CHAPTER V. THE PRE-REFORMATION FURNITURE OF THE CHURCH. (fn. 1)
The following pages do not profess to give every reference in the
Records to the articles of furniture in St. Mary's church. Where
several references occur only those have been mentioned where the
use or description of the article is more or less clearly specified.
Altar leaves.—At p. 293 we find—
"paid for a peyre garnettes for the levys of the high alter
before the Images—iiij d."
Apparently these leaves swung to on 'garnettes' or hinges for the
protection of the figures or picture within.
Altar hangings.—The various 'haninges' mentioned in the
Inventory on pp. 52–3 probably refer to the curtains at the sides of
each altar, the curtain hanging above each altar at its back, and that
hanging immediately in front of each altar. The curtains of the high
altar are mentioned on p. 234. An altar frontal of St. Stephen's
chapel was ornamented 'withe the wavys of gold,' p. 316.
Altar stones or slabs.—p. 395.
Aumbries or wall cupboards.—Almery, p. 187.
Banner-staves.—In 1492–3 the wardens paid a penny each for
eight banner-staves, p. 186. Banner-poles are mentioned on p. 234.
Banners in Rood-loft.—p. 361.
Banners, Square.—Square banners are mentioned in the Inventory
of church goods on p. 31.
Barrels.—Barrels were apparently in use and also tubs at times
of consecration, or 'halloyng,' p. 250. The 'Chirche barels' are
alluded to on p. 214.
Basins.—Two basins, one of latten, the other pewter, are mentioned in the Inventory of 1553, p. 52.
The use of these basins is perhaps explained by the following
extract from a Will of 1456:—
"I begueth ij basins with ij Eures, of Syluer and parcel gilt
. . . . not only for to serue vpon the high autier of the same
chirch in high principal festis and other festiual daies, But
also to wassh in the handes of godfadres and godmoders at
cristenying of childern within the same chirch."—Somerset
House Wills, Stokton, 60 b.
Basket for Holy Bread.—p. 247.
Basket for dust.—In 1487–8, p. 131, the wardens record the
"to w. paris for his labour for a basket to bear in duste, iiij d."
Bedstead.—The bedstead was apparently for use somewhere in
the church, and probably for the Morrowmas priest, whose duty it
would be to say the first mass:—
"[a] Bedsted for the preistes chamber þat kepith þe first mas,"
The 'preistes chamber' would probably be over the porch.
The Bells.—There were six large bells in the church. In the
Inventory of 1553, p. 54, we read—
"in the steple v gret belles & one Santes bell,"
and almost the same words occur in the Inventory of 1496–7, p. 33,
where, however, it is added that—
"the iiijth great bell' was clere of þe gyfte of Ioh'n Duklyng,
ffysshmonger, as is graved vppon þe bell."
The sanctus bell would not be in use for ringing a peal. The five
bell-ringers are mentioned at p. 406. The payment to the bellringers for their labour is rarely mentioned, p. 350.
On p. 33 a silver bell, most probably the sacring bell, is mentioned, the gift of a Mrs. Julyan Roche. The sacring bell is alluded
to by name on p. 52.
On p. 131 the four little bells which tinkled on the canopy
borne over the Sacrament at the Corpus Christi procession find
On p. 131 the wardens record the purchase for fourteenpence of—
"a latyn bell' to go with' the sacrament,"
that is, to be carried before the Sacrament when borne to sick
At p. 273 is the record of a payment 'to the skryvener for makyng
of þe Indentures betwixt William Smyth, bell founder, and the
parissh.' Only the year previously William Smyth had been arrested
and the bells had been the subject of a law-suit, p. 270.
At the 'halowyng' of the bells in 1520–1 'two burdens of
rushes' were strewn beneath them, possibly for those present to
stand on, p. 310. But Canon Wordsworth writes:— "Is it not
more probable that they were strewn under the bell to receive the
washings of holy water, oil and salt with which the bell was
smeared all over?" Cp. Maskell Mon. Rit., i. 186.
