Pembroke College. Barry of ten pieces argent and azure an orle of martlets gules (for Valence) halved with gules three pales vair a chief or with a label of five points azure (for St. Pol).
Pembroke College reckons its
foundation from Christmas Eve 1347 when Edward III granted a mortmain licence to Mary de
St. Pol, Countess of Pembroke. She named it the
College, House, or Hall of Valence Marie, but it was
at once commonly called Pembroke Hall, in French
documents la Salle de Pembroc, and Pembroke Hall
it remained until the 1830's. The foundress was the
daughter of Guy V, Count of St. Pol, of the ancient
house of Châtillon-sur-Marne (Marne) (fn. 1) , and was
descended through her mother, Mary of Brittany,
from Henry III. Born about 1304, she married in
1321 Aymer de Valence, grandson of Hugh de Lusignan, second
husband of Isabel of Angoulême,
formerly wife of Henry III.
Aymer died in 1324 and his
widow, left immensely rich,
turned to religion and good
works. She had already been
attracted to St. Francis, witness
the space devoted to him in her
Breviary, (fn. 2) written about 1320
in the Paris workshop of Jean
Pucelle. (fn. 3) In it is a conventional
figure of her kneeling before St.
Cecily, but no real portrait is
known. Naturally she took an
interest in the house of Minoresses at Waterbeach, founded by
her aunt, Denise de Munchensi, in 1293, (fn. 4) and ultimately about 1342 she transferred it, maybe rather
high-handedly, to Denney. (fn. 5) Perhaps her dealings
with Denney brought Cambridge to her notice, and
by 1342 she must have decided to make a foundation
there, for in September of that year she bought the
first strip of the College site, the messuage of Hervey
de Stanton, Rector of Elm, probably the nephew of
the founder of Michaelhouse; it lay outside the
King's Ditch and ran northwards along it. The
foundress's confessors had been Franciscans, and
perhaps it is due to one of them that she at first
followed the Lady Devorguilla in what would seem
to be a Parisian arrangement, giving authority in her
College to two external rectors, in each case one a
Franciscan and one a secular. A Franciscan Robert
de Stanton died at Avignon on College business in
1359. Perhaps he was a rector, but as will be shown
the arrangement of rectors did not last.
Site and Buildings.
In 1351 the College
acquired a hostel to the south, given to the University before 1279 by Sir Roger de Heydon.
Apparently this was a free gift from the University
to the College, which was only required to provide
a chaplain to pray for Roger's soul, pay certain small
dues, and render a rose on St. John Baptist's day.
The layout of the foundress's court resulted from
the shape of these two strips. Now the fellows could
be accommodated in the hostel and the foundress
could think about building the chapel. Her first
statutes had contemplated the possibility of an
annexed church and she had acquired rights over
St. Botolph, but by 5 June 1353 she had given up the
idea and ceded the church to Gonville Hall, (fn. 6) and
Gonville passed it on to Corpus Christi. Innocent VI
granted the College licence of oratory in their chapel
on 23 March 1355. (fn. 7)
There was only room for a court, much as it is seen
in Loggan, about 150 by 100 ft. outside, and 90 by
45 ft. inside, always to be the smallest court in the
University, but carefully arranged to contain all the
parts of a College; the west front with the chapel
gable and window, and a smaller window and gable
to balance it; between them the only 14th-century
College entrance still in situ, and two staircases with
chambers; along the north a chapel 60 ft. long, a
staircase with chambers, a buttery with treasury or
muniment room over, the kitchen with offices, a hall (fn. 8)
48 feet from north to south, the through passage
not yet screened off; at the south-east corner the
Master's chamber approached by a turret stair ingeniously contrived to give access every way; finally
the now vanished south range of chambers to complete the court. The hall probably had the usual open
roof. The windows as shown by Loggan seem transitional from Decorated to Perpendicular; so does
the piscina, the only relic of the old chapel, now set
in the new sanctuary. The date of all this must be
before 1370, just after the bull of Urban V, allowing
chapel and belfry. The base of the belfry and its
little window survive in a first-floor room that had
an opening into the chapel. It is difficult to distinguish between oratories and chapels, but probably
no college in Oxford or Cambridge, except Merton
with its parish church, had a real chapel and exercised in it full rights of saying mass as early as this.
It is doubtful whether there was a properly
planned quadrangular court. The College was
brought to it by the need for fitting a real chapel into
such a confined space, at right angles to the front on
a street running north and south. This meant putting hall at right angles to chapel; on the whole this
is the Cambridge arrangement, whereas to have the
hall east and west like the chapel is commoner at
Oxford, where the main streets run east and west.
The foundress no doubt watched over her College
during her life. In 1363 she bought one more bit of
land, 'an acre of meadow between walls'. This with
three roods added in 1401 forms the bowling-green
with the orchards at each end of it. The Countess of
Pembroke died in March 1376, and bequeathed to
the college 100 marks and various relics and ornaments. At the foundation she had acquired, with
papal licence, the rectories and advowsons of Tilney
and Saxthorpe (Norf.) and Waresley (Hunts.). (fn. 9) The
only Cambridgeshire property was a house at Burwell, at the south end of the village, sold in 1926.
There were also rent charges issuing from Repton
(Derb.) and Whissendine (Rut.). The next task of
the College was to acquire land to the south of its
court: Cosyn's Place, Bolton's Place, St. Thomas's
Hostel, still on lease from St. John's in 1954, a strip
belonging to a chantry in St. Mary the Less, finally
in the 18th-century Crossings Place; so that in the
end it had all the space between the main streets and
a lane running from nearly opposite Free School
Lane to Trumpington Street by Peterhouse Lodge.
It was a great moment when the College could close
this lane in 1620 and have direct access to the garden
on the east. North of the walled garden was Paschal
Yard or Close, acquired on lease in 1609 and bought
in 1833; the south part of the garden was bought at
various times up to 1861. The College made Tennis
Court Road in 1620 along its eastern boundary.
Little is known of Pembroke in its first 60 years, even the order of Masters
being disputed. Books were given by the canonist
William Styburd, (fn. 10) a fellow in the time of the first
Master, and by John Tynmouth, Master, (fn. 11) an
executor of the will of the foundress. In Tynmouth's
time William Botlesham, Bishop of Rochester, the
first of many episcopal alumni, was in residence.
John Sudbury, Master 1406–28, died in College as
a 'pensioner' or lodger. One of his books, Ezechiel
Glossatus, has one of the rare Romanesque bindings.
According to a note preserved by Matthew Wren
there were in 1412 nine fellows and one boy.
William Lyndewode, fellow and Bishop of St.
