Inquisitions
1 Elizabeth I (1558-9)

Sponsor

Centre for Metropolitan History

Publication

Author

G.S. Fry (editor)

Year published

1896

Pages

168-191

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'Inquisitions: 1 Elizabeth I (1558-9)', Abstracts of Inquisitiones Post Mortem for the City of London: Part 1 (1896), pp. 168-191. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=65878 Date accessed: 30 September 2014.


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Alvered Michell, gentleman.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 17 February, 1 Elizabeth [1559], before Thomas Legh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Alvered Michell, gent., by the death of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Shirlock, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Davis, John Jackson, Andrew Kemp, Robert Davy, William Swaynson, Henry Calles, Guy a Wode, Walter Mekyns, William Dent, Thomas Poplewell, Edward Hoye and Michell Smyth, who say that

Alvered Michell was seised of 3 messuages in the parish of the Blessed Mary the Virgin commonly called St. Mary Spyttell, within the liberty of the City of London, in the several tenures of Christopher Keyes, William Hechyn and — Isam; and 1 messuage called the Stewe in the parish of St. Michael at Quenehithe.

So seised, the said Alvered made his will 8 October, 1557, as follows [here given in English]:—

To Marion, my wife, for term of her life my house at Warneham wherein I now dwell, with all the lands and tenements thereto belonging, for her jointure.

Whereas I have sold to Raufe Daulton my lands and tenements at Okewood, in the parish of Abinger, co. Surrey, which I bought with the money made of the sale of my wife's lands and for which I have received in part payment £40: I now will the same to my said wife and her heirs for ever.

I will that Edward Dartnall shall make an estate of the lands and tenements which I bought of him lying at Ichyngefeld, co. Sussex, in the tenure of Richard Fystes, to Marion, my wife, and John, my son, and to the heirs of the said John for ever.

Also I will that Nicholas Wild shall convey the 3 houses lying at the Spittell without Bushoppesgate which I bought of him to the said Marion and John and to the heirs of the said John for ever.

I give to the said Marion all my lands lying at Quenehyth called the Hott Howse, which I bought of one Hilles, for her life, and after her decease to my said son John and his heirs for ever.

To my brother, Roger Mychell, my lease in the manor of Hope, parcel of Mr. Shelley's lands; also an annuity of £5, which I have during my Lord North's life out of the manor of Pontesbury in [co. Salop], with the arrearages amounting to £25, on condition that he pay to Master Clerk, of whom I bought the same, as much money as is in arrear for the same.

I give to Marion, my wife, for 21 years my manor of Homydon in the county of Bedford; afterwards the same to remain to my said son John and his heirs for ever.

To the said John my lease and term of years in the parsonage of Howghton and the profits thereof. If my wife die before the said John attain the age of 21, then I will that my overseers take all the said premises which I have given to my said wife for her life into their hands, to the intent that with the issues thereof they shall pay to the daughters of my cousin John Michell of Stammerham, lately deceased, £126 each, at their several ages of 14 years.

I make Marion Michell, now my wife, executrix, and Richard Adams, William Scott, John Welshe and Thomas Michell, junior, supervisors.

The 3 messuages in the parish of St. Mary Spittell are held of the Queen in chief, by the service of the 20th part of a knight's fee, and are worth per ann., clear, £12. The messuage called the Stewe in the said parish of St. Michael at Quenehithe is held of the Queen in chief by knight's service . . . . and is worth per ann., clear, £6.

Alvered Michell died 17 December last past; John Michell is his son and next heir, and is now aged 2 years 11 months and 3 days.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 75.

Thomas Lewen.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 7 October, 1 Elizabeth [1559], before . . . . . and escheator, after the death of Thomas [Lewen] . . . . by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Davys, Henry Robertes, Thomas Dewxall, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kemp, Robert Danbye . . . Walter Mekyns, Michael Smith and Edward Hoye, who say that

Thomas Lewen, who was a citizen and freeman of London, was seised of 1 large capital messuage lying in the parish of St. Nicholas Olave in Bredstrete, in the ward of Quenehith, London; also of 14 messuages in Bredstreet, in the said parish, in the several tenures of . . . Thomas Byrchall, "iremonger," Robert Postell, tallowchandler, Christopher Thorneton, "cordener," Walter Rake, turnor, John Bullocke, fishmonger, Thomas Barlowe, Be . . . tallowchandler, Richard Partryche, "iremonger," Emma More, widow, and Thomas Acreck, chaplain, sometime belonging to the late Monastery of the Blessed Mary the Virgin in Sawtry, co. Huntingdon.

So seised, the said Thomas Lewen made his will . . . 55, and thereby bequeathed the said premises to Agnes his wife (who still survives), for her life, and afterwards to the Master, Wardens and Communalty of the Mystery of the Ironmongers of the City of London for ever.

The said premises are held of the Queen in chief by the service . . . and are worth per ann., clear, £30 9s. 4d.

Thomas Lewen died in the said parish of St. Nicholas Olave . . June, 1 and 2 Philip and Mary [1555]; James Duffield, Henry Todde, George Gerard, David Moptyd and Margaret East are his kinsmen and next heirs; to wit, the said James Duffield as son of Agnes, one of the daughters and coheirs of William Lewen, brother of the said Thomas Lewen; Henry Todde as son of Joan, another of the daughters and coheirs of the said William Lewen; George Gerard as son of Murielle [?], another of the daughters of the said William Lewen; David Moptyd as son of Thomasine, another daughter of the said William Lewen; and the said Margaret Easte as daughter of the said William Lewen. The said James Duffield was then aged xx . . the said Henry Todde 22 years and more, the said George Gerrard 24 years and more, the said David Moptyd . . . and more, and the said Margaret East 24 years and more.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 76.

