Mary
October 1553

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Institute of Historical Research

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William B. Turnbull (editor)

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1861

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15-22

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'Mary: October 1553', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Mary: 1553-1558 (1861), pp. 15-22. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=70400 Date accessed: 31 October 2014.


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Contents

October 1553

Oct. 1.
Cracow.
47. Sigismund Augustus, King of Poland, to Queen Mary. Congratulates her Majesty on succeeding to the crown, and recommends very strongly to her Thomas Stafford, grandson of Edward Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, who has by his conduct while at court not only fully borne out the high character given of him by distinguished individuals, but won for himself by his modesty and virtues the esteem of his Majesty and his Council. Refers to the constant and undaunted fidelity and regard of Stafford's father and grandfather to her mother Queen Catharine and her uncle Cardinal Pole, and the ruin of the family, and begs that he may be restored to the dukedom. [Latin. Broadside.]
Oct. 1.
Cracow.
48. Catherine, Queen of Poland, to same. Congratulates her Majesty on succeeding to the crown. As the King her husband sends Thomas Stafford to offer his respects and felicitations, she testifies to his excellent conduct and the general estimation in which he is held, and requests that, from regard to the services of the Stafford family and his own merits, her Majesty will be pleased to restore him to his estates and dignities. [Latin. Broadside.]
Oct. 2.
Calais.
49. Lord Grey to Queen Mary. Since writing to the Council concerning the movements of the French and Imperial armies, he understands that three ensigns have been appointed to Ardres, three to Boulogne, two to Estaple, four to Montreuil, one to Crotoy, two to St. Valery, six to Abbeville, 17 to Magny, and 15,000 men towards Renti beyond St. Omer to build a fort thereabout. As her Majesty desired to have some venison of the wild boar, he has sent to her such as it was his fortune to take; not having so good luck in his hunting as he wished, although he was most earnest in the same and sought both on the Imperial and French grounds where the game was thought to be most plenteous. Since then another boar has come to his hand, which he sends also ready baked after the manner here, because he doubts whether it would endure the carriage unbaked. [One page. Indorsed by Petre.]
Oct. 6.50. Estimate of such sums as will be due at this date for the garrisons and officers of Calais, amounting in all to 38,877l. 13s. 9d. [Three pages.]
Oct. 7.
Venice.
51. Peter Vannes to Sir William Petre. From want of occurrents forbears to trouble her Majesty or the Council with his letters at present. In Piedmont the truce between Ferrante and Brissac is prolonged, and the wars seem to grow to some rest towards winter, which reason, with slack provision of money and victuals, may cause the soldiers to mislike the plain field. After Bastia and Bonifacio in Corsica had been taken by the French and Turks, it was written thence that the greater number of the gallies had gone to Marseilles to provide munitions and necessaries for fortifying San Fiorenza, a strongly situated place in that island; as yet there is no news of the return of these gallies, and intelligence is very seldom received of the proceedings there, as the whole island, except the town of Calvi, is in the hands of the French. This town, the Imperialists allege, has been long besieged by the Turks without any fruit, and it is said their army has returned to Constantinople, and that M. de Thermes and the French soldiers, with eight or nine gallies, remain there. Should this be correct, the Imperialists and Genoese may hope to regain the island, as men think De Thermes with such a small number will be unable to resist. Again shows the important position which Corsica occupies. The Ambassadors of the King of the Romans were at Constantinople labouring for peace or a longer truce with the Turk, who had licensed those of the King of Persia without any agreement, and had already gone to Aleppo to pass the winter there, and be readier early next year to set forward a great army against the Persians. Is loth to trouble Petre with his suits, but as he has been nearly five months without knowledge or instruction in what case he stands or what he may do, wherein he is only nourished with hope, is desirous of Petre's influence with the Council, who sleeping, know better what is most convenient for him than he waking can in any part declare. The ordinary post from England is looked for here to-morrow, and if it be his chance to receive any letters from the Council, they shall be no less welcome to him than drink to him that is most thirsty. [Four pages. Indorsed by Petre.]
Oct. 10.
Brussels.
