Elizabeth
December 1558, 21-31

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1863

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38-57

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'Elizabeth: December 1558, 21-31', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 1: 1558-1559 (1863), pp. 38-57. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71724 Date accessed: 23 September 2014.


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December 1558, 21-31

Dec. 21.
R. O.
106. The Marquis of Winchester to Cecil.
Encloses a bill whereby he shall perceive what is required for the obsequies of the late Emperor, which he prays may be performed, and will pass the rest; although the time be short. Count Feria shall be chief mourner, as he was for the Emperor's mother. If the Queen change not this purpose, it shall be well done and shortly, to her profit; but if he provides as he does and it be altered, it will increase the charges more than shall be necessary.—Written this Wednesday. Dec. 21, 1558.
Hol. Endd. Add. Pp. 2.
Dec. 21.
B. M. Add. MS. 5756. 121.
107. Royal Proclamation.
Allowance to Richard Jugge and John [Caw]ode, printers to the Queen, for printing "400 proclamations prohibiting all persons to set forth any ships or vessels to the sea without the Queen's licence under the seal of the Admiralty." Delivered 21 Dec. 1558, 16s. 8d.
Dec. 22.
R. O.
108. Lord Cobham to Cecil.
The Duke of Alva and Ruigomes arrived here on Tuesday, 20th inst. Has not yet his despatch, but still is borne in hand to have it shortly. This long attendance is "hirksome" unto him. Though he has written many times has not received one letter from Cecil since his departure from England. It is reported here that Lord Howard is coming over, of which pleads ignorance.
"This day the funeral exequies were celebrated for the Queen deceased, wherein this order was observed: First, in the church an hearse set, and all the church hanged with black. A great number of lights about the hearse and round about the church. Then from the church to the palace the street was railed and furnished with torch bearers; and out of the palace they came in this order:
"First, a great number of poor men in black gowns, then the priests and clerks, after them the bishops, then the pages and gentlemen of the Court, and after them four gentlemen leading a horse covered with black velvet, bearing on his back a crown of gold set with precious stones. The heralds then followed, and the Duke of Savoy went as chief mourner, and the Duke of Alva, and others of the nobility of the order, to the number of 11, did follow him. And when they had finished the accustomed service with other ceremonies in the church they returned home to the palace in like order as they came forth. And the next day they came again in the same order to the church, the Bishop of Arras sang mass, and a sermon was made in French by the Suffragan of Arras.
"The Bishop of Ely and my cousin Wotton were this day present at the said funeral, being specially required thereunto, and also the Ambassador of Mantua and the Ambassador of Venice. I myself kept my lodging and saw not the execution of these ceremonies, because I wanted my mourning apparel, and although I was required to come unto the same, yet being unprovided to show myself in such order as was meet for the same, I absented myself from it."—Brussels, 22 Dec. 1558. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 22.
B. M. Harl. 169. 15.
109. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Strond House, 22 Dec. 1558.—Present: the Lord Treasurer, Earl of Pembroke; the Admiral and Chamberlain, the Vice-Chamberlain and Secretary; Mr. Cave and Mr. Masone.
A letter to the Mayor of Rye and the officers of that port to suffer John de Galarso and John de Saravsse, servants and officers of the King of Spain, to pass into Spain with such provisions of wax, rosin, and 1,200 ducats in money as they had in their pinnace when they were arrested, for the furniture of the King's army; commanding the said officers further friendly to aid them with victuals and all other necessaries for their said voyage for their reasonable money.
Dec. 22.
R.O. 27 V. 39.
110. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Dec. 23.
R. O.
111. The Queen to Christopher Mundt.
In time past he having rendered faithful and diligent service to her father and brother, Henry VIII. and Edward VI., she is minded to retain him likewise as her agent in the parts of Germany. He is to repair to the Diet that will be kept this January next at Augusta, that he may the better give her advertisement of what shall be done there. In reward for his attendance there he is to receive 100 crowns beside his yearly pension. (fn. 1) Further, he is to use good means as well at this Diet as at all other times, to revive and maintain amity with all those princes and states there whom he knows to have borne goodwill to her said father and brother, for which purpose he is provided with letters addressed to them.
Draft, corrected by Cecil. Pp. 3.
Dec. 24.112. For Christopher Mundt.
Letters patent in favour of Christopher Mount, LL.D., who had been employed by Henry VIII. and Edward VI. in the transaction of business of importance, and whom, having now taken him into her service, she recommends to their good offices.—London, 24 Dec. 1558, 1 Eliz.
Draft Endd. Lat., pp. 2.
Dec. 24.
B.M. Reg. 13 B. 1. 2 b.
113. Another copy of the above.
Letterbook.
Dec. 24.
B.M. Sloane, 4144. 2 b.
114. Another copy of the preceding.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 23.
R. O.
115. The Queen to Gresham.
"Minute of a letter sent to Thomas Gresham," 23 Dec., 1558, authorizing him to borrow for the Queen's use 20,000l. more than he was formerly instructed to do.—Westminster, 23 Dec.
Draft. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 23.
R. O.
116. The Marquis of Winchester to Cecil.
Is sorry for his absence from the Queen's service at this time, but within two days trusts to be ready to attend. Prays Cecil to remember the 100l. for the late Emperor's obsequy. Mr. Baker being departed this life, prays him to remember Sir Walter Mildmay for that office. Asks him to obtain the Queen's licence that John Abyngdone, surveyor of the provisions at Berwick, may come home to account with his friends in London for such provisions as they have sent him this year.—23 Dec. 1558.
Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 23.
