Rejections of nominations (the aldermanic veto)

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Centre for Metropolitan History

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Author

Alfred P. Beaven

Year published

1908

Pages

242-249

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'Rejections of nominations (the aldermanic veto)', The Aldermen of the City of London: Temp. Henry III - 1912 (1908), pp. 242-249. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=67220 Date accessed: 01 September 2014.


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THE ALDERMANIC VETO.

Until the year 1397 the Aldermen were elected directly by the Wards, but on August 1 in that year an Act of Common Council provided that at least two persons, "good and discreet men, both of whom in moral and temporal good, be fit to be a Judge and Alderman," should be nominated in future on the occasion of a vacancy, one of whom should be chosen by the Court of Aldermen (Letter Book H, fo. 314). By an order of the Court of Aldermen made on September 20, 1402, and approved by the Common Council, November 23 following (Letter Book I., fo. 16 b), the number of persons to be nominated was increased to four "of the more approved and discreet citizens." As a logical corollary to this enactment, the Court claimed and asserted the right of entirely rejecting any nomination which included the name of a person whom it deemed insufficient, inasmuch as otherwise the electors might entirely nullify the provision giving the Aldermen a discretion in the election of a colleague, by returning three obviously unsuitable names and only one properly qualified. The Court also claimed and asserted the right, in case a Ward should persist at three successive Wardmotes in making insufficient nominations, of itself nominating the persons from whom its final choice should be made to fill the vacancy without further reference to the constituency.

On November 7, 1480, a further Act provided that of the four persons nominated at least two should be Commoners (Rep. 7, fo. 43 b); in the previous year (January 19, 1479) it had been enacted that an Alderman might not remove from his Ward to another before he had served at least two years (Journal 8, fo. 192), and this period was extended to three in the case of the two Wards, Bridge Without and Farringdon Without, on September 4, 1550 (Letter Book R, fo. 90 b). These provisions were from time to time enforced, nominations infringing them being rejected by the Court, but this was by no means always the case, there being several instances of the order being disregarded. For more than three centuries the Act requiring four nominations remained in force; it was repealed by the Act of September 20, 1711, reducing the number to be nominated to two (an Alderman and a Commoner), and by a further Act of April 15, 1714, all previous Acts were repealed, and it was directed that the "ancient custom" should be "revived," and the inhabitants of the Wards should have "restored" to them "their ancient rights and privileges of choosing one person only," and that "from thenceforth" in all elections of Aldermen, "at a Wardmote to be holden for that purpose, there should be elected, according to the said ancient custom, only one able and sufficient citizen and freeman of the said city, not being an Alderman, to be returned to the Court of Lord Mayor and Aldermen and he should be by them admitted and sworn."

The latest occasion on which the Court had, up to that time, exercised its privilege of rejecting a Wardmote nomination was in 1710, this being only the third instance since 1670: the last instance of nomination by the Court after three rejections of Wardmote nominations had been in 1679. After the passing of the Act of 1714, the Court of Aldermen found no occasion for reviving the right of rejection until 1831, when Michael Scales, a butcher, who had been engaged in more than one discreditable transaction, and who had been elected Alderman by the Ward of Portsoken, was refused admission. The opposition to him was purely on the ground of personal unfitness, there being no political element, inasmuch as although Scales was a vehement Radical Reformer, his opponent at the poll, Daniel Whittle Harvey, M.P., for Colchester, was still more prominent on the same side in the political arena, and on various grounds was especially obnoxious to the Tory party. Scales was re-elected, and the Court then not only refused to admit him, but selected his opponent, W. Hughes Hughes (Harvey not having come forward at the second election). This, however, was clearly beyond the prescriptive rights of the Court of Aldermen, and Hughes was ousted by the Court of King's Bench in July, 1832. In the following year Scales was returned for a third time, being opposed by Thomas Johnson, whom the Court of Aldermen elected after a third rejection of Scales. Then followed a long series of legal proceedings initiated by, or on behalf of, Scales, as detailed at p. 188, resulting in the affirmation by the House of Lords in 1839 of the rights which the Court of Aldermen had claimed and exercised of rejecting unsuitable candidates, and, after three such rejections, of seating some other person without urther reference to a Wardmote.

