The Holbein Gate and the Tiltyard Gallery

Sponsor

English Heritage

Publication

Author

Montague H. Cox and G. Topham Forrest (editors)

Year published

1931

Supporting documents

Pages

10-22

Citation Show another format:

'The Holbein Gate and the Tiltyard Gallery', Survey of London: volume 14: St Margaret, Westminster, part III: Whitehall II (1931), pp. 10-22. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=67926 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

CHAPTER 2: THE HOLBEIN GATE AND THE TILTYARD GALLERY

In order to connect the main buildings on the east side of the street with those portions of the Palace, as well as the Park, on the west side, Henry VIII constructed two gates. (fn. 1) Both are shown in the "Agas" view (see p. 23). The more important, as well as the more ornate, of the two was that called the King's Gate or the Cockpit Gate. It is more generally known as the Holbein Gate, (fn. 2) from the tradition that it was designed by Hans Holbein.

There seems very little to be said for this tradition. (fn. 3) Holbein's first stay in England was in 1527–8, when the building of Whitehall Palace was not even contemplated. His next visit was in 1532, when the Gate was either finished, or nearing completion. (fn. 4) It is not until 1536 that any trace is found of his being in the King's service, and the first reference to him in the Household Accounts as in receipt of a salary is dated 1538. If his name is rightly connected with the Gate, a more likely suggestion is that the association may be due to his having occupied one of the rooms over the Gate as a workshop, though no evidence to this effect has been found.

Several views of the Gate are in existence, from which it is easy to obtain a good general impression of its appearance, though in detail they are not entirely consistent. Three have been reproduced in the plates at the end of this volume. They are: (a) the well-known engraving made by Vertue in 1725 and published in 1747 in Vol. I of Vetusta Monumenta (Plate 5); (b) the original signed drawing made by Vertue in 1724 for the purpose of the engraving, and now in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries (Plate 6); and (c) a geometrical elevation of the Gate, ascribed also to Vertue by the late Walter L. Spiers, and now in the possession of Mr. Charles E. Russell (Plate 7). The last-mentioned, besides being an excellent specimen of draughtsmanship, obviously executed with great care for detail, is important as being the only view of the Gate extant which is furnished with a scale.

There are several differences in detail between this drawing and the one certainly made by Vertue, the most important being the shape of the central arch. This is due to a difference in the width allowed to the arch at groundlevel, which the geometrical elevation shows as 12 feet 9 inches, but which the groundplan of the Gate (here reproduced), engraved by Vertue in 1725 and published with the engraving of the Gate in Vetusta Monumenta, gives as 12 feet only. The resulting "squatness" of the arch in the geometrical elevation also appears in other views, including that of Hollar (see Plate 4 in Vol. XIII of the Survey of London), and is even intensified in the inset view on Morden and Lea's Map reproduced on p. 12. Which of the two representations is correct is perhaps doubtful, but the difference between the two renders Vertue's authorship of the geometrical elevation very questionable.


Ground plan of the Holbein Gate.

Figure 1: Ground plan of the Holbein Gate.

The Gate (fn. 5) was a rectangular building, in three stages, with octagonal turrets at each corner. It contained a central archway for vehicles, and on the east side a smaller archway for pedestrians. According to the plan of 1670 (Plate 1), the west side was occupied by a room and a staircase, and this is to an extent confirmed by the plan of the Ormonde premises in 1696 (p. 58), which shows no through passage. Morden and Lea's view of 1682, in common with some others, shows a door on the west side blocked up, a fact which suggests that there may originally have been a footway on that side of the Gate also. In any case, according to Vertue's ground-plan, whatever obstruction existed had been cleared away before 1725 and a western footway made, or restored. Over the central arch was an oriel window of six four-centred lights in two stages, crowned with a battlemented parapet. Below the lights was a carved panel containing the Royal Arms. The storey above had a window of fourcentred lights, also in two stages. The octagonal turrets at the angles continued above a square base (with splayed angles) which embraced the side archways, and on each face of the turrets were small two-light windows similar to those in the centre. Beneath the windows to the turrets were carved panels with traceried heads. In the upper panels were gryphons holding shields, while the panels to the lower stage contained the Tudor rose, fleur-de-lis and portcullis, each surmounted by a royal crown. Below the panels on the north face of the Gate, were small crosslet openings, while the south face had in corresponding positions rectangular windows divided into two lights by a mullion. Moulded string courses continued across the front, including the turrets, and in the centre a battlemented parapet ramped up, probably following the rake of the lead roof behind. The turrets continued an extra storey, with a single-light window to each face, and a battlemented parapet.