R. O.
117. Obsequy of the Emperor Charles V.
"The account of Sir Edward Waldgrave, master of the Queen's great wardrobe, viz., as well for all sums of money as he has received of the Queen's treasure for the use of the said obsequy, as also of the defraying and expending of the same about the emption of black cloth, cotton, wax, banners and skutcheons, rewards and other necessary payments made during the said obsequy, together with the receipt of divers parcels of taffeta and sarsenet received out of the store of the said grand wardrobe for the said purpose, as by one particular book thereof, cast, tried, and examined, appears; which obsequy was ordained and kept in the Abbey of Westminster, 23 Dec., 1 Eliz."
£s.d.
Dr. Ready money received10000
Cr. Paid for black cloth36104
Cotton (broad) for the hanging of the high altar and all the sides of the chancel5400
Cotton (narrow) for the covering of the high altar494
Red and blue silk fringe740
Wax, for branches, staff torches, tapers at the Dirige and Mass, and for garnishing the high altar2640
Black thread0100
5 great banners of Saints upon sarsenet gilt with fine gold16130
26 banner rolls, gilt3140
36 black staves1160
23 dozen skutchions3070
Rewards, sundrywise, to Garter, the officers-at-arms, &c.23118
Wages to tailors1190
A drinking for the mourners after the dirige, and a dinner the next day for them44123
Sumnia273157
Surplus to the accountant173157
Signed: Winchester.
Endd.: A declaration of the issuing and delivering of divers parcels of silk out of the store of the said great wardrobe for the use of the said obsequy.
A parchment roll.
Dec. 23.
B. M. Harl. 169. 15 b.
118. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 23 Dec. 1558.—Present: the Lord Great Seal and the Lord Steward, the Earl of Bedford, the Lord Admiral, the Vice-Chamberlain; Mr. Cave, Mr. Peetre, Mr. Mason.
A letter to the Master of the Rolls to deliver to Sir John Brende a copy of the confirmation of the liberties and corporation of the town of Berwick.
For care of the north parts towards Scotland and Berwick; the Earls of Arundel, Shrewsbury, Bedford, and Pembroke the Lord Admiral, Sir Ambrose Cave.
Dec. 23.
R.O. 27 V. 40.
119. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Dec. 24.
B. M. Harl. 169. 16.
120. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 24 Dec. 1558.—Present: the Lord Great Seal; the Earl of Bedford and Pembroke; the Lords Admiral and Chamberlain; the Controller, Vice-Chamberlain, and Secretary; Mr. Cave, Mr. Sackeville.
A letter to the Earl of Northumberland, that whereas the Lord Grey promised before his departure into Scotland he would from time to time signify such intelligence out of that realm as should much advance the Queen's service on the frontiers, his Lordship is willed to write hither what he has done herein, and to learn, by the most secret means he can, how he is presently affectioned to this state, wherein he is willed to use much secresy.
Dec. 24.
R. O. 27 V. 42.
121. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Dec. 24.
R. O.
122. The Earl of Northumberland to Cecil.
The report of his brother and other things have fully declared Cecil's good mind towards him.
Though it had been affirmed that Sir Andrew Carr should for no respect be let home into Scotland, yet, considering the cruelty of the Scots, which they will continue till such time as the English have furniture of garrisons to countervail therefore, has permitted him for divers causes to return home "upon such assurance of bond as he shall not fail to enter again when he is called on." Hopes by his liberty to receive commodity for this information.—Alnwick, 24 Dec. 1558.
P.S.—Having been informed that it has been reported to the Council that great invasions, burnings, and overthrows had been done by the Scots, which he had not communicated to them, assures him that he has faithfully reported all that has occurred. "We be able nothing to withstand the enemy's power, they be of so great force, having their country so strong withal and we so weak, having no assistance of the country to account of, for that they be all for the most part in wages." Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 25.
R. O.
123. Sir Edward Carne to the Queen.
Nothing of importance has happened since his last letter to her of the 18th inst., except the release of Count de Petiliano from prison, on bond and cautions of 200,000 ducats, to appear when the Pope requires him, and "to serve Rome of eight thousand rubies of wheat." In his previous letter he had stated that Sor. Antonio Augustino, late Ambassador from Pope Julius to England, and now made a bishop, would be sent Nuncio to the King; but he is now instructed to attend the Diet in Germany, which shall be kept, they say, at Frankfort. The Pope threatens to deprive the Electors of the Empire of their electorships for their heresies, viz. the Duke of Saxe, the Marquis of Brandebroke, and the Count Palatine, and to transfer their electorships to Catholic princes. The house of the Crispoldie, refusing to give up the castle of Battone (within the territory of Perusia,) to the children of Radulph Battoni, who were the heirs, the Pope sent soldiers and ordnance against them; at this the Crispoldi submitted and peace was restored.—Rome, 25 Dec. 1558.
Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Dec. 25.
R. O.
124. Petrus Perusinus to the Queen.
Her accession to the throne is a token of God's superintending providence. Has long since known her virtues and will never forget them. No words can express the joy with which he heard this intelligence.—Venice, 25 Dec. 1558.
Hol. Add. Endd.: 25 Dec. 1559. Lat. Pp. 3.
Dec. 26.
B. M. Reg. 13 B. 1, 3.
125. The Queen to Sigismund Augustus, King of Poland.
The importance of free intercourse among nations for the purposes of commerce is universally acknowledged. She requests therefore that whenever the merchants of England have occasion to travel through the towns under his authority they may do so without hindrance, and if necessary under his protection, and that safe conducts be given them. She will do the like in regard to his subjects.—London, 26 Dec. 1558.
Letterbook. Lat.
Dec. 26.
B.M. Sloane, 4144. 3 b.
126. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 26.
B. M. Reg. 13 B. 1. 3 b.
127. The Queen to the Locum-Tenens of the King of Poland in Lithuania, and to the Deputy, Captain, and Supreme Governor of Wilna.