In 1511–12 long boards were purchased to keep the bell ropes
from fraying against the walls of the steeple, p. 277. At p. 274
we find many details respecting the bells. On pages 273, 274, we
read, too, of money being paid a man for his 'labur & his brekefast,' in going from Ludgate to Aldgate 'to here þe iiijth bell in
Tewne,' and of expenses for wine and pears at Aldgate when
several parishioners went to see if 'Smythes bell were Tewneabill
Bell chrisoms are mentioned on p. 250, and grease for the bells
on p. 322.
Bench in Choir.—On p. 270 we find a reference to a bench in
Books for Service.—A sufficient but by no means large number
of service books were in use at St. Mary's. There were:—
|Breviary (portos)||" 173.|
|Epistle book||" 27.|
|Gospel book||" 54.|
|Mass books||" 27.|
|Sequence book||" 314.|
The church books were sometimes written in full by a priest,
p. 133; sometimes bought of a stationer, p. 101; sometimes words
and music added, and the book mended and rebound by a clerk of a
neighbouring parish, p. 131. In 1496 a stationer set the new feasts
in the books and repaired them generally, p. 226. Sometimes one
of the chantry priests repaired the books, p. 173; and sometimes the
repairs were executed by layfolk, p. 140; 'mowth glewe' appears to
have been used sometimes for the repairs, 350; some of the books
had clasps, p. 131; the mass book had two, p. 140. The 'organ
books,' p. 226, may have been special volumes containing the music
only of the services, but were more likely to have been copies of
ordinary service books: we know that the neighbouring church of
St. Margaret's in Fish street possessed a breviary for the organ.
The 'Caroll books,' p. 54, would probably be books of Carols for
Christmas time? The 'Song books,' p. 54, from the fact that
some of them are specified to have been used in the mass, were probably parts of ordinary service books specially arranged for singing.
The 'boke of playnsong of the offices off Ihesus Mas and our
ladys Massis for the children,' p. 349, would be only a selection from
the common service books. Several books were chained in the
chancel, p. 234.
In 1504–5 the wardens—
"payde to þe boke bynder at ledon halle, for coveryng, byndyng
& pesyng of iiij Antyfyners, a Masse boke, a manewell, a
legentt in ij foloms & iij graylys xlvj s viij d," p. 256.
The reference to "ye bok yat lith affore ye parishe pryste," p.
373, quite possibly, from the date of the entry, may refer to a copy
of the Bible ordered by authority.
The following reference at p. 378 is interesting, though what the
contents of the 'square bookes' may have been it is not easy to
"Paid to sir marke for carolles for cristmas and for v square
bookes—iij s iiij d."
The books were sometimes mended by the parish clerk. Michael
Green was parish clerk in 1529–30:—
"paid to Mighell grene for a quayre of papur Ryall for þe
prykked song boke and for mowth gleue," p. 350.
"paid to Mighell Grene for Mendyng of þe Antefoners that lye
in the quere that [were] torn and broken," p. 350.
In 1513–14 the sum of viij s was paid for—
"Coueryng newe & mendyng off xv bokes grete and Smale, &
for x Newe bosys for þe Newe Antefoner, & for clapsis and
Burdons," p. 286.
John Norfolk the organist appears in 1529–30 to have prepared
"prykkyd song bokes of the whiche v of them be with
Antemys and v with' Massis," p. 351.
The cowcher alluded to at p. 225 would be a large service book,
one large enough to generally lie or couch, an antiphoner, breviary,
or missal probably.
The Gospel book was a beautiful volume with (as was often the
case with this service book) substantial silver plates to the cover,
Branches.—Branches, apparently of iron or brass-work, were to
be found in different parts of the church:—'the braunche of þe
Trynite' is mentioned at p. 305; the branch of three flowers at p.
305; 'þe branche byfore þe rode,' p. 255; the branch before a
figure of the Virgin in the choir, p. 264; that before the representation of the Salutation in St. Katherine's chapel, p. 264; a 'braunche
of v,' p. 225.
Brooms.—These are often mentioned.
Candles, p. 322. Candles of 'talow' for 'dyvine seruise' are
mentioned at p. 81.
Candelsticks: the Judas.—The explanation of the 'Iudas' is very
clearly given in the accounts:—
"the Ivdas of the Pascall [candle] þat is to sey, the Tymbre that
the wax of þe pascall is drevyn vppon," p. 308.