The case for Scales (who maintained that the Act of 1714, by restoring to the Wardmotes the right of nominating a single person, took away from the Court of Aldermen the right of rejection which had been exercised during the three centuries when more than one name had to be submitted to it), was ably argued by Mr. (afterwards Baron) Platt in the Court of King's Bench on November 19, 1831, before Lord Chief Justice Tenterden, Justices Allan Park, Taunton and Patteson, and again on a writ of quo warranto against Johnson before Lord Chief Justice Denman presiding over a Special Jury on December 20, 1834, and by Mr. (afterwards Lord Chief Justice) Erle before the Court of Exchequer Chamber (consisting of Lord Chief Justice Tindal, Justices Allan Park, Gaselee, Bosanquet and Vaughan, Barons Parke, Bolland, Alderson and Gurney) on June 2, 1836, and before the House of Lords on appeal January 19, 1839, the law lords present and pronouncing judgment being Lord Chancellor Cottenham, Lord Wynford (ex-Chief Justice of the Common Pleas) and Lord Brougham (ex-Lord Chancellor) who were assisted at the hearing by eleven common law judges, viz.: Lord Chief Justice Tindal, Justices Littledale, Vaughan, Bosanquet, Patteson, Williams, Coleridge and Coltman, Barons Parke, Alderson and Gurney. All these eminent legal authorities on each occasion concurred in affirming the rights claimed by the Court of Aldermen, the House of Lords, after hearing Mr. Erle, not deeming it necessary to call on the opposing counsel (Sir John Campbell, Attorney-General, subsequently Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench), to reply.

Lord Tenterden, dealing with the argument that the Court of Aldermen should state what their grounds of disapproval were, said that such a contention was absurd; it was not for any higher tribunal to inquire whether they had exercised their discretion properly or not. He added "there is every motive for a good choice by the Court of Aldermen and scarcely any can be assigned for a bad one." Mr. Justice Taunton said that it was "much better that the grounds should not be set out than that they should be disclosed": Mr. Justice Patteson that the custom was a "very reasonable" one, and that if the "mere circumstance of the liability to abuse" were a valid ground for overruling it, it would "do away with all law." Lord Chief Justice Tindal said "the custom is a legal and reasonable custom": Lord Chief Justice Denman that the Act of 1714 "did not at all interfere with" any custom not distinctly referred to in it, and that" a legal custom can be got rid of only by some distinct Act": Lord Brougham that the Act "has no reference to what ought to be done in respect of admission in case of an objection," and "is quite consistent with the custom," and Lord Wynford that "it does not touch any right which may exist elsewhere of controlling the admission of the person to be invested with the office of Alderman."

The final decision of the House of Lords in 1839, confirming the unanimous opinion of so many eminent judges at earlier stages of the litigation, may be considered to have finally settled the question, and it is, therefore, not surprising that when, in the case of Sir John Bennett in 1877, the Court of Aldermen again exercised its rights and, after thrice rejecting Sir John, elected Mr. Breffit to fill the vacancy, no attempt was made to carry the matter further, although it aroused a good deal of evanescent feeling for the time.

In the hearing of the case of Scales before Lord Denman and a Special Jury in 1834, Sir John Campbell, on behalf of the Court of Aldermen, brought forward a large number of precedents, enumerating 48 instances of rejection of nominations, and 16 of election by the Court, after three successive rejections in each case. These, which are printed in the accounts of the quo warranto proceedings, copies of which are very scarce, by no means exhaust the cases on record, and inasmuch as they have never before been fully collected, I append a complete list, so far as I have been able to trace them, of all the instances that appear in the official records of the Court of Aldermen preserved at Guildhall. The references to the Letter Books, Journals and Repertories will be found in each case at an earlier page under the heading of the particular Ward affected.

Rejections of Nominations by the Court of Aldermen.

