||"Sciatis quod nos … dedimus … dilecto servienti nostro Thome Alvarde uni
generosorum hostiariorum camere nostre officium custodis Placee sive mesuagii nostri vocati Yorke
place." (P.R.O., C. 66/654.)
||"For vij Stocklockis of a meaner Soorte with their keys … whereof ij were Sette
upon two dores apperteynyng to the lodgeing appoyntid for the saide Maister Alvarde within the
forenamed newe Galarye"; "for two paire hookis with their hengies sette upon ij dores in the forenamed lodge within the parke appoyntid for Maister Alvarde." (P.R.O., E 36/252, Westminster
Manor Accounts, pp. 414, 421.) It would seem that the "new gallery," a term usually applied to
the Privy Gallery, here refers to the latter's continuation to the west of the Holbein Gate, that is,
to the Tiltyard Gallery. In any case the second quotation shows that the lodging was on the Cockpit
||These were: (i) Anthony (afterwards Sir Anthony) Denny, appointed on 30th January,
1535–6, as from 10th February, 1534–5. (ii) Sir Andrew Dudley, appointed 4th November,
1549. He probably was removed from office on his conviction for complicity in Lady Jane Grey's
rebellion in 1553. (iii) Arthur Sturton (formal appointment not found). A notice of his burial
is contained in Machyn's Diary ("The xj day of Feybruary [1557–8] was bered at sent Marten'sin-the-feyld master Arthur Sturton, sqwyre, the keper of the [White] halle, and brodur to the lord
Sturtun"). (iv) George Bredyman, appointed 24th March, 1557–8. (Probably the "Mr. Georgius
Bridema' in Westm'," who was buried at St. Martin's on 30th July, 1580.) (v) Thomas Knyvet,
appointed probably on 3rd April, 1581. This was the date of the grant to him of many of the
appurtenances to the office as stated in the inquisition on the rights of the Keeper (P.R.O., Exchequer
Special Commission, 4192, Middx.), and the confirmatory grant of 1604 (P.R.O., L.R. 1/50, f. 61).
The original grant has not been found.
||Knyvet was a gentleman of the privy chamber to Elizabeth, and afterwards to James I.
He was knighted some time before October, 1600 (see Cal. of S.P., Dom., Eliz., 1598–1601,
p. 476), the statement in the Dict. Nat. Biog. that he obtained that honour on 14th March, 1603–4,
actually referring to another person of the same name. In 1605 he made the search of the cellars
of the Houses of Parliament which resulted in the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot. In 1607 he
was created Baron Knyvet of Escrick.
||P.R.O., Exchequer Special Commission, 4192, Middx.
||Letter, dated 9th April, 1597, from Sir Henry Knyvet to Burghley, written "at my
lodging in St James's Park." (Cal of S.P., Ireland, 1596–7, p. 262.)
||"Stopping, pryming and layeing of a leade Cullor in oyle near the walle by Mr.
Knevetts." (P.R.O., E. 351/3233.)
||"Reareing upp a greate staire-case at Sr Thomas Knevitts in St. James parke"; "laying
of ix wyndowes with a Crest of xl foote longe and a poste upon the Stayres at Sr Thomas Knevetts."
(1600–1 & 1601–2, P.R.O., E. 351/3236–7.)
||"Oct. 27. 1604. Grant to Sir Tho. Knyvet of 20l. per ann., for life, in consideration of
his giving up his lodgings at Whitehall, for the use of Prince Charles." (Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1603–10, p. 161.) "For makeinge readie certen roomes of the Tennis courteside at Whitehalle for the
Younge Duke Charles … mense Octobris, 1604." (Accounts of the Treasurer of the Chamber.)
||"For makeinge readie for the Ladie Elizabeth at Whitehalle againste her comeinge thether
neare unto the Tennis courte … mense Februarii, 1604–." (Ibid.)