David's, was the compiler of the Provinciale, which
is still authoritative. With Robert Pyke he put £20
into a 'chest' from which needy fellows could borrow
on depositing a pledge. This is still represented by
a fund for helping members of the College in sudden
emergencies. John Somerset, fellow, physician to
Henry VI, and Chancellor of the Exchequer, and
John Langton, Master 1428–47, and a royal chaplain, led the king to use the property of alien priories
to help education. They obtained for Pembroke
Linton Priory with the impropriate rectory, and a
cell at Isleham, with the ancient chapel of St.
Margaret and 105 acres of land, (fn. 12) all former possessions of the Cistercians of St. Jacut of the Isle
(Cotes-du-Nord). Linton Priory should be distinguished from the house of the Crutched Friars
at Barham which also ultimately came into the
possession of the College. The priory was leased to
Roger Mylsent in 1473. The old vicarage on Buck
Lane with closes on the Balsham road, the Guildhall,
almshouses, and a close, all came with the rectory.
They were all sold well before 1956. From the same
source as Linton Priory were obtained the rectory
and advowson of Soham, formerly belonging to the
Cistercian Abbey of le Pin (Vienne), which had
leased them to Rewley (Oxon.) for 43 marks yearly.
This payment came to the College in 1446, and the
parsonage in 1451. (fn. 13)
These grants gained for Henry VI the title of
second founder of the College, but they did not
really amount to very much. The three Pembroke
men who had his ear played a great part in the
foundation of King's College. Others distinguished
themselves in other ways. William Booth became
Archbishop of York in 1452. Edward Story was
Bishop of Chichester (1477–1503), built the cross
in that city and gave rich vestments to the College.
Another alumnus of this time was John Sperhawke,
one of a party who went to Sturbridge fair in 1429
and overspent themselves. The College possesses a
rubbing of his brass, his will, and several of his books;
one of the books he pawned and apparently never
redeemed. He ended as a doctor of divinity, Vicar of
Hitchin, and a canon of Wells. His friend Thomas
Westhaugh left the College many books and more
to Syon, where, like two other fellows of Pembroke,
he was confessor-general.
For the next 70 years the Masters were mostly
bishops who cannot have resided very much, but
whose wealth and influence might be very useful.
First of these was Laurence Booth (1450–80), ultimately Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of York,
a very great benefactor. He built a library over the
foundress's hall, putting in a flat ceiling and garrets
over it, and so was responsible for the strange tall
building that Waterhouse destroyed. He greatly
adorned the chapel, gave St. Botolph's Hostel between the College and the church, which was sold
in 1535, and demised the advowson and whole
village of Orton Waterville (Hunts.), sold except for
the manor-house in 1952. In his time (1475) the
head of the Friars Minor in England granted letters
of fraternity to seventeen fellows. (fn. 14) A fellow in
Booth's time was Thomas Langton, afterwards
Provost of the Queen's College, Oxford, Bishop
successively of Salisbury and of Winchester. He was
elected to Canterbury but died of the plague in 1501.
He earned the gratitude of the College not only by
a gift of money but also by that of his cup. (fn. 15) Another
Archbishop of York and Chancellor was Thomas
Scot or Rotherham, Master 1480–8, but beyond
giving a few books he did little for the College and
his absence made it necessary to appoint a praeses to
be locum tenens. His successor, George Fitzhugh,
was an aristocrat, rather extravagant and often
absent. He was succeeded by Master Roger Leyburn,
Bishop of Carlisle. Then came Richard Fox, who
cannot have given much attention to the College.
He was Bishop of Winchester, a great statesman, and
founded Corpus Christi College, Oxford, whilst he
was Master of Pembroke. Richard Shorton (1518–
34) had been a fellow of Pembroke and then Master
of St. John's, where stalls in the old chapel were
copied from those at Pembroke. Shorton left to
become Archdeacon of Bath. Swinburne, his successor, cannot be recalled with any gratitude; he
put in the big west window of the chapel as shown
by Loggan, but he sold St. Botolph's Hostel for £55.
Perhaps the College was really hard up and could
only be saved by such a sacrifice.
The Booth family continued their regard for the
College in this generation, Charles Booth, Bishop of
Hereford, and his brother Sir Philip giving tenements in London. These at a forced sale in 1833 paid
for Paschal Close, now the New Court. North
countrymen were very strong in the College at this
time; Swinburne had been one, and so were George
Folberry (1537–40) and Nicholas Ridley (1540–54).
Another was William Turner, compiler of the first
English herbal. Ridley was the leading member of
a commission for the reform of the University in
1549. He was devoted to the College and his presence meant that the new opinions had the upper
hand in it. When the tide turned the College had its
martyrs. John Rogers, who had helped Tyndale in
Germany, was the first victim under Mary; another
was John Bradford, Ridley's chaplain, and of course
Ridley himself. On the other side were John Young,
Master 1554–9, John Christopherson, Bishop of
Chichester, and Nicholas Carr, a most elegant
Greek scholar, but all of these were at several
colleges and ended up at Trinity. Under Elizabeth I,
Edmund Grindal, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, who had started at Pembroke, became Master
(1559–62) whilst he was Bishop of London. He gave
Palmer's Fields, Croydon (Surr.), to the College, the
only place where Pembroke has enjoyed that unearned increment through the spread of housing,
which has helped to finance so many colleges.
Grindal's successor, Matthew Hutton, Master 1562–
7, came from Trinity and became Archbishop of
York. It was in his time, on her visit in 1564, that
Elizabeth I dubbed the college Domus Antiqua et
Religiosa. Next came John Whitgift, a Pembroke
man; but after six months as Master he was reft
from the College by the Crown and set over Trinity.
As Vice-Chancellor in 1570 he had the chief hand
in making the statutes, giving more power to the
Master in a College, which governed the University
until the Statutory Commission of 1856. The new
College statutes were printed about 1593. (fn. 16) Whitgift
was followed by the second John Young (1567–78).
When he became Bishop of Rochester, the fellows
could not agree upon his successor, the claims of
Humphrey Tyndall and of Thomas Nevile being so
nicely balanced. In this dilemma William Fulke was
elected from Christ's. He is described in his epitaph
inter alia as 'Rome's foe, Truth's champion, and
Rhemishes terror', for he wrote copiously in confutation of the Church of Rome, more especially
against the Rheims version of the New Testament
and in defence of the English translation of the
Bible. (fn. 17)
It was in Fulke's time that Edmund Spenser,
Pembroke's first real poet, and his friend Gabriel
Harvey, the poetaster, entered the College. Before
the beginning of the regular Accession Book in 1616
it is only by chance that the presence of a given man
in the College can be established. Sometimes a
man's College is specified in the University records,
or else names have been preserved for a special
reason, such as those who got into trouble, those who
got fellowships, and those who got special commons
owing to sickness. The claim that Spenser was at
Pembroke rests solely on records of sickness allowances.
After Fulke Puritanism gave way to more moderate
opinions; he was followed by Lancelot Andrewes
(1589–1605), who had held one of the seven newly
established Greek scholarships on the foundation of
Thomas Watts, Archdeacon of Middlesex (1570), a
benefaction which had been accompanied by the
gift of many valuable books. Andrewes was perhaps
the most distinguished bishop of his time and first
on the list of King James's translators of the Bible.
