Chronological list of aldermen
Introduction

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Centre for Metropolitan History

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Author

Alfred P. Beaven

Year published

1908

Pages

362-371

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'Chronological list of aldermen: Introduction', The Aldermen of the City of London: Temp. Henry III - 1912 (1908), pp. 362-371. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=67227 Date accessed: 24 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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Part II. Chronological List of Aldermen.

The following pages contain the names of the Aldermen of the City of London from the reign of Henry III., arranged in chronological order according to their dates of election, so far as these are ascertainable, such particulars being appended in each case as I have been able to collect with regard to the civic and other public offices held by them from time to time, as well as the dates of death, precise or approximate, where it has been possible to procure them. In the present volume the succession is carried as far as the end of the 14th Century (1400).

In the first part of this work the succession of Aldermen in each Ward from the early years of Edward I. has been set out. This it has been found possible to ascertain with only a few lacunæ from the official records (Letter Books, Journals and Repertories) preserved at Guildhall. Where, as is most frequently the case in the names occurring in the first hundred years which these records cover, and also in a considerable portion of the fifteenth century, the actual date of election has not been preserved, it is possible to infer the order of succession in each Ward and to determine the approximate date, with a degree of exactitude almost tantamount to certainty, by noting the recorded attendances of individual Aldermen and by reference to the deeds enrolled in the Court of Husting, many of which are attested by the Alderman for the time being of the Ward in which the property was situated to which the particular deed refers.

At pages 235–237 I had added a few notes as to Aldermen of an earlier period than that covered by the Guildhall records to which I have referred, these being mainly derived from the not very accurate transcript of the Liber Trinitatis now in the Guildhall Library. (fn. 1) These may however be considered as superseded by the fuller information furnished in this portion of the work.

Since those memoranda were printed I have been enabled (as the result of a very careful study of the references to London Aldermen in the Catalogue of Ancient Deeds preserved at the Record Office and in the Calendar of Documents at St. Paul's Cathedral given in the Appendix to the 9th Report of the Historical Manuscripts Commission, supplemented by personal inspection of some hundreds of these deeds and documents.) to collect evidence as to the names of a considerable number of Aldermen of the 12th and 13th centuries previous to the date at which the Letter Books and Husting Deeds begin to supply them; to many of these it is possible to assign their particular Wards with either absolute certainty or a high degree of probability.

The most ancient list of the Wards now extant, so far as has been ascertained, is to be found in pages 47–50 of Liber L, one of the MSS. in the Library of St. Paul's Cathedral; this has been printed in facsimile in Price's Descriptive Account of the Guildhall. The date is very early in the 12th century, probably about 1115. In this document the number of Wards recorded is twenty in all, one being described as the Bishop's Ward, three bearing local names, and the remaining sixteen being distinguished as the Wards of individual citizens, who, although not expressly so styled, may, without doubt, be regarded as Aldermen. That that designation was already in use in connexion with the Wards at that period is evidenced by the fact that, a deed dated 14 Kal. Aug. [i.e. July 19] 1111, is witnessed by 'Turstenus' or 'Tursten,' 'Aldermannus de la Warde.' The Ward in question was probably Castle Baynard, the property to which the deed refers being situate close to the Church of 'St. Benedict Super Tamisiam,' (afterwards known as St. Benet, Paul's Wharf,) which parish at a later period was certainly comprised in this Ward. I believe that Tursten has been claimed as Alderman for Queenhithe Ward, but the identification of his Ward with Castle Baynard has the support of the Rev. W. J. Loftie [London (Historic Towns Series), page 78] on grounds which appear to me to be decisive.

The word 'Alderman' was in use before the Conquest, but I do not know of any earlier instance in definite connexion with a City Ward, and Mr. Loftie is doubtless right in saying that 'Tursten is the first Alderman of a Ward in London of whom so far any mention has been found.'

In the list referred to above (Liber L, St. Paul's MSS.) the Wards are arranged in the following order which I have numbered for convenience of reference.

1.Warda Episcopi.
2." Haconis.
3." Alwoldi.
4." Fori.
5." Edwardi Parole.
6." Algari Manningestepsune.
7." Radulphi fil. Liuuie.
8." Alegate.
9." Godwini fil. Esgari.
10." Brichmari Bordarii.
11.Warda Brichmari Monetarii.
12." Sperlingi.
13." Eilwardi fil. Wizeli.
14." Herberti.
15." Osberti Dringepinne.
16." Liuredi.
17." Brocesgange.
18." Hugonis fil. Ulgari.
19." Reimundi.
20." Radulphi fil. Algodi.

Mr. Loftie in a private commmunication to Dr. Sharpe (Records Clerk at Guildhall) dated May 16th, 1901, which has not been printed, has suggested identifications of most of these Wards, which he has deduced from a careful consideration of such evidence as the descriptions of the properties named under each Ward affords.