||"Frameinge and settinge upp of fyve greate particions in one of the close Tennys Courts
for the Ladie Elizabeth, the Kings daughter. … Paveinge a bigge floore wth bricks in the close
Tennys Courte servinge for a Kitchen for the Ladie Elizabeth, the Kinges daughter, and also for
a Buttrie and Larder" (1604–5); "Layinge of … purbecke paveinge in the Lady
Elizabethes kytchen. … Layinge of xlty Norwey Deale boordes in the newe lodgings over the
Ladie Elizabethes Kitchen" (1609–10); "Takeinge downe a p[ai]re of newe staires which were
made in the second story of the Lady Eliz. newe lodging, joystinge and boordeinge the same up
againe, and framing and settinge up a newe p[ai]re of windinge staires from the kitchinge belowe unto
the third story of the same lodgeinge" (1610–11). (P.R.O., E. 351/3240, 3244 & 3245.)
||"For makenge ready wthin the Tennys Courte at Whitehall for the Duke of Yorke …
mense Novembris, 1608"; "for makinge readie … the Lady Elizabeth her Lodginges for Prince
||"We hear, however, of a suggestion that she should occupy the rooms again in 1633.
"… my Lord of Arundel … goes ambassador extraordinary to condole with the Queen of
Bohemia … for the death of her husband … In case the queen do come for England, I hear
that her lodging appointed in court is the Cockpit, at Whitehall, where she lay when she was a maid."
(Letter to Sir Thos. Puckering, dated 3rd January, 1623–3, The Court and Times of Charles I,
II, pp. 212–13, pub. 1848.)
||P.R.O., C. 66/1899.
||Neither Somerset nor Montgomery (afterwards Pembroke) are shown in the overseers'
accounts, which consistently give Knyvet's name in respect of the house until his death.
Calendar of S.P., Dom., 1611–18, p. 316.
Ibid., p. 322.
||P.R.O., C. 66/2104.
||Besides the evidence of the address of certain letters the three following references may
be cited: (i) "My Lady of Carnavon [Pembroke's daughter, Anne Sophia] being well in the Favour
and Belief of her Father and Husband, came with her Husband to the Court, and it was determined
she should have been all this Year at London, her Lodgings in the Cockpit; but my Lord Wentworth
hath been at Court, and in the Queen's Withdrawing-Room was a constant Looker upon my Lady
… for which Cause, as it is thought, my Lord of Carnavon went Home … but my Lady
Carnavon is sent down to her Husband, and the Night before she went was with her Father in his
Chamber till past Twelve, he chiding and she weeping." (Letter from Lord Conway in Letters
and Dispatches of Thomas, Earl of Strafforde, 1740 edn., II, p. 47.) (ii) "And when the Civil
Wars between the King and the parliament began to grow hotter and hotter in England, my said
Lord [Pembroke] and I came together from Wilton (12 Oct. 1642) with my younger daughter,
then the Lady Isabella Sackville, and the next day we came to London, where my said Lord went to
lie at his lodgings in the Cockpit in St. James's park over against Whitehall to be near the parliament. But I and my daughter went to live in Baynard's Castle." (Hist. MSS. Comm., Leeds
and other MSS., p. 90.) (iii) "Furring and bourding of the floore of the Lord Chamberleines [Pembroke, then Montgomery, had been made Lord Chamberlain in 1626] great Dining roome in the
Cockpit Lodgings, conteining in measure vje squares di. vij fo. [i.e. 657 sq. ft.]." (P.R.O.,
E. 351/3265, 1631–2.)
||1825 edn., p. 96.
||G. E. Cokayne's Complete Peerage.
Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1663–4, p. 45.
House of Commons Journals.
E.g. (i) a letter, dated 3rd May, 1651, to his "beloved wife, Elizabeth Cromwell, att
the Cockpit in Westminster" (Ellis' Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 2nd series,
III, p. 366); (ii) order, dated 29th July, 1652, to certain persons to meet "at the Lord General's
house at the Cockpit" (Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1651–2, p. 351); (iii) letter, dated from the Cockpit
11th June, 1653, from Cromwell to the Mayor of Chester (Hist. MSS. Comm., 8 Rep., Pt. I,
||See the course of events traced in Survey of London, Vol. XIII, pp. 32–3.
||"Richard Cromwell has left the King's lodgings, and lies at the Cockpit." (Cal. of S.P.,
Dom., 1658–9, p. 354—May 23–June 2, 1659.)
||"The pittifull Protector is still att Whitehall and hath the benefitt of his mothers table
att Cockpit." (Letter, dated 3 June, 1659, from W. Greene in The Nicholas Papers, IV, p. 152,
Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1659–60, p. 38.