When he died he left money for another fellowship
and the advowson of Rawreth (Essex). Most of the
books in the library with interesting bindings belonged to Andrewes. Watts's example produced more
Greek scholarships and in 1599 William Smart, a
portman of Ipswich, gave scholarships and also about
a hundred manuscripts from the library of Bury St.
Edmunds. It is in the period from Ridley to Andrewes that the College was of most importance to
church and state; in this time some twenty bishops
could claim to have been its members.
The mastership of Samuel Harsnett (1605–16)
was on the whole unhappy. Bishop of Chichester
from 1607 he almost ceased to reside and put in most
unsatisfactory presidents to take his place. The
opposition to him was headed by the youngest of
Andrewes's pupils, Matthew Wren, brother of
Christopher the Dean of Windsor, father of the
architect. Harsnett resigned in 1616 after a petition
had been presented to the king. His financial policy
was too enterprising for his opponents; some investments were bad, but wiser acts included the leasing
of Paschal Close, the strip along Pembroke Street
north of the garden, and the building of most of the
north range of the Inner Court (1614–16). He was
ultimately Archbishop of York. An Essex man, he
founded a school at Chigwell, where he was buried,
and he bequeathed his books to the Corporation of
Colchester. The year the next Master, Nicholas
Felton (1616–19), succeeded was a most important
one in the history of the College. College orders
began to be entered regularly in Registrum Magnum II, and still better a proper admission book was
started. The numbers of the College reached 120;
60 years before in the time of Dr. Caius there were
87 students. Felton was made Bishop of Ely, and
after a contested election Jerome Beale (1619–30)
took his place. Matthew Wren as president was
working on the College records. He had rearranged
and catalogued the manuscripts and made lists of
donors of books. In 1626 he crossed to be Master of
Peterhouse. From the time that Ralph Brownrigg
went to be Master of St. Catharine's, Pembroke
seems to have been mainly High Church. Benjamin
Lany, Master from 1630, was a moderate man, too
moderate either for Roger Williams who went off
to found his unsectarian state on Rhode Island, or
for Richard Crashawe, the poet, who passed from a
fellowship at Peterhouse to a canonry at Loretto.
Another poet was Thomas Stanley, better perhaps
as a classical scholar, editing Aeschylus. In Beale's
and Lany's times accounts and admission books
were almost unkept. But after litigation the great
bequest of a successful lawyer, Sir Robert Hitcham,
who died in 1637, brought to the College the castle,
advowson, and other property at Framlingham
(Suff.), mostly in trust for schools and almshouses
there, at Debenham (Suff.), and Coggeshall (Essex). (fn. 18)
Next came the Civil War with Pembroke men on
both sides. Matthew Wren, now Bishop of Ely, was
in the Tower from 1642. Probably in July of that
year all the College plate save the Foundress's Cup
and the Anathema Cup, and even the covers of these,
were sent to Charles. Most of the fellows had left by
the end of the year. William Dowsing came to purge
the chapel on 26 December; after a lively argument
force prevailed and he broke ten cherubims and
pulled down 80 superstitious pictures. In 1635 the
hall had been panelled, and apparently the chapel
door renewed; the cherubims might well be Laudian
decorations of that date. The College was then occupied by soldiers.
In 1644 the Master, Lany, and nearly all the remaining fellows were expelled. It was probably to
one of these that belonged 38 gold coins found when
the hall was pulled down in 1875. On 10 January
1645 the Earl of Manchester put in a new Master,
Richard Vines, and fellows were also intruded in the
same way. Vines's right-hand man was his treasurer,
William Moses, a Watts Greek scholar from Christ's
Hospital. He revived the College register and did all
he could to run the College efficiently. Vines, a
moderate man, refused the Engagement of 1649 and
was turned out in 1650 to make way for the extremist, Sidrach Simpson, who was mostly occupied in
London. When he died in 1655 the fellows hastily
elected Moses before Cromwell had time to put
anyone else in. He settled affairs at Framlingham
and used money therefrom and from various subscriptions to begin the south range of the Inner
Court, duly ensigned with Hitcham's arms and
called by his name. The builder was Peter Mills.
Moses seems to have had some idea of joining its
west end to the Master's Lodge, giving this a really
handsome room. This was later cut up by panelling,
but its west wall has a door frame which should have
led somewhere, if it were not about 12 feet from the
ground. In the time of Moses entered William
Sampson, a very good administrator, whom the
fellows wanted to make Master in 1694, and who
left the College the patronage of Earl Stonham
(Suff.) in 1703. Also of his time was Nehemiah
Grew, Secretary of the Royal Society, said to have
rediscovered the existence of sex in plants.
In 1660 the former Master, Lany, and surviving
fellows came back, two or three of the intruded
fellows were allowed to stay, but Moses went to
London, where he made money and rose to be a
serjeant-at-law. Dying in 1688 he was buried in
chapel, leaving money for scholarships for Christ's
Hospital boys. His building schemes were continued,
but the style changed to something much more oldfashioned, with hood-moulds and no transoms, so
the Hitcham Building is at first sight rather puzzling.
Lany became Bishop of Peterborough almost at once
and resigned the Mastership in 1662. He succeeded
Wren at Ely and dying in 1675 left money for a
Mark Franck, canon and treasurer of St. Paul's
Cathedral, was only Master for a year. He was followed by Robert Mapletoft (1664–77), who from
1667 was also Dean of Ely. Under Franck was begun
the greatest ornament of the College. Matthew
Wren, in the Tower from 1642 to 1659, might have
shared the fate of Laud; he vowed to do some great
thing if he escaped. The great thing was to build a
new chapel for Pembroke, and for its design he went
to his nephew, Christopher, the Savilian Professor
at Oxford, and a prominent member of the circle
which became the Royal Society. Christopher had
as yet built nothing but a door at Ely, so this is
definitely his first work, followed closely by the
Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, dated 1664. The College possesses a detailed wooden model of the chapel,
which must have preceded the contract for the
brickwork (16 May 1663) and for the woodwork
(10 Jan. 1665). (fn. 19) The candlesticks and most of the
other plate belonged to the bishop's chapel at Ely,
together with the very remarkable cushions of
'Turkey work'. The chapel is very happy in its high
proportions and splendid ceiling and in having an
east window instead of the usual blank wall. The
altarpiece, Descent from the Cross after Baroccio,
belonged to Sir Joshua Reynolds. Hitcham money
was used to make a dignified approach to the chapel
through the south range of the little Old Court.
Bishop Wren died in April 1667, and had the
finest funeral that Cambridge has ever known. (fn. 20) The
College still possesses the silver mitre and crozier
provided by Sir William Dugdale to be borne on his
coffin. He lies in the east vault of the chapel with
four of his descendants and four Masters, Moses,
Mapletoft, Browne, and Long.