"Warda Fori" and "Warda Alegate" are obviously Cheap and Aldgate respectively. The name "Brocesgange" no doubt refers to the course of the Walbrook, and the Ward so designated can hardly be other than either Walbrook or Dowgate. In his 1901 letter Mr. Loftie leaves it an open question as between these two Wards: in his Historic Towns volume he inclines to the former (p. 96) though apparently (p. 92) not without hesitation. The fact, however, that the several pieces of land named as situate in Brocesgange Ward are each said to extend to the Thames [durat usque Tamisiam] seems to point to its identity with Dowgate.

Mr. Loftie's identifications of other Wards are as under:—

1. Castle Baynard.

2. Broad Street.

3. Cripplegate.

5. Bishopsgate.

6. Candlewick.

7. Cornhill.

9. Tower.

11. Aldersgate.

12. Billingsgate.

15. Vintry.

18. Queenhithe.

19. Coleman Street.

20. Bread Street.

I have taken the identification of 18 from a communication made to myself in May, 1907, by Mr. Loftie. In his 1901 letter he suggests either Queenhithe or Walbrook for 18, and either Queenhithe or Cordwainer for 16. I am inclined to identify 14 with Walbrook; (fn. 2) if, however, 17 is Walbrook, 14 is presumably Dowgate, and in either case I think 16 is Cordwainer and 18 Queenhithe.

Mr. Loftie has not suggested the identity of the Wards numbered 10 and 13 respectively; the Wards not named in the above suggestions are Bridge, Langbourn, Lime Street, Bassishaw, Portsoken, and that subsequently known as Farringdon. It may be taken as certain that neither Portsoken nor Farringdon was at that date included in the City Wards, and I am inclined to think that the same may be said of Lime Street and Bassishaw.

Of the persons named in the above list, Osbert Dringepinne, Hugh fitz-Ulgar and Ranulf fitz-Algod were amongst the 15 members of the Cnichtengild who gave their land and soke to the Priory of Holy Trinity in 1125 and were at the same time admitted members of that confraternity and Algar "Manningestepsune" (i.e. Manning's Stepson) may not improbably be regarded as identical with "Algar Secusenne" whose name appears in the same list (Letter Book C, folio 135).

Between 1120 and the last quarter of the 12th century a few names of Aldermen occur. In Liber L (from which the list examined above is taken), we find mention under date 1142 of Azo as Alderman: he was an eminent goldsmith and son of Reimund (or Reinmund), whom he appears to have succeeded in the Aldermanry of Coleman Street Ward. (fn. 3) From the same source we have, without any precise date, Walter fitz-Terri, probably Alderman of Cripplegate, the property with which his name is associated being in Aldermanbury. From the Ancient Deeds in the Record Office, we get the names of Aldermen Godselin, (fn. 4) Geoffrey, (fn. 5) Jordan (fn. 6) and Blacestan, (fn. 7) of whom the two first named appear to be connected with Castle Baynard and Cornhill Wards respectively, Jordan (and possibly Blacestan also), with Billingsgate; Blacestan is named earlier than the other three, viz.: in the Priorate of Peter (1148–1167) whereas their names occur in the Priorate of Stephen (1170–1187); also Ernulf and Peter are named as Aldermen, one of whom was probably Alderman of Cripplegate, the other names in the deed, which is undated, pointing to the early years of Henry II. (fn. 8) Liber Trinitatis supplies Edmund, apparently Alderman of Aldgate. Peter is probably identical with Peter fitz-Walter (Sheriff 1174–75).

From about 1170 the deeds in the Record Office Catalogue relating to City property and attested by Aldermen of the Wards increase in frequency, and in addition to those who bear this designation, many others who are not definitely so described may, with some confidence, be assumed to have been entitled to it both from the positions which their names repeatedly occupy in the lists of attestations and from the fact that those names in many instances occur in the succession of Mayors and Sheriffs.

The name of Henry fitz-Ailwyn is of common occurrence without the addition of "Mayor" and therefore presumably before his election to that office, which he held continuously from at least as early as 1193 till his death in 1212. In one entry during the Shrievalty of John fitz-Nigel and John Waleraun (1177–78), he is definitely styled "Alderman." (fn. 9) Many deeds are preserved which were executed during his tenure of the Mayoralty, when his name usually appears as "Henry Mayor" simply: in one document he is described as "Henry fitz-Ailwyn fitz-Leofstan," (fn. 10) in another as "Henry of Londonstone." (fn. 11)

Contemporary with him the following names occur, with the addition of "Alderman," at one or more of the references given in the footnotes: John fitz-Nigel (fn. 12) (Sheriff 1177–78), William de Haverell or Haverill (fn. 13) (Sheriff, 1189–91), Jukel or Jokel (fn. 14) (Sheriff, 1194–95), Robert Blund (fn. 15) (Sheriff, 1196–97), James "Alderman" (fn. 16) (Sheriff 1199–1200), who (as is also the case with Robert Blund), is sometimes called "fitz-Bartholomew," William fitz-Alice (fn. 17) (Sheriff 1200–01), Thomas de Haverell, son of William (fn. 18) (Sheriff 1203–04), Theobald fitz-Ivo, (fn. 19) Alan "Burserius," (fn. 20) Matthew Blund, (fn. 21) William Fulbert, (fn. 20) Thomas fitz-John, (fn. 22) John Sperling, (fn. 23) Peter Blund. (fn. 24)