1July 24, 1444Bridge
[Names not recorded, "because each of the persons did not seem sufficient to support the office"]
2February 22, 1448Lime Street
[T. Beaumond, *ex-Sheriff Malpas, *W Dere, *C. Warter, ("because it doth not seem that everyone of the aforesaid persons is fit for the office aforesaid")]
3November 22, 1457Castle Baynard
[*J. Plomer, Sheriff Reyner, *ex-Sheriff Oulegrave, H. Jurdan]
4February, 1458Bread Street
[*ex-Sheriff Oulegrave, *J. Brown, J. Stone, R. Nedeham]
5March, 1458Farringdon Without
[Alderman Hulyn, Alderman Middleton, *ex-Sheriff Yonge, *J. Stokker, "because the Court is not accustomed to receive the nomination of two Aldermen at one time"]
6November 17, 1460Billingsgate
[Alderman Marowe, Alderman Flemyng, *N. Marchall, R. Rawlins]
7, 8, 9August and September, 1463Castle Baynard
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
10, 11, 12August and September, 1468Bridge
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
13, 14, 15November, 1469Castle Baynard
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
16, 17, 18December, 1470Cripplegate
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
19, 20, 21April and May, 1476Farringdon Without
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
22, 23, 24June and July, 1478Dowgate
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
25, 26, 27October and November, 1478Farringdon Without
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
28, 29, 30January and February, 1479Bishopsgate
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
31, 32, 33August and September, 1480Coleman Street
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
34, 35, 36May and June, 1482Aldersgate
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
37, 38, 39March, 1485Broad Street
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
40, 41, 42February, 1490Bassishaw
[Three Wardmotes at which the inhabitants could not agree on a nomination]
43July 2, 1499Bridge
[R. Brande, T. Cremor, W. Stede, R. Knight]
44July 9, 1499Bridge
[Alderman Fabyan, ex-Sheriff S. Jenyns, ex-Sheriff Kneseworth, T. Cremor]
45June 21, 1503Tower
[Alderman Sir R. Haddon, ex-Sheriff Stede, *ex-Sheriff Sir L. Aylmer, T. Graunger]
46July 27, 1503Farringdon Without
[Alderman Nynes, *ex-Sheriff Kneseworth, *ex-Sheriff Warner, J. Kirkby]
47, 48, 49August, 1503Bishopsgate
[Three rejections: names not recorded]
Those whose names are marked * subsequently were elected by the Court of Aldermen.
50April 24, 1504Cripplegate
[Alderman Sir W. Capel, Alderman Chawry, *Sheriff C. Hawes, *W. Copynger]
51November 5, 1504Broad Street.
[Alderman Sir W. Capel, ex-Sheriff C. Hawes, *W. Copynger, *R. Grove.]
52February 8, 1515Vintry
[Alderman Bayley, *T. Semer, *R. Symonds, *J. Aleyn]
53October 19, 1515Queenhithe
[Alderman Jenyns, Alderman Acheley, ex-Sheriff R. Smyth, *R. Symonds ("because it did not seem that every one of the persons aforesaid was sufficient to sustain the office aforesaid and the burthens incident to the said office")]
54October 22, 1515Queenhithe
[*R. Symonds, ex-Sheriff R. Smyth, *R. Dodmer, *S. Pecocke]
55April 28, 1517Farringdon Within
[Alderman Rest, Alderman Thurston, *R. Dodmer, *S. Pecocke]
56July 18, 1521Billingsgate
[Alderman Spencer, Alderman Partryche, *ex-Sheriff Symonds, *N. Jenyns]
57October 22, 1521Queenhithe
[Alderman Sir J. Brugge, Alderman Sir J. Yarford, ex-Sheriff Symonds, *W. Roche]
58March 30, 1523Farringdon Without
[Sir J. Mundy (Lord Mayor), ex-Sheriff Symonds, *N. Lambarde, W. Brothers]
59June 11, 1523Lime Street
[Alderman Sir J. Milborne, Alderman Aleyn, *ex-Sheriff Pargeter, T. Pecok ("because of the persons aforesaid everyone is not sufficient to the burthens and expenses")]
60July 16, 1523Queenhithe
[Ex-Alderman Symonds, *J. Long, *J. Cawnton, *N. Jenyns]
61September 21, 1523Bishopsgate
[Alderman Aleyn, Alderman Sir J. Skevynton, *Sheriff Jenyns, *J. Nechylls]
62September 25, 1523Bishopsgate
[Alderman Sir J. Skevynton, *Sheriff Jenyns, *J. Twyselton, *J. Nechylls]
63September 28, 1523Bishopsgate
[Alderman Sir J. Skevynton, *J. Nechylls, *J. Long, R. Barnam]
64April 26, 1524Aldersgate
[J. Long, *J. Nechylls, *Sheriff Jenyns, *ex-Sheriff Symonds]
65July 5, 1524Broad Street
[Alderman Aleyn, Alderman Sir J. Skevynton, *Sheriff Jenyns, T. Walle]
66May 10, 1525Billingsgate
[Alderman Lambarde, *W. Holyes, *H. Monmouth. *P. Wythypoole ("because of the said four persons everyone is not sufficient")]
67May 30, 1525Queenhithe
[Sir W. Bayley (Lord Mayor), Alderman Lambarde, *ex-Sheriff Pargeter, *R. Fermor, *J. Nechylls (because five were nominated)]
68June 1, 1525Queenhithe