English merchants, for the purposes of trade, have frequent occasion to pass through very many parts of the globe, and it is customary among such princes as are at peace with each other mutually to afford them facilities for free passage. She therefore requests that henceforth, when any of her subjects find it necessary to pass through the places under his jurisdiction for the purposes of trade, he would afford them free transit, and she will do the like in regard to the merchants of his Prince. She recommends the bearer, Ph. Alcok, merchant of London, and requests that he may have free passage in going and returning.—London, 26 Dec. 1558.
Letterbook. Lat.
[Dec. 26.]
B.M. Sloane, 4144. 4.
128. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 26.
R. O.
129. Cavalcanti to the Duke of Bedford.
Wrote to him yesterday from Monterol [Montreuil-surMer] and sent it direct to Lord Grey, but being uncertain whether it would be delivered thinks it well to write the second time. Is proceeding to the Court with the consent and approval of Mons. de V[endôme] with one of his gentlemen, bearing, for his introduction, a favourable despatch. Thinks to be there to-morrow morning early, and will do his diligence to obtain a speedy return. The impression is that Lord Grey might have some commission to negociate indirectly [di costa]. Hopes that what has been so favourably begun by one hand will not be endangered by the other, which would be to the displeasure of the said Mons. V. The Duke is prudent, and therefore a long letter is not necessary; it is not expedient to commit matters of importance to uncertain communications.—Bevilla [Beauvais?], 26 Dec. 1558. Signed: G. C.
Orig. Hol. Add. Ital. Pp. 2.
Dec. 26.
R. O.
130. Munitions from Flanders.
1. "The note of the prices of divers munitions, 26 Dec. 1558."
2. "The remain of the passports which was granted by King Philip to Queen Mary, which the customer of Antwerp will not let pass till the King's further pleasure be known."
Dec. 26.3. "The note of such munition as was shipped 24 Dec. for the Queen."
Endd. by Cecil: Provisions of powder, 1558. Pp. 2.
[Dec. 26.]
R.O.
131. "Munitions and armour sent from Antwerp by Thomas Gresham," with a note of the ships in which they were laden. P. 1.
Dec. 28.
B. M. Reg. 13 B. 1, 4 b.
132. The Queen to Albert, Duke of Prussia.
His letter, dated 15 Oct. at Königsburg [Regiomonti], and addressed to her late sister, Queen Mary, as also his present of eight falcons, have been delivered to the writer, to whom all were as acceptable as they could have been to the deceased Queen. Having succeeded by right to her kingdoms she also considers herself the heir of her friendships, among which she includes him. His goodwill is manifest in his letters and gifts, which she will reciprocate.—London, 28 Dec. 1558.
Letterbook. Lat.
Dec. 28.
B.M. Sloane, 4144. 4 b.
133. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 28.
R.O.
134. Emanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, to the Queen.
Had written last May to the late Queen to settle the staple [pour dresser les estaples] of English wool at Bruges, to which she had agreed, and at this time the staple is there established. Requests that the application of the inhabitants of the Pays Bas and of the said town for the continuance of the same may be favourably received by her, as it will be equally beneficial to the Crown of England and the King of Spain, "mon seigneur."—Brussels, 28 Dec. 1558. Signed: E. Philibert.
Orig. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
[Dec. 28.]
R.O. Forbes, 1, 4.
135. Negociations with France.
"The consideration of the Lord Grey's message, with a purpose for answer thereof."
Since the overtures made both by Monpesart and the Duke of Guise to Lord Grey tend towards peace, and the communication of the Vidame is to the same purpose, with more frankness of talk touching the rendering of Calais, it seems necessary to allow this overture of peace by some answer to be made by Lord Grey. It is necessary neither so to like it nor so to allow it as thereby any jealousy shall arise in the heart of the King of Spain, but that principally that amity be preserved and this not refused.
I. Wherefore Lord Grey shall return his answer to the Duke of Guise in the manner following by writing: that with difficulty upon his arrival in London he obtained an interview with the Queen. (fn. 2)
After two days she gave him leave to come to her presence and answered, That after having thanked the Duke of Guise for his goodwill offered for peace she said that if her sister had not left her in war she had not of her own mind any disposition to be in enmity with the French King. Yet since it is otherwise and her realm has received a notorious loss, one noble member thereof being now in the French King's possession, she must dispose herself as she sees the universal disposition of all the Estates of her realm fully bent, and that is no otherwise to accept peace than (fn. 3) that the same amity may be restored that was left at the death of the King her brother, and that all things done in her sister's time (fn. 4) since the war began might be as it were revoked and put out of memory. (fn. 5) This was his answer, which he repeats in the same words, referring it to his Grace's wisdom, and thanks him for this opportunity of visiting his country.
II. 1. Dr. Wotton shall do this special message to the King of Spain, that the Queen is determined to continue her old amity with him, and prays him to remain most assured that, although he shall hear of any proceedings by the French for motion of peace, nothing shall be done that may prejudice this amity betwixt them.
2. For the secresy of the message to the French King, Lord Grey's letter shall be sent by some gentlemen well instructed, and Lord Grey shall require answer by writing, adding in another private letter his own private desire to have some peace made, trusting thereby to be restored to his country, wherein he may say he is forced to respect his own cause.
3. In anywise the embassy shall be prepared to the King of Spain for confirmation of the old leagues.
4. It shall be divulged by some means that in this parliament the whole Estates mean to make petition that in anywise restitution be sought for Calais, and that a subsidy may be granted to continue until the same be received, or the value of it. This might be practised many ways, and specially upon Twelfth Day, when the Mayor is presented to the Queen, the Recorder may in his oration seem to show such a disposition in her city of London.