Of these, the two Haverells were certainly Aldermen of Cripplegate (fn. 24a) and Sperling of Billingsgate, in which Ward he was succeeded by his brother Ralph early in the reign of Henry III. Theobald fitz-Ivo was presumably Alderman of Portsoken by delegation from the Prior of Holy Trinity, who at that time was Peter of Cornwall (see Note A below), Jukel is assigned by Mr. Loftie to Cripplegate (Historic Towns, p. 90); he is named in the St. Paul's MSS. as Alderman in connection with the parish of St. Mary Magdalene, Fish Street, the greater portion of which was in Castle Baynard Ward, of which Ward, notwithstanding Mr. Loftie's high authority, I am inclined to infer that he was Alderman. Peter Blund's Ward was probably Aldgate or Tower; that of Robert Blund and of William fitz-Alice, Bread Street.

Others during this period were almost certainly Aldermen though not so described in any extant document which I have seen. Such were Andrew Bukerel (Sheriff 1172–74), (fn. 25) Henry de Cornhill (fn. 26) and Richard fitz-Reiner (fn. 27) (Sheriffs 1187–88), John fitz-Herlicon (fn. 28) and Roger le Duc (fn. 29) (Sheriffs 1189–90), John Bokointe or Bucuint (fn. 30) (Sheriff 1190–91), Nicholas Duket (fn. 31) (Sheriff 1191–92 and 1196–97), Roger fitz-Alan (fn. 32) (Sheriff 1192–93, and fitz-Ailwyn's successor in the Mayoralty), William fitz-Isabel or fitz-Sabel (fn. 33) and William fitz-Alulf (fn. 34) (Sheriffs 1193–94), Constantine fitz-Alulf (fn. 35) (Sheriff 1197–98) and his brother Ernulf fitz-Alulf (fn. 36) (Sheriff 1198–99), John Waleran (fn. 37) (Sheriff 1204–5), Alulf fitz-Fromund, (fn. 38) Jordan de Turri (fn. 39) (probably identical with the Jordan already mentioned), Henry fitzReiner, (fn. 40) William Facetus, (fn. 41) and Alan fitz-Peter. (fn. 42)

In the Mayoralty of fitz-Alan, who succeeded on fitz-Ailwyn's death in 1212, C. fitz-Alulf (fn. 43) is named as an Alderman together with Alan fitz-Peter, T. de Haverell, Joce fitz-Peter (Sheriff 1211–12), Andrew Nevelun—son of Peter Nevelun and hence called elsewhere Andrew fitz-Peter (fn. 44) —(Sheriff 1215–16), and Robert fitz-Alice. Andrew Nevelun was probably Alderman of Vintry.

Between 1215 and 1230 the Mayoralty was held by William Hardel "James Alderman," Salomon de Basing, Serlo le Mercer, Richard Renger and Roger le Duc, who were all presumably Aldermen before their elevation to the Chair, though I am not satisfied that this was an invariable rule in those days. [The last-named is probably not identical with the Sheriff of 1189–90, named above. Renger is definitely named as an Alderman under date, March 24, 1317 (fn. 44a) and Serlo also appears to have been one at the same time.] T. de Haverell, C. and E. fitz Alulf, J. fitz-Peter, J. Sperling, W. fitz-Alice, and H. fitz-Reiner, who have already been named, appear definitely as Aldermen: also Andrew Bukerel (fn. 45) (who succeeded Roger le Duc as Mayor in 1230 or 1231 and survived till 1237–8, and must therefore be a different person from the Andrew Bukerel of 1172–73), Stephen Crassus or le Gras (fn. 46) (often printed erroneously le Gros), and Adam de Witebi (fn. 47) (Sheriffs 1210-11), Martin fitz-Alice (fn. 48) (Sheriff 1213–14), Benedict (fn. 49) (Sheriff 1216–17), Thomas Bukerel (fn. 50) (Sheriff 1217–18), John Viel or Vitalis (fn. 51) (Sheriff 1218–20), Hugh Tabur, (fn. 52) John de Cornhill, (fn. 53) John Hanin, (fn. 54) Laurence Lamb', (fn. 55) [sic, possibly an abbreviation for Lambyn], William de Bosco, (fn. 56) Robert de Woburn, (fn. 57) and William Wilekin. (fn. 58) Gervase de Aldermanbury (fn. 59) was probably an Alderman about this time; possibly also Constantine 'juvenis' (fn. 60) (Sheriff 1212–13). To the same period it seems likely that Henry de St. Elena (fn. 61) should be assigned who is named as an Alderman, probably of Bishopsgate; Tabur was Alderman of Bassishaw, Lamb' of Queenhithe; Woburn, apparently, of Aldersgate, and A. Bukerel, of Cripplegate.