The Holbein Gate, from Morden and Lea's Map,
1682.

Figure 2: The Holbein Gate, from Morden and Lea's Map, 1682.

Both faces of the Gate were similar in detail, with the general wall surface chequered in stone and flint. On each face were four roundels containing busts (see further in Appendix A). Originally, both faces of the Gate seem to have been surmounted by a form of ornament in common use at Whitehall (fn. 6) —the figure of an animal on a high pedestal, holding a flag in its paws. (fn. 7) In the latest views this ornament is omitted, but Vertue's drawing (Plate 6) shows the remains on the north face.

At some time in the Gate's existence the height of its central opening was reduced by the filling in of the arch down to the level of the springing, and a 3-light window was inserted in each face. In the views of Whitehall by Hollar and Sylvestre, and in subsequent views until 1724, the gate is shown with the central opening treated in this way. It can hardly be supposed that the Gate was built thus, and the view of "Agas," circa 1570 (p. 23), shows the arch clear. On the other hand, the rough sketch of the face of the Gate given in the margin of Wyngaerde's unfinished drawing of Whitehall (Plate 9) shows the opening already reduced, and if the sketch was made by the same hand as the drawing, this is evidence that the Gate was altered within a few years of its erection. (fn. 8)

On the west side of the Gate, Henry VIII built "a sumptuous gallery," in which, in Stow's time, "the Princes with their Nobility" used "to stand or sit, and at Windowes to behold all triumphant Iustings, and other military exercises" in the adjoining Tiltyard. (fn. 9) . From this it obtained the name of the Tiltyard Gallery, (fn. 10) and from the fact that the tiltyard was used for bear-baiting, was occasionally known as the Bear Gallery. (fn. 11) It continued westwards to a staircase (fn. 12) leading into the Park, and was connected with another gallery leading to the Cockpit. (fn. 13) Von Wedel, in his Journey through England, (fn. 14) has left us a description of the Tiltyard Gallery in 1584:

"A man, in whose keeping the rooms of the palace are, took us out of the garden and led us to see the inner part of the palace, to which there are only two keys. On mounting a staircase we got into a passage right across the tiltyard; the ceiling is gilt, and the floor ornamented with mats. There were fine paintings on the walls, among them the portrait of Edward, the present queen's brother, who was cut out of his mother's womb, (fn. 15) he remaining alive, whilst the mother died. If you stand before the portrait, the head, face, and nose appear so long and misformed that they do not seem to represent a human being, but there is an iron bar with a plate at one end fixed to the painting; if you lengthen this bar for about three spans and look at the portrait through a little hole made in the plate in this manner O, you find the ugly face changed into a well-formed one. (fn. 16) This must indeed be considered a great piece of art. There is also a portrait of Moses; they say that it is very like, (fn. 17) but it looks as if one were blowing into burning coal in the dark. Also Christ's passion, apparently painted in glass, all set with gilt roses." (fn. 18)

It was through the Tiltyard Gallery that Charles I proceeded from the Park to Whitehall on the day of his execution, and the gallery was, in fact, one of the regular means of approach to and exit from the Palace. To prevent abuses it was found necessary to make regulations governing the entrance to the Privy Gallery from the Tiltyard Gallery, and "the second Door from the Parke att the Darke Passage over the streete" was fixed as the point beyond which neither the Royal footmen and other liveried servants, nor any "inferiour, meane, idle and unknowne persons" were permitted to pass. (fn. 19)

The rooms over the Gate were in two storeys. The lower storey in 1756, just before the demolition of the Gate, contained one large room and three closets. (fn. 20) The number of rooms in the upper storey is not known. This storey was in 1756 utilised as the Paper Office, and had certainly been used for that purpose as early as 1672. (fn. 21) If, as seems probable, it is the same as the Chair Chamber, the use goes back to 1654, (fn. 22) or even to shortly after the death of Henry VIII. (fn. 23)

On 9th August, 1706, Wren reported as to the want of room at the Paper Office "in the Tower," and suggested that one method of obtaining more accommodation would be "by addition of the rooms underneath and contiguous to it now in the occupation of Monsieur Van Huls." (fn. 24) The suggestion, however, was not carried out, and the papers were still confined to the upper rooms in 1756. In that year, the Commissioners of H.M. Treasury had before them a report stating that the Gate had been examined, and it was found that the upper storey was "a Repository for State Papers, so that the Gateway … cannot properly be taken down until Provision is made for the Papers of State." (fn. 25) It was thereupon decided to remove them to "a room over the Passage that goes from the Treasury to the Secretary of States Office."