52. The Bishop of Norwich and Sir John Masone to Queen Mary. On Sunday the 8th inst. Masone arrived here, his tarrying for passage at Dover having been such, and the weather all the rest of the way so stormy, as for his life he could make no greater speed. The next morning they sent to the Court for audience, but were desired to have patience until the Emperor's return from hunting of the boar, in which he had appointed to spend that day. This pastime he liked so well that he did not return that night to the palace, but to a little house which he has within a park joining thereto. This morning they have sent to M. D'Arras, expressing the desire of the Bishop of Norwich to take leave, and they trust to have audience of the Emperor to-morrow, if not this afternoon. The Bishop has all preparations for his departure so far advanced, that in one day at most after his leave-taking he will enter upon his journey homewards. Since the Bishop last wrote to the Council, the Marquis Albert has had by the Duke of Brunswick, the Bishop of Wurtzburg, and their allies, such a notable overthrow, as it is supposed will prevent him taking the field again for a long time. Nevertheless news have reached the Court that having made his peace with Duke Augustus, the brother of Duke Maurice, by means of the Marquis of Brandenburg, he has received into wages 3,000 horses of the Duke's retainers, and ten ensigns of foot, so that unless certain agreements, supposed to be in hand among some Princes of Germany, take effect, the Marquis is likely soon to revenge himself of the defeat. Several of the German princes have sent to the Emperor to have the Marquis put in banno Imperiali: what he will do is uncertain. [Two pages.]
Oct. [13.]53. The Council to Dr. Wotton. On the 8th inst. the French Ambassador delivered to her Majesty a letter from the King of France and another from the Scottish Queen, both making mention of certain spoils and murders alleged to have been committed by the English against the Scots, as stated in the inclosed schedule (missing). Her Majesty, expressing her affection to be wholly given to the preservation of amity with France and Scotland, referred the Ambassador to the Council, as she had not heard of these matters before. Touching the fishing claimed by Lord Hume, which had been discussed frequently during the last reign, they had thought Lord Hume and the Scottish Council would have been satisfied with the friendly answers given. But for more plain understanding of the matter they prayed the Ambassador "to consider that this fishing is in the river of Tweed, which river divideth both the realms, and the chief place of that fishing is even under the walls of Norham Castle, which castle hath ever been kept and guarded by soldiers. And to take away all occasions of strife which might grow between the garrison there and the fishers, if they upon a pretence of fishing should lie under the castle walls in the night (for in the night is their most fishing); for this cause the Captains of Norham have always had the fishing and paid the yearly rent to the Lord Hume's ancestors for the same; which rent hath been continually offered and is ready to be paid. And moreover, to declare the Lord Hume's right in the propriety of that fishing, it hath been offered that he may one or two times yearly, giving first warning thereof, either come himself or send his servants to fish, for a declaration of his right." They therefore see no ground of complaint, such having always been the state of the matter before the wars, and which the treaty only requires to be restored. With reference to the cattle and sheep taken, they had given orders for their restoration twenty days ago, according to the custom of the frontiers. These animals had been taken on English ground, and it is the custom of the Borders that in cases of trespass on either side, the cattle may be impounded and restored to the owners on payment of damage, and this for three times; but if they are found after three monitions, then they are forfeited. They have not heard of the murder surmised to be done upon a day of meeting, and think the account must be exaggerated; but they did hear of a quarrel provoked by a lewd Englishman at some such meeting, which, but for the interference of wise gentlemen, might have led to bloodshed, and the offender was directed to be committed to ward and punished according to the Border laws, which, as they take it, was death. Were they to complain of the robberies, murders and disorders of the Scots, they should make a long discourse. Send a note of some recent injurious attemptates (missing). Her Majesty is glad that the French King is desirous to appoint Commissaries for the rectification of such offences. Have complained to the Ambassador that some small French ships of war lately entered the port of Camber and took a small ship named the Flying Hart of Ostend. The parties are thought to be of Dieppe, and certain subjects of the Emperor have appealed to her Majesty for redress. Wherefore this injury being done within her realm, it may not pass unsatisfied. [Minute. Three pages. Incomplete.]
Rough draft of the preceding, autograph of Secretary Petre. [Eight pages.]
Oct. 14.
La Ferté Milon.
54. Dr. Wotton to Queen Mary. "A declaration of all that hath been done by me hitherto in our merchants' matters, and what answers I have received from time to time of the French King and his Council therein." Besides the general complaints, he has had special and lengthened correspondence in reference to those of Winter and Thomas Strange of Waterford. [Fighteen pages. The correspondence in French.]
