Elizabeth
January 1561, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1865

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495-512

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'Elizabeth: January 1561, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 3: 1560-1561 (1865), pp. 495-512. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=71884 Date accessed: 27 November 2014.


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January 1561, 11-20

Jan. 11.877. John Shers to Cecil.
1. This week, news came from Rome that the Duke of Florence will stay for a time at Sienna, to further the fortress he has begun there. The Duke of Urbino contends with the Farnese for the right of his daughter to the fruits of Camerino, that the Pope would have determined by treaty, but the said Duke will have the law end the matter. The Prince of Florence is expected at Rome, "and will be lodged in Belvidere." The King of Spain sent a herald (who left the Spanish Court on the 15th ult. and who has arrived at Rome,) with the order of the Toison for the Duke of Urbino and Marco Antonio Colonna.
2. Vargas, the Spanish Ambassador, has given the Pope to understand that he will take his leave and return to Spain unless he has a respect to his master's estate, "for the higher hand of France," and that the Pope would quiet the matter by using France at the next ceremonies as he used Vargas; but the French Ambassador says he will not suffer the Pope to call his King's right into question, but will forthwith return home.
3. The Cardinal of Mantua has accepted the legation for the continuance of the Council of Trent. The Pope has given to the Duke of Florence jus patronatus of the bishoprics of Sienna, Florence, and Pisa, and also the estate of Pitigliano, which the old Conté (John Francesco) has resigned to the Pope for 40,000 crowns paid in hand, and 400 crowns of estate to him and a bastard that he has, for ever.
4. From Milan and Piedmont ; the Duke of Savoy intends to be doing with Geneva. The Turk's preparations for this spring will be great. The Pope (at the request of the great Master of the Religion) has ordained Ascanio della Corna, General at Malta, for defence of the same.—Venice, 11 Jan. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 11 Jan. 1560. Pp. 4.
Jan. 11.878. Copy of that part of the preceding which relates to the Ambassadors of Spain and France.
Williamson's transcript. Endd. Pp. 2.
Jan. 11.879. [The Abbot of S. Salute to the Ambassador of the Duke of Savoy.]
Yesterday a gentleman (fn. 1) was sent from the Duke of Savoy to ascertain the Pope's intention about the attack upon Geneva, to the expenses of which His Holiness will contribute liberally, and will exhort the Kings of Spain and France (fn. 2) to do the like. The Cardinal of Trent has asked the Duke to come to our Lady of Loreto, which will be the means of procuring what he desires from the Pope. The Duke, however, will not come at present. The Pope has three difficult matters before him: the proceedings against the Caraffi, the summons of the General Council, and the promotion of the Cardinals. The Caraffi have been cited to make their defence on the 13th inst., after which the sentence will be pronounced. Concerning the Council, answers are expected from the Princes, as to whether they will accept the proposed time and place. No Cardinals will be created until the first week in Lent.
Copy. Ital. Pp. 2.
[Jan. 12.]
Labanoff, i. 85. (fn. 3)
880. Queen Mary's Instructions for Scotland.
"Instructions to Simon Preston of Craigmillar, James Ogilvy of Finlater, John Lumsden of Blanerne, and Robert Leslie of Auchtermuchty, passing instantly in Scotland upon the Queen's part, their Sovereign."
1. They shall inform the Duke of Châtellerault and other Lords of the Council of the decease of the late King, and of her regret and "facherie," and shall present their commission for the opening of Parliament.
2. They shall also make the nobles understand that the Queen, before her husband's death, strove to reconcile him with his subjects.
3. Lest the decease of the late King should weaken the alliance between France and Scotland, M. De Noailles shall be sent to say how desirous the present King is for its continuance.
4. That the premises may be the more honourably treated, the Queen has despatched them with commission to advise the Estates upon the renewing of the said alliance, together with all affairs that concern the well doing of the realm. She is assured that none of the things bye-past have altered the fidelity and affection which they and their fathers bore to her progenitors, and that they will show themselves obedient in times to come.
5. She desires that the Estates shall depute certain to come to her and advertise her of all things that shall be advised and deliberated on amongst them.
6. She also desires that her revenues may be sent to her, to enable her to pass into her own realm.
7. She desires the Estates to choose a certain number of persons, out of whom she will appoint two as Treasurer and Controller.
Copy, in a Scottish hand. Endd. Pp. 3.