[*Ex-Sheriff Jenyns, *J. Nechylls, *J. Twyselton, W. Hunnyng ("because of the aforesaid persons everyone is not sufficient and fit to support the burthens and costs of the aldermanry")]
69February 3, 1529Cripplegate
[*T. Kytson, *R. Fermor, J. Preest, *W. Forman]
70December 10, 1532Aldersgate
[Sheriff Pyncheon, *J. Cotes, *R. Fermor, W. Dolphyn]
71September 25, 1533Broad Street
[Alderman Sir J. Milborne, Alderman Forman, ex-Sheriff Altham, *R. Aleyn]
72October 2, 1533Broad Street
[Alderman Champneys, *R. Aleyn, *J. Cotes, *H. Huberthorn]
73October, 1533Broad Street
[Names not recorded]
74December 13, 1535Farringdon Without
[Sir J. Aleyn (Lord Mayor), *ex-Sheriff R. Gresham, *T. Colyns, *H. Huberthorn]
75September 20, 1536Cornhill
[Sir J. Aleyn (Lord Mayor), Alderman Bowyer, ex-Sheriff Reynolds, ex-Sheriff Altham, *T. Lewen]
Those whose names are marked * subsequently were elected by the Court of Aldermen.
76, 77September, 1536Cornhill
[Names not recorded]
78May 6, 1546Portsoken
[Alderman Tolos, Alderman Judde, *ex-Sheriff Altham, W. Butler]
79February 10, 1547Cripplegate
[Alderman Sir R. Hill, Alderman Hynde, *J. Lyon, N. Spakeman (because Spakeman was "deemed not to be of substance meet for the same room")]
80March 17, 1547Aldgate
[*W. Garrarde, Harman Amcotts, *J. Usshe, W. Butler (because Amcotts and Butler were adjudged "not to be of substance meet for the same room" and Usshe at the request of the Lord Great Master, was "spared for a time")]
81October 11, 1548Bishopsgate
[Sir J. Gresham (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir W. Laxton, N. Spakeman, R. Crymes, T. Calton, B. Jenyns ("on account of the insufficiency and inability of the commoners aforesaid")]
82October 17, 1549Farringdon Without
[*L. Wythers; *W. Hewett, *T. Lodge, G. Heton ("because Heton is yet insufficient to bear and sustain the honours and burthens of the City in that office"]
83September 20, 1554Billingsgate
[Alderman Woodroffe, Alderman Chester, W. Bery, R. Mellyshe ("because the commoners aforesaid are believed and adjudged to be unfit, incapable and insufficient to undertake that office")]
84January 23, 1560Portsoken
[Names not recorded]
85December 19, 1566Queenhithe
[Names not recorded]
86January 14, 1567Queenhithe
[Alderman Martyn, Alderman Jakman, *R. Hardyng, G. Walkeden]
87March 4, 1567Broad Street
[Alderman Duckett, Alderman Jakman, *F. Barnham, T. Lowe]
88March 20, 1567Vintry
[*F. Barnham, *J. Oliff, R. Offley, *R. Pype]
89April 17, 1567Bassishaw
[Four Aldermen: names not recorded]
90November 10, 1569Portsoken
[T. Kightley, *J. Harvey, T. Walker, *W. Kympton]
91December 10, 1588Aldersgate
[Alderman Prannell, *R. Wythens, *R. Clarke, R. Pleeford (" which election this Court utterly mislyked")]
92January 27, 1595 Lime Street
[*J. Deane, *T. Cambell, *H. Rowe, *R. Clarke ("which nomination was for the disorderly proceeding thereof utterly rejected")]
93May 4, 1598Farringdon Within
[Alderman Bennett, Alderman Lowe, *T. Cambell, *J. Deane]
94June 12, 1604Vintry
[Alderman Jones, H. Butler, *J. Deane, *W. Stone (because Jones had not been Alderman of his Ward for two years)]
95April 21, 1605Farringdon Without
[Sir W. Herrick, *J. Jolles, J. Robinson, *B. Norton (because Robinson being Principal Searcher at the Customs was exempt from serving)]
96April 30, 1605Farringdon Without
[*Sir B. Hicks, *Sir W. Bond, *Sir W. Stone, *Sir W. Herrick (because the King had requested that Hicks should not be nominated)]
97, 98, 99June and July, 1633Bridge
[Alderman Sir G. Whitmore, Alderman Freeman, *Sheriff Andrewes, S. Aldersey— returned three successive times (because Freeman had not been Alderman of his Ward for two years)]
100July 29, 1634Bassishaw
[Alderman Fenn, Alderman Smith, Alderman Andrewes, Alderman Harrison (because no one of them had been Alderman of his Ward for two years)]
Those whose names are marked * subsequently were elected by the Court of Aldermen.
101March 1, 1642Vintry
[Alderman Penington, Alderman Langham, Alderman Towse, *S. Warner (because Towse and Langham had not been Aldermen of their wards for two years and Warner was a grocer, there being already six members of that Company in the Court of Aldermen]
102February 29, 1648Langbourn
[Alderman Vyner, Alderman Pack, *R. Dycer, *R. Render (because Vyner and Pack had not been Aldermen of their Wards for two years)]
103November 21, 1648Bridge
104November 23, 1648
[*R. Wilson returned alone]
105April 10, 1649Candlewick
[Alderman Bide, Alderman Viner, *James Butler (Clothworker), Colonel T. Player (because Butler was the son of a "stranger")]
106May 7, 1651Billingsgate
[Three of the names not recorded: one (*J. Butler) was the son of an alien]
107November 29, 1653Farringdon Without