In 1670 the north wing of the Inner Court was
extended to its present length. So the College
assumed the shape shown by Loggan and essentially
unaltered until 1875. When Mapletoft died the
fellows elected Nathaniel Coga (1677–94) within
four hours. Coga had been intruded under Moses,
and it was probably he who began a connexion with
Cornwall which lasted until within living memory.
Following Emmanuel the College turned the old
chapel into a library, which bears the date 1690.
Since Christopher Wren had a son at the College
about 1691, and the plasterwork is by Henry Doogood who worked for him, it is possible that Wren
had a hand in the admirable bookcases. Then the
books were moved from Booth's Library, unchained,
turned with their spines outwards, rearranged, recatalogued, and furnished with bookplates; and very
well the library must have looked to gain the approval
of the contemptuous Uffenbach in 1710. (fn. 21) About
1878, when the present library block was built, three
bookcases were removed from each side and two and
a half left, now filled with 16th- and 17th-century
volumes. Under the panelling was medieval painting
and the old piscina now removed to the new
Coga was succeeded by Thomas Browne (1694–
1707), who retained the living of Orton Waterville
(Hunts.). The tutor was John Westfield, but on
Queen Anne's accession he could not take the oath
of allegiance and was deprived; the College sympathized with his scruples and made him an allowance.
After Browne came Edward Lany (1707–28), greatnephew of Bishop Lany. In the lists of fellows a
great name has a train of kinsmen for generations.
In his time the society was strongly Tory; two of the
fellows opposed in the Senate the University's congratulations on the suppression of the 1715 rising,
but in a year or so they put the arms of George I over
the gateway. It was evidently a happy family in spite
of difficulties about finance. There was nearly always
an expensive lawsuit when anything was left to the
College. In 1715 Erasmus Earle of Heydon (Norf.)
transferred to Pembroke the rich livings of Sall and
Cawston (Norf.) with splendid churches, but required that the advowsons should be reserved for his
descendants if educated at Pembroke. Even so the
family resisted, and litigation continued for six years
after Earle's death in 1721. Of recent years his descendants have not been forthcoming. In 1939 Mrs.
Duff, his last representative, transferred to the College the presentation of Heydon, so that it could be
held with Sall. Another 18th-century bequest which
matured only after long litigation was that if Charles
Parkin (admitted 1708, died 1765), who left money
to found scholarships for boys from Merchant Taylors' School as well as valuable collections on local
history. (fn. 22)
About 1712 to 1717 much money was raised by
subscription to face the front and the Old Court,
originally built largely of clunch with ashlar, and to
make the hall brighter. During most of Lany's
Mastership his president was Reginald Hawkins of
Pennans in Creed (Cornw.). John Hawkins, a fellowcommoner of his family, was elected Master in 1728
and held the nominal position until 1731, but he
only came up for a few weeks to begin with and again
in 1731. However, he made over to the College his
salary as Master. Richard Crossinge, as president,
ran the College so far as any running was necessary;
his chief friends were Richard Attwood, esquire
bedell, who busied himself with College and University history, and James Jeffrey. All three died in
1734 or 1735. Crossinge left money to complete the
west part of the College site. Four houses south of
the Master's stables by the chapel, called Pembroke
or Crossinge Place, made way in 1874 for the Red
Buildings. The next Master, Roger Long (1733–70),
was a real 'character'. Before becoming a fellow in
1703 he had been master at Soham Grammar School.
In 1711 he was presented to the living of Orton
Waterville, and later resided as a fellow-commoner
at Emmanuel and then at Pembroke. With his
Mastership he held the livings of Bradwell-nearthe-sea (Essex) and of Cherry Hinton. He was ViceChancellor in 1733–4 and was nominated again in
1769 when he was 89, but was not elected. His real
interest was in astronomy, of which he was professor,
and in mechanical ingenuity. He combined them in
his 'Sphere', the first planetarium, within which
30 people could sit while a boy outside turned the
handle and the fixed stars performed their apparent
revolution. The 'Sphere' got in the way of Waterhouse's plans for the Master's new stables, in which
it is recorded that one donkey once spent the night,
and was broken up. He also had some kind of water
velocipede in the garden pond. He was very autocratic and quarrelled continuously with the fellows.
In 1739 entered as sizar Christopher Smart. His
contemporaries appreciated his more ordinary
poems, and he won the Seatonian prize five times.
When the College mistakenly celebrated its 400th
anniversary in 1743, he wrote the ode. There also
exists an elaborate scheme of lectures in his hand
dated 1746, showing what a good scholar he must
have been and that there were excellent intentions
as to teaching the young men. Now he is valued for
his 'Song of David' and the sparks of genius in
'Rejoice in the Lamb'. But his ill-regulated life
passed, as he had been warned, from Bedlam to
In 1742 Thomas Gray returned to Peterhouse as
a fellow-commoner. His friendships, with the exception of Richard Stonehewer's, somehow seem to have
been formed over the way with James Brown, fellow
of Pembroke since 1735, and Thomas Wharton,
M.D., fellow 1739. By 1749 he felt himself sufficiently at home there to take part in getting his own
friends, Mason and Tuthill, into fellowships supporting Brown. Roger Long obstinately opposed
them, justifiably it would appear. Tuthill was sub-
sequently expelled for 'great enormities'. A more
satisfactory friend of Gray was William Trollope;
a whole page of the library register is given up to
books taken out by Trollope for Gray's use. On
6 March 1757 Gray took up permanent residence in
the College. He was 'extremely well lodged here and
as quiet as in the Grande Chartreuse: everybody,
even the Dr. Long and Dr. Mays are as civil as they
could be to Mary de Valence in person'. In 1759
Long was seriously ill, but, as Gray prophesied, he
recovered. In 1768 Gray was made Regius Professor,
bound to be 'skilled in modern history and in the
knowledge of modern languages': which he was, but
he did not lecture. For 15 years he occupied the best
rooms in College, above the present Senior Parlour,
and died on 30 July 1771. Long had died in 1770
and was succeeded by Gray's friend, James Brown.
In 1775 Mason, to whom Gray had left his papers,
produced his Poems and Memoirs of T.G.'s Life and
Writings. Editors have been sorting them out ever
since. Mason made bequests to Richard Stonehewer
of Peterhouse and from him there came to the
College three precious volumes of Gray's Commonplace books, his portrait by Benjamin Wilson,
posthumous but probably the best surviving likeness, and the portrait of Mason by Reynolds, perhaps the best picture in College. In Gray's memory
Mason and Brown founded a fund for rebuilding,
which paid for Waterhouse's work after 100 years.