But several 'Iudassis' are mentioned as in the rood loft on p. 309
Canon Wordsworth considers Judas to have been a generic term
for holders or savealls. See Wordsworth's Medieval Services, pp.
Candlesticks, hanging.—At p. 358 we read of the purchase of
"ij hangyng candylstykes for the quyre, v d."
Candlesticks, hand.—Two 'hand canstickes' are mentioned on
Candlesticks, bowls.—p. 163.
Candlesticks, skonses.—On p. 270, "iij plattes with nosis for þe
skonsis" are mentioned. Also at p. 333, "vj skonses for the queer."
Before the Reformation there were but few candlesticks on the
altars. An Inventory tells us that in 1496 there were—
"on the high auter ij gret Candylstykes & iij small. And on
sent Stephyns awter ij Candylstykes," p. 32.
The 'nosyng' of candlesticks is referred to on p. 243.
Canopies.—The canopy over the Sacrament, placed or borne, to
do honour to the Sacrament, took certainly two forms, possibly three.
First, would be the little covering within which the Sacrament in
its pyx would be suspended above the altar.
Secondly, would be the more elaborate and ample canopy, supported on staves which would be used in bearing the Sacrament in
procession. 'A canapye to bear ouer the Sacrament on corpus christi
daye,' p. 150.
The canopy, supported on four staves, is clearly referred to in the
"iiij Canipi staves with iiij Knoppes, gilt," p. 53.
They were apparently supported by leather thongs, such being
perhaps attached to the waist of each bearer, p. 301.
Thirdly, it is possible that a substantial projection extended
above the Sacrament from the east wall of the church; the following
note from p. 226 appears to refer to such:—
"the Iryn at the hye awter that beryth the canapye."
Canopy Crowns.—Crowns, apparently of latten, or mixture
largely of brass, were scoured in 1490–1, p. 163. The Inventory
on p. 31 refers to—
"a Canape for the pyx, of red velwett with iij Crownys of
Censers.—At p. 51 the Inventory of 1553 records the presence
of two heavy silver censers. There are various other references to
these articles in our text.
Chairs.—Two chairs of iron for the rectors of the choir are
mentioned in the Inventory on p. 31. At p. 351 the mending of a
chair is recorded.
Chalices.—There were several chalices belonging to the church,
pages 26, 53, etc.
Chest for Documents.—On p. 27 the Inventory of 1431 records
the presence of a "cheste with evydens"; and at p. 304 we read of
"þe chest wherin the wrytinges lyeth, in the Revestry."
Chest for Easter Sepulchre.—The Inventory of 1553 mentions—
"Item, more, in the Roud loft; a long Chist with the fframe
of the Sepvllev[r?] in yt," p. 53.
The Easter Sepulchre chest was a wooden box into which it was
customary at Easter to place the pyx containing the Sacrament.
Chest for Plate.—In 1494–5 the wardens paid threepence for—
"j key for the Iuell' Chest," p. 215.
Chest for Torches.—In 1477–9 the wardens paid threepence for—
"a nywe key to the Chest that the torchis be in," p. 81.
Chest, Tresory.—'ij keyes for the tresory chest in the vestry,'
Chest for Vestments.—A vestment chest is mentioned on p. 230.
Chest for Wax.—On p. 278 is a reference to—
"a chest in the quere to ley in olde wax."
Chest for Linen.—Mentioned on p. 317.
Chest for Tunicles and Chasubles.—Mentioned on p. 303.
Church Box, p. 273.
Cloth of hair for the High Altar.—A hair-cloth was (commonly?)
placed over an altar slab:—
"for iiij yerdes heer for þe hye Awter," p. 256; also p. 394.
Cloths, Altar.—Pages 32 and 35 contain a long list of the altar
cloths of St. Mary's. One appears to have been pictorial, several
bore the initials of the donor. At p. 272 we see that money was
paid for 'markyng' as well as 'makyng' altar cloths, the marking
probably consisting of the initials of a donor or some form of
Cloth, Cross.—The banner hung on the processional cross at
Easter and other festivals:—
"small corde for the Crosse Cloth," p. 234.
Cloth for the Easter Sepulchre.—The Inventory on p. 51 refers
to this cloth.