[Part of this inq. is torn right away, and there is no duplicate.]

William Cooke, esquire.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 4 February, 1 Elizabeth [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of William Cooke, esq., by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Davys, Thomas Dewxall, John Jakson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danbye, William Swaynson, Henry Callys, Guy Awood, Thomas Popelwell, Walter Mekyns, William Dent, Edward Hoye, Michael Smith and Robert Shurlocke, who say that

Before the death of the said William Cooke, one William Wylde, citizen and merchant tailor of London, was seised of 1 messuage newly built, with a garden and orchard on the west and south parts thereof, lying within the precinct of the late Monastery or Priory of the New Hospital or Hospital of the Blessed Mary without Bisshopsgate, London, where lately the house called the Posterne was situated in the parish of St. Botolph without Bisshopsgate; and 1 messuage with a cellar and garden in the tenure of William Kayme, gent., situate within the precinct of the said late Monastery towards the cross in the cemetery there, together with the ground (solo) and land adjoining the south part of the said tenement, extending to the "middes" of a certain ground (soli) there, where 4 elms grow, or used to grow.

So seised, the said William Wylde, by deed dated 20 August, 3 Edward VI [1549], granted all the said premises to William Pawnsett, William Petre of London, gentlemen, Thomas Ackwoorth and Richard Robynson, citizens and merchant-tailors of London, to hold to them and their heirs for ever, to the use of the said William Wilde for his natural life; and after his decease, then to the use of William Cooke, gent., Doctor of Laws, and Mary his wife, daughter of the said William Wilde, and the heirs of the said Mary; and for default of such heirs, to the use of the right heirs of the said William Wylde for ever.

William Wylde died in the parish of St. Gregory in the ward of Baynards Castell [date not given]. All the said premises are held of the Queen in chief by the service of the 20th part of a knight's fee, and are worth per ann., clear, 20 marks.

William Cooke died 25 August, 5 and 6 Philip and Mary [1558]; William Cooke is his son and next heir, and was then aged 14 years and more.

The said Mary Cooke still survives.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 77.

Helen Cleyton, widow.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 21 October, 1 Elizabeth [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Helen Cleyton, widow, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Henry Roberts, Robert Shurlocke, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Davys, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danbye, William Swanson, Henry Callis, Guy Awood, Walter Mekyns, Thomas Poplewell and Michael Smith, who say that

Long before the death of the said Helen Cleyton one Thomas Cleydon, citizen and baker of London, was seised of the tenement called the Sonne, situate in the parish of the Blessed Mary at Hill next Billingsgate, London, to wit, between the land and tenement called the Baskett now or late in the tenure of the Fraternity of the Grocers, London, on the east, the lane called St. Mary Hill Lane on the west, the land and tenement sometime of the Abbot of the Monastery of Waltham on the north, and the lands and tenement lately belonging to the College of Pomfrett on the south: which said tenement called the Sonne Edward Cornewaleys, gent., by charter dated 12 January, 28 Henry VIII [1539], granted to the said Thomas Cleyton and his heirs for ever.

So seised, the said Thomas Cleyton, by deed dated 24 July, 1550, granted the said tenement to Benedict Jackson and Richard Adams, citizens and "Boochers" of London, and to their heirs for ever, to the use of the said Thomas Cleyton and Helen Sponer of London, widow, late the wife of John Sponer, citizen and butcher of London, deceased, and before the wife of William Burninghill, late citizen and draper of London, also deceased, for their lives; and after their decease, to the use of Cicilie Eimis, daughter of the said Helen and William Burminghill, and late the wife of William Eymis, citizen and draper of London, and to the heirs of the said Cicilie for ever.

The said tenement is held of the Queen by fealty only, and is worth per ann., clear, 53s. 4d.

The said Helen survived the said Thomas and died 12 August, 1558; the said Cecilia, late the wife of the said William Eymys, and now the wife of Thomas Bowes, is her daughter and next heir, and is now aged 26 years and more.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 78.

John Machell.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 21 October, 1 Elizabeth [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor, and James Talke, esq., escheator, after the death of John Machell, citizen and haberdasher of London, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Davys, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Shurlocke, Henry Roberts, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danby, William Swanson, Henry Callys, Guy A Wood, Walter Mekyns, Thomas Popelwell and Michael Smythe, who say that

John Machell was seised of 12 messuages, 2 rooms, and 4 gardens in Warwyck Lane, in a place there called Warwyck Inne, in the parish of Christchurch within Newgate, in the City of London; 1 messuage in Fleetstrete within the gate of the late House of the Carmelite Brethren there; 2 messuages situate at Lugate Hill and in the Olde Bayly in the parish of St. Martin within Ludgate; 1 messuage and 2 cottages situate near London Wall, in the parish of St. Alphage in the ward of Crepulgate; and 1 cottage and 14 gardens in the parish of St. Sepulchre, London, in a place there called Turmellstrete.

So seised, the said John Machell made his will 6 February, 1558, whereby he bequeathed to Margaret, his wife, in full recompence of her dower, the messuage situate within the Great Gate of the late White Friars (fratrū albor[z]), in the tenure of Michael Aleson, with the shop thereof, extending to the highway, in the tenure of the said John Machell, 1 tenement at Ludgate Hill in the tenure of Thomas Edlyn, cutler, 1 other tenement adjoining on the north part of the last mentioned messuage, in the tenure of Lodowick Barbor, 1 messuage and garden within Warwick Inne, in the tenure of Master Boogyn, gent., and 1 tenement in the tenure of Robert Cooper, to hold for her life. The residue of all his lands and tenements he bequeathed to the said Margaret until John, his son, should attain his age of 24 years: out of which lands testator willed that his said wife should give to his said son £10 yearly, to find for him an exhibition at one of the Universities, and to his daughter Alice £40 on her marriage day.