In the Great Rolls of the Exchequer of 12 and 14 Henry III. (i.e., 1227–28 and 1229–30) the assessments of the different Wards for tallage are set forth in detail with the names of the Aldermen responsible for its collection. Twenty-four Wards are named in each list, all distinguished by the names of their Aldermen, except Portsoken (the Aldermanry of which was held ex officio by the Prior of Holy Trinity) and Bassishaw (here written "Bassushag"). One Ward (Cheap) has both its local name and that of its Alderman (W. fitz-Benedict). The name of Roger le Duc, who was Mayor 1227–30, does not appear in either list, unless (which appears probable) he was identical with "Roger Burserius" with whose name I have not met elsewhere. The earlier list (that for 12 Henry III.) gives the following names:—

William fitz-Benedict.Richard RayngerIn the later list (14 Henry III) all these names are repeated, except that of Peter fitz-Alulf; his place is taken by John de Solariis (usually written de Solio), who, however, is twice named as an Alderman in the Mayoralty of R. Renger and Shrievalty of R. Le Duc and M. fitzWilliam, i.e., between 1225 and 1227 (fn. 61a)
Andrew Bukerel(usually written Renger).
Michael de St. Helena.Ralph Sperling.
Joce fitz-Peter.Ralph Stepering.
Robert fitz-John.Gervase fitz-Fulk.
John Viel.Walter de Insula.
Ace le Mairemer.John Travers.
Roger Blund.Peter fitz-Roger.
Stephen le Gras.James Blund.
John Waleran.Roger Burserius.
Warine fitz-Nicholas.Peter fitz-Alulf.
Richard de Russye.

I have not met elsewhere with the names of Ace le Mairemer, Peter fitz-Roger, and Peter fitz-Alulf as Aldermen. Waleran, fitz-Nicholas, Russye, Stepering, de Insula, and Travers are not found later, but occur in documents of earlier date: the rest appear as Aldermen both before and after this time.

Several of these can be assigned with practical certainty, and others with varying degrees of probability, to particular Wards. Thus fitz-Benedict (or as it is usually written, fitz-Benet) was Alderman of Cheap as already stated; A. Bukerel of Cripplegate, (fn. 62) J. fitz-Peter of Ludgate and Newgate (the modern Farringdon), (fn. 63) S. le Gras of Vintry, (fn. 64) R. Renger of Bridge, (fn. 65) G. fitz-Fulk of Aldgate, (fn. 66) R. Sperling of Billingsgate, (fn. 67) R. Stepering of Tower, (fn. 68) J. Travers of Langbourn, (fn. 69) M. de S. Helena may probably be allocated to Aldersgate, (fn. 70) James Blund to Broad Street, (fn. 71) Roger Blund to Cordwainer, (fn. 72) de Insula (i.e. Lisle) to Bishopsgate, (fn. 73) Russye to Candlewick, (fn. 74) and Viel to Bread Street. (fn. 75)

Joce, "junior" (fn. 76) appears among the Aldermen in the year 1231–2 (16 Henry III.), probably as successor to Russye; Richard de Hadestok (fn. 77) and Richard de Wimbledon, (fn. 78) who served respectively for Dowgate and Queenhithe occur in 1233–4 and 1234–5 respectively. During the next four or five years the names of Gerard Bat, (fn. 79) William Joynier (fn. 80) and Reginald Bungheye, (fn. 81) (all of whom reached the Mayoral chair while still among the junior Aldermen, if indeed they were then already Aldermen), are found as witnesses to deeds; also Stephen Bukerel, (fn. 82) who succeeded to Andrew Bukerel's seat for Cripplegate and Richard fitz-Walter (fn. 83) who served for Aldgate. Between 1239 and 1245 we come upon the names of Robert de Cornhill (probably Alderman of Lime Street), (fn. 84) Ralph Hardel, (fn. 85) Simon fitz-Mary (Walbrook), (fn. 86) William fitz-Richard (Tower), (fn. 87) Lawrence Frowyk (Ludgate and Newgate), (fn. 88) Thomas de Dunelm (i.e. Durham), (fn. 89) Ralph Eswy (or Aswy) who was Alderman of Cheap, (fn. 90) Michael Tovi, (fn. 91) and John de Gisors (fn. 92) ; the three last named of these became Mayors whilst very junior Aldermen, unless (as I think nearly certain in the case of Gisors, and probable in that of Tovi), they reached the Mayoral chair before the Aldermanic bench. J. Norman also appears to have been an Alderman at this period, though not definitely so styled till later.

At the end of 1245 John de Coudres is named as an Alderman in the Chronicle of Mayors and Sheriffs (page 12), written by Arnold fitz-Thedmar, who a few years later attained himself to that dignity; R. Sperling, N. Bat and T. de Durham are named with Coudres. In the same year William Eswy (or Aswy) appears as Alderman, probably of Coleman Street. (fn. 93) In 1246–7 we meet with Walter de Winton (Dowgate) (fn. 94) ; in that year Peter fitz-Alan served as Mayor. In 1249, fitz-Thedmar records the deprivation of fitz-Mary and the election of Alexander le Ferrun on March 8, to succeed to his Aldermanry (Walbrook). (fn. 95)

For the year 1249–50 (34 Henry III.), we have the names of 23 Aldermen, forming with the addition of the Prior of Holy Trinity who is not included, the complete list for that date; (fn. 96) of these, 13 are those of Aldermen with whom we have already met, the remaining ten appearing now for the first time definitely as Aldermen. They may be divided thus:—

Old.