Gray had asked his friends to send more boys to the
College. During Long's 35 years the average entry
was about six, although it increased a little towards the end. Edward Wilson, admitted in 1753,
became chaplain to the Earl of Chatham and tutor
to his second son. This brought William Pitt to
Pembroke in 1773 at the age of fifteen. He resided
off and on until 1780, and in the following year he
entered Parliament. Two years later he was Prime
Minister. The College put him under Joseph Turner,
afterwards Master, and George Pretyman (Tomline),
afterwards Bishop of Winchester. Pitt's gift of a
magnificent soup-tureen is a tangible memorial of
Brown died in 1784, and was followed by Joseph
Turner, Master for 44 years. At first the College
prospered under him; it began to produce bishops
again. E. G. Sparke of Ely, and Pretyman do not
perhaps do it much credit, but Edward Maltby,
probably the College's best classic since Thomas
Stanley, was a good Bishop of Durham, and there
were two great pioneers in T. F. Middleton, first
Bishop of Calcutta, and William G. Broughton,
first Bishop of Australia.
Soon after 1800 came a great benefaction obscurely
connected with Pitt. Since about 1450 the College
had shared the ownership of Linton, first with the
Parys family, and then with their supplanters, the
Millicents, who finally rose to owning Barham Hall,
once the home of the Crutched Friars. (fn. 23) As rector,
the College defended against them right up to the
High Court its claim to the tithes of pease tilled
with a hoe. Robert, the last of the Millicents, died
in 1740; his relict, a Disbrough, married Christopher
Lonsdale, sometime fellow of Peterhouse, but he
died and left her a childless widow. In 1784 she
obtained from Pitt licence in mortmain to leave the
whole estate to the College, one-third of the fund
to be for building. Her intention was that her house
should form a country house for the Master, but
when she died in 1807, Joseph Turner, Dean of
Norwich since 1790, was not interested in a third
official residence. The house was neglected and
finally mostly pulled down to make way for a farmhouse. The contents were dissipated except for some
interesting plate, and a dull library, which someone
searched every 20 years in the vain hope of finding
some treasure, until it was finally disposed of in
Turner died in 1828. There is a good portrait of
him by G. Dawe. In his time fellow-commoners
became rare; among the last was a future Earl
of Rosebery. Among other members were Dawson
Turner, who was related to the Master, a Norfolk
antiquary, and patron of J. S. Cotman. More important was Thomas Barnes, editor of The Times.
Gilbert Ainslie, of a Westmorland family, son
of one of Pembroke's few senior wranglers, held
the mastership until 1870. His great work was the
arranging, cataloguing, and summarizing of the
college records with the utmost accuracy. He was
twice Vice-Chancellor, in 1828 and 1836, and a great
force in University affairs. He was anxious for reform, but only if it came from within either College
or University. He redrafted the Latin statutes of
the College, which were submitted to the Queen in
Council in 1837 and granted in 1844, but superseded
by the Statutory Commission after 1856. Ainslie
would not give texts of the old statutes to be printed,
holding himself bound by his oath not to betray
the secrets of the house. Perhaps even more valuable
than his work on the records was his successful
policy in enlarging the College site. His method was
to acquire properties that neighbouring colleges
coveted and then exchange them for pieces of vital
importance to Pembroke. After long negotiations and
an Act of Parliament he gained from Corpus the
freehold of Paschal Close on the north of the garden
and from Peterhouse successive pieces of the common land called Swinecroft to extend the garden to
the south. One of these pieces contained two small
observatories, the instruments in which were ultimately given to Firth College, Sheffield, now Sheffield
University. Another acquisition of his mastership
was the purchase of the presentations of Gosbeck
(Suff.) and Tarrant Hinton (Dors.) to ease the flow
of fellows from the College. (fn. 24)
The new statutes meant the abolition of the old
close scholarships, from St. Bees, Ipswich, Christ's
Hospital, and Merchant Taylors', which had brought
many good men to Pembroke, such as, at the end of
the series, W. Haig Brown, refounder of Charterhouse, and C. E. Searle, who remade the College.
Other notable men were J. R. Woodford, Bishop of
Ely, Sir Henry Maine, the jurist, and Sir George
Gabriel Stokes, almost the last of the great Newtonian physicists, and from St. John's came J.
Couch Adams who had discovered Neptune. But
things must have been at a low ebb; in 1858 there
was but one freshman, and he went off to Caius.
Hurt by the encroachment that the new statutes
made on the predominance of the heads of houses in
University and College, Ainslie retired into himself.
Over the College expectancy or menace seems to
have weighed, yet in 1863 John Cory was called in
to do some repairs, and seems to have made the hall,
which had been rather bare and neglected, into a
very pleasant room. Ainslie died in January 1870
and five days later John Power was elected Master.
At once he brought back Charles E. Searle from a
curacy in Suffolk to be Tutor.
The obvious need was to do something about the
buildings, and this was reinforced by the fear that
the building fund, the accumulations of the Gray
and Barham moneys, might be confiscated for the
benefit of the University. Alfred Waterhouse was
one of the most prominent architects of the day for
secular buildings; he had just done much work at
Caius and Balliol. His drawings are often quite
attractive; it is his texture which most offends us.
He had perfect confidence in himself, and must
have established a domination over the Master, to
whom the resident fellows were strangely submissive. (fn. 25) The first work was the Red Buildings
south of the chapel, and a new Master's Lodge looking over the bowling green, both in the style of the
châteaux of the Loire. Waterhouse wanted to build
an apse to the chapel and a campanile 'high enough
to be the most conspicuous tower in Cambridge'.
Emmanuel Church just across the street had not yet
arisen, nor St. John's chapel. But the chapel did not
come next. No doubt the old lodge and the south
range of the Old Court were in poor repair and very
cramped, but they should not have been demolished
before careful consideration had been given to the
state in which the adjacent buildings would be left.
Instead, they were demolished first, and only then
was the College confronted with a report that the
hall was beyond repair, and so forced to accept a new
one, either on 31 December 1874 or very early in
1875. There is no actual record of the decision. On
6 March a memorial signed by all the most distinguished Pembroke men of the time was sent to
the Master and Fellows, but they paid no attention
and on 16 March passed an order for pulling down
the hall. It is said that part of the building was so
strong that it had to be blown up, but this merely
means that medieval mortar, being of haphazard
composition, would set hard in one place, and turn
to powder in another. Modern technique could have
saved the building, and so even then could an architect less enamoured of his own grandiose designs.
The new hall and combination room were imposing,
but the effect of the hall was spoilt by the low tiebeams, and the combination room was a pretentious
apartment. Last of all Waterhouse was allowed to
build some more Frenchified work, a library with
lecture-rooms below and a clock-tower above. But
reaction had set in. Although the College had
formally decided on the destruction of the old
chapel or library and the north side of the court,
George Gilbert Scott, son and father of architects,
patiently got round that decision and saved them.
Enlargement of the chapel was necessary and his
extension was very skilfully made, but no view
exists of Wren's interior looking east. Finally what
was left of Paschal Yard was occupied by six staircases
in a rather elaborate 17th-century style; its proportions
were much better before additions were made to it.