The large room over the Gate was in 1605 used in connection with the preliminaries for the creation of Knights of the Bath. The candidates (including Charles, Duke of Albany, afterwards Charles I, then about four years old) "tooke their lodgings at Whitehall in the first gate-house going to Kings-streete, where they were all after supper, at which they sat by degrees a row on the one side, wt the armes of every of them, over ye seate where he was placed, and lodged upon severall pallats in one chamber, with their armes likewise over them, having their bathes provided for them in the chamber underneath. The next morning being Saterday, they went about through the gallory downe into the Parke in their Hermits weedes," (fn. 26) and thence to the Chapel.

The lower storey some years later was in use (no doubt in addition to other rooms in the vicinity) as lodgings. A complete record of the occupants is not possible, but it is known that the Duke of Lennox was there in 1620. (fn. 27) In 1663 or the beginning of 1664 Lady Castlemaine removed to apartments which included the rooms over the Holbein Gate, and we have Pepys' authority for the statement that these rooms had previously been occupied by General Lambert. (fn. 28) Presumably these were the lodgings which he was forced to give up in 1657, and which were then assigned to Viscount Fauconberg, who afterwards became Cromwell's son-in-law. (fn. 29) For the first few years after the Restoration Lady Castlemaine had resided at "Hance's House," next to the Bowling Green, (fn. 30) a building entirely disconnected from the royal lodgings. This was not unattended with inconvenience, and on 25th April, 1663, Pepys records a rumour ("they say") to the effect that she was "removed as to her bed from her own home to a chamber in White Hall, next to the King's Own." A few days later (11th May, 1663) Mr. Pierce informed Pepys that "Lady Castlemaine hath now got lodgings near the King's chamber at Court." Whether this is to be taken as evidence of her removal to the rooms over the Gate is doubtful. An account of works carried out in April and May, 1663, at her lodgings, mentions inter alia the "Bellconey" in the Dining Room, and this agrees with the statement in the parliamentary survey that that room in "Hance's House" was "very well accomodated and fitted with a Handsome Belcony." Moreover, a reference in November, 1663, to "the Countess of Castlemaines lodgings by the bowling green" suggests that she was still in that house. It seems probable, therefore, that Mr. Pierce's statement is to be regarded rather as a confirmation of the rumour, mentioned above, as to the provision of a special bedchamber.

Such a provision was merely a temporary expedient, and the countess was installed in her new lodgings certainly not later than January, 1663–4. She had not been there long when a fire occurred. Under date of January, 1663–4, is a record (fn. 31) of an allowance of £1 made to four men "for theire Attendance & paines in playing the water Engins when the fier was at ye Countess of Castlemaines lodgings." According to Pepys the fire took place on the night of 25th January. (fn. 32) The account (fn. 33) of the renovation works rendered necessary, contains references to "ye passage goeing downe the staires next ye parke," and "the staires that comes up out of the privie garden into the said lodgings," thus making it quite certain that the lodgings over the Gate are intended. The same account also refers to "the Countess of Castlemains bedchamber & the Ceiling of her Closset," "the withdrawing roome there," "ye dineing roome," "the nursery & the Closset belonging to it," and "the staires Coming down from the nursery & the Closset on the top of the staires." Later references mention the countess's aviary (fn. 34) and the "back staire case goeing downe out of the said lodgings into the tilt yard gallery." (fn. 35) It is evident that her apartments comprised far more than the small accommodation available over the Gate. The additional rooms must have been to the east. (fn. 36)

In April, 1668, the burlesque reply to The Poor Whores Petition to … the Countess of Castlemaine was issued as from "our closset in King Street." At the end of the month the countess was presented with Berkshire House, St. James's, but seems to have retained her Whitehall lodgings. In 1670 she was created Duchess of Cleveland, and her influence thenceforth steadily diminished. Her rooms seem to have been transferred to the use of her daughter, the Countess of Sussex, (fn. 37) though they were still known as "the Dutches of Clevelands lodgings" in 1683. (fn. 38)