R. Sperling.

R. de Hadestok.

S. Bukerel.

Ralph Hardel.

R. de Cornhill.

W. fitz-Richard.

Nicholas Bat.

L. Frowyk.

T. de Durham.

M. Tovi.

A. le Ferrun.

W. Eswy.

John Norman.

New.

Roger fitz-Roger (Mayor).

John Tolesan or Tulesan.

Adam le Basing.

John le Minur.

Robert Hardel.

Nicholas fitz-Joce.

Thomas fitz-Thomas.

John Adrien.

William Viel.

Gervase le Cordwainer

(also called Gervase Barn').

It is strange that neither J. Gisors nor P. fitz-Alan, though they had so recently been Mayors, is found in this list, but Gisors' name appears as an Alderman in 1251–52, (fn. 96a) and P. fitz-Alan's in 1261–62. (fn. 96b) The latter's name is also found in the years 1250–51, 1251–52, and 1257–58, (fn. 96c) in such a position as might suggest the rank of Alderman, though he is not actually so called at those dates, and may very probably have been so placed as an ex-Mayor, and on the whole I am inclined to the belief that he was not an Alderman at all until after his Mayoralty, and that he succeeded W. Eswy, as Alderman of Coleman Street about 1260, though he may have been Alderman of another Ward earlier. [Note B.—He appears definitely as Alderman of Coleman Street in Ancient Deed, A 1901, in the year 1261–2.]

The only additional name before 1258 is that of Thomas de Wymburne, who is found acting as Alderman of Portsoken in 1256–57. (fn. 97) [See Note A, p. 365]

It is noted by fitz-Thedmar that in February 1258, the King deprived all the Aldermen of their Wards, but permitted them to be restored "if elected by the Commons of the City," with the exception of Ralph Hardel (Mayor), N. Bat, N. fitz-Joce, J. Tolesan, J. le Minur, fitz-Thedmar himself and Matthew Bukerel, who is here named for the first time. (fn. 98) Those not thus excepted secured re-election, with the exception of R. de Hadestok. (fn. 99) New Aldermen were chosen in place of the excluded ones, save that fitz-Thedmar's Ward (Billingsgate) (fn. 99a) remained in the hands of the new Mayor (W. fitzRichard), (fn. 100) Osbert de Hadestok acting as Deputy - Alderman for that Ward (fn. 101) Fitz-Thedmar himself does not record the names of the new Aldermen elected; we find for the first time in the course of the next two years those of John de Blakethorne (Aldersgate), (fn. 102) Richard de Ewell (Ludgate and Newgate), (fn. 103) and John Blund (fn. 103a) (probably Aldgate).

In November, 1259, fitz-Thedmar was restored to his Ward and, as he records in his Chronicle, the King "recalled to his grace and favour" fitz-Joce, le Minur, and M. Bukerel. In the interval since their ejection from office the other deprived Aldermen, (Hardel, Bat and Tolesan) had died. (fn. 104) It does not appear that the removal of the King's displeasure involved the return of the deprived Aldermen to their Wards; neither fitz-Joce nor Minur is again named in any list of Aldermanic attendances or attestations, but the name of M. Bukerel occurs as that of the Alderman of Langbourn in 1270–1. (fn. 104a)

Between 1259 and 1275 few new names occur among the Aldermen other than those which are found in the Hundred Rolls of the latter year, to which reference will be made later. Those not included by name or by implication in the 1275 lists are Adam Bruning (fn. 105) who succeeded Ewell in Ludgate and Newgate, Richard de Walebrook (fn. 106) (Bassishaw), Bartholomew Castell (fn. 107) (Cripplegate), Walter Hervi (Cheap), Geoffrey de Winton (fn. 108) (Bridge) and Edward Blund. (fn. 109) Hervi, who apparently succeeded fitz-Thomas in Cheap after the latter's disappearance (fn. 110) and later took his place as the leader of the democratic party in the City, (fn. 111) was deprived of his Aldermanry in June 1274. (fn. 112) In a deed of the year 1265–66 (when J. Adrien and W. Hervi were bailiffs), R. de Walebrook is described as "tunc custode Aldermannie de Colemanstrate" and B. de Castell as "tunc custode Aldermannia de Bassieshawe." (fn. 113) This is explained by the fact (recorded by fitz-Thedmar) that in that year all the Aldermen were temporarily displaced by the Earl of Gloucester and Wardens appointed in their stead. There is no later record of Walebrook in connexion with the Aldermanry of a Ward, but Castell, as stated above, was Alderman of Cripplegate a few years later. Edward Blund was probably Alderman of Bassishaw after Walebrook and succeeded by Thomas de Basing about 1269. (fn. 114)

Michael Tovi appears as Alderman of Newgate and Ludgate on December 9, 1264, and on three other occasions in the year 1264–65. (fn. 115) I am not sure whether this was the ex-Mayor or his son, both of whom are named as joint witnesses to undated deeds in the St. Paul's MSS., probably he was the son. I have not found the ex-Mayor's name amongst the Aldermen between 1257–58 and 1264, and he must have been Alderman of another Ward originally, as Newgate and Ludgate was held by L. Frowyk from about 1240 till about 1258, when he was succeeded by R. Ewell. (See p. 373).