Cloth for the Font.—The Inventories mention two font clothes,
one of red silk, the other of gold, p. 54.
Cloth for the Holy Bread.—The holy bread was bread distributed
in the church, but not that of the Communion. On p. 35 the holy
bread cloth is described as having a fringe and marked with 'k' and
'v' in red silk. The letters were probably the initials of the donor.
Cloths, Housling.—With the exception of a reference to "ij sacrament clothes," on p. 369, the housling cloths are not directly mentioned
in our Records, but the long 'towelles' noted in the Inventory on
p. 33 were probably used as housling cloths, or long cloths suspended
before the communicants during the reception of the communion.
The following extract perhaps proves such:—
"I bequeth to the said chirch of seint Dunstone a dyapre
towell of xv yardis in lenght to serue ther at the housling
tyme of the parisshoners there."—Somerset House Wills,
Milles, 265 a.
At p. 36 of our text we read of a towel marked with white thread
'lyke ij Trewlovis.'
Cloths for Cross Staves.—In the Inventory of 1496–7 we meet
with the item—
"iij crosse stavys clothes, gyldyd, with Images of golde," p. 31.
Possibly these cloths depended from transverse staves hanging from
the tops of poles. We read of 'baner clothes of steyned werke,'
Cloths, painted.—Painted cloths are mentioned at p. 388.
Cloth for the Pyx.—The pyx cloth was that of the pyx or box
containing the holy sacrament. The pyx commonly hung suspended
above the high altar: 'the pix cloth ouer the alter,' p. 331. Two of
great beauty are described in the Inventory at p. 31.
Cloth before the Rood.—The Inventory of 1553 mentions—
"a painted Cloth yat did hang before ye Roud," p. 54.
Cloths, Tabernacle.—p. 230.
'Clothes of the Tower.'—Such cloths are mentioned at p. 381,
and appear to have been in use on Palm Sunday. The context
seems to indicate that these cloths formed some part of the scenery
in connexion with the stage for the Prophets, but the matter is far
Coffer, Money.—"The mony cofur within the plate chest in þe
vpper vestry," p. 331.
Coffer for relics.—A little coffer for relics is mentioned on p. 26.
Corporas.—A corporas is mentioned in the Inventory on p. 33,
and the washing of seven corporases on p. 350.
Corporas Case.—A beautiful corporas case given by Elizabeth
Gooswell is mentioned in the Inventory of 1496–7, p. 31.
Cruets.—Cruets for the altars are mentioned on pp. 214, 381;
two of silver are referred to at p. 26; and those of the high altar at
Crismatories.—A silver crismatory weighing fifteen ounces is
mentioned in the Inventory on p. 51. In 1535–6, p. 369, xij d was
"paid ffor burnysshyng of the Crysmatory." This little vessel
contained the holy oils.
Cross, the Mustenaunce, p. 101.—Dr. Cox suggested the reading
monstrance cross. This is clearly right, ' the crose of the monestere,'
St. A. Hubbard's MSS., leaf 40.
Cross, the Berrell.—pages 305, 361.
Cross, Processional.—On p. 101 the churchwardens record the
expenditure of money—
"for mendyng of the crosse that is borne abowte euery day."
Cross Staves.—Two metal cross staves are mentioned in the
Inventory on p. 32.
Crosses on the Super-altars.—On p.198 the wardens record
the payment of fourpence—
"for makyng of the crossys on þe superaltarys."
Curtain rings and hooks.—On p. 131 the wardens record the
"xxxij Corteyn Rynges and hookes to henge the clothe for the
But many curtains were suspended from rings on iron rods.
Cushions.—Cushions of down, two of them silk and two fustian,
are mentioned in the Inventory on p. 33. Probably they supported
the mass book on the altar.
Desk.—A desk of laton is mentioned on p. 32; a 'doble deske,'
Desks, Choir.—The mending of the desks in the choir is noted
on p. 243. A 'longe Deske' was purchased for the choir in 1523–4,
p. 323. Also two more the next year, p. 327.
Desk for Books.—In the Vestry, p. 233.
Desk, Organ.—p. 317.
Discipline Rods.—In 1492–3 twopence was paid by the wardens
"dyssplyng Roddys," p. 185.