Jan. 13.881. Sir Henry Killigrew to Throckmorton.
1. Would be loath that Throckmorton should mistake him to whom he wishes to show himself grateful. He may marvel at this new phrase of writing; therefore, to be short, he has had somewhat to do about him, "whereof I may not be acknowen, nor you likewise, if you tender my poor credit, which waxeth in decay." Since Mr. Jones came over this change began, which has been augmented by Tremayne, but more confirmed by De Favori, "what I mean, I think you know better than I." Some think that what Throckmorton inveighs against serves to no purpose, " and by so doing you increase the displeasure of the Princes and such as be able to do most with her." This chiefly he [Killigrew] wrote to the Earl of Bedford's cousin, who was willed of the Council to let Throckmorton understand that he did but strive against the stream. Cannot dilate this matter unto him. Dictum sapienti sat est. "In few words; whatsoever you do that tendeth to mislike or disallow the great liking that some have of my L[ord] R[obert] is taken but practice of your own hand, rather of ill will than well meaning to the state. I can say no more unto you; but if you write unto me, let it be so as all men may see it, and yet I pray you write to avoid the suspicion that may be else conceived."
2. Can hear nothing of his [Throckmorton's] return. Sir Peter Mewtas shall be appointed to condole. The writer has this day despatched his man with greyhounds and mastiffs to his friends there. Refers to other men's reports. Has written twice to him since Mr. Middlemore's departure, one by Barnaby, another by Lord Robert's footman.—London, 13 Jan. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd.: 13 Jan. 1560, touching my father's inveighing against the L. R. Pp. 4.
Jan. 14.882. Arthur Grey to Throckmorton.
Having bought of his cousin Somerset certain bills of Frenchmen for money disbursed for friendship towards them at Leith, the writer requests Throckmorton to call on them to recover the money. The bills are enclosed with Somerset's letters, and are to be returned if the money cannot be obtained. "The Cappilaings" will be found in Mr. Martigues' train.—London, 14 Jan. 1560. Signed.
Modern transcript. Add. Pp. 2.
Jan. 15.883. Cecil to Throckmorton.
1. His writing is for the most part in the night, as in the day his time is bestowed on such as will have answer Wrote a few words to him this morning by De Favory who he thinks will go hence miscontented, and except Cecil displeases himself in departing with his own, he cannot remedy his expectation. Mistrusts his truth towards them and therefore Throckmorton will do well not to advertise any great thing upon him.
2. This afternoon received his letter with one to the Queen by Lord James' servant; and is pleased to see that he accords with his opinion for the sending the Earl of Bedford; where ere the Lord Admiral's sending he has moved these seven or eight days. Means to procure that Mr. Knollys shall come with him as Throckmorton's successor, although he dare not promise it.
3. Has always professed earnest friendship for him, and therefore advises him not to meddle with the matters of the Court otherwise than he may be well advised from hence What the Queen will determine to do God only knows. Writings remain, and coming into adverse hands may be sinisterly interpreted; on the other hand servants or messengers may be reporters to whom they list, and therefore he cannot give him so plain counsel as he wishes; but in one word he bids him contend not where victory cannot be had. The care must be to advance that cause which they profess, that is, the knowledge of Christ against the Anti-Christ of Rome; herein the time serves well in France to begin the conquest. He doubts not (howsoever Throckmorton wisely seemed to the Duchess of Ferara to be no meddler,) that he will not neglect to set all the wheels that may make motion agate. It will be marvellous if, when stout Papists ruled, Christ had witty and politic ministers, now when the tyranny is appeased there shall be lack of the like to kindle the courage of faithful and good men. Now is the time for Calvin and all such noble men as have fetched their knowledge from thence, to impugn and suppress the tyranny of the Papists. Sends a packet of letters from Scotland. The Spanish Ambassador makes a semblance to renew the wooing of Charles, but he is not therein hasty.— Westminster, 15 Jan. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Injured by damp. Add. Endd. by Throckmorton's son: A warning not to be too busy about the matters between the Queen and my Lord Robert, and about Ashley's trouble. Pp. 3.
Jan. 16.884. Frederick II., King of Denmark, to the Queen.
Recommends the claim for redress of some of his subjects, citizens of Hamburg, (whose petition he encloses,) they having been plundered of their ship and goods by certain Englishmen.—Embsburg, 17 Cal. Feb. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd.: Regis Danorum in favorem Hamburgensium contra Holloway. Pp. 2.