Oct. 15.
Koningsberg.
55. Albert, Marquis of Brandenburg, to same. Condoles with her Majesty on the death of her brother, congratulates her on succeeding, hopes she may take to herself a worthy husband, and, in token of old friendship with her family and personal regard, sends her ten falcons, which he hopes may recall him to her memory when she is enjoying the sport. [Latin. Two pages. Indorsed by Petre.]
Oct. 26.
Ferté Milon.
56. Dr. Wotton to Sir William Petre. Sends him some books, and had it not been that the prevalence of the plague in that city prevented his going to Paris, would have sent some more. Trusts to a future occasion. If he has not the Lord Winchester's book called Marcus Anthonius Constantinus it shall be sent to him. Longs, like the hart for waterbrooks, to hear of their proceedings at home, which he prays God may prosper. On Sunday a Jew was baptized at the Court in presence of the King; he was named Catharinus, the Queen being his godmother. The Jew's father is a learned physician, formerly baptized, and was, with his wife, present at the son's christening; he is now called Ludovicus Carrettus, and has written a small volume in Hebrew which has been translated into Latin, of which a copy is sent herewith. Cardinal Lorraine baptized him. Jokes apropos of the Jew. [One page. Printed by Tytler, Vol. ii., p. 247.]
Oct. 27.
a Ferté Milon.
57. Same to the Queen. The Pope has made Cardinal Pole Legate a latere to the Emperor and French King, and thereafter he is to go to her Majesty. His errand is to attempt a reconciliation between the two former Sovereigns, and if any Cardinal is able to do good in the matter Pole is that person, being esteemed of an honest mind and virtuous life, and so much respected by the Emperor that at the last vacation of the papacy the Imperial Cardinals laboured to have him made Pope. The Italians at this Court are said to be preparing to go to Italy, for what purpose at present unknown. The Grand Master of Rhodes is dead, and in his place is chosen a Frenchman. Hears from Lyons, that the French Ambassador at Venice has made shift there for his master for 90,000 crowns, and that the French King took up at Lyons, at the last fair, 400,000 francs at 14 per cent., and did owe there before that a million and a half of gold. The fort intended to be made beside Hesdin is not proceeded with, the time of the year not serving. The Italian Ambassadors have sure advertisement of the Turk's movements. [Three pages. Printed by Tytler, Vol. ii., p. 249.]
Oct. 28.
Vienna.
58. Ferdinand, King of the Romans, to same. In behalf of Lawrence Fentzel, a citizen of Dantzic, who seeks justice in England for injuries done him there. [Latin. Signed by his Majesty. Broadside.]
Oct. 28.
Koningsberg.
59. Albert, Marquis of Brandenburg, to the same. Requesting that Lawrence Ventzell may be permitted to export 4,000 white English cloths, in virtue of a promise repeatedly made to him by his late Majesty, for whom he had advanced money and to whom shortly before his death he had given some fine ordnance; and which cloths, by means of false charges against him, have been detained. [Latin. Broadside.]
Oct. 29.
Venice.
60. Peter Vannes to the Council. Occurrents here are few. After the Turk's army had left Corsica for Constantinople, or, as some say, towards Previsa, the Genoese and French have made great preparations the one to recover and the other to keep that island, as it is written the French King is utterly resolved to leave nothing undone for the holding of it. For that purpose he has sent from Marseilles on the 13th inst. 32 gallies, four galeons, and two ships laden with munitions, all sorts of stores, and a large sum of money, and for his service there are in readiness 10,000 foot. De Thermes is very diligent in fortifying some places and destroying others, that the Genoese provisions may be the more easily resisted. The Genoese have sent thither 20 gallies with 4,000 foot, and these being landed at Calvi, still in possession of the Genoese, the gallies have been appointed to another place for receiving 2,000 foot and 200 horse, sent by the duke of Florence to aid them; and Andrew Doria was appointed to follow in a few days after with 12 gallies and 14 ships laden with the rest of the infantry, which in all will number 10,000. One from Genoa likewise reports that the French gallies were discovered upon the seas, whereupon much diligence was used to unite the Genoese army, and it is plainly thought that some great exploit shall ensue between them either by sea or land. The truce between the Imperialists and the French in Piedmont having expired on the 16th, Ferrante greatly enforces his army on the field, furnishing all his frontiers with men and victuals, thinking either to withdraw thereby the French from Corsica, or else to attempt something against them in Piedmont, where their numbers are inferior. Thus, not withstanding the season of the year, both sides prepare for a continuance of war. Beseeches them for the reverence of God they will do his humble suit to her Majesty either for the continuance of his poor service and the payment and provision appointed to him, or that he may know her commands, which in all points he shall most obediently follow; for he ensures them he is so needy and far indebted, that without her help he can neither well tarry nor depart. Begs that his boldness may be pardoned, for very sorrow and necessity have compelled him to declare his case. [Three pages. Indorsed by Petre.]