The entry occurs also again at p. 269, but on no other occasion; the
demand does not appear to have been excessive.
Dish for the Paschal Candlestick.—In 1426–7 the wardens
"for a dysch' of peuter for þe Paskall," p. 64.
Dishes for Censers.—In 1428–9 the wardens paid two shillings
"ij disches of iron for sensers," p. 70.
Dishes for the Rood Light.—Two dishes, "belongyng to the
Rode-lyghte," were purchased in 1504–5, p. 255.
Easter Sepulchre.—As has been noticed elsewhere the Easter
sepulchre was a wooden box to contain the holy Sacrament at Easter.
The nails for it, and the payment to a carpenter to set it up are
mentioned on p. 281. At p. 301, 'iiij Angelles,' belonging either to
the box or its resting-place, are mentioned.
Figures and Images.—There were various figures in the church
of St. Mary. One, of 'Our Lady of Pity,' namely, a figure of the
Virgin with the dead Christ on her lap, is mentioned at p. 226.
Other images were set up near the choir door, p. 359. Another
figure of the Virgin stood in the choir, before which tapers were
sometimes kept burning, p. 233. Somewhere on the south side of
the church were the figures of St. Thomas Becket and St. Nicholas,
Fire-Pan.—Mentioned at p. 230.
Flags.—'ffor flaggis and garlondis,' p. 100.
Font-Cover.—The making of a cover for the font is recorded on
Font, Lock.—Two locks for the font are mentioned on p. 70.
Form, in the Choir.—'The fourme in the quere' is mentioned on
Frontal altar shelf.—In the Inventory at p. 30 we read:—
"Item, a frontell' for the schelffe standyng on the alter, of blue
sarsenet with bryddes of golde" (golden birds).
And some of the many altar-hangings in our Inventories without
doubt refer to frontals.
Glass, painted.—Of the painted glass windows of the church
the subjects of only three can be indicated, namely, that of St. John
on the north side of the church, p. 313; that of the Seven Works of
Mercy, p. 19; and that of the Trinity, p. 252. Both of the latter
windows were in the south aisle. In 1525–6 the Trinity window was
mended, p. 332.
Some, if not all, of the pieces of glass of the Trinity window were
of the well-known lozenge or diamond shape, for on p. 313 we have
the entry of money paid:—
"for settyng in of xxiij newe quarrelles in the wyndowe of
the Trynyte, whiche was blown downe with the wynde."
Gloves.—The two following extracts are not only unusual, but in
conflict to some extent with each other. In the first it will be noticed
that the gloves were purchased for a churchwarden and parish
"paid for Glouys at Estur for the chirchwarden and þe
clerk, vj d," p. 326.
But at the rendering of the accounts for the year the following
Memorandum was inserted:—
"Item, more, for that was paid at Estur for ij peyre of gloves
for the chirchewardens, the Summa of vj d which shal not
be for no presedent hereafter, vj d," p. 330.
Hassocks.—Two hassocks are mentioned on p. 131 as having
been purchased for St. Thomas's chapel.
Holy-water stoups.—The vessels containing holy water were
apparently of two kinds—stone and metal: that of stone, probably
situated at an entrance to the church, is referred to on p. 69:—
"Also payd to Appulby for heweng of þe haly water stop, iij s."
The metal stoups or pots are referred to in the Inventory on
Holy water Sprinklers.—The purchase of sprinklers is occasionally recorded in the accounts of the churchwardens, p. 101.
Keys: for the Pyx.—p. 237; roodloft, 117.
Ladle.—'A gret laddyll' apparently in use at consecrations or
'halloyngs,' p. 250.
Lamp and its glasses.—Two "lampe glassis ffor the church,"
p. 340: 'a lampe with oyle in the quere & high Chauncell . . . to
brenne alwey, as wele on Dayes as on nyghtes, before the blessed
Sacrament,' p. 17.
Lamp basin.—The 'basen for the lamp' is mentioned at p. 281.
Lantern.—In 1479–81 sixpence was paid for mending "the
churche lanterne," p. 100. At p. 290 we have the entry: "Paid
for makyng of ij poleys of Iron for þe lanterne—xvj d."