After the said legacies had been paid the said John Machell, senior, gave all the said premises to his said son John and his heirs; and for default, he gave to Thomas Machell, his brother, the premises lying at London Wall near Moore Gate, then of the yearly value of £5: to hold to him and his heirs male for ever. Testator willed the residue of all the premises, for default of issue of his said son John, to remain to the said Alice at her age of 24, and to her heirs; for default, then the same to remain to Margaret, his wife, for her life, with remainder after her decease to the said Thomas Machell, his brother, and his heirs male for ever.

The said Margaret to be executrix.

The said premises in Warwyke Lane are held of the Queen by socage, as of her manor of Nonsoche, co. Surrey, by fealty only and not in chief. The messuage in Fleetstreet is held of the Queen in free socage, by fealty only and not in chief. The 2 messuages at Ludgate Hill and in the Old Bayly are held of the Queen by fealty only, in free burgage and not in chief. The premises near London Wall are held of the Master and Scholars of the College of Eyton, co. Berks, by fealty only and the yearly rent of 18d. The said cottage and 14 gardens are held of the Queen in socage, by fealty only and not in chief. All the said premises are worth per ann., clear, £46 14s. 8d.

John Machell died 23 February last past; John Machell is his son and next heir, and is now aged 14 years and more. The said Margaret Machell still survives in Fleetstreet.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 79.

Thomas Carter.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 17 January, 1 Elizabeth [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Thomas Carter, citizen and fishmonger of London, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Shurlocke, Thomas Dewyall, Robert Davyes, Robert Lee, Robert Danbye, Andrew Kempe, Henry Callys, Guy a Woode, William Dent, Edward Hoye, William Swanson, Walter Mekyns, Thomas Popelwell and Michael Smith, who say that

Long before the death of the said Thomas, King Henry VIII was seised of 1 messuage and tenement in the tenure of William Hamcottes, sometime belonging to the late Priory of the Blessed Mary Overy, co. Surrey, lying in the parish of St. Magnus, London, near London Bridge, between the gate called Oystergate on the east, and another tenement belonging to the said Priory, wherein Robert Hardington lately dwelt, on the west part; and the messuage in the said parish of St. Magnus, late in the tenure of Christopher Bussher, also belonging to the said late Priory.

So seised, his Majesty, by Letters Patent dated at Westminster 21 April, in the 35 (?) year of his reign [1544 ?], granted the said premises to the said Thomas Carter and his heirs for ever.

Afterwards, to wit, on 13 September, 1556, the said Thomas Carter made his will as follows:—

I give to Robert Carter, my cousin, my messuage called the White Lion, lying in Thamystrete in the said parish of St. Magnus: to hold to him and his heirs male; for default, to Joan, now his wife, for her natural life; the remainder after her death to Richard Carter, son of my brother Walter Carter, and to his heirs male; and for default, to the Master, Wardens and Fellowship of the Company of Fishmongers of London and to their successors for ever.

I also give to the said Richard Carter my messuage called the Christopher, situate in Thamystrete in the said parish of St. Magnus: to hold to him and his heirs male; for default, the remainder thereof to my said cousin Robert Carter and his heirs male; for default, the remainder thereof to the said Company of Fishmongers for ever. Provided always that my said cousins or the said Master pay yearly to Margaret Carter, my wife, £6 out of the rents of the said messuage called the White Lion, and £4 yearly out of the said tenement called the Christopher during her natural life.

If the said premises come into the hands of the said Company of Fishmongers, then I will that the Master thereof pay yearly for ever to the Hospital of Christ Church, London, the sum of £5 for the "fyndynge" of the poor children there; and also yearly for ever £4 to one poor scholar within St. "Jones" College, Cambridge, where Master Lever was student, but the same shall not be paid to any scholar having more than £4 in exhibitions by any other means.

I will that the said Margaret while she remains sole shall enjoy all such parts of the said messuage called the White Lion as are now reserved to me, with free ingress and regress.

All the said premises are held of the Queen in chief by the service of the 40th part of a knight's fee, and are worth per ann., clear, £10.

Thomas Carter died 5 September, 5 and 6 Philip and Mary [1558]; John Pemerton, son and heir of Ede Pemerton, one of the daughters and heirs of John Carter, brother and heir of the said Thomas Carter, and Anne Waller, another of the daughters and heirs of the said John Carter, are his next heirs: the said John was then aged 13 years, and the said Anne 21 years and more.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 80.

Henry Mynge.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 16 December, 1 Elizabeth [1558], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Henry Mynge, late citizen and grocer of London, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, Robert Davies, Robert Shurlocke, Thomas Dewxall, Richard Adams, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danbye, William Swaunson, Henry Callys, Guy A Wood, Thomas Poplewell, William Dent, Walter Mekyns, Michael Smith, Edward Hoye and John Haddon, who say that

Before the death of the said Henry Mynge, Thomas Franke, gent., and Mary, his wife, were seised in right of the said Mary of all those messuages, tenements, shops, cellars, warehouses, lands, wastes and curtilages lying in Buckelersbury in the parish of St. Stephen in Walbrooke, London, then in the tenure of the said Henry, abutting upon the tenements then in the several tenures of John Howe and John Bull, citizens and grocers of London, on the south and the messuage called the . . . ffydle on the west; one head of the said messuages abbutted upon the high street called Bucklersbury and upon the tenements of the said John Howe and John Bulle towards the north, and the other head upon the large messuage wherein Joan Waren, widow, then dwelt, and certain rooms, buildings and waste lands in the tenure of John Hudson, citizen and grocer of London, towards the south.