London Past and Present, I, p. 438.
Survey of London, Vol. XIII, p. 80.
||On 27th February, 29th March and 12th May, letters were written by him from "St.
James's." (Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1659–60.)
||Skinner, Life of General Monk, p. 342.
||The earliest references to his residence here which have been found are dated 2nd June,
1660. (Certificate by Monck on behalf of Capt. Wm. Applegarth and letter from Ann, Lady
Monck to Secretary Nicholas, Cal. of S.P., Dom.).
||Pepys has several references to Albemarle's residence at the Cockpit. The two following
are characteristic: (i) "Thence to the Cockepitt, and there walked an houre with my Lord Duke of
Albemarle alone in his garden, where he expressed in great words his opinion of me." (Diary,
24th April, 1665.) (ii) "Thence to the Cockpitt, and dined with a great deal of company at the
Duke of Albemarle's, and a bad and dirty, nasty dinner." (Ibid., 28th March, 1666.)
||"Dyed at his appartment in the Cockpit, his Grace, George, Duke of Albemarle." (London
Gazette.) "The corpse of the Lord General has been removed from the Cockpit to Somerset
House." (News-letter to Robt. Aldworth, 13th January, 1669–70, in Cal. of S.P., Dom.).
||"Ripping new lathing and tyling of two squares of plaine tyling at the Cockpit over
the new hall." (P.R.O., Works, 5/1, July, 1660.)
||"Saweing, frameing & raiseing of iiijer squares of flooreing at the intended Chappell
at the Cockepitt." (P.R.O., E. 351/3275, 1661–2.) "Cutting out of two great stones out of a
window for the Carpenters to put in theire timber at ye Chappell at the cockpit … working of
a doorecase & freese & cornish of portland stone for ye Chappell at ye Cockpit … makeing one
Gallery Leading from ye cockpit to the new Chappell Cont' one floore Joysted & bourded 33 fot
longe & 7 fot ½ wyde and 2 side walles 33 fot longe & 8 fot high & 3 windowes 4 fot, square …
and one roofe 33 fot longe & 7 fot ½ wyde." (P.R.O., Works, 5/1, Octr. 1660.) "To Thomas
Bagley … for xijc xxx fot of new glasse in the D. of Albemarles intended Chappell." (B.M. Harl.
MS. 1656, March 1660–1.)
||"Collouring & varnishing xxxti yards in secretary Clarks roome at ye Cockpit." (P.R.O.,
Works, 5/1, June, 1660); "putting in an outer doore & doorecase & alsoe a partition wth another
doore & doorecase in a little roome for Sr Willm Clarke, the Duke of Albemarls Secretary." (Ibid.,
5/2, June, 1661.) Clarke was appointed Secretary at War on 28th January, 1661, and died as the
result of wounds received in the sea-fight with the Dutch off Harwich on 4th June, 1666.
||"The Prince of Aurang is expected wth ye first easterly wind. His lodgings are prepared
at ye Cockpitt and are very fine." (Letter dated 20th October, 1670, from Sir Chas. Lyttelton in
Hatton Correspondence, Camden Socy., I, p. 59.)
||P.R.O., Works, 5/15.
||"Breaking way for a window at Sr Thomas Cliffords Lodgings from a Foundation at the
Cockpitt and digging ye Foundac[i]on for the Chimneyes & taking downe part of a Chimney there, and
divers other needfull workes done aboute the house." (P.R.O., Works, 5/17.)
The Travels and Memoirs of Sir John Reresby, 1813 edn., p. 175; Letters to Sir Joseph
Williamson (Camden Socy.), I, p. 47.
||P.R.O., C. 66/3185.
||Bridget, who had in 1678 married Charles, Earl of Plymouth, natural son of Charles II.