According to the petition of William Van Huls, Clerk of the Queen's Robes and Wardrobes, in 1712, (fn. 39) William III "at his first Arrival at Whitehall in the year 1689 was graciously pleased to appoint" to Van Huls' brother, the Dutch Secretary, and "soon afterwards" to Van Huls himself, "the Lodgings over the Gate near ye Park." These lodgings obviously included, as in the case of those of the Duchess of Cleveland, certain rooms to the east of the Gate, for the petition goes on to mention "that Great part thereof was buryed [sic] down at the Grand Fire of that Palace." (In addition, Van Huls had obtained possession of certain rooms over the Tiltyard Gallery, see below.) He asked for a lease of a portion of the ground between the Gate and the Banqueting House for the purpose of building offices, and for permission to utilise any old materials buried in the great quantity of rubbish then lying on the premises. (fn. 40) As a result, he obtained a lease, to expire in 1743, of a piece of ground, about 40 feet long and 38 feet deep, "the dimensions of the said Gateway from N° to South." Here he built a house. In 1737 Mrs. Edith College (whose rooms near the Cockpit had been acquired for the purpose of Kent's Treasury, see p.30) obtained (fn. 41) a reversionary lease of the premises for 41½ years, the interest in which subsequently came into the hands of Thomas Ramsden. (fn. 42) Long before the expiry of the term, however, the Gate was down, and the premises demolished.

The inconvenience to traffic caused by the presence of the Holbein Gate and the King Street Gate is obvious, and in the early part of the 18th century proposals for their demolition were put forward. In 1719 the Holbein Gate was within an ace of destruction. On 23rd July of that year Lord Stanhope wrote from Hanover: (fn. 43) "The House of Commons having the last session of Parliamt address'd the King to Cause a more Convenient Passage to be made thro' the Gatehouse next to the Privy Garden tending from Whitehall to Westminster, His Majesty is pleased to Direct Your Grace to Referr this matter to the Board of Works, with Directions that they should Consider what will be the Expence of pulling down the said Gatehouse, and in what time it may be done, and if upon their Report your Grace finds that the Expence will not be Considerable and that it Can be perfected before the next session of Parliament, it is His Majts Pleasure that Your Grace should sett Workmen about it, without any further Orders, taking Care that the Records and Papers of State remaining in the Paper Office be removed to some Convenient place in Whitehall."

The idea, however, did not meet with unanimous approval. In a letter written a fortnight later (fn. 44) Vanbrugh says: "I find many people surpris'd there shou'd be no other expedient found to make way for coaches, &c., that destroying one of the greatest curiositys there is in London as that gate has ever been esteem'd, and cost a great sum of money the building; and so well perform'd that altho' now above 200 yrs old [sic], is as entire as the first day. The Chancellr of the Excheqr said much of this to me last night being entirely of opinion it ought not to be destroy'd, if an other expedient can be found, and there is a very easy one, with small expence, which is. To open the wall of the Privy garden near Lord Rochesters and turn the passage thorough a slip of that wast ground, coming out into the street again between Mr. Vanhulsse's and the Banquetting House. I know of no objection to this, and by this means both Lord Stanhope & the Comptroller (fn. 45) will be ten times more reliev'd … than by pulling the gate downe." This, or similar protests, bore fruit, and when, in 1723, the King Street Gate was demolished, the Holbein Gate was left standing. Directions were, however, given (fn. 46) for the arch "to be cleared of the Floor or Segment that now cuts the same, so as the Passage through that Arch may be open and clear as at first when it was built." At the same time the decision was made to carry out a further portion of Vanbrugh's suggestion. It was agreed (fn. 47) that the wall of the Privy Garden between the two gates should be removed, and a new wall built "from the corner of the Building adjoyning to the Banquetting-House to the narrow passage leading to Channell-Row," and further, in order that there might be a clear way from "the Street before Whitehall" it was also agreed that "the Platform where the Guns now stand, (fn. 48) as also the House now Inhabited by Mr. Vanhuls, and all the Walls and Buildings between the Banquetting House or the Building adjoyning thereto" should be taken down. For some reason that part of the proposal which related to the Van Huls house was not carried out, but the Gun platform was removed at once, and the arch cleared shortly after. (fn. 49) Contemporary views (see Plate 8, or Canaletto's painting reproduced in Plate 7 of Vol. XIII) show the opening near the Banqueting House, with Van Huls' house still standing.

The Gate thus obtained a respite of more than 30 years. On 11th June, 1755, the Commissioners of H.M. Treasury referred (fn. 50) it to the Board of Works to consider whether the pulling down and rebuilding of the Gate was practicable, and whether it might be "commodiously erected at the end of the New Street leading from the New Bridge [Westminster Bridge]," and at the same time instructions were given for negotiations to be entered into with Mr. Ramsden for the purchase of the Van Huls house. The premises were acquired in March, 1759, (fn. 51) and in August of the same year the Gate was demolished. According to J. T. Smith, (fn. 52) the Duke of Cumberland begged the materials with the intention of re-erecting the gate at the end of the long walk in Windsor Great Park, and for this purpose Thomas Sandby made a design, which included the provision of side wings. Nothing, however, was done, and the materials are said to have been worked into several buildings in Windsor Park.