Cecil's hol. and endd. by him: 1559, Lord Grey's message at his first coming out of France. Pp. 6.
[Dec. 28.]
R.O. Forbes, 1. 7.
136. Lord Grey to the Duke of Guise.
Having accomplished the charge committed by the Duke to him towards the Queen, sends this present as an answer.
Upon his arrival here in London, by the assistance of two or three of his influential friends with the Queen and Council, he received permission to come to the Court, and found this permission more difficult to gain than he had imagined. At his first coming to Court, he could not gain access to the Queen, until he was forced (passing by his own private affairs) to say that he had to treat of very important matters, and then he was admitted to her presence. She began by charging him with the loss of the fort of which he was captain. He having defended himself as best he could, she replied that she would not judge until better informed of it; and that unless all her Council had defended him in his absence, and that she had known his loyalty and affection, all the reasons he could have alleged in his defence would not have enabled him to come into her presence without first restoring to her that which he had lost.
He then had permission secretly to declare his message, as well regarding the humble recommendations of the Duke to her as those of M. de Monpessart, which he fully declared. She told him that the recommendations of the Duke were agreeable to her, that she knew M. de Monpessart well, having seen him during the life of her late father, King Henry. She gave him no further answer beyond telling him to await her wishes, and he departed in suspense.
After two days, when he asked for an answer to his message, the Queen summoned him to her presence, and told him that if he wished to return or send back a message, she would be content, and that he should thank the Duke for his good affection towards her. As to the peace, she said that if her sister had not left her in war she would never have been an enemy of the King of France, but wished rather that her kingdom had been left to her in peace with France, as her father had left it to her brother and her brother to her sister. But since it is otherwise, and as her kingdom has suffered great losses, and one of its forts fallen into the French King's hands, she must now act according to the wish of the States of her kingdom; thus she could not accept peace unless the same amity were now exhibited towards her which was agreed upon between her brother and the King of France; and that all things done by her sister since the beginning of these wars should be abolished. On this understanding she not only will keep this peace but will try to increase it, and this would meet the wishes of her subjects, to whom, in a matter of such importance, she would desire to refer.
Such was her reply, even to the terms employed; and he writes it without adding anything of his own, leaving to the Duke of Guise its consideration, to whom he feels himself infinitely obliged for this opportunity of revisiting his country which he regrets to be compelled to leave so speedily.—From the Court this.—, of—.
P.S.—Wishes to be told by letter how the Duke would have him behave himself, consistently with the character of a true and loyal English gentleman.
Draft, with additions and corrections by Cecil. Fr. Pp. 4.
[Dec. 28.]
R. O.
137. Another copy of the above. Pp. 3.
[Dec. 28.]
B. M. Sloane, 4134. 92.
138. Another copy of the preceding.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 28.
R. O.
139. Francis Chesylden to Sir John Thynne, Knt.
Desires to be commended to him, "with my good lady." Has stayed writing until he had some good piece of service to be done this winter against the Scots to tell of; for lack whereof will tell the bearer what Northumberland has sustained. Since the breaking up of the garrisons there the Scots have burnt Belford, Buckton, Bosden, Ross, with many others of which he knows not the names. They ride as far as Morpeth as quietly as in Tividale. The Tividales will ride ten and twelve in a company, from town to town, and call men by their names and bid them rise quickly. The poor man doth ask him what he is ? The Scot saith, "Dost not know me by my tongue ? I am Jok of the Hare Well, or Hob a Gilcrist, or Tom of the Covis, or a Davison, or a Young." These be the rank riders. The Scot bids "rise, the great host of Scotland is coming; all your town shall be burnt. If thou wilt be my prisoner I will save thy horse, corn, and cattle." The simple man thinketh all true that he heareth; he riseth and giveth his hand out at window, or over the door, to be a true prisoner and enter when he is called for, or else to pay such a sum of money as they agree of. If he do not enter or pay his money according his promise, he is spoiled and burned, and not left worth one groat. Thus they served two very rich men that I know, the bailey of Ross, and the other Mr. Buckton. Thus the Scots ride, taking money, of some 40s., other some five marks, and 4l., as their corn and their substance is. I have not heard that they have been met with, either at coming in nor going out, notwithstanding that there lieth 1,000 horsemen in garrison within five [?] miles compass. They must needs come in or go out by some of their noses. For all these horsemen, if the fray rise there will not come sixteen to it. The Scots pass away to their country, driving the cattle as quietly as though they bought them at market. I have heard them thus say that have been prisoners.
The captains of the horsemen are these; Sir Henry Percy, 200; Thomas Clavering, 100, these lie at Norham; Ralph Ellerka[r], 200; Etherington, 100; Sir Ralph Gray, 100; Robert Collyngwood, 100; Ralph a Swenoa, 100; his brother William a Swenoa, 100.
On Dec. 22 William a Swenoa was slain in Cornhill where he lay with his garrison. All his garrison with seventeen of Capt. Wood's soldiers and many townsmen taken prisoners, lost their horses and all that ever they had. This was on the Thursday in the morning at sun-rising. The Scots and French came over Tweed at Cornhill, three ensigns of footmen, and 700 horsemen. The captain did fortify his stone house, caused the door to be rammed up, and put himself with his garrison, townsmen and others, to the number of seven score, many horses and much cattle, into the "barmkinge." The French and Scots gave the approach, happen to kill the captain with a shot, in the end made one breach not past six feet broad; and so, the captain slain, the "barmekin" was won, all within it taken prisoners without resistance, like beasts; they never sought stroke for it after the captain was slain. It is pity to relieve them. If they had kept it one hour, they had had relief. The Lord Evers sent 300 footmen from Berwick, Sir Henry Percy from Norham 200 horsemen and 400 footmen, and 300 footmen from Wark and 100 horsemen besides the company. They came shortly."