In a letter written a few days after the marriage by Robert Paston to his father, Lord Yarmouth,
he says: "he [Lord Plymouth] has his apartment at the Cockpit, and lies it out every day till 12
o'clock." (Hist. MSS. Comm., App. to 6th Report, p. 388.)
||"I am confident itt must bee a mistake that shee [the Countess of Danby] is unwilling to
part wth any roomes wch was att first sett out for yr Lops use, and I have ye more reason to bee of that
opinion because my daughter Plymouth & my son Latimer happen to bee both wth mee att this
time, & do assure mee that all ye roomes wch were att first shew'd to ye servants are still reserved
to yr Lops disposall. They likewise tell mee that the new kitchen is neare finished wch I built for
yr Lops convenience & that they are reduced themselves to as much straitnesse as itt is possible for
them to live withall." (Letter from Danby to Conway, dated 13th October, 1681, B.M. Addl.
MS. 28053, f. 283.)
Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1683, p. 105.
Cal. of S.P., Dom., 1682, pp. 144–5.
||P.R.O., C. 66/3245.
An account of the Conduct of the Duchess of Marlborough, p. 57.
||See (i) order dated 23rd June, 1684, for the payment to Sir John Worden and Sir Benjamin Bathurst of £6500 "to be by them paid for the lease of the house in or nere St James Parke,
which we have purchased or doe intend to purchase in their names from our right trusty and right
entirely beloved cousin and councillor, Christopher, Duke of Albemarle"; and (ii) receipt, dated
29th June, by Worden and Bathurst for the money, "being for satisfaction of the like sume which
was paid to the Duke of Albemarle for the lease of a house in the Cockpitt bought by order of His
Majesty for Her Royall Highness the Princess of Denmarke." (Information kindly given by Mr.
B. R. Leftwich from Treasury Warrant Book, Custom House.)
||"The Princess went to bed at the usual time to prevent suspicion. I came to her soon
after; and by the back-stairs which went down from her closet, her Royal Highness, my lady
Fitzharding, and I, with one servant, walked to the coach, where we found the bishop [of London]
and the earl of Dorset. They conducted us that night to the bishop's house in the city, and the next
day to my lord Dorset's at Copt-Hall." (An account of the Conduct of the Duchess of Marlborough,
p. 17.) According to the Earl of Dartmouth, whose father was at the time living next door
(see p. 71), the back-stairs had been constructed a short while before for the purpose of the
flight. (Burnet's History of his own Time, 1823 edn., III, p. 318 note.)
||Ellis's Original Letters, 2nd series, IV, p. 180.
||"Satturday, 20th February [1691–2]. Yesterday the prince and princesse of Denmark,
with their attendants, removed to Sion house. … The princess has taken lady Marlborough
with her." (Luttrell's Brief Relation.)
||"Teusday, 18th October . Yesterday the prince and princesse came to the Cockpit,
and after a short stay return'd in their chairs thro' St James Park to Berkley house, so to Kensington."
||Thus in 1698 being in need of rooms at St James's for her son, the Duke of Gloucester,
she turned out Lady Wentworth and gave her in exchange rooms in the Cockpit. In a letter to
Lady Bathurst, Lady Wentworth's sister, she says: "The lodgings I intend to give my Lady Wentworth are those ye old Lady Berkly Lived in, there are Garretts just over them yt I ordered Sir
Benjamin to keep empty, wch she may have, there is a seller to, just by Danverses Lodging, yt is
not disposed of, & for a kitching there is one yt belonged to ye Clarke of ye kitching, wch Sir Benjamin
had once a mind to have given to one of ye french people yt are now at ye Cockpitt, I wish you would
putt Lady Wentworth in mind these lodgings are now in my disposall, & therefore ye sooner she
takes possession ye better" (Letters of Two Queens, by Lt.-Col. the Hon. B. Bathurst, p. 240). It
would appear that Lady Wentworth duly took possession, for in a letter to her son, Lord Raby, dated
28th October (1698), she says: "I shall be so busy with removing that you will mis hearing from me
a hole fortnight, I believ, for packing hear and unpacking at ye Cockpit & taking leav here will make
me very buissy" (Ibid.). She was there as late as 1716. "Orderd the Lady Wentworths Chimney
in the Cockpit to be secured." (P.R.O., Works, 4/1, p. 101–22 Feby, 1715–16.) Lord Raby
was in occupation of these lodgings in 1699, several entries in the records for that year (P.R.O.,
Works, 5/50) referring to work done to his lodgings in the Cockpit.