Holbein Gate and the House of Van Huls.

Figure 3: Holbein Gate and the House of Van Huls.

There were also rooms over the tiltyard gallery. The origin of these is determined by an order, (fn. 53) dated 15th May, 1666, "to permitt ye Lord Mandevell [Robert, Viscount Mandeville, who on his father's death in 1671 became Earl of Manchester] with his Owne Workemen to build Lodgings over the Gallery at Whitehall towards St. James Parke." (fn. 54) On his death in 1683 the lodgings were purchased for the Duke of Grafton. (fn. 55) He does not seem to have stayed there long, for in 1686 Lord Feversham was in occupation. (fn. 56) A later occupant is indicated by a further order (fn. 57) of 5th August, 1689, to deliver to Sir Rowland Gwynn, Treasurer of the Chamber, "the Lodgeings in Whithall whereing the Earle of Manchester formerly was, and the Count Meremont now is, over the Gallery leading to the Parke." The list (fn. 58) of Whitehall lodgings, drawn up in 1691, and afterwards corrected, shows the rooms ("in the Park over the staires: 6 roomes, 2 Garretts") occupied by "Monsr. Zuleston," subsequently corrected to "Monr Van hulst" with the note; "Hee is the Dutch Secretary." In this case also William Van Huls succeeded to his brother's rooms. (fn. 59) In the report on William's petition in 1712, we are told that the "gallery is so decayed, and the timbers pressed out from under the said roomes, that they will fall in if not speedily supported." Four years later Hugh Boscawen, Comptroller of the Household, the occupier of the premises standing on the site of Dover House, obtained possession of the gallery, and the staircase leading to the Park was pulled down (see p. 59). Finding Van Huls' continued occupation of the rooms above the gallery inconvenient, Boscawen applied for them himself. It was then (1719) discovered (fn. 60) that "Mr. Van Huls has no right to the Lodging Rooms which he now possesses over Mr. Comptroller's Appartments in the Cockpitt near the Gatehouse," and he was accordingly compelled to leave them. Their later history is bound up with that of the site of Dover House (see Chapter 6).

In the Council's Collection are:

(fn. 61) "Whitehall Gate" (north elevation) (photograph of drawing by G. Vertue, 1724, in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries).
"The Gate of Whitehall" (north elevation) (photograph of coloured drawing in the Guildhall Library).
The Holbein Gate (north elevation) (photograph of drawing in the Sutherland Collection, Bodleian Library).
(fn. 61) Geometrical elevation (north) of the Holbein Gate (photograph of scale drawing in the possession of Mr. Charles E. Russell).
"Antient Gate which Stood at Whitehall, Built in the Reign of King Henry the VII and taken down 1759" (north elevation) (photograph of coloured drawing by Charles White, 1759, in the possession of Mr. Charles E. Russell).
"The King's Gate at Whitehall leading to Westminster" (south elevation) (photograph of engraving in the Crace Collection, British Museum).
(fn. 61) "Whitehall Gate" (the Gate and the house of Mr. Van Huls) (photograph of engraving in the Crace Collection, British Museum).
(fn. 61) Whitehall from the south circa 1750 (photograph of water-colour drawing ascribed to T. Sandby in the Guildhall Library).