In the troubles connected with Simon de Montfort's rebellion, the ex-Mayors Gisors and fitz-Richard, with Aldermen R. de Cornhill, J. Adrien, A. fitz-Thedmar, B. Castell, G. de Winton and also G. de Rokesle and W. de Durham, who became Aldermen shortly after, were conspicuous as adherents of the king's party; Tovi, fitz-Thomas, A. le Ferrun and S. Bukerel being on the other side (Chronicle Mayors and Sheriffs, p. 120).

We now come to the Hundred Rolls of 3 Edw. I. (1275), which contain three lists (one incomplete) of the Wards at that time. The first (vol. i., pp. 403–423), gives 16 Wards, five distinguished by local names ("Bassingshae," Cheap, Portsoken, Langbourn, Dowgate), the rest by those of their respective Aldermen, viz.:

Anketel de Alv'ne (i.e. Auvergne),

Peter Aungier,

Wolmar de Essex,

John de Norhampton,

William de Hadestok,

Robert de Meldeburne,

John Horn,

Thomas de Basing,

Walter le Pot' (i.e. Poter),

John de Blakethorne,

Simon de Hadestok.

A second list appears on pp. 423, 424, and a third on pp. 425–443. Both these are complete and they are very similar to each other. In both the Wards of Cheap, Portsoken and Dowgate are described by their local names, so also are Bassishaw, Langbourn and Walbrook in the third list, but not in the second.

The eleven Aldermen named in the first list reappear (with some orthographical variations) in both the second and the third, which also supply the following additional names, viz.:

Peter de Edelmeton,

Henry de Coventre,

Ralph Faber (elsewhere called le Fevre),

William de Dunelm (i.e. Durham),

Philip le Tailleur,

Henry le Waleys.

Henry de Frowyk.

The second list adds John Adrian, Ralph le Blund and Nicholas de Winton who represent the respective Wards of Walbrook, Bassishaw and Langbourn named in the third.

We have thus the names of twenty-one Aldermen, two Wards (in addition to Portsoken, whose Alderman ex officio was the Prior of Holy Trinity), being designated by their local names in each of the three lists, viz: Cheap and Dowgate. Of these twenty-one Aldermen, seventeen are named under their respective Wards in part I. of this work. The others are P. Aungier, who served for Broad Street, W. le Poter (Cornhill), R. Faber and R de Meldeburne. At p. 1 of this work I have assigned Meldeburne to Aldersgate, following a tentative, but (for the date indicated) erroneous, identification in Dr. Sharpe's Calendar of Letter Book A, p. 205. The Alderman of Aldersgate at this time (1277) was undoubtedly Blakethorne, who was serving for that Ward in 1258–9, 1267–8, 1269–70, and as late as December, 1280. (fn. 116) Meldeburne served for Coleman Street from as early as 1270–1. (fn. 117) I am, however, inclined to think that Meldeburne may have succeeded Blakethorne in Aldersgate in 1281, as both he and his successor in Coleman Street (J. fitz-Peter) are recorded as being present as Aldermen on May 13, 1282 (Letter Book C, fo. 52b) and W. le Mazeliner, the next Alderman of Aldersgate, does not appear as such earlier than December 11, 1282. By the process of exhaustion, it may be inferred that Ralph Faber was at this time Alderman of Lime Street. Mr. Loftie, misled by his description "de Cornhill," which probably refers to his place of abode (as in the similar case of John de Tulesan or Tolosan "of Walebroc" who was not Alderman of Walbrook Ward), has assigned him to Cornhill Ward, (fn. 118) which was certainly held by Poter. (fn. 119) Faber (or LeFevre) afterwards acquired the Aldermanry of Ludgate and Newgate in succession to Anketin (or Anketel) de Auvergne. (See page 143).

It is not necessary to refer in detail to the lists of Aldermen with their Wards which are printed in Dr. Sharpe's Calendar of the Husting Rolls, and of Letter Books A, C, E, as the dates to which they refer are covered by the succession of Aldermen given in Part I. With regard to the date of the first of these, Dr. Sharpe is undoubtedly accurate in assigning it to 1285 or 1286: the list corresponds (except for the absence of one name, the omission of which is satisfactorily accounted for by Dr. Sharpe in his footnote) with that of the Aldermen recorded in a Husting Deed of January, 1286. It is not possible to make, with certainty, a closer approximation to the actual date of the list than between June, 1285, the first-recorded mention of Martin Box as an Alderman (Letter Book A, folio 127) and March 3, 1287 (not February, 1286, as Dr. Sharpe has accidentally misdated it), when John de Northampton's successor is first named [H.R. 17 (22)]. I concur, however, with Dr. Sharpe, who has gone into the question with me, that the most probable date is about the beginning of July, 1285, immediately after the appointment of R. de Sandwich to be Custos of the City. This suggestion receives strong support from the fact that on June 16, 1293, five days after the appointment of John de Breton as Custos, there was a General Election of Aldermen—those whose names form the list given in Letter Book C, fo. 6 (xxx.).