So seised, the said Thomas and Mary, by indenture of sale dated 24 May, 4 and 5 Philip and Mary [1558], made between themselves of the one part, and the said Henry Mynge and Elizabeth, his wife, of the other part, sold the said premises to the said Henry and Elizabeth and their heirs for ever: which said premises Roger Warfelde and John Hudson, citizens and grocers of London, afterwards recovered against the said Henry Mynge and Elizabeth, to the use of the said Henry and Elizabeth and their heirs.

After the death of the said Henry, the said Roger Warfeld and John Hudson by indenture of release remised all their right in the said premises to the said Elizabeth for her life, with remainder after her death to the right heirs of the said Henry Mynge for ever.

The said premises are held of the Queen in chief by knight's service, but by what part of a knight's fee is not known, and by the yearly rent of 10s. 8d., and are worth per ann., clear, £5 21d.

Henry Mynge died 14 August last past; Anthony Mynge is his son and next heir, and was aged 3 years on the 28th day of October last past.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 81.

Christopher Alee.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 27 October, 1 Elizabeth [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Christopher Alee, citizen and cutler of London, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, Henry Roberts, John Haddon, Robert Daveys, Thomas Shurlocke . . . . . Robert Dawnby, William Swanson, Henry Callis, Guy A Wood, Walter Mekyns, Thomas Poplewell and Michael Smith, who say that

Christopher Alee was seised of 1 messuage in Fletestrete wherein he lately dwelt; 1 messuage wherein Roger Young now lives; 1 messuage in Fletestrete in the tenure of Martin Allen, lying between the buildings called the sign of the Legge and the White Hart, and 6 messuages in Shoelane.

So seised, the said Christopher Alee made his will 25 October, 1558, whereby he bequeathed the said premises to John Alee, son and heir of Cuthbert Alee, of . . . cutler.

After the decease of A nne, my wife, I give to . . . Dunkyn, her daughter, and to her heirs for ever my house in Fleetstreet wherein I now dwell; if she die without issue, the remainder thereof to come to Richard Dunkene, my wife's eldest son, and to his heirs for ever; for default, the remainder thereof to descend to John Alee, son of Cuthbert Alee, cutler, whom I make my heir after the decease of Anne, my wife.

I give to Agnes Southwell, my wife's other daughter, and to her heirs for ever the house where Roger Young now lives; for default, the remainder thereof to Robert Dunken, my wife's other son, and his heirs for ever; and for default, the remainder thereof to the said John Alee, my heir.

To the said John Alee my godson, my house in Fletestreet wherein Marten Allen dwells, standing between the buildings called the Legge and the White Hart, where Roger Farren, cutler, dwells.

I give to the said John Sy . . . and the inheritance . . .; if he die before he come to his lawful age, I will that Joan Yonger, my brother's daughter, shall enjoy the said inheritance; if she die without issue, the same shall descend to Margaret Forde, sister of the said Joan, and her heirs; if both the said Joan and Margaret die without heirs, "as God defend," then the said inheritance to descend to Joan Susande, my sister's daughter, and her heirs for ever; for default, to George Harrison, citizen and cutler, and to his heirs for ever, who is the next of my blood and kindred.

All the said premises are held of the Queen, but by what service the jurors know not: the 2 messuages in Fletestreet are worth per ann., clear, £8; and the said messuage in the tenure of Martin Allen and the messuages in Shoelane are worth per ann., clear, £8 4s. 8d.

Christopher Alee died in the parish of St. Bridget in Fletestrete, 10 December, 1 Eliz. [1558]; John Alee, son and heir of Cuthbert Alee, son of John Alee, brother of the said Christopher, is his kinsman and next heir, and is now aged 10 years and more.

[One side of this Inquisition is torn right away.]

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 82.

Stephen Vaughan.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 16 December, 1 Eliz. [1558], before Thomas Leigh, Mayor and escheator, to enquire as to the age of Stephen Vaughan, son and heir of Stephen Vaughan, deceased, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Shurlock, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Davys, Richard Adams, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danbye, William Swaynson, Henry Callys, Guy A Wood, Thomas Poplewell, Walter Mekyns, William Dent, Michael Smith and Edward Hoye, who say that

The said Stephen was aged 21 years on the 4th day of October last past.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 83.

Thomas Woodward, idiot.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 11 February, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, to enquire as to the idiocy of Thomas Woodward, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Davys, Robert Shurlocke, Thomas Dewxall, Richard Adams, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Daunbye, William Swanson, Henry Callys, Guy A Wood, Thomas Popellwell, Walter Mekins, William Dent, Michael Smith and Edmond Hoye, who say that

Thomas Woodward has been an idiot from his birth and still is one, and is therefore quite incapable of governing either himself or his possessions.

And that Nicholas Woodward, father of the said Thomas, made his will 30 July, 1556, whereby he bequeathed to the said Thomas £20.

The said Nicholas was possessed of all the goods and chattels specified in a certain schedule to this inquisition annexed, which were valued at £236 13s. 7d. He made Margery, his wife, sole executrix.

According to the custom of the City of London the said Thomas Woodward ought to have had the third part of the said goods, but they have not been divided.

Thomas Woodward, son and heir of — Woodward, deceased, brother of the said Nicholas, is the kinsman and next heir of the said Thomas named in the writ, and is now aged 24 years and more.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 84.

Clement Kelingworth.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 17 January, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Clement Kelingworth, citizen and pewterer of London, by the oath of Thomas Lytlon, John Haddon, Robert Shurlocke, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Davys, Robert Lee, Robert Dawnbye, Andrew Kempe, Henry Callys, Guy Awood, William Dent, Edward Hoye, William Swanson, Waller Mekyns, Michael Smith and Thomas Popellwell, who say that

Before the death of Clement Kelingworth, George Vaughan, esq., was seised of all that messuage, tenement, and wharf situate at the Broken Wharf, in the parish of the Blessed Mary Somerset, London, between the house there which John Harrys lately held and the water of the Thames on the south part; the messuage and tenement called the Corner house, situate at the Broken Wharf in the said parish, late in the tenure of the said John Harrys; and all cellars, solars, shops, curtilages, etc., to the said premises belonging.