"It is said that some captains in Northumberland can put thirty or forty horsemen in his purse and leap in his saddle without a stirrup; they be good light horsemen. Further, it is said on the muster-day there is never a plough going in Norhamshire nor Bamburgshire that day; it is their principal feast. Every plough slave hath his crown for mustering that day. The poor is spoiled and harried, and the Queen robbed. Thus the talk goeth. The country would gladly have it redressed. If there be not better order for the country it will be laid waste or Candlemas. The Scots was (sic) stronger upon the Border than they be at this instant. There is 700 horsemen lieth within eight miles of Berwick; the furthest off is Dunse and Langton. There lieth in Preston 100 horsemen and 200 footmen; 300 horsemen in Heymouth and Coldingham. There lieth in a town four miles from Donglas 200 footmen, seven ensigns in Heymouth and Coldingham, 300 footmen in Kelsey, 300 footmen in Hume. There lieth 300 horsemen in other places in the Merche that I know not the names of; they be those which we say was burned by us this year. Either they were ill burned or else they lie boldly.
"On St. Thomas's day [21 Dec.] at night the Lord Evers sent 500 footmen from Berwick with the horsemen to burn the mill of Heymouth. There was thirty of the best horsed men sent to burn a town five miles beyond Heymouth. At their raising of fire we gave attempt to the mill. So it was done. Fourteen Frenchmen kept the mill. The moon did shine very light; they mistrusted nothing it was so light and kept [such] evil watch that we were at the mill door before we were descried. The Frenchmen ran out at a back door and through the water. There was ten of them taken, the miller and diverse Scots and naggs gotten. The mill was turved and would not burn well. There was much corn burned and two houses by the mill. The horsemen burnt the town that they went to well, and burned much corn; brought away cattle, naggs, sheep, and divers prisoners. They took two horsemen riding from Heymouth to Coldingham with the fray. This done, we were at Berwick before four of the clock in the morning. As I was writing this letter the Scots burned a town called Hord, within cannon-shot of Berwick, at eleven of the clock in the night."—Berwick, Dec. 28.
Hol. Add.: To the right worshipful Sir John Thynne, Knight, give these letters at London. Endd.: 28 Dec. 1558. Pp. 4.
Dec. 29.
B. M. Harl. 169. 18 b.
140. Proceedings of Privy Council.
Westminster, 29 Dec. 1558.—Present: the Lords Great Seal and Treasurer, the Marquis of Northampton, the Lord Chamberlain; Mr. Comptroller, Mr. Vice-Chamberlain, the Lord Steward; the Earls of Bedford and Pembroke; the Lord Admiral; Mr. Secretary, Mr. Cave, Mr. Sackville.
A letter to the Lord Evers, wherein (besides thanks for his late annoyance of the enemy in burning the mill, the kiln, and other the houses near Eyemouth,) he is further required utterly to forbear to embrace any Frenchman's offer that would come away from Scotland, nor otherwise to use any one of them during the wars than to procure intelligence at their hands, and to learn somewhat that may advance the service of the Queen.
Dec. 29.
R. O. 27 V. 48.
141. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript.
Dec. 29.
R. O.
142. The Bishop of Ely and Dr. Wotton to the Queen.
Lord Cobham having stated to the King that new commissions had been sent to the Earl of Arundel and the others to continue the communication for the peace begun at Cercamp, the King answered Lord Cobham that he could return no reply till the arrival of the Duke of Alva and Ruy Gomez from Arras. It was the wish of the Bishop and Dr. Wotton to be present at the interview with the King, but he desired to see Lord Cobham in private. However, as he declared nothing to him about that matter, they intend to travail to understand some certainty of the premises, and then inform her as soon as "these solemn funerals for the late Emperor Charles shall be past."
Lord Cobham will send all news.—Bruxelles, 29 Dec. 1558. Signed: Thomas Ely, N. Wotton.
Orig. Armorial seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
Dec. 30.
R. O.
143. The Queen to Dr. Wotton.
Has sent no message to him since the departure of Lord Cobham, because upon receipt of letters from Wotton and the Bishop of Ely mentioning their recess from Cercamp and the prorogation of the treaty until 31 Jan., she had purposed to have done two things; (1) to send an ambassador to obtain from the King of Spain a ratification of the former leagues between Henry VIII. and the Emperor Charles; and (2) to have prosecuted in this time of suspense the treaty for peace with France. With these she has hitherto forborne upon certain considerations; but will now shortly proceed therein.
Dec. 30.In the mean season she imparts unto him a matter of great weight, and gives him a charge to be delivered to the King of Spain.
By sundry means (fn. 6) motions have been made to her to know if she be disposed to make peace with France, and thereof certain overtures are made in discourses. "This matter we weigh from whence it cometh, and like no more of it than it shall be our safety. How necessary it is for us and the King of Spain to remain friends we do not forget, to the maintenance whereof we will not be remiss; and yet to slack or neglect opportunity of offers coming to us honourably we think it were amiss. Wherefore, like as we mean not so to deal anywise with the French so as to impair this other our sure friendship with the King of Spain, so our meaning is that ye shall upon receipt of these our letters require audience of the King, our good brother, and ye shall say to this effect:—That like as we have heretofore by Lord Cobham and otherwise declared our determination to continue the ancient amity in such sort as our said good brother hath by sundry messengers declared the like of his part, so do we mean to do anything that shall be reasonably desired for confirmation and further demonstration thereof, and thereof we have willed you expressly in our name to assure our good brother. And although percase he shall hear of any answer proceeding by the French in this time of prorogation for motion of peace, either privately or openly, as thereof some likelihoods appear to us, though not in any certainty, yet ye shall assure our said good brother that not only our good affection towards him, but also the consideration of his honourable proceeding with the French at the time of this prorogation (wherein it seemeth he hath had singular respect to our part) moveth us to make this determination with our [said good brother that what]ever. motion shall be or can be made of the French part [it shall not] directly or indirectly prejudice the amity that is betwixt our said good brother and us. And further also, we mean in our doings herein not to make him a stranger thereto, but to use him as a faithful brother and a perpetual friend, and doubt not but, considering our causes and his compared to the French have one condition, our said good brother will use us in the like manner. This is the sum of that which we assure you we plainly mean, and therefore ye may confirm the same with as good words as ye shall see cause."