For 30 years under Searle, first as Tutor and, after
Power's death, as Master (1880–1902), with C. H.
Prior from Caius and R. A. Neil, the great classic
from Peterhouse, as his right-hand men, the College
grew and flourished, producing not so much distinguished men as sound evangelical clergymen and
various servants of the state especially in the Indian
Civil Service. Finances came to be in the hands of
W. S. Hadley. Classics were very well taught. In
1899 there was a Senior Wrangler, George Birtwhistle, afterwards fellow, and a great benefactor,
founding a new fellowship. Then between 1899 and
1903, Prior, Neil, Searle, and Stokes, Master for
five months in 1902–3, died. After such losses things
were difficult, but the situation was saved by A. J.
Mason, Master 1903–12, and a canon of Canterbury.
In his time W. D. Caroe built the Pitt Buildings and
an extension of the New Court, joined to the Inner
Court by a remarkable bridge, along the street, the
peculiar contribution of the Master. The Tutor
meanwhile was Hadley with H. G. Comber as
treasurer and assistant tutor. They both had a
genius for moulding the ordinary, not very brilliant,
undergraduate into a most useful member of society.
From 1891 to 1906 the dean had been J. F. BethuneBaker, afterwards Lady Margaret Professor of
Divinity, one of the most distinguished theologians
of his generation. Equally outstanding was E. G.
Browne, the greatest of English Persian scholars and
from 1902 to 1925 professor of Arabic. The numbers
had by now risen to about 250. After a distinguished
two years as Vice-Chancellor (1908–10) Mason retired to Canterbury and was succeeded by W. S.
Hadley (1912–27), J. C. Lawson becoming Tutor.
When the First World War broke out Comber
began giving elementary war training in College.
The War Office at first objected, but his practice
worked so well that it was adopted officially. This
was the origin of the first officers' training school,
and other colleges were later used for similar purposes. Pembroke at once offered its buildings without any reservations and so was one of the last to be
freed by the War Office. Its men were of the most
serviceable type. Three hundred names of members
and servants of Pembroke are on the first war
memorial in Wren's cloister, designed by T. H.
Lyon. This is a larger proportion than that of any
other college. A. A. Seaton, fellow, a very promising
historian, was killed in the second year of the war,
and A. L. Attwater, the historian of the College, (fn. 26)
died of his injuries after 20 years of suffering.
In 1925 a new departure was the foundation by
Dr. R. M. Courtauld of studentships in physics and
chemistry bearing the name of Sir G. G. Stokes. It
was difficult to cope with the varied influx of
students after the war; the great numbers made an
extension of the hall necessary. This was cleverly
carried out in 1926 by a Pembroke architect Maurice
Webb. It was found possible to incorporate the combination room with the hall, giving them a unity by
putting in a flat ceiling with effective heraldic
decoration. Above this two stories of rooms were
built to utilize the precious space, a repetition of
what Laurence Booth had done in the 15th century.
The south window of the former combination room
makes an attractive and unusual end to the hall. The
set of rooms under that occupied by Gray in the
Hitcham Building was made into a Senior Parlour,
and a Junior Parlour was contrived to take the rest
of the ground floor. In 1932 was completed the third
Master's Lodge, a practical modern house in the far
south-east corner of the College site, provided with
a pleasant strip of garden. The architect was again
M. E. Webb. The lodge built by Waterhouse, cut
up into rooms, houses three fellows and thirteen
Successor to Hadley as Master was Arthur Hutchinson (1928–37), Professor of Mineralogy, whose
election to a fellowship in 1892 had been the first
recognition by the College of the claims of natural
science. The year 1935 brought great changes. J. C.
Lawson, Tutor since 1912, died in January, Attwater in May, and in September, H. G. Comber,
who to the outer world was perhaps its most prominent figure. In September 1937 Arthur Hutchinson retired from the mastership under the statutes
of 1926. Sir Montagu S. D. Butler had been preelected as his successor. He had been a fellow in
1896–7 and then had a brilliant career in the Indian
Civil Service. He was the right man to tackle the
difficulties resulting from the Second World War.
The New Court was taken by the R.A.F., during
whose occupation a fire occurred, but the Master's
skill turned this to good account, and the rebuilding
gave more and better accommodation. Towards the
end of the war the hall was greatly improved, gaining more light and a pleasanter appearance. A new
building, designed by Marshall Sisson, three stories
high and fifteen bays in length, was under construction in 1956.
The 600th anniversary was simply celebrated in
1947. A second war memorial was set up, opposite
the first. In 1948 Sir Montagu Butler was succeeded
as Master by Sydney Castle Roberts, long secretary
of the University Press.
Recent years have been marked by a great increase
in the number of fellows. Besides the actual staff
there are retired fellows, university lecturers, and
junior research fellows. In 1952 the numbers were
roughly, Master and Fellows 24 (as the foundress
intended), M.A.s in touch with the College 24,
research students 50, and B.A.s and undergraduates
There is a main series of 312 manuscripts, mostly medieval, various later ones, and
about 100 incunabula and fragments. (fn. 27) The manuscripts fall into three classes: (i) The remains of the
old College library, work books not very interesting
either for contents or appearance, about 140 in
number. (ii) Books from Bury St. Edmunds, rather
over 100 out of the 250 or so known to survive,
many are in their original bindings and retain their
library-marks of various dates, and their shelfmarks, so that they are of capital importance in the
study of monastic libraries. No. 120 was the gift of
Edmund Boldero, fellow, afterwards Master of Jesus
College. It really belongs to class (iii), that is gifts
made since 1600. In these the proportion of books
of beauty or interest is much higher than in class (ii).
Matthew Wren made an excellent catalogue and
started lists of donors which were kept up very well
until about 1700.
Among the old manuscripts may be mentioned:
13, Gregorii Moralia, 11th cent., with initials very
like Limoges work; 40, Margarita Martini, 14th
cent., showing, as only one other book in England,
the pecia or unit for university scribes' pay; 59,
Esaias Glosatus, 12th cent., with some Hebrew as
end-paper; 81, Beda de Templo Salomonis, early
9th cent., in an almost Merovingian hand; 88,
Excerpta Gregorii, 10th cent., Carolingian with
Insular abbreviations; 113, (not Bury) Juvenal and
Persius, with a noted French song between them,
12th cent.; 120, New Testament (162/3x102/3 in.), six
leaves of illustrations of Gospel story, 11th cent.,
certainly Bury work; text with splendid initials,
written by William, 12th cent.; 170, Godofredus de
Fontibus, Quodlibeta, 14th cent.; 249, Petrarchae,
Africa, bound in draft of a Papal provision, c. 1400;
255, Scoti et Mayronis Quaedam, written in college
by G. Skipwith in 1460; 300, Household Expenses
of Thomas Duke of Norfolk, 1526–7; 301, Gospels
(112/3x8⅓ in.), c. 1020, Winchester Style, Canons and
Evangelists; (fn. 28) 302, Hereford Gospels (7½x4 in.),
Selections, rare narrow shape, Canons, boundaries
of the See of Hereford according to Athelstan
(1012–86), Four pictures of the Evangelists. Fine
pages of lettering opposite each. First rate work; (fn. 29)
307, John Gower, Confessio Amantis, 15th cent.;
308, Rabanus Maurus, super Epistolas Pauli, 11th
cent., once at Ely. Across junction of quires Hincmarus Archiepiscopus dedit sacrae Mariae Remensi.