So seised, the said George, by charter dated 12 March, 5 Edward VI [1551], demised all the said premises to the said Clement Kelingworth and Agnes, his wife: to hold to them and their heirs for ever.

The said Clement survived the said Agnes, and on 3 October, 1558, made his will as follows [here given in English]:—

I give to Elizabeth, my wife, my 2 tenements and a wharf situate in the parish of St. Mary Somerset, in the ward of Quenehithe, which I purchased of George Vaughan, esq., in fee simple to me and my heirs for ever: to hold for her natural life; after her decease I give the same to John Kelyngworth, my son, and the heirs of his body; if he die without issue, leaving a wife, my will is that she shall enjoy the profits of the moiety of the said premises for her life; and for default of issue to the said John, I give all the said premises to the Mystery and Fellowship of the Pewterers of London and their successors for ever, they to distribute the profits thereof to the poor of the said Fellowship, "which be falen in decaye."

All the said premises are held of the Queen by the yearly rent of one red rose only, and are worth per ann., clear, £7 13s. 4d.

Clement Kelingworth died 21 November, 1 Eliz. [1558], in the parish of St. Mildred, London; John Kelingworth is his son and next heir, and was then aged 21 years and more.

The said Elizabeth still survives.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 85.

Thomas Pyke.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 27 October, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, escheator, after the death of Thomas Pyke, citizen and skinner of London, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Davys, Henry Roberts, Robert Shurlockc, Thomas Dewxall, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danbye, William Swanson, Henry Callys, Guy Awood, Walter Mekyns, Thomas Popellwell and Michael Smith, who say that Thomas Pyke was seised of 1 large messuage situate in and upon the Fresshe Wharffegate and beyond the said gate and wharf in the parish of St. Botolph, London, near the gate there called Billingesgate within the City of London, now or late in the tenure of Lancelot Harry son; 1 messuage in Sydon Lane, in the parish of St. Olave, London, now or late in the tenure of Mark Anthony Erizi; 1 messuage with stables in Sydon Lane, now or late in the tenure of Thomas Page; 1 messuage, together with 2 other messuages in Sydon Lane, now or late in the tenure of John Anthony Erizi; 1 other messuage in Sydon Lane, now or late in the tenure of — Eden; and 2 stables in Sydon Lane, now or late in the tenure of Christopher Draper, citizen and Alderman of London.

All the said premises are held of the Queen by fealty only, in free socage and not in chief: the large messuage is worth per ann., clear, £10; the messuage in the tenure of Mark Anthony Erizi, £8; the messuage with stables, £11 3s. 4d.; the messuage with 2 other messuages, £9; the messuage in the tenure of — Eden, 40s.; and the 2 stables, 20s.

Thomas Pyke died 29 September, 1 Eliz. [1559]; Christopher Pyke is his son and next heir, and was then aged 6 years and more.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 86.

William Forthe, esq.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 8 February, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of William Forthe, esq., by the oath of Thomas Lylton, John Haddon, Robert Shurloke, Thomas Dtwxall, Robert Davys, Richard Adams, John Jakson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danbye, William Swanson, Henry Callys, Guy A Woode, Thomas Poplewell, Walter Mekyns, William Dent, Michael Smyth and Edward Hoye, who say that

William Forthe was seised of 1 messuage, lately called the Crane and afterwards called the Greyhounde, and 2 messuages thereto adjoining, situate in the parish of St. Andrew next Christs Church, London, sometime belonging to the late Monastery of Byley, in Essex, now dissolved; and 1 messuage in the parish of Christs, late in the parish of St. Nicholas ad Macellas, London, now in the tenure of John Launde, butcher.

So seised, the said William Forthe made his will on the 1st day of March, 1 Mary [1554], [here given in English as follows]:—

I will that my executors shall receive 2 parts of the profits of all my manors, lands, and tenements in Butley, Byton, and Tangam, co. Suffolk, until my eldest son come to the age of 21; all the profits of all my lands held by copy of court roll of the manor of Hadley Aldam and Toppysfyld; 2 parts of all my free lands held of any of the same manors, for the term of 10 years next after my death; and 2 parts of all my lands and tenements lying in London and in Stratford Langthorn, Westham, Harwyche, and Colchester, co. Essex, towards the performance of this my will and the legacies therein given.

I make Elizabeth, now my wife, Thomas Albaster alias Alabaster, and Robert Forthe, my eldest son, executors.

The messuages in the parish of St. Andrew are held of the Queen in chief, by the service of the 20th part of a knight's fee, and are worth per annum, clear, 100s. The messuage in the parish of Christs is held of the Queen by fealty only, in free burgage, and is worth per annum, clear, 54s.

William Forthe died 17 December last past; Robert Forthe is his son and next heir, and is now aged 18 years 1 month and more.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 1, No. 87.