Lectern in Roodloft.—At p. 243 we find money expended—
"ffor makyng of a lectorne in the Roodlofte."
Lectern, Eagle.—At p. 243 the 'skowryng of the Egull' of laton'
Leystoff.—At p. 382 we find the entry:—
"Payed for the mendyng of the leystoff—iiij d."
Our Records contain no mention of a bier, neither, apparently, do any
of the MSS. of other city churches contain any mention of a preReformation bier. And this is remarkable when we bear in mind
the fact that in the Middle Ages the bier was a very important
article of church furniture, when, as was commonly the case, the
body was merely enshrouded and thus borne to the grave without a
Is it possible that the leystoff above mentioned was the parish
Mats.—Mats were in use in different parts of the church. One
was in the confession pew, p. 198. On p. 81 we read of the expenditure of fourpence—
"for iij mattis of wikirs, boght for prestis and clerkis."
Under the little paragraph dealing with choristers several extracts
have been given recording the purchase of mats and matting for
choristers to stand on.
Money Box.—The church money box with its three keys in
different hands is often mentioned, p. 291.
Monstrance.—The Monstrance or little metal altar cross, in the
centre of which the Host was placed for demonstration to the
congregation, is occasionally referred to in our accounts. For instance
on p. 233:—
"Item, for mendyng of the monstyr for the Sacrament, xvj d."
Oil pots.—On p. 101 mention is made of "a stone potte to put
in oyle," and at p. 358, "ij pottes to fett oyle in, j d." Probably,
Canon Wordsworth thinks, from the Maundy Thursday blessing of
oils by the bishop.
The Organs.—There were apparently two organs in St. Mary's,
though the term 'pair of organs' is the common medieval designation
of one instrument. In our Inventory of 1553 one organ is mentioned
as being larger than the other, p. 54; and on p. 278 we meet with a
reference to 'the little organs in the choir.' In 1532–3 the organ
was tuned, xij d being paid for 'tuenyng of ye pipis,' p. 361. On
p. 373 the purchase of 'ij quylles ffor the organs' is recorded.
Padlock.—"a key to a hangyng loke in the Roud loufte," p. 173.
Palls, or Burying Cloths.—Several burying cloths are mentioned
in the Inventory on p. 53:—
"a bvring clothe a govld & blacke velvet."
"an ovld bvring Cloth for Chilldren, with a Crvcifix in ye
Patens.—Patens are mentioned on p. 53. The paten was a little
circular dish or plate for the priest's bread used in the communion.
Canon Wordsworth adds—"The Pyx or ciborium or a chalice was
used for taking the hosts to the communicants."
Paxes (for kissing).—Three paxes of silver and gilt are mentioned
on p. 26, and the pax for the high altar on p. 359.
The Pews.—It was customary for many years before the Reformation for parishioners to have pews allocated to them, though
apparently nothing was then paid for the privilege. Mrs. Maskall
and Mrs. Overay sat in a particular pew in 1496, p. 225; another
lady, 'Mastres Atclyffe,' in another pew, p. 198; and later on the
pews used by various people are more or less frequently alluded
to:—The alderman's pew, p. 255; Mrs. Russell's maid's pew, p.
328; Mrs. Roche's maiden's pew, Mr. Roche's pew, etc., p. 323;
Mrs. Potter's pew, p. 365. There were special pews for the poor
people, p. 215, pews for men, p. 251, and for women, p. 252. One
pew, containing a mat, was used for confessions, 'shrevyng,' p. 198;
one was known as the 'great pew,' p. 252.
The pews were in various parts of the church,—at the west end,
p. 264, next the pulpit, p. 266, in the south aisle, p. 252, in the
body of the church, p. 219, at the north door, p. 215, and also in
the chapels, pp. 252, 255. They had doors, p. 173, and perhaps
were not unlike those of fifty years ago. They were in no sense
mere benches, for the distinction between pews and benches is
drawn clearly on p. 215. The pews had a wooden flooring, p. 252,
and sometimes an elm board on which to kneel, p. 225. Rushes
were strewn on the floors of the pews, p. 254.
Apparently the division of the sexes was maintained in the city
churches before the Reformation. See Division of the Sexes, p. li.
