworthy Square, gives details
of the interesting brick front facing Gray's Inn Road. The following were
|1838||James William Worthington|
|1879||Henry Wilfrid Blunt|
|1920||Arthur Hope Hope-Smith|
Holy Trinity Church Gray's Inn Road. Drawing by F.A. Evans (London County Council)
In 1872 Dr. J. W. Worthington, incumbent of Holy Trinity Church,
obtained an Act (ref. 42) enabling him to erect a school on the ground formerly
occupied by the lodge. When Prospect Terrace Schools were built in 1882
the old building was disused and was subsequently let. (ref. 39) In 1885, interments
having ceased, a faculty was procured for laying out the grounds as a garden. (ref. 39)
A strip of land ten feet wide running the whole length of the south side was
added at this time. A granite drinking fountain was presented by Emily
To this burial ground were removed the bones of Thomas Chatterton,
the poet, together with those of the paupers interred in the Shoe Lane
Workhouse graveyard. (ref. 39) Among others buried here were Sir Robert Burke,
senior Bencher of Gray's Inn; William Russell (1813), organist to the
Foundling Hospital; Richard Jones (1792), treasurer of the adjoining
Welsh Charity School, and Abigail (1855), wife of the Rev. J. W. Worthington, first incumbent of Holy Trinity Church. (fn. a)
Immediately north of St. Andrew's Gardens stood the Welsh Charity
School, founded in 1718 for clothing and educating poor children of Welsh
parents. From 1737 to 1772 it occupied a house on the north side of Clerkenwell Green. In the last mentioned year it was moved to Gray's Inn Road. (ref. 43)
Its buildings are shown in a drawing by T. Hosmer Shepherd in 1850
(Plate 54), where the house appears as a four-storeyed building with the badge
of the Prince of Wales (its patron) over the clock, and the school building
standing forward as a substantial wing on the right. The plan is shown clearly
on Tompson's map of St. Pancras (Plate 3). The land—1 acre 3 poles, part
of Middle Field, St. Pancras, and abutting north on Cotterell's Close, west on
the road from Gray's Inn Lane to the Pindar of Wakefield, east on Black
Mary's Bridge and the grounds adjoining, and south on St. Andrew's
Burial Ground (ref. 44) —was leased by Sir Henry Gough in May, 1771, to David
Humphrey, treasurer and the trustees of the school. The site had been
previously in the tenure of Daniel Harrison. In 1772 the field to the north
is described as a brickfield in the tenure of Ann Harrison. (ref. 45) The charity
moved in July, 1857, to Ashford, near Staines. (ref. 43)
North of the Welsh Charity School lay the barracks of the Light
Horse Volunteers of London and Westminster. The site was leased to Colonel
Charles Herries by George, Lord Calthorpe in 1812. (ref. 46) The buildings passed
in 1830 (ref. 47) to Thomas and George Seddon, cabinet makers and upholsterers,
and later to the Royal Free Hospital (founded in 1828) which received a lease
from Lord Calthorpe in 1863. (ref. 48) The frontage is in two parts, the southern
(Eastman Dental Clinic) is modern, but the northern (Sussex) wing with a
classical treatment including a pediment was built in 1855–56. Messrs.
Holland & Hannan and Cubitt's works adjoin the hospital on the north, and
beyond them the following houses date back to the early 19th century:
Nos. 270–272, Nos. 274 and 276, at the south and north corners of
Ampton Street (the upper storeys of which are plastered), Nos. 278,
282–292, and No. 294 at the north corner of Frederick Street. No. 280 is
Calthorpe Street was named after Lord Calthorpe, the owner of the
estate. From the parish rate books it appears that the section between Gray's
Inn Road and Gough Street was built gradually between 1821 and 1826.
The section east of Gough Street was built between 1842 and 1849.
The street is numbered from west to east, the odd numbers on the
north side and even on the south.
Nos. 18–22 Calthorpe Street, elevations, Drawing by A. R. Hansen (London County Council)
Nos. 1 to 21, from Gray's Inn Road to Gough Street, are of stock
brick with basements and railed areas, ground storeys with round-headed
doorways and windows, and two storeys above, having a moulded stucco or
stone cornice and an attic storey. The first floor windows mostly have
lowered sills and balconies.