Anthony Bonvix.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 7 October, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Anthony Bonvix, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Henry Roberts, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Davyes, John Jakson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danby, William Swaynson, Henry Callis, Guy A Wood, Walter Mekyns, Michael Smyth and Edward Hoye, who say that

Anthony Bonvix was seised of 1 large messuage, now commonly called Crosbies Place, with a garden and all the houses, cellars, etc., thereto belonging, situate in Bisshopsgate Street, in the parish of St. Helens, London . . . lane in the said parish, which extends in length from the east gate of the said tenement up to the corner or south end of a certain small lane running north into the close of the late [Priory] . . . sgate of the City of London; 9 messuages in the said parish, 6 whereof are situate by the highway called Bysshoppesgate Street . . . of the said large messuage and the front of the belfry of the Church aforesaid belonging, and a certain messuage of the said 9 messuages which Katherine Catesbie, widow, sometime held . . . belfry aforesaid and the said 6 messuages annexed, together with a certain piece of waste land situate in the said parish, extending directly in length towards the east by the said . . . Katherine Catesbie formerly held from the outer part of the plate or post of the said belfry, abutting upon the north part of the said 6 messuages by the high street aforesaid in the cemetery there . . . and half of the assize, and thence extending in breadth towards the south direct to a certain tenement there, sometime in the tenure of Robert Smythe; and 2 messuages, residue of the said 9 messuages . . . are within the close of the said late Priory, 1 whereof was formerly in the tenure of John Crossebie, of the demise of Alice Woodhowse, sometime Prioress of the house or Church aforesaid, and the other in that of the said Robert Smythe; 1 other tenement or room situate in a certain alley . . of the said late Priory, built upon the larderhouse and the colehowse of the said large messuage called Crosbies Place, sometime in the tenure of Julian Frauncis.

So seised, the said Anthony Bonvix, by indenture dated 4 July, 1 Edward VI [1547], granted all the said premises to Richard Heywood and John Webbe, gentlemen, and their heirs, to the use of the said Anthony for his life; after his decease, to the use of Peter Growte, son of Andrew Growte, deceased, and his heirs; for default, to the use of Anthony Roper, son of William Roper, esq., and his heirs; for default, to the use of German Cioll and his heirs; and lastly for default, to the use of John Rither, esq., cofferer of the Household of King Edward VI, and to the heirs of the said John for ever.

All the said premises are held of the Queen in chief, by the service of the 40th part of a knight's fee and by the yearly rent of 3s. 8d., and are worth per ann., clear, £11 16s. 8d.

Anthony Bonvix died 7 December last past; Benedict Bonvix is his kinsman and next heir, to wit, son and heir of Martin Bonvix, brother of the said Anthony, and is now aged 30 years and more.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 2, No. 117.

George Broke, Lord Cobham.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 20 January, 1 Eliz. [1559], . . . after the death of George Broke, Lord Cobham, knight of the honorable Order of the Garter, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Shurlock, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Davys, Richard Adams, John Jakson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Dawby, William Swaynson, Henry Callys, Thomas Poplewell . . . Smyth and Edward Hoye, who say that

George Broke was seised of 1 capital messuage . . . situate within the precinct of the late Priory or House of the Preaching [Black ?] Friars [fratrū p[re]dicat'], of London next Ludgate, in the possession and occupation of the said George Broke; 1 large . . . capital mansion or messuage aforesaid; divers rooms lying under the large room of the said capital mansion sometime called the Porters lodge of the said Priory; all the rooms, kitchens, cellars, etc., lying within the said precincts, belonging to the said capital mansion; and 1 messuage and 1 . . . adjoining, lying within the walls of the said Priory, near the water of the Thames, sometime in the occupation of William Honning, gent.

So seised, the said George Lord Cobham made his will in London, 13 January, 4 and 5 Philip and Mary [1558], and thereby appointed that the said mansion and all other the premises lying within the precincts of the said late Priory of the Black Friars next Ludgate, by the names of all those lordships or manors of Wyecroft, Cha . . . Chardboroughe, Hurtham, Wolmyngton, Coteley, Holdyche, Mangerton, Mylplasshe, Blunteshaies, Stokewayles, Stagmore, Hornesbowe, Escroft, Lovehill, Bowdyche, Lyvenarshe, Okenhed, Kingeslyme, Brooke, Ivelchester, and South . . . alias Bowood, co? Somerset, Dorset, and Devon, and all other the lordships, manors, lands, and tenements lying as well within the vills and parishes aforesaid as within the vills or parishes of Powrestoke Ch . . . Marshehode Abbatistoke, Cudworthe, Churchestoke, Assheleigate, Clyve, Bowmers, and elsewhere within the said counties; all the lordships and manors of Culmeworthe, co. Bedford, Bynknott and Cheseburye, co. Wilts; Cobham called Cobham Hall with a park and wood land, house and other lands purchased in Cobham, Cuxston, and Luddysdon; the manor of Randall with one house late of a certain [sic] called Haw . . .; the manor of Okington with a wood thereto belonging, and the site and building with a house and garden within the Blackfryers, London: all which said premises extend to the clear yearly value of £362 11s. 4d. in possession, and are the 3rd part of all the possessions of the said George Lord Cobham and should descend to his heirs.

Testator bequeathed the lordships and manors of Coling, Beckley, Stroud, Temple, the hundred of Shamble, and the farm of Chatington, and the late College of Cobham, with divers manors, lands, and tenements thereto belonging at the dissolution thereof, extending to the clear yearly value of £279 12s. 7d., to the Lady Anne, then his wife, for her natural life.

Lord Cobham willed the manor of Bendyshall, in Essex, which he purchased of Lord Ryche, the lordship of Radwynter in the said county, the manors of Bury Courte and Westclyff alias Westclyff Courte, with the salt marshes, rents of assize, and lands late . . . in Clyff, co. Kent; the lordships of Shorne and Westhall Haydon Hayton, the farm of Raynscombe in Cuxston, the hundred of Hoo, and the wood and the land late Bewettes in Halftoo; also . . . of the late College of Maydston, and all the woods and lands late parcel of the possessions of the said College within the co. of Kent, extending to the clear yearly value of £435 14s. 3½d.; also the reversion of the said premises assured to the said Lady Anne for her jointure; and the reversion of the site and other lands and tenements specified in the said will, parcel of the late Monastery of Newynham, co. Bedford, to William Broke, knight, then his son and heir apparent: to hold for his natural life, with remainder to his firstborn son and his heirs.