Footnotes

1 At the time of the demolition of the Holbein Gate it was commonly asserted that it had been built either (a) by Cardinal Wolsey, or (b) in the reign of Henry VII. Neither statement is tenable, in view of the fact that the Gate formed a means of communication between the buildings on both sides of the road, and these were never in the same ownership until 1531. Stow (Kingsford's edition, II, p. 102) ascribes both Gates to Henry VIII, and that he is correct is evident from the following reference in the accounts for the building of Whitehall Palace: "Masons to the noumbre of xx/iiij xv working aswelle upon dores and wyndowes of Fre Stone for the saide newe galarye [i.e. the Privy Gallery], as also upon the newe gatis Sette in the high weye leeding from the saide manor towardes Westmenster." (P.R.O., E. 36/2525, p. 332.) See also the reference to the Holbein Gate (which adjoined the Privy Gallery) in § below.
2 None of these names has been found in the official records, in which the Gate is generally referred to as "the hither gatehouse" or "the first gatehouse."
3 Some of Holbein's biographers are frankly sceptical. "If his name was attached to the ruined gate of Henry VIII, near Whitehall, it was a great misunderstanding; for, from the pictures of it, it was a predominantly Gothic work, in which the Tudor arch still prevailed" (Woltmann's Holbein and his Time, p. 419); "Whitehall gate … was a mongrel of Gothic and Renaissance quite unworthy of Holbein, and I should imagine an impossible design for him" (Wornum's Life and Works of Holbein, p. 359).
4 See e.g. the reference in the building accounts, dated 22 and 23 Henry VIII, to payments "for the Fulfylling and workemanship of two Foundactions digged for a Toure annexid unto the newe Gatehouse sette directlye ovir the high weye leeding from Charing crosse towards Westmenster … and also adjoynyng unto the forsaide newe Galarye" [i.e. the Privy Gallery]. P.R.O., E. 36/251, p. 247.)
5 It was described in 1708 (Hatton's New View of London, I, p. xi—a mistake for ix) as "an extraordinary beautiful Gate, considering its Antiquity; it is built of square Stone, with small Squares of Flint Boulder, very neatly set. It has also Battlements, and 4 lofty Towers, and the whole is enrich'd with Bustos, Roses, Portcullises and Queen's Arms, both on the N. and S. sides."
6 See representation of the old Cockpit in Plate 3, account of the Chapel Royal in Vol. XIII of the Survey of London, p. 54, and the description of the Privy Garden by Von Wedel, in 1584 (Ibid., p. 90).
7 These are not shown in all early views. As instances, however, it may be mentioned that that on the north face is given in a view, earlier than 1724, entitled "The Royal BanquetingHouse in Whitehal" in the Council's collection of prints and water-colours, that on the south face in Morden and Lea's view, while the "Cosimo" view (see Plate 4 in Vol. XIII) shows both.
8 If, as is generally supposed, Wyngaerde came to England in the train of King Philip, the drawing cannot be later than 1557, only twenty-five years after the Gate was built. The writing on the drawing ("Treasury," "Holbeyn," etc.) is obviously much later.
9 Kingsford's edition of Stow's Survey, II, p. 102. An interesting reference to the gallery is contained in a letter written by Gilbert Talbot to the Earl of Shrewsbury on 3rd May, 1578: "On May Day I saw her Majesty, and it pleased her to speak to me very graciously. In the morning, about eight o'clock, I happened to walk in the Tiltyard, under the gallery where her Majesty useth to stand to see the running at tilt; where by chance she was, and, looking out of the window, my eye was full towards her; she shewed to be greatly ashamed thereof, for that she was unready, and in her nightstuff; so when she saw me at after dinner, as she went to walk, she gave me a great fillip on the forehead, and told my Lord Chamberlain, who was next to her, how I had seen her that morning, and how much ashamed thereof she was." (E. Lodge's Illustrations of British History, 1838 edn., II, pp. 97–8.)
10 See e.g. references in the Accounts of the Paymaster of Works to (i) "making a newe Cawsey of Ragstone betweene the Lord Knollis his gate [Wallingford House] and the greate gate under the Tyltyard gallery" (1608–9, P.R.O., E. 351/3243); (ii) "framing and setting up of xx/iiij Rodd of posts on both sydes from the greate gate next Whitehall under the Tyltyard gallerie unto the middle of King Streete" (1620–1, P.R.O., E. 351/3254).
11 E.g. in the catalogue of the art collection at Whitehall in the time of Charles I (ed. Horace Walpole). It is not to be confused with the Bear Stake Gallery, which seems to have been further north ("mending the windowes in the tilt yard gallery & in ye barestake Gallery," P.R.O., Works, 5/9, Dec., 1666).
12 "Priming, stopping and laying wth faire stone coloure in oyle the rayles, Ballasters and Collombes of the greate Staires in the Parke" (1624–5, P.R.O., E. 351/3258); "the greate Staires leading from the parke to the Tiltyard Gallery … cutting and carving of ve pillers with Corinthian Heads for the Staires leading to the Tiltyard gallery from the Parke" (1628–9, P.R.O., E. 351/3262).