Oct.
(Or beginning of Nov.)
61. Instructions by Cardinal Pole to the Reverend Father Confessor of the Emperor. Mendoza has advised him on the part of her Majesty not to continue his mission without further commission from his Holiness, alleging as his reason the Emperor's desire for the quiet of England, which might be disturbed if Pole came as the Pope's Legate before the minds of the people, long alienated from obedience to the Holy See, were better disposed; this requires time, and a more perfect establishment of the Queen in her kingdom. Has received letters from her begging him to put off his journey, and asking his advice in the matter. In reply to his Majesty's allegation of his desire for the quiet of England, the Confessor is to say that the duty which the Queen owes towards God is to be inquired into, which is before all to restore the obedience of the Church, having regard to salvation and peace with God before worldly and external peace. The danger of delay. God's will with regard to that obedience shown by the effusion of the blood not only of religious but of secular persons. With regard to the expediency of the restitution of that obedience at the present time, or the necessity of waiting for a more sure establishment of the power of the Queen, it must be considered that she is not only called to it by the rewards of a future life, but also by those of the present world, inasmuch as, failing the support of the Holy See, she would not be legitimate heir to the crown, for the marriage of her mother was not valid but by a dispensation of his Holiness; so that obedience to the Holy See is necessary to secure her power, since upon it depends her very claim to the crown. He is to add that both of them being natives of England, know thoroughly the sentiments of the people with regard to obedience to the Holy See. He may further insist that the people have always been in times past more disposed to that obedience than any other nation; that they have experienced more advantage from it than any injury; that this island having been restored to the faith by the Roman See, and having become of its own free will tributary to it, has not only not suffered oppression from the Pope, but has on more than one occasion, been freed by them from the great tyranny of its own princes, the Roman See never having had any other emolument beyond the ordinary taxes of sees except a very small subsidy in recognition of the obedience due. Now the kingdom having been always in this state until, by the rebellious conduct of its King, its obedience was destroyed, it stands to reason that the people, who have not been benefited but injured by the change, cannot hold that obedience in abhorrence. That they do not, experience has shown by the fact that the popular tumults since the change have all been in favour of the preservation of the rites, customs, and religion which the people enjoyed while they were in obedience to the Holy See. In the last tumult, which was in Cornwall, and very serious, all that was demanded, in spite of the law which made it crimen læsœ majestatis even to speak of the authority of the Pope, was the restoration of the state of things which had existed during that obedience, and the recall and restoration to the Council, under the name of Cardinal, of Pole, in full knowledge that the cause of his banishment was his defence of the authority of the Pope. Those who might possibly dislike this obedience to the Holy See are either the Queen, on account of the profit which the Crown draws from ecclesiastical possession alienated by the rebellion, or the few nobles who have received profit from the same cause. With regard to the Queen it is well known she does not object to, but desires a restoration of the obedience; with regard to the nobles it is credible that none of them, if they understood how the restoration of that obedience would confirm the claims of the Queen, destroy all opposition, and remove any commotions internal and external against themselves, would oppose it, and providentially those who from selfinterest might have greater cause to resist, have had to throw themselves on the clemency of the Queen for their lives and goods. But supposing some were to oppose it, the Confessor might say that, Pole having had authority from the Pope to compose such differences in such manner as might appear best to him, and thus having to negotiate for the restitution of the ecclesiastical possessions, would wish that the Emperor should undertake the office of a mediator between the Pope and the English people. Fears that it will be said, as his confinement is attributed to his Majesty, and the objects of his commission well known, that his Majesty is ling to hear anything of them. Hopes that when he is per to see his Majesty he may be able to serve both public and private interests at once. [Italian. Seven pages and a half.]