The said capital mansion, the large hall thereto adjoining, the rooms called the Porters Lodge, and other the premises lying within the site of the said Priory to the said capital mansion belonging, are held of the Queen in free burgage by fealty only, and not in chief, and are worth per ann., clear, £5 3s. 4d. The messuage and garden late in the tenure of the said William Honyng are held of the Queen in chief, by the service of the . . part of a knight's fee, and are worth per ann., clear, 20s.

George Lord Cobham died 29 September, 5 and 6 Philip and Mary [1558]; William Broke, knight, now Lord Cobham, is his son and next heir, and is now aged 32 years and more.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 2, No. 118.

John Pyper, idiot.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 21 October, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, to prove the idiocy of John Pyper, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Davys, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Shurlocke, Henry Roberts, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danby, William Swanson, Henry Callis, Guy a Wood, Walter Mekyns, Thomas Poplewell and Michael Smith, who say that

John Pyper alias Jack Pyper, son and heir of John Pyper, late of Brightlingsey, co. Essex, mariner, from the time of his birth up to the present time has not been, nor is he now, an idiot, nor does he enjoy lucid intervals, but is quite capable of governing both himself and his lands, goods, and chattels.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 2, No. 119.

Robert Johnson, gentleman.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 19 August, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Robert Johnson, gent., by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Shurlock, Henry Roberts, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Davys, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danby, William Swanson, Henry Callys, Guy Awood, Walter Mekyns and Michael Smith, who say that

Before the death of the said Robert Johnson one Edward Barker, of Wansted, co. Essex, gent., was seised of all that messuage with a small tenement adjoining, with all cellars, buildings, yards, etc., thereto belonging, situate in Ivylane in the parish of St. Faiths, within the City of London, between a certain tenement of the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral Church of St. Pauls, London, late in the tenure of Dorothy Crooke, widow, late the wife of John Crooke, Doctor of Laws, Advocate General of the Court of Canterbury, deceased, on the east, the said street or place and the highway on the west, the tenement of the Minor Canons of the said Cathedral, now in the tenure of John Darrell, clerk, of London, on the north, and a certain other tenement of the said Dean and Chapter, now in the tenure of John White, citizen and draper of London, on the south, which sometime belonged to the late Monastery of St. Leonards of Stratford At Bowe, co. Middlesex.

So seised, the said Edward Barker, by deed dated 7 December, 1 Mary [1553], granted the said premises to the said Robert Johnson, by the name of Robert Johnson, of the City of London, gentleman, alias Robert Johnson, Proctor General of the Court of Arches, and Alice, his wife: to hold to them and their heirs for ever.

The said Alice died 16 April, 1556.

Afterwards, to wit, on the 28th day of October, 1558, the said Robert Johnson made his will as follows [here given in English]:—

I give to Peter Johnson, my eldest son, the house wherein I now dwell, with all the other houses thereto adjoining lying in Ivylane: to hold to him and his heirs upon condition that he allow Agnes, my wife, to dwell in the same during her widowhood.

The said premises are held of the Queen in chief by the service of the— part of a knight's fee, and are worth per ann., clear, 46s. 8d.

Robert Johnson died in the said parish of St. Faiths, 20 November, 1558; Peter Johnson is his son and next heir, and was then aged 22 years and more.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 2, No. 120.

Richard Hudson, innholder.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 20 July, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Richard Hudson, innholder, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Henry Robertes, Robert Davys, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danbye, William Swanson, Henry Callys, Walter Mekyns, Michael Smith, Robert Shurlocke and Guy Awood, who say that

Before the death of the said Richard Hudson, John Gates, esq. and Thomas Throgood were jointly seised of all that messuage commonly called the Swane, at Holborne bridge, with 2 gardens thereto belonging, situate in the parish of St. Sepulchre, now in the tenure of the said Richard, and all the buildings, cellars, stables, etc., thereto appertaining.

So seised, the said John Gates and Thomas Throgood, by deed dated 18 May, 37 Henry VIII [1545], granted the said premises to the said Richard Hudson, by the name of Richard Hudson of the parish of St. Sepulchre without Newgate, London, innholder, and Agnes, his wife: to hold to them and their heirs for ever.

Long before the death of the said Richard, Henry Brayne, citizen and merchant tailor of London, and John Marshe, of London, gent., were jointly seised of all that messuage and 1 stable and 1 garden, situate in the said parish of St. Sepulchres, next to the inn there called the Swane of the one part, and the tenement called the Spurrers house, sometime in the tenure of George Depuppe and now or late in the tenure of Thomas Clerke, citizen and mercer of London, formerly belonging to the late Monastery of Grays next the Tower of London, now dissolved.

So seised, the said Henry Brayne and John Marsshe, by deed dated 26 September, 37 Henry VIII [1545], granted the said premises to the said Richard Hudson and his heirs for ever.

The said tenement called the Swane, the 2 gardens thereto belonging, and the messuage with the stable and garden are held of the Queen by fealty only, and are worth per ann., clear, £13.

Richard Hudson died 9 December, 1 Eliz. [1558]; Richard Hudson is his son and next heir, and was then aged 12 years 11 months and 1 day.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 2, No. 121.

John Richemond.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 27 October, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of John Richemond, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Davys, Robert Shurlok, Thomas Dewxall, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danbye, William Swanson, Henry Callis, Guy a Wood, Walter Mekyns, Thomas Poplewell and Michael Smith, who say that

John Richemond, citizen and freeman of London, was seised of certain lands, tenements, and gardens called the Christopher Alley, situate in Secollane alias Secowlane in the parish of St. Edmund Sepulcher without Newgate.