Nos. 6 to 24 on the south side are similar, but the first floor sills are
not lowered and there are no balconies. At first floor level is a plain plastered
string course. No. 10 is illustrated in Plate 58b and Nos. 18–22 above, where
the Gothic interlacing of the sash-bars in the windows is shown.
The two sides east of Gough Street, up to Pakenham Street on
the north side and Phænix Place on the south, differ from those already
mentioned, and are treated as integral designs for the whole length, excepting
the corner house, No. 26, on the south side, which is of the same type as the
houses west of it, but modified on the ground storey.
Nos. 28, 30 and 32 have channel-jointed stucco to the basements and
ground storeys. Steps lead up to the square-headed entrances. There are
two storeys above of stock brick, the top having been rebuilt. The first
floor windows are embellished with stucco architraves and pediments, and
have balconies; the second floor windows have architraves only.
Groups Nos. 36, 38 and 40, and 44, 46 and 48 on the south side, and
Nos. 23, 25 and 27, 31, 33 and 35, and 39, 41 and 43, on the north side
repeat this design. No. 23 is at the corner of Gough Street and has a roundheaded side door in that street; it is also rounded in plan at the angle where
there was formerly a doorway. The houses between these groups, Nos. 34,
42, 29 and 37, are similar in the basement and ground floor but have roundheaded windows with architraves to the first and second floors, and moulded
The same group design is repeated in Nos. 45, 47 and 49, east of
the junction with Pakenham Street; No. 45, now derelict, has its squareheaded doorway in Pakenham Street. East of No. 49 are No. 51 (mid-19th
century building, now a factory) and Rowton House at the corner of King's
Pakenham Street, which opens from the north side of Calthorpe
Street and connects it with Cubitt Street, retains fifteen houses on its east side
(Nos. 4 to 18). They are of two storeys and basement, arranged in five
groups of three houses, with channelled stucco below, and brick to the first
floor. The upper windows have cornices and each central pair of windows
has pediments in addition.
CV—Wren Street (formerly Wells Street)
Wren Street lies immediately south of St. Andrew's Burial Ground
and connects Gray's Inn Road with Pakenham Street. It was formerly called
Wells Street because there was a path there to Bagnigge Wells, but it lies
mainly on the site of the old Blue Lion. The street dates from 1824 when the
first three houses on the south side at its west end were built. In 1830 these
had increased to nine. The part east of Gough Street was completed by
The houses on the south side are numbered 2 to 10, from west to
east; the last house at the corner of Gough Street is demolished. They are
of three storeys in brick with basements, and some have mansard roof attics in
addition. The doors are arched and the first floor windows have balconies.
No. 6 is set back slightly from the face and is lowered to meet the gradient of
the street. No. 4 has later rusticated stucco to its entrance.
East of Gough Street, Nos. 11 to 20 have stucco basements and
ground floors and only one upper storey with a moulded cornice and windows
with architraves and pediments. The entrance to No. 11 is in Gough Street,
the front of which has blank windows. The frontage deflects southwards
between Nos. 15 and 16 but the line is kept in the ground floor by a wall,
standing free, with a pair of open arches leading to the flank doorways of
the two houses.
Ampton Street runs eastwards from Gray's Inn Road and at its
eastern end meets Cubitt (formerly Arthur) Street. It figures on the plan
accompanying the lease, dated
1835, from Lord Calthorpe
to Cubitt, who built Cubitt
Street in 1839. (ref. 43) Ampton
Street now incorporates Ampton Place. Rate book entries
show that Ampton Street was
built in 1821–27 and Ampton
Place in 1845–47.
Nos. 17 and 19, Ampton Street, elevations. Drawing by A.J. North (London County Council)
The street is numbered from east to west, odd
numbers on the south and
even on the north. Much of
it has been destroyed, especially the eastern part. Nos.