Written by eight scribes, each signs his portion, a
portio communis at end. Such signed work seems only
known in three books; 309, William Lyndewode,
fellow, Provinciale, belonged to Bart. Burgoyne,
London Carthusian; 310, Evangelistarium Graece,
12th cent., 4to, written in very large minusculus;
coloured initials. Besides Bury MSS. there are
manuscripts from Buildwas, Christ Church, Canterbury, Durham, Sempringham, Reading, St. Albans,
and Tynemouth. Of the later manuscripts may be
mentioned the Album Amicorum of Ortelius, and the
Devotions of Lancelot Andrewes, collections of
Charles Parkin for Cambridgeshire and Norfolk,
with a book of miscellanea ranging from two Paston
letters to a list of pictures sold from Houghton to
There are important collections concerning C.
Smart, Thomas Gray, and William Mason. Chief
recent contributors to these have been Sir D. M.
Colman and Leonard Whibley, fellow. Gray's Commonplace Books, bequeathed by Richard Stonehewer,
which include the final texts of his poems, are kept in
the treasury. The College sponsored T. G. Mathias's
edition of Gray and his remains, largely drawn
from these. R. A. Neil left an almost complete set
of editions of Aristophanes. W. S. Hadley bequeathed
books dealing with the French Revolution and
Napoleon. A. L. Attwater greatly enriched the classes
devoted to English literature.
The incunabula contain no items of very general
interest: but some have exterior labels with names
of donors, and came to Pembroke within a year or
two of printing. The library has the only good
Romanesque binding in Cambridge, MS. 147 Ezechiel. The Lancelot Andrewes bequest includes
many good bindings, such as the best-known copy
of the Slavonic Bible, Ostrog, 1581, and Whitgift's
copy of the Complutensian Polyglot. Noticeable are
the bindings of the three registers, bought about
1488, in which the first attempt was made to note
down College history and clear up its records. The
three blank books were probably bound in Cambridge, and fix the locality of G. D. Hobson's
'Demon' (really 'goat') binder, and 'Unicorn'
binder. (fn. 30)
Foundress, after Faber's mezzotint,
1715, itself adapted from portrait of the Lady
Margaret at St. John's; Henry VI, after Faber;
Thomas Rotherham, after portrait at King's; Richard
Fox, after portrait at Corpus Christi, Oxford;
Robert Shorton, after portrait at St. John's; John
Rogers, John Bradford, Nicholas Ridley, John Whitgift, Ralph Brownrigg, after Heroologia; Nicholas
Ridley, contemporary; John Young, Master 1554–9,
after portrait in the Old Schools; Edmund Grindal,
after portrait at Lambeth; Edmund Spenser, by
B. Wilson, copied from Lord Chesterfield's fancy
portrait; Matthew Wren as a young man; Theophilus
Field (?); Nicholas Felton; Sir Robert Hitcham, after
portrait at Gray's Inn; Benjamin Lany; Sir Benjamin
Keene, after Van Loo; Roger Long, by B. Wilson;
Thomas Gray, posthumous, by B. Wilson; Christopher Smart, by himself (?); William Mason, by Sir
J. Reynolds; H.R.H. Mary, Duchess of Gloucester,
by W. Beechey; Joseph Turner, by G. Dawe;
Gilbert Ainslie; Sir Henry Maine and Sir G. G.
Stokes, by Lowes Dickinson; J. Couch Adams, by
H. Herkomer; John Power by W. Vizard; Charles
E. Searle, by W. W. Ouless; A. J. Mason, by H.
Hayward, and another by George Henry; E. G.
Browne, by C. Shannon; H. G. Comber, by G.
Kelly; S. C. Roberts, by T. Greenham; Busts of
William Pitt by Nollekens and Chantrey; of T. Gray
and G. G. Stokes by Hans Thorneycroft.
Altarpiece. Descent from the Cross after Baroccio.
The Foundress's Cup, silver gilt, height
6¾ in.; diameter 6 in.; weight 22 oz. Classed as a
mazer, to which a foot has been added, (fn. 31) but the
bowl is of silver gilt and this may be original. No
marks. Inscriptions: under lip, '+ Sayn denes yt
es me d're for hes lof drenk and mak gud cher'; upon
the stem, 'V M'; round it, 'God help at ned'. The
'print' within is raised and bears the letter M. The
work is of about 1480. An entry in an inventory
about 1503 says that Dr. Richard Sockburn gave a
cup with inscription running round, 'God help at
ned', and that it had a wooden cover and a silver
gilt ball. A 1546 inventory lists a cup with a wooden
cover and a gilt ball, but calls it 'My Ladie's Cup'.
Sockburn came from Yorkshire and the longer inscription is in a northern dialect. The shorter
inscription agrees. Almost certainly Sockburn's cup
was taken to be the foundress's gift. (fn. 32)
The Anathema Cup, silver gilt, height 8½ in.; diameter 8¼ in.; weight 39'1 oz. Almost plain, six beads
above the stem and a ribbon and rosette pattern
round the base. The small print within has lost its
enamel. The body takes apart from the base; each
bears hall-mark D (1481), the leopard's head and a
maker's mark (Fetter lock ?). D is the second oldest
certain mark now known. Inscription within foot,
'T. Langton Winton episcopus aule Penbrochie olim
socius dedit hanc tasseam coopertam eidem aule
1497'; above 'qui alienaverit anathema sit lxvij
un&cmacr;'. (fn. 33) In the 1503 inventory it is described as
'cum 8to [apparently corrected to 6] pennaculis in
summitate'. Thomas Langton, fellow 1461, became
Bishop of Winchester and Archbishop elect of
Canterbury, and died in 1501.
In 1642 the College sent all its plate to the king
save these two cups, and of these it sent the covers.
The cover of the Anathema Cup must have weighed
28 oz. resembling in form that of the Foundress's
Cup at Christ's of which the finial had six pinnacles.
The result of this gift is that Pembroke has no plate
between 1481 and 1660.