Having thus set forth the material which exists for supplying the names of Aldermen of London from an earlier period than that covered by the Letter Books at Guildhall, I proceed to give the succession in chronological order from c. 1230. It will be seen from the foregoing remarks that for the first forty years of that period the list cannot be regarded as certainly exhaustive, and in several cases it is impossible to assign Wards to individual Aldermen, and in others such allocation is only tentative. From the beginning of Edward I.'s reign we are on surer ground.

When the full date is given it is usually that of election; during the period of Annual Elections (1377–1394) the day (March 12) is that of assumption of office, the actual days of election not being recorded. Where the word "sworn" is appended in brackets, only the date of formal admission has been preserved; the words "and sworn" indicate that election and admission were on the same day. In the majority of elections after the fifteenth century and in some earlier ones, two dates are given, the earlier being that of election, the later that of admission.

The succession in each Ward is given in Part I. (pages 1–224); the following list gives the chronological succession of persons. Hence, when one or more translations from one Ward to another took place in consequence of a single death or resignation, the new Alderman is regarded as taking the place of the one who had died or resigned, not of the one to whose Ward he succeeded. Thus, Sir T. Crosby, the present (May, 1908) Alderman of Langbourn, is regarded as the successor of Sir Stuart Knill, at whose death Sir T. Crosby's predecessor in Langbourn (Sir J. Savory) was translated to Bridge Without.

The names of Mayors and Lord Mayors are printed in small capitals: those of persons elected Aldermen but (certainly or presumably) not admitted and sworn are in italics.

Note A.—In Stow's Survey, vol. i., it is distinctly stated that fitz-Ivo was "instituted Alderman of Portsoken by Eustachius, the eighth prior, about the year 1264 because he would not deal with temporal matters." I had accordingly adopted that statement at p. 180 of this work, as others have done, including Sir W. Besant in his Mediæval London (vol. ii., p. 241), which was published since my lists of Aldermen of the Wards were printed. There can be no doubt, however, that Stow is wrong. Fitz-Ivo's name appears as Alderman under date 1196–97, being the year of Shrievalty of Nicholas [Duket] and Robert Blund (in conjunction with "Henry Mayor" and William Fulbert, Alderman), in Ancient Deed A 5915 and again (without date but in conjunction with William Fubert [sic] Matthew Blund and Alan Burser, Aldermen) in Ancient Deed A 7826. Moreover the name of Thomas de Wymburne (Sheriff 1252–53) is found as acting Alderman of Portsoken both before, during and after the Priorate of Eustace, being described as "Alderman" as early as 1256–7 (Ancient Deeds A 1867), as "Warden of the Soke" as late as 1270–1 (Ancient Deeds A 1868) and "Sockenreeve of Portsoken" in 1271–2 (Ancient Deeds A 1512).