Pillows.—Besides cushions the church owned—
"vij pelewes of selk of diuers colours," Inventory of 1431, p. 27.
These pillows probably supported the mass book on the altar.
Plates with spikes for candles, p. 270.
Poles.—Iron poles for the lantern are mentioned at p. 290, and
a pole belonging to the cloth of a figure of the Assumption is
alluded to at p. 266. The 'poles for the Sacrament,' mentioned on
p. 347, were probably two of the four sustaining the canopy borne over
the Sacrament. The following reference is not particularly clear;
possibly the pole had a broom at the end of it:—
"a poole to swepe the chirch' Roffe, price iiij d," p. 148.
Portatyffis.—In 1526–7 the wardens—
"Rec' of the Orgon Maker for þe olde portatyffis in þe quere,
xxvj s viij d," p. 341.
Canon Wordsworth adds, 'small organs, I suppose moved about
like our harmoniums.'
The Pulpit.—In 1503–4 a new pulpit was made. The complete
account of its cost will be found at p. 251. The pulpit was of
wood, was fixed to one of the pillars of the church, and was
approached by a ladder, p. 277.
Pyx.—The Inventories record the presence of several pyxes to
contain the sacred wafer:—
"a pix of Sillver, wayyig viij oz," p. 51.
One of the pyxes belonging to St. Mary's was evidently a very beautiful little work of art with a representation of the crucifixion, p. 244.
Pyx pulley, p. 347.—This pulley would be for the rope or cord
to run over, to raise and lower the pyx containing the sacred wafer,
that pyx being suspended above the high altar.
Pyx Plum.—The plum of lead, p. 304, to act as a counterpoise to
the weight of the suspended pyx, p. 407.
Pyx Rope.—p. 347.
Rods.—Reeds or Rods to light the candles with are mentioned on
"Payd for ij Reddys to lythe Canddyllys vythe."
Rood.—The great Rood, or Crucifix with its attendant figures of
Mary and John, will be found fully described in our text at pp. 224,
228. It appears to have been erected 1496–8, the old Rood being
sold 1509–10, p. 271.
Rushes (for pews).—See Pews.
Sconces.—'vj skonces for the queer, viij d,' p. 333.
Scoop.—A 'skop' apparently in use at consecration or 'halloyng,'
Settles.—There were several settles in the church, and they
seem to have been very similar to the ordinary settle of to-day, with
the lower part made to form a box or chest. On p. 53 we find
that there were two in the choir, each with a locker, another before
the choir, and two long ones in the southern part of the church, 'in
the which we were wont to pvt our torchis,' that is, the torches were
kept in the box under the seat.
Ships.—The ship was a little vessel which contained the incense
from which the censer was filled. On p. 197 the pretty term
'saylyng pece' is used. Two silver ships are mentioned on p. 26.
The term 'sauce boat' is in common use to-day.
Shovel.—Shovels of apparently three different kinds are mentioned in our accounts: a 'shode shovyll,' p. 243, for the church; a
fire shovel for the vestry, p. 332; 'colys to brenne in the vestrye,'
p. 225; and a paring shovel, p. 255, which, according to the
Dictionary, was used in the churchyard.
Snuffers.—Snuffers to snuff the candles with are mentioned on
Sockets.—Sockets of iron "in the Rode lofte to set in the baners,"
Spoons.—The Inventory of 1553 mentions the presence of "ij
shippes with ij spones of silluer," p. 51. The spoons were used to
spoon out the incense from the ship or incense boat to the censer.
Stalls in choir.—The stalls in the choir of St. Mary's were
probably somewhat more elaborate than ordinary seats. They were
newly built or repaired in 1427–8, in which year the accounts record
the expenditure of £12—
"for stalles in þe quere," p. 69.
Stools.—Two stools are mentioned in the Inventory on p. 53;
a choir stool costing 7s. 10d. on p. 69, and "ij stolys for the Rectours
in the quyre" on p. 358.
Streamers.—In the Inventory on p. 31 "viij smale stremers"
are mentioned. They apparently belonged to a canopy borne over
the Sacrament in procession, for in the Inventory of 1553 mention
is made of—
"a canipi cloth of Red bodkin with viij stremars," p. 51.