18 to 36 are partly brick and
partly stucco. On the south
side Nos. 1 to 9 were destroyed by bombs; Nos. 11 to
17, opposite the bombed area,
have been repaired. Nos. 19
to 39 are still standing and
among them is a group of
three houses (29 to 33) which
were of an interesting stucco
design (Plate 56). Each house
had an arched door and window in the ground floor, the window with interlacing sash-bars, and the two
upper floors were framed in pilasters with anthemion ornament in place of
capitals. Each floor had a single segmental-headed window, with good
balconies at first floor level. Each house had a separate cornice with a
shaped enriched parapet, which remained on No. 33. These houses have
now been stripped of their ornament and rendered in plain cement. Thomas
Carlyle lodged at No. 33 (then No. 4) in 1831 with a family named Mills
belonging to the Rev. Edward Irving's Presbyterian congregation of Regent
Square. He returned here in 1834 before moving to Chelsea. (ref. 49)
To the east of Ampton Street, in what is now Cubitt Street, stands
Ampton Chapel, formerly Arthur Street Church, a plain building of brick
with stucco dressings, which now serves as a non-denominational chapel and
This street occupied the northernmost part of the Calthorpe Estate
and connects Gray's Inn Road with King's Cross Road. Thomas Cubitt,
to whom the ground was let in 1823, (ref. 33) started building here in 1826, in
which year he built the first four houses at the west end of the south side. <Hermione Hobhouse has since shown that a portion of land which was developed as parts of Frederick Street, Ampton Street and Grays Inn Road was taken by Cubitt under an earlier agreement with Lord Calthorpe, of November 1815. See H. Hobhouse, Thomas Cubitt, Master Builder, 1971, pp.20-2 and p.497, note 1.>
Britton's map of 1834 shows both sides built nearly as far as Arthur
Cubitt evidently took some care in designing the houses, which show
an ingenious handling of brick and stucco. The houses are numbered from
east to west, odd numbers on the south and even on the north. Nos. 12 to 46
(east of which the buildings are demolished) form a composite symmetrical
design with few variations. Nos. 12, 18, 26, 34 and 40, each have channeljointed stucco to the basements and ground floors, with two upper floors of
smooth stucco with tall pilasters and a moulded cornice, beneath an attic
storey. The doors are square-headed. The intervening houses (in groups of
twos and threes) are of plain stucco, the same height and with the same
cornice, and having balconies at the first floor. Nos. 28–32 and Nos. 42–46
have round-arched doors, and windows to the ground floor and the upper
storeys are brick-faced.
West of these are three houses, Nos. 48, 50 and 52 (Plate 57) which
face the opening into Ampton (formerly Frederick) Place. They are of
stucco, with central projections, to which the cornice is confined, with large
first floor windows having elaborately roofed balconies with open ironwork
pilasters. The attic storeys had scrolled parapets, and the ground floor
doors and windows have semi-circular heads. (See the drawing, p. 65.)
Nos. 54 to 72 repeat the treatment of the houses east of this group with slight
On the south side No. 1, next King's Cross Road, has a mid-19th
century shop. Nos. 3 to 27 are all stucco fronted, with a bracketed cornice, the
first floor windows having architraves and pediments. No. 9 at the west
corner of Cubitt Street has a porch. Nos. 13, 23 and 31 (corner of Ampton
Place) have brick upper storeys and the last has a porch. From Ampton Place
to Gray's Inn Road there is a variation of the scheme used in Nos. 12–46.
The nine houses (Plate 55), Nos. 33 to 49, have three houses at each end with
paired pilasters and entablature embracing the two upper floors. The intermediate three have the entablature only. All have stucco ground and basement storeys with round-headed doors and windows and large balconies to
the first floor. The three houses at each end have large segmental-headed
windows to both upper floors, while those between have plain sash windows. The entablature has disappeared from Nos. 43 to 49. (See drawing,
Nos. 42–58 and 33–49, Frederick Street elevations. Drawing by A. J. North (London County Council)
Between the Fleet and King's Cross Road was a strip of unenclosed
land, "waste" of the manor of Cantlowes. Cubitt Street now runs where the
stream reached its greatest distance from the road. Northward the stream
met the road where Frederick Street joins King's Cross Road and at the
south it crossed Calthorpe Street near the Model Buildings.