Footnotes

1 . I find that on page 235 I reproduced, in my ignorance, two errors of the transcriber who wrote 'Cabur' for Tabur and 'Capell' for Castell. I have erred in good company, as the late Sir Walter Besant has (Mediæval London, vol. ii., Appendix 3 made exactly the same mistake, through blindly trusting to an inaccurate authority.
2 There is a reference in Liber L to Herbert as Alderman in connection with property in the parish of St. John, Walbrook, the larger portion of which was comprised in Walbrook and Dowgate Wards.
3 Loftie Historic Towns, pp. 27, 89.
4 Ancient Deeds, A 1485.
5 " " A 1997.
6 " " A 2424.
7 " " A 2419.
8 " " A 2011.
9 " " A 7295.
10 " " A 2507.
11 St. Paul's MSS., 578.
12 " " 1744.
13 " " 103, 643, 1574.
Ancient Deeds, A 1502, 2119.
14 St. Paul's MSS., 270.
15 " " 198, 226, 1652.
Ancient Deeds, A 1474, 1513, 7822.
16 St. Paul's MSS., 1574, 1575.
17 St. Paul's MSS., 227.
18 " " 103, 226, 1210, 1492, 1574.
Ancient Deeds, A 1639, 2125, 2484.
19 " " A 5915, 7826.
20 " " A 2540, 7826.
21 " " A 7826.
St. Paul's MSS., 467, 1304.
22 " " 226, 396, 1304.
23 Ancient Deeds, A 1936.
24 " " A 1936, 7354.
24a St. Paul's MSS., 103, 1209, 1528, 1627.
25 Ancient Deeds, A 1686.
26 " " A 2383.
27 " " A 1679, 1686.
St. Paul's MSS., 226, 636, 839.
28 " " 226, 456, 643.
29 " " 467.
30 " " 270, 643.
Ancient Deeds, A 1679, 1894, 7295.
31 " " A 1942, 2000.
St. Paul's MSS., 643.
32 St. Paul's MSS., 226, 467, 839, 1492.
Ancient Deeds, A 1502, 1639, 2332, 2518.
33 St. Paul's MSS., 226, 456.
34 " " 456, 1528.
35 " " 103, 456, 467, 1492.
Ancient Deeds, A 1502.
36 St. Paul's MSS., 456, 467, 1492.
37 Ancient Deeds, A 1894.
38 St. Paul's MSS., 636, 1528.
39 " " 226, 456.
Ancient Deeds, A 7295.
40 " " A 2690.
41 " " A 7295.
St. Paul's MSS., 1744.
42 " " 456. 467.
Ancient Deeds, A 1502, 1936.
43 Ancient Deeds, A 1499.
44 St. Paul's MSS., 290.
44a Ancient Deeds, A 7376.
45 " " A 1904.
46 " " A 1960.
St. Paul's MSS., 290.
47 " " 1125, 1359.
48 " " 291.
Ancient Deeds. A 1647, 2213, 7376.
49 " " A 7821.
50 " " A 1682, 1954, 1960, 2238.
51 " " A 1954, 1960, 2238.
52 " " A 1651, 1923.
53 " " A 1930, 7363.
54 Ancient Deeds, A 2219.
55 " " A 2437.
56 St. Paul's MSS. 176, 1061.
57 " " 1125.
58 " " 441.
Ancient Deeds, A 2228.
59 " " A 1489, 2215.
60 " " A 2388.
St. Paul's MSS., 291.
61 Ancient Deeds, A 1663.
61a " " A 1675, 1845.
62 Ancient Deeds, A 1881.
63 St. Paul's MSS., 241, 1345, 1350.
64 Ancient Deeds, A 2511, 2539.
65 " " A 1810; Lib. Trin. i., ff. 215, 217.
66 " " A 1627, 2651, 2673, 2682.
67 " " A 1696, 1743, 1806, 1846, 2446. B, 2026.
68 " " A 1628, 1710.
69 " " A 1808, 2113, 6080; Lib. Trin. ii., 259b.
70 " " A 2241; St. Paul's MSS. 1130.
71 " " A 1914, 2139, 2259, 2285, 2668, 2698.
72 " " A 1667.
73 " " A 1906, 2223, 2228, 2665.
74 " " A 1930.
75 " " A 2496, 2725.
76 " " A 1511, 1955.
77 St. Paul's MSS., 1525, (see also 219).
78 Ancient Deeds, A 1791.
79 St. Paul's MSS., 301.
80 Ancient Deeds, A 1655; St. Paul's MSS., 1358.
81 Ancient Deeds, A 2447, 7824; St. Paul's MSS. 540, 542.
82 " " A 2017, 11861, 11863; St. Paul's MSS., 301, 540, 542.
83 " " A 2447, 2712, 7824.
84 " " A 2017.
85 " " A 7824.
86 " " A 2017; St. Paul's MSS., 1345, 1358.
87 " " A 7824, C 1202.
88 " " A 7824, St. Paul's MSS., 475, 1358.
89 " " A 2138.
90 " " A 1646, 2250; St. Paul's MSS., 219.
91 " " A 2250; St. Paul's MSS., 727.
92 " " A 1646, 1987, 2226.
93 " " A 1987.
94 St. Paul's MSS., 727.
95 Chronicle Mayors and Sheriffs, pp. 16, 17.
Ancient Deeds, B 2096.
96 " " A 10849.
96a Ancient Deeds, A 1922.
96b " " A 1931.
96c " " A 2482, 2483, 2565.
97 " " A 1867.
98 Chronicle Mayors and Sheriffs, pp. 35, 39,
99 " " " p. 39.
99a Ancient Deeds, A 1744.
100 Chronicle Mayors and Sheriffs, p. 39.
101 Ancient Deeds,
B B 2026 (Hadestok is calendared as 'Alderman of the Ward,' but the original has been Aldermanni, i.e. Deputy.
102 " " A 1493.
103 " " A 2336.
103a " " A 2498.
104 Chronicle Mayors and Sheriffs, page 46.
104a Ancient Deeds, A 1800.
105 St. Paul's MSS., 419.
106 Ancient Deeds, A 1637.
107 " " A 11864, St. Paul's MSS, 1530.
108 " " A 2002, 2274.
109 " " A 7305.
110 Chronicle Mayors and Sheriffs, pp. 83–91.
111 Chronicle Mayors and Sheriffs, pp. 153–157.
112 " " " pp. 173, 174.
113 Ancient Deeds, A 2043.
114 " " A 2023.
115 " " A 2594, 290, 2328, 2333, 2391, 7499.
116 Ancient Deeds, A 1493, 1515, 1530, B 2306.
117 " " A 1902.
118 Loftie Historic Towns, p. 74.
119 Ancient Deeds, A 1992, 2134, B 2110.