13 "Making good part of ye floore in ye Passage out of ye tiltyard Gallery to ye Gallery leading to ye Cockpit." (P.R.O., Works, 5/9, January, 1666–7.) The course of the two galleries is shown on the plan on p. 58.
14 Royal Historical Society's Transactions, 2nd ser., IX, p. 235.
15 This is a mistake. Jane Seymour did not die until twelve days after her son's birth.
16 The portrait of Edward is mentioned by Hentzner as one of the things at Whitehall "worthy of observation": "a picture of King Edward VI representing at first sight something quite deformed, till by looking through a small hole in the cover, which is put over it, you see it in its true proportions." (Paul Hentzner's Travels in England … translated by Horace Walpole, 1797 edn., pp. 21–2.)
17 How did "they" know this?
18 In the time of Charles I the Tiltyard (Bear) Gallery contained thirty-five pictures, but the three alluded to in 1584 were no longer there.
19 Orders of the House and Lodgings in Whitehall. (P.R.O., L.C. 5/196.)
20 P.R.O., Works, 6/17, f. 150.
21 "These are to require you to put Nicholas Ondart, Esq., into possession of ye small Turrett Roome with two little Square Lights Next Sr Robt Murryes lodging in ye Passage of ye Gallary opposite to Sr Joseph Williamsons stayre Case goeing up to ye Paper Office." (P.R.O., L.C. 5/140, p. 90, 20th August, 1672.) Murray's lodging adjoined the Gate, see Survey of London, Vol. XIII, p. 101.
22 "To consider a fit place to which to remove the books, papers and transactions of the late Irish and Scotch Committee from the chair chamber at Whitehall, that they may be reserved for public use." (Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1654, pp. 133–4—28th April, 1654.)
23 Vertue in discussing (Anecdotes of Painting in England, 1888 edn., II, p. 73) the tradition that Holbein died "in the spot where is now the paper-office," says that it is not likely "as that very place had been King Henry's private study, and was then appointed for the reception of the letters and papers left by that prince and of other public papers." This obtains some confirmation from the following if the "Studye" therein referred to is the private study: "Obligations signed and sealed by the Chancellor and others of the Council to Ant. Bonvixy and other strangers, for money emprunted to the King, brought in and cancelled, but ordered to be preserved in the Studye at Westminster." (Cal. of L. and P., H. VIII, XXI, Pt. 1, No. 684, 27th April, 1546.) That the private or "secret" study was known as the Chair House is evidenced by the inventory (B.M. Harl. MS., 1419a) taken after the death of Henry VIII, which refers to "the kynges secrete studie called the Chaier house." The other study was, according to the same document, "at the hether ende of the Long [i.e. Privy] Gallorie."
24 P.R.O., T. 1/99, p. 55.
25 P.R.O., Works, 6/17, p. 150.
26 Stow's Annals, continued by Edmund Howes, 1615 edn., p. 856. Walcott (Westminster, p. 58) wrongly refers the incident to the King Street Gate.
27 On the occasion of a "running at the Tylt" on 24th March, 1619–20, invitations to be present were issued to the French and Spanish Ambassadors. The latter was placed "in a standing dressed up of purpose over the Porters Lodge within the Tilt-yard," and it was proposed that the former should have his seat "in the first Window of the Duke of Lenox his Lodging over the great Gate next without the Tilt-yard East-ward." He was dissatisfied with the position assigned him, and finally refused to attend. (Finetti Philoxenis, p. 64.) The catalogue of Charles I's art collection, when detailing the pictures in the Bear Gallery (i.e. the Tiltyard Gallery), mentions one "above the Duke of Lennox's door."
28 "I was told to-day that upon Sunday night last, being the King's birth-day, the King was at my Lady Castlemayne's lodgings (over the hither-gate at Lambert's lodgings) dancing with fiddlers all night almost." (Pepys' Diary, 31st May, 1664.)
29 "The day following she [Mrs. Lambert] visited Cromwell's wife. … Four days following their lodgings were taken from them and given to Falconbridge, the only remainder of their pretences to Whitehall, which was such a wound to their feeble minds, that he in wrath and she in tears spent the last week in repeating it to all comers." (Letter, 1st March, 1656–7, in Clarendon State Papers, III, p. 329.)
30 Survey of London, Vol. XIII, pp. 233–4.
31 P.R.O., Works, 5/4.
32 "Tom Killigrew … told us of a fire last night in my Lady Castlemaine's lodging, where she bid £40 for one to adventure the fetching of a cabinet out, which at last was got to be done; and the fire at last quenched without doing much wrong." (Diary, 26th January, 1663–4.)
33 P.R.O., Works, 5/4.