||"The Queens House at the Cock-pit is fitting up for the entertainment of Foreign
Ambassadors on such days as they are Treated at Her Majestie's Cost." (English Post, June
8–10, 1702.) "Baron Spanheim, the King of Prussia's Ambassador Extraordinary to the Queen,
made his publick Entry yesterday with extraordinary Pomp; and in the Evening his Excellency
was splendidly Entertained at the Cockpit, at her Majesty's charge." (Ibid., 15th–17th June, 1702);
"the Venitian Embassadr being to be entertained at the Cockpitt by her Majesty, These are to
Pray and Require You to give Orders for making four new Sashes to the windows towards the Park
in the Cockpitt where Embassadrs are entertained, the old ones being rotten and worn out." (P.R.O.,
L.C. 5/154, p. 123–23rd Novr., 1705.)
||See order, dated 27th February, 1701[–2]. (P.R.O., L.C. 5/153, p. 163) to "provide
… ye following particulars for furnishing an apartment at ye Cockpit for ye Entertainment of ye Ambassadr from Prussia, Viz., for ye Eating Room a Canopy of State, of Crimson
Damask with Silke Fringe, with one Chair, one footstool, Two Cushions Suitable, One Barbary
Matt, one green Cloth Carpet for ye Eating Table, three pair of Window Curtains of Crimson
Serge to draw back; in ye withdrawing room, two pair of Window Curtains of Crimson Tabby,
one Walnutt Table Glass & Stands; in ye Bedchamber, Two pair of White Tabby Window Curtains, a black Table Glass & Stands, one Barbary Matt; in the Room beyond ye Bedchamber one
pair of Crimson Tabby Window Curtains; in ye Closet within it, one close stool with a Velvett
Seat & 2 Panns; in ye room where ye Second Table is to be, Two pair of Crimson Tabby Curtains,
Six Pewter Chamberpots, Six Pewter Basons, Ten Dozens of Cane Chairs, Six pair of Snuffers &
Six Snuff pans with Twelve pair of Brass Candlesticks, Ten Thousand Tenter hooks & Ten thousand
Tacks, wth four Hammers."
Ibid., p. 168.
||"These are to Signify her Majestys Pleasure that his Grace, the Duke of Devonshire,
Lord Steward of Her Majestys Household, is to have the use and possession of the Three Rooms
at the Cockpitt which were Appointed for the reception and Entertainmt of Forreign Embassadrs.
which are to be deliver'd up by him for her Majestys use during the time that any Embassadr is
to be entertd." (P.R.O., L.C. 5/154, p. 129–8th December, 1705.)
||P.R.O., L.C. 5/144, p. 25.
Ibid. p. 90. While he was at the Cockpit a burglary took place. "On the 11th Instant
the Prince Hannover's Lodging in White-Hall was broke open, and a Bed with Gold Fringe and
richly Embroidered was stolen thence, valued at three thousand pound, but upon search several
parcels of the Fringe, and other remarkable appurtenances were found, and the persons in whose
custodies they were taken, carryed before the Board of Green-Cloath to be examined in order to
their Commitment, who as we hear are sent to Prison." (The Protestant Oxford Intelligence,
14th–17th March, 1680–1.)
||P.R.O., L.C. 5/144, p. 72.
||P.R.O., Works, 5/37.
Cal. of Treasury Books, 1685–9, p. 411.
||P.R.O., L.C. 5/152, p. 165.