The earliest record of any enclosure here is in 1665 when George
Touffie and Grace his wife were granted (ref. 50) a parcel of the waste not far from
the Pindar of Wakefield at Battle Bridge, containing from north to south
10 poles, from the footbridge to the field path leading to the Pindar of
Wakefield on the north of the said bridge, and containing from east to west
2½ poles from the stream adjoining the waste on the west part. A footpath
is clearly shown across "Acton Meadow" in Tompson's map (Plate 2)
but this appears to be too far north. The condition attached to this grant
is interesting, viz., "whereas George Touffie heretofore was accustomed to
burn bones upon the premises whereby not only the inhabitants of the
parish of St. James, Clerkenwell, but also those dwelling within the manor
aforesaid frequently complained that the burning of bones as aforesaid is
a common nuisance to the people of the lord King, greatly offensive to
them; if then the aforesaid George Touffie hereafter burn or cause to be
burnt any bones upon the premises granted by these presents to the common
annoyance of the king's people, then it shall be lawful for the Lord to
re-enter the premises." William Clarkson, who had acquired this property
in 1701, was presented at the manor court in 1704 (ref. 50) for encroaching on the
king's way at Black Mary's by digging a ditch there and planting trees.
Rocque's map of 1746 marks part of the roadway east of the Fleet
(later part of King's Cross Road) as Black Mary's Hole, but the actual well
from which the name was derived was east of the road in Clerkenwell. (ref. 51)
Thomas Hughes, described as a tobacconist of St. Andrew's Holborn,
acquired Clarkson's ground on the manor waste in 1757. (ref. 50) On the authority
of Dr. John Bevis, scientist and astronomer (1693–1771), he announced that
the well there had chalybeate and cathartic properties and he opened it to
the public in 1759. The place soon became a popular pleasure garden and
its amenities were increased when, a few years later, Hughes added to it
ground west of the Fleet on lease from Daniel Harrison.
In 1760 Dr. Bevis published An Experimental Inquiry concerning the
Contents, Qualities, and Medicinal Virtues of the two Mineral Waters lately discovered
at Bagnigge Wells, near London. He mentions that over one of the chimneypieces in the house was carved the Royal Arms, the Garter of St. George,
and also a bust of Eleanor Gwyn. The latter may have been the one said
to have been the work of Sir Peter Lely, (fn. a) but these adornments may of course
have been collected by Hughes to add to the interest of the place. It is worth
noting that beside these springs there were others which were said to have
the same properties at the back of Powys House, Great Ormond Street, St.
Chad's Well and St. Pancras Well, each within a half a mile of each other
and probably having a common source.
To add to the attractions of the gardens exhibitions by various
performers, including Thomas Topham the strong man, were arranged.
The gardens were furnished with seats and arbours; the Long Room had an
organ and was used for concerts. The original charges were threepence to
each person who drank the waters; the latter were also sold at eightpence
Whether Mr. Hughes personally managed the place at first is not
clear, but he leased it in 1762 (ref. 52) to John Davis of St. Pancras, vintner, who
was there for many years. This lease was surrendered in 1769 (ref. 52) for another,
in which it was described as—
A messuage and gardens called Bagnigge Wells "at Bagnalls Marsh
otherwise Bagnigge Marsh," in St. Pancras, with the coffee room and
women's garden and that part of the house adjoining to a messuage
then late in the possession of George Hall; and the springs and
purging "Chalybeat and other Mineral Waters," and the pump
room, brewhouse, cellars, etc.; also all that other "copyhold House
at Bagniggs called . . . Nell Gwins" with the mill and yard then
late in the occupation of Mr. Blisson, apothecary; and the garden
adjoining leased to Samuel Masters and opposite to the dwelling
house in the occupation of John Davis; and also ground, being part
of a brickfield belonging to Daniel Harrison, containing 3r. 4p.
12 yards, which was part of the east side of the brickfield, and on the
north, south and west was enclosed with posts, rails and pales and was
bounded on the east by a ditch called "the River Fleet or Turnmill
Brook, which runneth between the said Brickfield and other Ground
formerly called Bagnigge Marsh"; and all the other premises
demised on 20th June, 1769 (sic), by Daniel Harrison of Islington
to Thomas Hughes for 28 years, charged with a mortgage to Joseph
In 1784 Thomas Hughes died and his daughter, Sophia, wife of
Thomas Mallinson of Wendover, apothecary, succeeded under his will
subject to a mortgage to John Davis. John Clarke of Bagnigge Wells,
gentleman, grand-nephew and heir of Thomas Hughes, died in 1815 and
the trustees for his widow (then Jane Hodgkinson) surrendered the property
to William Grosvenor Wallis of Norwich. It was enfranchised in 1904.