Should Philip imagine that the means made by the French are already embraced, he is to assure him that this is not the fact, "but only likelihood by some private men's speeches, which having been prisoners in France, return home for their ransoms." She means to send a nobleman with commission to proceed with the ratification of the amity.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 30 Dec. 1558. Pp. 5.
Dec. 30.
B.M. Cal. E.V., 48 b. Forbes. 1. 8.
144. The King of France to the Queen.
She knows how sincere and perfect is the amity and affection which he always felt towards her, of which she has already had sufficient proof and security. This friendship and esteem which he has had during his whole life has been nothing diminished by the war which to his great regret had sprung up between the late Queen of England, her sister, and himself, and by the great and incredible damages he had received from her. Having heard of the accession to the throne of the present Queen he had resolved to despatch some notable person to congratulate her, and to assure her of the continuation of his affection, and at the same time to express his regret about the present war. As he was deliberating about the said despatch, the Vidame of Chartres, knight of his order, sent Guido Cavalcanté, the bearer of the present letter, to him, the writer, with a message to this effect; that the Vidame, having despatched him, Cavalcanté, into England to visit some friends, (for he had always been fond of England,) and being aware that the King was desirous of peace, had given him charge to sound the English nobility as to the Queen's wish respecting peace. The information communicated by Cavalcanté is so favourable that he is once more despatched by the King to assure her that if she wishes peace, as the said English noblemen have declared, he, the writer, will cordially respond thereto, as he has given orders to the said bearer to assure her more particularly from himself.—Paris, 30 Dec. 1558.
In the King's own hand: Assures his good sister of his sincere friendship.
Orig. Signed and Add. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 30.
B.M. Sloane, 4142. 57.
145. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 30.
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 95.
146. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 30.
B.M. Sloane, 4133. 127
147. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 30.
R. O. Forbes, 1. 10.
148. Negociations with France.
Instructions given by the French King to Guido Cavalcanté proceeding into England.
After having presented to the Queen the King's letters, he shall express his sorrow at the present war, which was commenced by Queen Mary, and had been a cause of infinite and incredible sufferings to him and his subjects. This war has inflicted great losses on some of his towns, especially in Bretagne; the English army which proceeded thither having burnt and sacked a great number of villages. Assistance of men, horses, and other things were by the late Queen offered to the King of Spain. This war has occasioned the discontinuance of the traffic of merchandise, one of the principal riches of France, owing to the powerful force of Queen Mary at sea, and the taking of many French vessels, exclusive of the expense requisite for guarding the shores. Though these injuries might well incite vengeance, yet, from the friendship that he bore to Henry her father, and Edward her brother, the French King willingly complies with her desire for peace, and hopes that it may be so firmly established that neither he or his children can ever interrupt or diminish it. If she will appoint some deputies to conduct the negociation, those on his part will be ready to meet them. And as it is so necessary that this negociation should be as secret as possible, he proposes three or four places, Blacnay, Ambleteuse, St. Valery, and Estapes, which being so remote from other places, there will be none who can judge of the proceedings of the Deputies. If these places do not suit her, she can appoint any place in this kingdom she would prefer; and she may fix the day of meeting.
Endd. by Cecil: Copia instructionum Guido Cavalcanté, the first. From the French King, December, 1558. Copy. Fr. Pp. 4.
[Dec. 30.]
MS. Hatfield House, B. vi. 7. 30.
149. Another copy of the above.
Dec. 30.
B.M. Sloane, 4134. 97.
150. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 30.
B.M. Sloane, 4142. 59.
151. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 30.
B.M. Sloane, 4133. 128.
152. Another copy of the above.
Imperf. Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 30.
B.M. Calig. E. V. 49.
153. Another copy of the above.
Much injured by fire. Pp. 4.
Dec. 30.
R. O.
154. Montmorency to Cecil.
Has been informed by the bearer of Cecil's good wishes for peace between the two realms, in which he hopes he will persevere, as the writer will do upon his part for the same object.—Paris, penult. of Dec. 1558. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 30.
R. O.
155. Montmorency to the Earl of Bedford.
The King having heard from this messenger on his return from England of the good intentions which the Queen bears to him, and her desire for peace, has despatched him again to express his correspondence with such a good object. The writer coincides in these good wishes and will do all he can to forward their accomplishment.—Paris, penult. 30 Dec. 1558. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
Dec. 30.
B. M. Cal. E. v. 49 d.
156. Montmorency to the Earl of Pembroke.
Expresses the hope that a matter so holy and Christian as peace and perpetual unity between the realms of France and England may attain a happy issue. The bearer will tell him more.—Dec. [30.] 1558. Signed and Add.
Endd. by Cecil. Injured by fire. Fr. Pp. 2.
[Dec. 30.]
B.M. Sloane, 4142. 58 b.
157. Another copy of the above.
Forbes' transcript.
Dec. 30.
R. O.
158. John Gebhard, Bishop elect of Cologne, to the Queen.
Congratulates her upon her election to the throne, and requests that the bearer may be permited to buy 2 00 or 250 yards (telas integras) of English cloth for the use of the friends of the writer.—Dat. Ex arce nostra Brola, 30 Dec. 1558.