Tablet for the Bede Roll, p. 234.—Apparently the list of the
names of those to be prayed for in church. See Bede Roll, p. 51.
Tablet for the Ordering of the Choir.—p. 326. Apparently
a list of directions on a parchment fixed to a board.
Tablet, Font.—At. p. 275 we meet with a reference not easily
"Paid for settyng of the hoke þat the Table hangith on by
the ffownte—iiij d."
At p. 273 is also a reference to the iron work—
"to the Table by þe founte."
Tablet of the Trinity:—
"a gylt Table of the Trynete for to sett on the high' Aulter,"
Table in Vestry:—
"Item, payd for a table & a payr [of] trestellis to stand in the
vestry, to ley the copis apon in festyvall' days—ij s," p. 100.
Tapers, Round.—Round tapers are mentioned on p. 149.
Torch iron.—'a crokid Iron to pike torchis withall, iij d,' p. 343.
Torches.—Torches are often mentioned. They appear to have
been employed on special occasions, and were apparently kept in
stock by the wardens and let out to burn at funerals, the hire being
so much. See page 366, etc.
Torches, Staff.—Staff torches appear to have been those used at
the altar step:—
"iij staf torches of wex to hold at the levacion," p. 361.
In other words, to burn at the elevation of the Sacrament. At p.
364 we find the entry:—
"iiij staff torches ffor the highe awter."
Towels.—St. Mary's appears to have been especially rich in
towels. Towels "to wype on handes" are mentioned on p. 27.
Pages 33, 34 contain a long list of towels.
Trestles.—In 1492–3 a pair of trestles were purchased, p. 185,
and in 1519–20 five trestles were made, p. 306.
Tubs.—Apparently these tubs were in use at the time of consecration, or 'halloyng,' p. 250. They belonged to the church,
Veils for Lent.—The chancel veil for Lent is noticed on p. 343.
Vestments.—An interesting bill for the repair of vestments will
be found at p. 150.
Albs.—Several albs are mentioned in the Inventory on p. 31,
six for children on p. 33. Altar cloths and towels were at
times made out of old albs, p. 273.
Alb girdles.—See pp. 31, 251.
Almuces.—Almuces, or furry capes for the two rectors of the
choir, are probably indicated in the reference to the purchase
of 'Greyes skynnes' on p. 358.
Amices.—Several amices are mentioned at p. 31.
Chasubles.—See p. 31.
Copes.—Copes of various designs are described at p. 31; also
six for children. On p. 51 eight children's copes are mentioned. Some of the copes, probably all connected with the
Cambridge Chantry, were ornamented with the armorial
bearings of William Cambridge, p. 256.
Fanons.—These articles are mentioned in the Inventory of
1496–7, p. 31.
Mitre.—The mitre referred to at pp. 27, 31 was probably that
worn by a chorister on St. Nicholas's Day, at which time it
was customary in most churches for a child to be arrayed in
diminutive episcopal vestments:—
"a Myter for a bysshop at seint Nicholas tyde," p. 31.
Rochets.—Seven rochets for children are mentioned in the Inventory at p. 33; and nearly the same number on p. 238:—
"Item, to Margeret Sotton ffor the makyng off vj Rochettes
ffor Chelderne to were in the quyre, xij d."
Stoles.—Stoles are mentioned in the Inventory on p. 31.
Surplices.—Surplices are often referred to. On p. 33 the
Inventory mentions eight—
"for the quere, of þe whiche ij haue no slevys."
The surplice was similar to the ample garment in use in the
English Church to-day, and was worn by the parson, p. 282;
the parish priest, p. 266; the clerk, p. 173; the Sexton,
p. 260; and the choirmen and boys, p. 321. The boy
choristers, as has been noted, wore rochets in the choir,
p. 238; and albs, 244.
Tunicles.—The Inventories tell us of several tunicles, p. 31.
Waterpot.—At p. 333 a "pewtur pott for watur for the preistes"
Wheelbarrow.—The church wheelbarrow is occasionally referred
to, as, for instance, at p. 269.
Window for the Sacrament.—p. 406, for lepers?
Wire for the Roodloft.—At p. 370 a wire and two staples for
the Roodloft are mentioned.