[Alderman Vyner (Lord Mayor), Alderman Chiverton, Sheriff (ex-Alderman) Phillips, J. Lee (because Phillips had been discharged from the office of Alderman and could not be compelled to serve again)]
108November 13, 1655Walbrook
[Alderman Dethicke (Lord Mayor), Alderman Tichborne, M. Batson, T. Barnardiston ("inasmuch as the Court hath certain information that the said M. Batson by reason of his lameness, and the said T. Barnardiston through deafness and infirmity of hearing, are not able to attend the place of an Alderman, and for other considerations")]
109August 19, 1656Candlewick
[Alderman Bigg, Alderman Thompson, *S. Moyer, A. Beake (because Beake was not a freeman)]
110February 16, 1658Aldersgate
[Alderman Ireton, Alderman Thompson, J. Seed, P. Owen]
111September 15, 1659Farringdon Without
[Alderman Sir T. Atkyn, Alderman Milner, T. Whaplott, J. Sweeting]
112October 9, 1660Farringdon Within
[Sir T. Alleyn (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir R. Browne, J. Rea, J. Wych]
113September 19, 1661Walbrook
[Alderman Sir J. Frederick, Alderman Sir A. Bateman, T. Rosse, C. Waddington]
114July 15, 1662Tower
[Alderman Sir T. Bludworth, Alderman Ryves, * K. White, H. Brandreth]
115September 24, 1663Cripplegate
[Sir J. Robinson (Lord Mayor), Alderman Chiverton, R. Piggott, J. Church]
116June 28, 1664Farringdon Without
[Alderman Sir R. Browne, Alderman Sir T. Alleyn, * J. Lee, J. Rea]
117July 28, 1664Broad Street
[Sir A. Bateman (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir T. Alleyn, Sir L. Bromfield, *H. Chittey]
118January 31, 1667Cheap
[Alderman Sir J. Lawrence, Alderman Sir W. Turner, *P. Jemmott, *T. Wandall]
119June 27, 1667Bread Street
[Sir W. Bolton (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir J. Sheldon, *J. Farrer, *R. Reade]
120August 14, 1667Vintry
[Sir W. Bolton (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir J. Frederick, R. Mountney, *R. Copson (because Mountney was not a freeman)]
121August 14, 1667Farringdon Without
[Alderman Sir R. Browne, Alderman Starling, W. Heycocke, J. Reading]
122August 26, 1667Vintry
[Sir W. Bolton (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir J. Frederick, *G. Lynch, P. Debert]
123September 19, 1667Bread Street
[Sir W. Bolton (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir J. Sheldon, J. Hawkyns, W. Watts ("for the unfitness of the said commoners, especially of the said John Hawkyns, being a person of no qualification worthy the place and dignity of an Alderman")]
Those whose names are marked * subsequently were elected by the Court of Aldermen.
124March 31, 1668Cornhill
[Sir W. Peake (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir W. Turner, J. Pargiter, J. Burton]
125July 9, 1668Cheap
[Alderman Sir J. Frederick, Alderman Sir W. Turner, * John Smith, C. Marisco]
126July 23, 1668Candlewick
[Sir W. Peake (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir R. Ford, W. Gomeldon, G. Meggot]
127October 1, 1668Cordwainer
[Sir W. Peake (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir R. Hanson, J. Nicholson, G. Moore]
128July 13, 1669Cordwainer
[Sir W. Turner (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir R. Hanson, J. Turner, S. Bethell]
129July 20, 1669Cordwainer
[Sir W. Turner (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir R. Hanson, W. Gomeldon, W. Kyffin]
130August 31, 1669Farringdon Within
[Alderman Sir W. Peake, Alderman Sir R. Ryves, R. Rider. R. Stacy]
131October or November, 1669Broad Street
[Names not recorded]
132November 11, 1669Broad Street[Because Moore had been discharged from the office of Alderman and could not be compelled to serve again]
[Sir S. Starling (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir J. Frederick, * J. Moore, *P. Ward]
133November 18, 1669Broad Street
[Sir S. Starling (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir J. Frederick, *J. Moore, *W. Salmon]
134July 12, 1670Farringdon Within
[Alderman Sir R. Hanson, Alderman Sir W. Hooker, H. Brandreth, W. Kyffin]
135July 14, 1670Farringdon Within
[Alderman Sir R. Hanson, Alderman Sir R. Vyner, *P. Ward, E. Bridges]
136July 13, 1680Vintry
[Sir R. Clayton (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir P. Ward, *H. Cornish, *T. Pilkington]
137October 15, 1689Tower
[Sir T. Pilkington (Lord Mayor), Alderman Sir T. Alleyn, Alderman Sir R. Clayton, ex-Alderman Sir J. Lethuillier]
138January 10, 1710Queenhithe
[Alderman Sir R. Bedingfeld, Alderman Sir W. Withers, ex-Sheriff Sir C. Hopson, *J. Fryer (because a poll had been demanded and refused at the nomination of Aldermen to be returned]
139May 10, 1831Portsoken
140January 3, 1832
141October 29, 1833
[M. Scales]
142July 27, 1877Cheap
143September 25, 1877
144October 16, 1877
[Ex-Sheriff Sir J. Bennett]