Orig. Add. Endd. Broadside. Lat.
Dec. 30.
R. O.
159. The Marquis of Winchester to Cecil.
Thanks him for the privy seal of 100l., and for his letter containing the new imposts and the continuance of the same, with the account from time to time, which he will see done. There are yet no rates for Spanish wines otherwise than has been accustomed, nor yet any end made between the Queen and the merchant strangers for the custom of malmesies and muscadels. If the merchants' wills be performed therein, it will be much prejudicial to the Queen, to whom the late Cardinal was a great favourer and sought for all help that could be had. But the matter is so plain that it must serve the Queen and not them. The book of arrearages he shall have shortly.
The Duke of Florence is to pay of 15,000l., 11,000l. for which he and the city of Florence stand bound; for the payment hereof there must be a letter written, because the Duke has a respite in the time of war between him and the Duke of Farra. Will come when the Queen or the Lords please to have him. Cecil's letter to Portsmouth is despatched.— "Written this Friday."
Hol. Add. Endd.: 1558, 30 Dec. Pp. 3.
Dec. 31.
B. M. Calig. E.V. 69.
160. Carne to the Queen.
[As] far as I can hear was in the Scottish Queen the with Cardinal Caraffa also cam say here. But I cannot hear the think lawfully they can obtain no s who in such matters specially I trust against right. The French do labour Philip from Your Majesty as much as as I can perceive by His Majesty's folks here towards Your Majesty that they think here towards the French. Nevertheless there be here that if the said King Philipps aff in England according to his expectation with the French. I thought good to advertise to the intent Your Majesty may consider it as same. Other occurrences that be here besides upon certain letters sent hither from Ge Reverend Cardinal of Augusta containing lations that the Princes of Germany do in the Diet which shall be now kept in A congregation of such Cardinals as I here, before whom he declared the said upon His Holiness called the Bishop of other learned men and caused them to d be published with declaration of the m of the Emperor's Majesty that now is, which Holiness. The saying is that he will cause hy
69. b.bor to be of all manner of any dignity with also he hath made another Bull declared all such Cardinals as be for suspicion of heresy in the congregation of not to be admitted into the Conclave when the voide, nor to be chosen there. And he herewith also made Bull to prohibit all kinds of books condemned for or that be slanderous or pernicious with their [au]thors, and all Books of Scripture that be in any [vul]gar tongue with great pains contained therein, but the said Bulls be not in print to be had. And [ha]ving no other at this present that I can hear of, I beseech Almighty God to conserve your most excellent Majesty [in] long and most prosperous life.—Rome, the last day of December, 1559. (fn. 7) Signed.
Orig. Much injured by fire. Pp. 2.
Dec. 31.
B. M. Calig. B. ix. 208.
161. Carne to the Queen.
Abstract of the above letter.
"Sir Edward Carne (Ambassador resident at Rome from Queen Mary, and after by a letter from Her Majesty continued) writeth unto her that the Ambassador of France laboreth the Pope to declare the Queen illegitimate and the Scottish Queen successor to Queen Mary. Cardinal Caraffa is their instrument. The French likewise labour to withdraw the King of Spain if they can from affecting the Queen of England."—From Rome.
Dec. 31.
R. O.
162. Carne to Cecil.
Congratulates him on being principal secretary to the Queen, and asks for his good services. In his letter of the 17th inst. he congratulated the Queen on her accession, as the death of Mary was not known there before, and again on the 24th informed her of the news. Was accustomed to write every Saturday to the late Queen, "by Venice way" and continues the practice to Her Majesty; would also have written to him had he known of his promotion. Offers his services to the Queen; and beseeches him for the renewal of his warrant for his diets, and that he may have payment of the sum due to him for past services. Has continued here four years to his undoing, and for these two years has made suit to have leave to return, and was promised in the beginning of this new year to have leave so to do. The acceptation of her Ambassador here is a great matter in the reputation of the world, as Cecil knows well. Wishes to be removed, as the place does not agree with him. Desires to know the pleasure of Her Majesty, as his old commission is expired. No news but what he has already written to the Queen.—Rome, last Dec. 1559. Signed and Add.
Endd.: Last of Dec. 1558. Pp. 3.
Dec. 31.
R.O.
163. Another copy of the above.
Modern transcript. Pp. 2.
Dec.
R. O.
164. The Council in the North.
"Instructions given by the Queen unto Francis, Earl of Shrewsbury and Lord President of her Council, resident in the north parts, and to all hereafter mentioned and appointed by her to be of her said Council:" viz., (fn. 8) Nicolas, Archbishop of York; (fn. 8) Thomas, Earl of Northumberland; (fn. 8) Henry, Earl of Westmoreland; (fn. 8) Henry, Earl of Cumberland; (fn. 8) Cuthbert, Bishop of Durham; (fn. 8) George, Lord Talbot; (fn. 8) William, Lord Dacre of the North; (fn. 8) John, Lord Lumley; (fn. 8) Thomas, Lord Wharton; the two justices of assizes for the time being; (fn. 8) Sir Thomas Wharton, (fn. 8) Sir Nicolas Fairfax, (fn. 9) Sir Thomas Gargrave, (fn. 8) Sir George Conyers, (fn. 8) Sir William Vavasour, and (fn. 8) Sir Henry Gates, knights; (fn. 8) Robert Menwell, sergeant-atlaw, (fn. 8) John Rokeby, L.D., (fn. 8) John Vaughan, (fn. 10) (fn. 9) George Browne, (fn. 9) Christopher Escoste, (fn. 9) Francis Frobysher, (fn. 9) Thomas Eynns, (fn. 8) Richard Corbett, and (fn. 9) Henry Sawell, esquires.