So seised, the said John made his will in the parish of St. Peter at Cornhill, 14 July, 1559, and thereby bequeathed the said premises to the Master, Warden and brethren of the Guild of St. George, belonging to the mystery of the Armorers of the City of London: to hold to them and their successors for ever.

Of whom the said premises are held the jurors know not; they are worth per ann., clear, £9.

John Richemond died in the said parish of St. Peter Cornhill, 27 July, 1 Eliz. [1559]; Robert Richmond, son of Richard Richmond, brother of the said John, is his kinsman and next heir, and is now aged 36 years and more.

After the death of the said John, Roger Tyndall, Master, and Raphaell Metcalfe and John Rycard, wardens of the said Guild, entered into the said premises, and were thereof seised in their demesne as of fee.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 2, No. 122.

Nicholas Rickthorne.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 8 October, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Nicholas Rickthorne, by the oath of Thomas Lytlon, John Haddon, Henry Robertes, Thomas Dewxall, Robert Davys, John Jackson, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Danbye, William Swanson, Henry Callys, Guy a wood, Walter Mekyns, Michael Smith and Edward Hoye, who say that

Nicholas Rickthorne died 11 March, 1557, in the parish of St. Clements, London; Philip Rickthorne is his son and next heir, and was then aged 7 years and more.

The said Nicholas did not hold any lands, tenements, or hereditaments of the Queen in chief or otherwise immediately or of any others in demesne, use, reversion, or service within the City of London.

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 2, No. 123.

Robert Austen, grocer.

Inquisition taken at the Guildhall, 20 July, 1 Eliz. [1559], before Thomas Leigh, knight, Mayor and escheator, after the death of Robert Austen, citizen and grocer of London, by the oath of Thomas Lytton, John Haddon, Robert Shurlock, . . . Robert Davys, Robert Lee, Andrew Kempe, Robert Daunbye. William Swaneson, Henry Callys, Walter Mekyns, Michael Smith and Guy A [Wood], . . . who say that

Before the death of Robert Austen, King Henry VIII was seised of all that messuage now or late in the tenure of Falcon [Fulke] Garreison; 2 . . . situate in the olde Jure, in the tenure of the said Robert Austen; 1 messuage . . . in the tenure of William Smalwoode, with all the houses, shops, cellars, etc. with the said messuages demised—which said premises are in the parish of the Blessed Mary Colchurch and sometime belonged to the late Monastery of Chikesond, co. Bedford; also of 1 messuage in the Poltre, London, in the said parish of the Blessed Mary Colchurch, in the tenure of the said Robert Austen, sometime belonging to the late Priory of Shuldham, co. Norfolk; and 1 messuage now or late in the tenure of John Hardy, situate in the Poultre, between the lane called the Jure lane on the west and the highway on the south, sometime belonging to the said late Priory.

So seised, his Majesty, by Letters Patent dated at St. Albans, 15 November, in the 35th year of his reign [1543], granted the said premises to the said Robert Austen and his heirs for ever.

Long before the death of the said Robert, Christopher Jackson, citizen and glasier of London, was seised of 1 messuage in the tenure of Moore [Maurii] Davye, situate in the parish of St. Margaret in Lothbury; and so seised he, by charter dated 13 February, 5 Edward VI [1551], delivered the same to the said Robert Austen and his heirs for ever.

Robert Carr, gent., and John Almond were jointly seised before the death of the said Robert Austen of all that messuage called the Key; 1 tenement and garden to the said messuage adjoining; and all the shops, etc., thereto belonging, situate within the parish of St. Stephen in Colmanstreet, London, late in the tenure of the said Robert Austen, and late parcel of the lands and possessions founded [fundat] within the parish of the Blessed Mary Bothawe; the yearly rent of 2s. issuing out of 1 messuage in the parish of the Blessed Mary Colchurch; the yearly rent of 8s. 8d. issuing out of 1 messuage in the said parish of the Blessed Mary Colchurch, in the tenure of John Wendon; the yearly rent of 4s. issuing out of 2 messuages situate in the Olde Jurye, late in the tenure of the said Robert Austen; the yearly rent of 2s. issuing out of 1 messuage in the Olde Jurye, late in the tenure of William Smalwood; the yearly rent of 7s. 4d. issuing out of 1 messuage in the Poltrie, in the tenure of the said Robert Austen; the yearly rent of 5s. 4d. issuing out of 1 messuage in the tenure of John Hardie lying in the Poultrie, to wit, between the lane called . . . Jurye lane on the west and the highway on the south.

So seised, the said Robert Carre and John Almond, by indenture dated 16 July, 3 Edward VI [1549], sold the said premises to the said Robert Austen, to the sole use of him and his heirs for ever.

Afterwards, to wit, 6 January, 1558, the said Robert Austen made his will as follows [here given in English]:—

I give to Robert Austen, my eldest son, all the messuages in the several tenures of Walter Garraway, Fulke Garretson, Roger Baker, and William Gybbons, lying in the parish of St. Mary Colchurch, except the corner messuage now in the tenure of Godfrey Hisborde: to hold to the said Robert and his heirs; for default, the same to remain to Richard, my son, and his heirs; for default, to Elizabeth and Dorkes, my daughters, and to their heirs; and for default, to Robert Hobbye and Grace, his wife, and the heirs of the said Grace for ever.

I give to Richard, my son, the large messuage wherein I now dwell in the parish of St. Steven in Colmanstreet, London; my messuage called the Black Sw . . . in Lothburye, and all other my messuages, stables, etc. in the said parish of St. Steven, except the messuage late in the tenure of Symon Croxon, given by me to the said Grace Hobbye and her heirs: to hold to him and his heirs; for default, the same to remain to Robert, my son, and his heirs; for default

[Here the Inquisition ends, the second membrane being wanting.]

Inq. p.m., 1 Elizabeth, p. 3, No. 120.