It will be seen that in the foregoing list the number of recorded rejections in each Ward respectively is:—Farringdon Without 17; Broad Street 13; Bridge 11; Bishopsgate 10; Queenhithe 9; Aldersgate, Castle Baynard, Cripplegate and Vintry 7 each; Farringdon Within and Portsoken 6 each; Bassishaw, Billingsgate and Cheap 5 each; Cornhill 4; Bread Street, Candlewick, Coleman Street, Cordwainer, Dowgate, Lime Street and Tower 3 each; Walbrook 2; Aldgate and Langbourn, 1 each, making 144 in all.

Those whose names are marked * subsequently were elected by the Court of Aldermen.

Direct Elections by the Court of Aldermen after Rejection of Three Successive Nominations.

1.October 3, 1463Castle BaynardN. Marchall.
2.September 22, 1468BridgeT. Stalbrook (Sheriff).
3.November 28, 1469Castle BaynardW. Haryott, or Heriot (ex-Sheriff).
4.December 14, 1470CripplegateH. Hayford (ex-Sheriff).
5.May 17, 1476Farringdon WithoutR. Rawson.
6.July 31, 1478DowgateJ. Warde.
7.November 12, 1478Farringdon WithoutT. Home.
8.February 9, 1479BishopsgateJ. Stokker (ex-Sheriff).
9.September 19, 1480Coleman StreetW. Bacon.
10.June 18, 1482AldersgateJ. Mathewe.
11.March 26, 1485Broad StreetJ. Tate.
12.February 25, 1490BassishawJ. Mathewe (from Bridge).
13.August 29, 1503BishopsgateT. Kneseworth (ex-Sheriff).
14.October 6, 1523BishopsgateJ. Cawnton.
15.October 7, 1533Broad StreetJ. Champneys (from Castle Baynard).
16.October 5, 1536CornhillW. Bowyer (from Aldgate).
17.July 4, 1633BridgeH. Pratt (ex-Sheriff).
18.November 23, 1669Broad StreetW. Salmon.
19.October 29, 1833PortsokenT. Johnson.
20.October 23, 1877CheapE. Breffit (ex-Sheriff).

The Wards which have received Aldermen nominated directly by the Court are thus divided: Bishopsgate and Broad Street 3 each; Bridge, Castle Baynard and Farringdon Without 2 each, Aldersgate, Bassishaw, Cheap, Coleman Street, Cornhill, Cripplegate, Dowgate, and Portsoken 1 each. No instances are recorded in Aldgate, Billingsgate, Bread Street, Candlewick, Cordwainer, Farringdon Within, Langbourn, Lime Street, Queenhithe, Tower, Vintry, and Walbrook.