The Chapel Plate, the gift of Matthew Wren,
came from his chapel at Ely. It bears no date; the
maker's mark, a hound sejant, is well known but
not identified. Chalice, two patens, basin, candlesticks
of very original design 1660–1 (orb and star), mitre
and crozier. These last bear no mark, and are apparently of foreign work. None other are known in
England between 1535 and about 1840. Flagon and
basin (Maker IB), 1669–70, made by the College to
match. (fn. 34)
The collection is rich from 1690 to 1800: 7 tankards including Browne's, 1661, by R.F.; 20 pairs of
candlesticks, including William Coventry's, 1690–1,
by T.A.; Bacon's Monteith, 1697–8, by A. Nelme;
Ewer, 1706–7, by J. Margas, Basin, 1708, by D.
Williams, the pair given by two Jacobites, Sir Wm.
Barker and R. D. Belward; 11 cans made from old
gifts, 1710, by A. Sheene; 3 more, 1719–20, by G.
Sleath; Thom's stoups, 1722–3, by G. Sleath; 4 twohandled cups, including William Godolphin's, 1715–
16, by D. Williams; Lethuillier's Soup-basin, 1725,
by M. Parren; Miller's Dish, c. 1700, given 1730,
Indo-Portuguese; Lord Strathmore's candelabra,
1762–3, by L. Black; William Pitt's soup tureen,
1778–9, by I. Taylor and John Wakelin. (fn. 35)
1. The original seal, c. 1347, silver, vesica
shape, 2.6 by 1.6 in. Hatched background; above,
between two small cinqfoils, Christ with cruciferous
nimbus and hands raised: below him a chapel-like
building, probably reversed in engraving, as the
impression would then show an east window, a south
window, and a door at the west end; details characteristically 'Decorated': stone courses and lead roof
indicated. Supporting figures of Aymer de Valence
and Mary de St. Pol; on each side of them shields
hung from crossed branches, Aymer's showing
Valence alone, Mary's Valence and St. Pol dimidiated. Below their feet a field with herbs. Inscrip-
tion: s'cvstodis et scolariv' domvs de valence
marie in cantebrigī'. The handle on the back is a
low ridge rising to allow of a hole for suspension.
The Secretum is lost but impressions survive, e.g.
on the second copy of the statutes, College Box A. 12,
and on deeds in Wissenden Box, C. 6 and 10. It bore
a figure of God the Father supporting the Son on
the Cross with a tracery frame. secretv' avle
valence marie cantebris. (fn. 36)
2. This is a rude reproduction, 17th century, in
brass of no. 1 but with a vertical handle. sigil
cvstod et sociorvm domvs de valence marie in
3. Oval, brass, 3 by 2.7 in., late 17th century,
fancy shield with decorative curls. sigillum custodis et sociorum aulæ mariæ de valentia in
4. Steel, very similar to no. 3, 18th century.
sigillvm cvstodis et soc. avlæ de valentia in
5. In use in 1953. Probably made for Ainslie as
soon as the title 'College' came into use. Traces of
the Gothic revival in design and lettering. Steel,
2½ by 2 in., o.6 in. thick. Heater-shaped shield
suspended from branches, flanking curls. sigillvm
cvstod. et soc. coll. valence. marie in acad. cant. (fn. 37)
Masters of Pembroke College
Robert de Thorpe: 1347.
Thomas de Bingham: 1364.
John Tynmouth or Tinmew: c. 1380, died 1385. (fn. 38)
Richard Morys: 1385.
John Sudbury: 1406, resigned 1428, died 1435.
John Langton: 1428, died 22 May 1447.
Hugh Damlet: 1447, resigned 1449, died 17 Apr.
Laurence Booth: 31 May 1450, died before
20 May 1480.
Thomas Rotherham: 1480, resigned 1488, died
29 May 1500.
George Fitzhugh: 14 Sept. 1488, died Nov. 1505.
Roger Leyburn: 29 Nov. 1505, died c. 1 Aug.
Richard Fox: 1507, resigned 19 Oct. 1518, died
14 Sept. 1528.
Robert Shorton, or Sherton: 1518, resigned 1534,
Robert Swinburn: Before 4 Oct. 1534, resigned
Oct. 1537, died 10 Feb. 1540.
George Folberry: 1537, died Oct. 1540.
Nicholas Ridley: Oct. 1540, d. 15 Oct. 1555.
John Young: 24 Dec. 1554, deprived 20 July 1559,
Edmund Grindal: 20 July 1559, resigned 16 Aug.
1561, died 1583.
Matthew Hutton: 14 May 1562, resigned 1567,
died 6 July 1605.
John Whitgift: 21 Apr. 1567, resigned July 1567,
John Young: 12 July 1567, resigned 16 Mar. 1578,
William Fulke: 10 May 1578, died 28 Aug. 1589.
Lancelot Andrewes: 6 Sept. 1589, resigned 1605,
died 25 Sept. 1626.
Samuel Harsnett: 9 Nov. 1605, resigned 18 Feb.
1616, died 25 May 1631.
Nicholas Felton: 29 June 1616, resigned 18 Feb.
1619, died 5 Oct. 1626.
Jerome Beale: 21 Feb. 1619, died Sept. 1630.
Benjamin Lany: 25 Dec. 1630, ejected 13 Mar.
1644, restored 1660, resigned 16 Aug. 1662,
died 21 Jan. 1675.
Richard Vines: 13 Mar. 1644, ejected 1 Oct. 1650,
died 4 Feb. 1656.
Sidrach Simpson: 1650, died Apr. 1655.
William Moses: Apr. 1655, ejected 1660, died
Mark Franck: 23 Aug. 1662, died Jan. 1664.
Robert Mapletoft: c. May 1664, died 20 Aug.
Nathaniel Coga: 20 Aug. 1677, died 8 Jan. 1694.
Thomas Browne: 10 Feb. 1694, died 9 Mar. 1707.
Edward Lany: 19 Mar. 1707, died 9 Aug. 1728.
John Hawkins: 15 Aug. 1728, resigned Oct. 1733,
died 30 July 1736.
Roger Long: 12 Oct. 1733, died 16 Dec. 1770.
James Brown: 16 Dec. 1770, died 30 Sept. 1784.
Joseph Turner: 6 Oct. 1784, died 3 Aug. 1828.
Gilbert Ainslie: 15 Aug. 1828, died 9 Jan. 1870.
John Power: 14 Jan. 1870, died 18 Nov. 1880.
Charles Edward Searle: 24 Nov. 1880, died 29
George Gabriel Stokes: 26 Aug. 1902, died 7 Feb.
Arthur James Mason: 11 Mar. 1903, resigned 15
June 1912, died 24 Apr. 1928.
William Sheldon Hadley: 19 June 1912, died
25 Dec. 1927.
Arthur Hutchinson: 16 Jan. 1928, retired 30 Sept.
1937, died 12 Dec. 1937.
Montagu Sherard Dawes Butler: 1 Oct. 1937,
retired 31 July 1948.
Sydney Castle Roberts: 1 Aug. 1948.
William Vallance Douglas Hodge: 1 Aug. 1958.