The President has a yearly stipend of 1,000l. towards the furniture of the diets of himself and the rest of the councillors. Certain fees are assigned to the others.
Draft, corrected, with additions. Pp. 29.
Dec.
R.O.
165. Another copy of the same instructions, but adapted, by alteration, to the appointment of Harry, Earl of Rutland. (fn. 11) Some additions are also made, and the paragraphs are numbered.
Pp. 28.
Dec.
R.O.
166. Council in the North.
"Notes concerning the instructions for the Council in the North parts, to be considered as to every matter in the same;" applicable to the last document, drawn up by the secretary, who according to his statement (Art. 21 and 22) had sustained great injury, and sought a modification of the provisions of the instructions.
Pp. 6.
Dec.
R.O.
167. East and Middle Marches.
"The opinion of Henry, Earl of Westmoreland, declared to the Queen, touching the advancement of her service and the state of the East and Middle Marches of England foranempst Scotland, in December 1558."
1. Sir James Crofte and Sir John Brende having requested the Earl, in message from the Privy Council, to confer with the Earl of Shrewsbury for the levying of 1,000 inland horsemen to be sent to the Borders, the said Earl declares to the Queen that the present service for winter neither requires that number, nor are Yorkshire and the inland country able to furnish them. The Borders may be defended by the numbers left at the Earl of Westmoreland's departure thence, joining thereto 200 hackbutters, now at Carlisle, and doing no service on the West Marches. If the watch, devised by Lord Wharton, be not kept by the Lord Warden, it were vain to send any numbers there. If the same were levied without necessity of service, they would be utterly decayed before July, August, and September, at which time the enemy must be most specially annoyed.
2. The said Earl,—being informed by Sir James Crofte and Sir John Brende, that Sir Henry Percy, Deputy Warden, has offered before the Council that if he may have the naming of the captains, levying of 1,500 horsemen and officers at his own election, he will undertake the service there this winter, —declares his full opinion upon the same, as follows:
(1.) There being a great division in Northumberland between the surnames of the Hearons and the Carres, if the one were more advanced than the other, a new discord and disdain would grow.
(2.) If the 1,500 horsemen be levied in Northumberland, then men of most knowledge should be joined with the Deputy Warden, so that no men harried and spoiled, nor known to be thieves, spoilers, Scots, "pattisers with Scots," nor evil demeaned persons, be received into wages, nor one kindred or surname more cherished than others.
(3.) As touching the Deputy Warden to have the election of the officers, thinks this too much to commit to one man. The Queen's treasure would be vainly consumed, as it was in the time of her sister.
(4.) Either wardenry should have a several warden, the one at Wark or Norham, the other at Harbottle, being the fittest places for service.
Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 5.
R. O.168. East and Middle Marches.
"Considerations necessary for the order and defence of the East and Middle Marches against Scotland."
They have reference chiefly to the appointment and duties of the following officers:
(1.) Of a Lord Lieutenant, who shall reside in the north from the middle of August to the middle of October.
(2.) Of a Lord Warden. The present Warden has a deputy at Norham for the East Marches; it is requisite that another for the Middle Marches should reside at Harbottle. The time when the enemy is most annoying is from the end of harvest to Christmas. At this time there are in Wark 500 men, and 400 in Norham. The decay of Sir Oswolde Wilstropes band occasions a deficiency of 300 men in that band, which shall be supplied. All soldiers and horsemen that are levied shall be borderers, the horsemen shall receive 12d. a day as wage. In order that countrymen, who are bound to assist the Warden in all frays, may do so the more readily, it is necessary that there be a settlement of the title in dispute between the Herons and the Carres, who have drawn the Fosters and others into their quarrel to "the great hindrance of service and the chiefest cause of all the divisions, not only among themselves but also betwixt the great rulers." The keeping of the watches and casting of the fords is to be enforced, the expense of which shall be supported by a tax. It is doubtful whether Wark and Norham, belonging to subjects, are worth the expense they occasion the Prince in time of war.
(3.) Of a captain of Berwick. The most sufficient man in the realm should be placed there, it being a place of so great moment. In consequence of the new fortification and alteration of the town, there should be a new establishment of the same. The old ordinary garrison is grown to nothing. It should have in addition, 1,000 men in time of peace and 2,000 in time of war. The fortifying of the town is to be hastened, for which 1,500 labourers are to be there before March. Victuals for 5,000 men for two months are to be laid in.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil: Sir J[ames] C[rofte,] Sir R[ichard] L[ee] Sir J[ohn] B[rande]. The North. Three seals. Pp. 16.
R. O.169. Garrison at Berwick.
"The whole number of the ordinary garrison at Berwick, horsemen, foot men, and gunners," viz. horsemen 152, foot men 58, gunners 30, making a total of 240.

Footnotes

1 This sentence is added by Cecil instead of one which assigned Mundt 6s. 8d. a day.
2 The letter then proceeds as in the following document, after which it continues as above.
3 Originally, "with restitution."
4 Originally, "may be revoked and made as void."
5 Cecil here cancels the following sentence, "For indeed were it not for the honour of her realm, which hath sustained such a loss by these wars begun by her sister, Her Majesty findeth no disposition to remain in enmity with the French King."
6 Originally, By sundry means, and at the last by the Lord Grey coming out of France.
7 The year commencing at Rome on 25th December, the true date therefore, of this and the following letter of Carne, is 31 Dec. 1558.
8 The names of councillors not bounden to attendance.
9 The names of the councillors bounden to continual attendance.
10 This name is interlined.
11 This occurred 3 Eliz., Dugd. Baron., ii. 297.