34 "Laying new sheet lead on the floore of the Countess of Castlem "Birdcage" (P.R.O., Works, 5/7, June, 1665); "putting up … severall pinns & places for birds to sitt on in ye little Closset by the Countes of Castlemains Vollery … making severall troughs for the birds to feed in" (P.R.O., Works, 5/10, July, 1667). The aviary was the scene of the countess's triumph over Clarendon: "This business of my Lord Chancellor's was certainly designed in my Lady Castlemayne's chamber; … and when he went from the King on Monday morning, she was in bed, though about twelve o'clock, and ran out in her smock into her aviary looking out into White Hall garden; and thither her woman brought her her nightgown; and stood joying herself at the old man's going away: and several of the gallants of White Hall, of which there were many staying to see the Chancellor return, did talk to her in her bird-cage; among others, Blancford, telling her she was the bird of paradise." (Pepys' Diary, 27th August, 1667.)
35 P.R.O., Works, 5/9, April, 1666.
36 "New ripping lathing & tyling over the Dutches of Clevelands Lodgings over the privy gallery." (P.R.O., Works, 5/37—April, 1683.)
37 A. I. Dasent, in his Nell Gwynne, p. 139, quotes the following letter from the French Ambassador, Honoré Courtin, to Pomponne, written in July, 1676: "La fille du roi, de la Duchesse de Cleveland, avait été mariée tout enfant au Comte de Sussex; elle se prend d' une tendresse ardente pour la Duchesse de Mazarin. Le Roi s'arrange pour rencontrer chez sa propre fille Madame Mazarin. Quand il est là, nul n'entre, pas même les musiciens français. L'appartement de Madame de Sussex est le même qu' occupait Madame de Cleveland sa mère dans le temps de sa faveur. II est situé au dessus du cabinet du Roi, et ce prince y peut monter sans être vu."
38 See footnote above. See also "Statement of account delivered to the said Duchess [of Cleveland] by said Duke [of Northumberland] her son: … At the time of said Duke's going into Italy [1682] there was left in said Duchess's lodgings at Whitehall a trunk of plate and other goods which at a low rate may be valued at 446l. 18s. 7d." (Cal. of Treas. Bks., 1685–9, p. 1635.)
39 P.R.O., Works, 6/5.
40 This is some indication of the appearance which Whitehall presented for many years after the Fire of 1698. The report on the petition states that these particular ruins had been "twice in great part already turned over … and what was most valuable in them taken out." (P.R.O., T. 54/22, p. 29.)
41 Letters Patent, 2nd December, 1737.
42 See indenture dated 11th November, 1743, between Henry Williams, administrator of the will of Edith "Colledge," and Thomas Ramsden. (P.R.O., L.R. 1/68, ff. 133–4.)
43 P.R.O., Works, 6/7, p. 126.
44 Athenæum, 1890, ii, 321.
45 Resident next to the Gate at what were afterwards Dorset House and Dover House respectively.
46 P.R.O., T. 54/28, p. 63.
47 Ibid., p. 125.
48 See Survey of London, Vol. XIII, pp. 110–11.
49 Kip's view of Whitehall in 1724 (Sheppard's Whitehall, facing p. 52) shows the Gun platform removed, but the arch not cleared. Vertue's drawing (Plate 6), made in 1724, shows the arch not cleared, but his engraving (Plate 5), made in the following year, shows the work done.
50 P.R.O., T. 29/32, p. 312.
51 P.R.O., L.R. 1/306, Westminster Bridge Comm. Enrolments, f. 45.
52 Antiquities of Westminster, p. 21.
53 P.R.O., L.C. 5/138, p. 359.
54 In availing himself of this permission Mandeville apparently encroached on the rooms used as the Paper Office. In a letter, dated 7th October, 1681, from the Earl of Conway (Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1681, p. 497), occurs the sentence: "One great defect is, as he [Sir Joseph Williamson] says, that Lord Manchester has taken away several rooms, which belonged to the office [Paper Office], and they have not room enough for the papers."
55 "It is His Mats pleasure that you attend the Countess of Manchester & desire her Lapp. that you may be informed … what sort of recompence She Expects His Maty should make her for her Lords Lodgings in Whitehall. … His Maty haveing disposed of the said Lodgings to His Grace the Duke of Grafton" (P.R.O., L.C. 5/144, p. 410, April, 1683). In reply Wren stated that the master carpenter had valued the lodgings, which "were not intended for durable buildings when first built," at £627. 18s., but that the countess wanted £1000. (Ibid., p. 746, 23rd May, 1683.) The Secret Service Expenses (ed. Akerman) show that she received £600.
56 "Worke done in my Ld. Fevershams Lodgings over the gallery next the parke." (P.R.O., Works, 5/40.)
57 P.R.O., L.C. 5/149, p. 203.
58 P.R.O., L.C. 5/196.
59 The Dutch Secretary was still in occupation of rooms (perhaps the same rooms) near the Gate in 1698, for there is a reference to works done in March of that year at the Dutch Secretary's lodgings, including "beating downe an old ceiling and lathing and plastering the same, and the ceiling and walls under the new Stars and parte of the ceiling and walls in the passage at ye end of the gallery leading to the paper Office." (P.R.O., Works, 5/49.)
60 P.R.O., T. 1/240, 77.
61 Reproduced here.