John Davis died in 1793 and the gardens were subsequently under
the management of Thomas Salter, W. Stock, William Thorogood, Richard
Chapman, John Hamilton and a Mr. and Miss Foster. In 1813 the furniture
and garden fittings were sold by auction but the place was re-opened on a
smaller scale and was not finally closed until 1841.
As late as 1885 (ref. 50) the "springs and purging calybeate and other
mineral waters and a pump room" were mentioned in a mortgage of the
property. There is a stone (Plate 58a) fixed to the wall of a later building in
King's Cross Road (No. 61) beneath a keystone carved with a mask, with
THIS Is BAGNIGGE
THE PINDER A
The lettering has been re-cut and it is difficult to tell whether the
S. T. is correct or whether it was originally S. P. (i.e. St. Pancras).
During its heyday Bagnigge Wells was a favourite resort of London
citizens and is frequently referred to in contemporary satirical literature and
songs. There is a sepia drawing in the Crace Collection (Plate 61a) that gives
a good idea of its character. The print entitled "Mr. Deputy Dumpling and
Family enjoying a Summer Afternoon" (Plate 60) shows these worthy folk
about to enter the gardens. (fn. a)
Nearby stood the pottery works, shown on Plate 59b. Here were
made the chimney-pots that have been found in Doughty Street with the
name "Bagnigge Wells" impressed upon them.
CIX—King's Cross Road, West side, Nos. 1–103
The southern extremity of the waste of the manor of Cantlowes,
east of the Fleet river, lying between Pakenham Street on the north and the
parish boundary east and south, was occupied by Clarke's Place, 1–13 King's
Cross Road (now Rowton House) and Brooks Gardens. This property was
surrendered in 1758 by Mary Camden of Hornsey, widow, and her son
William Camden, citizen and clockmaker of London, to Bryan Philpot of
London, merchant. Thomas Philpot succeeded his father in 1759, when he
surrendered it to James Everest of Queen Square, St. George the Martyr.
Everest, by his will in 1765, bequeathed it to his wife Elizabeth, under the
description of a parcel of land whereon were standing 8 messuages. On her
death in 1797 it went to the three sisters of her late husband. It belonged to
these ladies and their numerous descendants in common, until in 1824 it was
acquired by William Rathbone of Upper Norton Street, Rathbone Place.
It was enfranchised in 1886. When leased (for 85 years) to William Thorogood the elder, of Bagnigge Wells, victualler, it was described as part of a
larger piece of copyhold land on the south-west side of Bagnigge Wells,
opposite the Union Tavern and tea gardens (at the corner of Baker Street),
leading from Clerkenwell Workhouse to Bagnigge Wells, in the manor of
Cantlowes, containing on the front abutting on Bagnigge Wells Road (now
King's Cross Road) 58 feet 5 inches, on the south-east side abutting on land
of the trustees for the county of Middlesex 112 feet 10 inches, then in an
oblique direction south-west 46 feet 1 inch, then in an oblique direction southwest 75 feet 10 inches, and on the south-west abutting on the river Fleet
35 feet 11 inches, and on the north-west side 170 feet 11 inches. (ref. 50)
Behind Clarke's Place is an unusual survival of a mid-19th century
alley called "Model Buildings," which figure in Edmund Daw's Map of
St. Pancras (1868). They consist of very small houses of two storeys, numbered 1 to 12 from north to south on the west side and 13 to 24 from south
to north on the east. They are of brick with rudimentary stucco pediments to
the doors and ground floor windows.
Between Calthorpe and Cubitt Streets only one of the old houses
(No. 27 King's Cross Road) survives. Further north are No. 45 (re-faced)
and Nos. 47 to 59 (odd numbers), which have basements and railed areas.
The ground floors are stucco-faced and the two upper storeys in brick, with
balconies to the first floor. No. 61 and No. 63 (which have the inscribed stone
referred to on page 68) are brick-faced, with basements and three storeys.
No. 71 is the only old house that remains north of this.