Jan. 16.885. Lord Grey to Cecil.
1. Complains of the lewd behaviour and obstinate disobedience of Thomas Carlile, in contemning Grey's letters for his appearance to answer complaints exhibited by bill against him, for which he cannot minister correction to him according to the order of the Marches, by reason of his sudden departure out of the country, immediate upon receipt of his letters, without leave or farewell, although a pensioner ordinary of the garrison. It would be a good example if he were called before Cecil. Will drive the rest of his misdemeanours over till he gives occasion to spread it. The writer beseeches Cecil to read and forward his letter to the Duke of Norfolk, his master.—Berwick, 16 Jan. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
Jan. 17.886. Francis Edwards to Cecil.
1. By his last on the 1st inst he signified the coasts perused and all outward marts ceased; the same continues, and no appearance presently of outward matter. Of the soldiers discharged about the Court, there are three or four companies gone to Calais and Boulogne, thereabouts to remain. The congregation of Rouen and Dieppe are in good hope their religion shall prosper, and within a short time to have some church or place appointed to preach the Gospel freely. Some comfort they have received already to do as they do in houses late made proper for their use of services; the same they use daily more and more, with less fear; their preacher willing them to give none occasion of sedition. A young Scotchman in Rouen, being at the sermon of a Grey Friar, told him that he lied in his sermon, the Friar, fearing further inconvenience, came out of the pulpit, and left off his sermon. The young man the same day was sent to prison and since hanged on a gibbet without the prison door; and paper set over his head wherein was written Sedition. Mons. Villebon was present to see execution done, with strength about him.
2. Money is scant and gold risen; the gold crown of a sous weight is passable for fifty-one fr. Tourn. The pistolet gold and weight forty-nine fr. Tourn., all other gold has likewise risen; this will cause gold to come from all parts. Has sent to Mr. Young of Rye ten apricot trees, one red peach, one black peach, and one damask prune tree, to convey safely to Cecil. If he find any more such like that be good, he will send them.—Dieppe, 17 Jan. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. P. 1.
Jan. 17.887. The Queen to the Governor of the Merchants Adventurers.
About Michaelmas last the Queen signified to him her determination for payment of her debts due there, and for furtherance of the same required him to help her with the sum of 60,000l., whereof 30,000l. was to be paid in November last, and the other 30,000l. in February now coming. The Queen understands how he has disbursed the first 30,000l. due in November, and as the time is nigh for the other payment, besides other large sums, she requests him to do the like service. Order is given for the payment of the former sum due to him, but it is left to him whether he will receive it in London, and present unto her other 30,000l. on that side, or will forbear the receipt of the same, so that it may be employed for her debts on that side of the sea in February next. If this election seems indifferent to him, she would rather he should receive the said sum here, and pay the same for her there. The Queen hopes he will not scruple to apply himself to the same, though it appears at the beginning to be somewhat difficult, and for his answer she would it should be given to Sir Thomas Gresham, her agent there.
Cecil's corrected draft. Endd.: . . . . 17 Jan. 1560. Pp. 3.
Jan. 18.888. The Queen to Gresham.
She, having great sums to be paid which are due in February at Antwerp, (which cannot be paid of her own treasure, having lately acquitted large debts there last November and this January,) has resolved that he shall renew those debts due in February for six months longer upon some less interest than six per cent. She means to procure the loan of 30,000l. sterling from her merchants adventurers to acquit so much of her debt in February, and for that purpose she has written to the Governor and Company of the same in Antwerp, of which letter a copy is sent to him herewith.
Orig. draft by Cecil. Endd. Pp. 2.
[Jan. 18.]889. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Since his last letter to her of the 10th inst., sent by Patrick Hume, here have arrived the Ambassadors from the Princes abroad to condole. From the King of Spain comes Don Juan de Manriques, brother to the Duke of Nazareth, who will be here on 19 or 20 inst. From the Pope is come the Bishop of Fermo; from the Duke of Florence the Count De Rignac. It has been spoken of that the Queen, being next neighbour, has not sent as soon as others that are farther off:
2. The Queen of Scotland has continued her mourning forty days, and all that while kept herself solitary in her close chamber. On the 15th inst. (being the fortieth day) she was present at a solemn service for her late husband at the Grey Friars in this town, where were present the Cardinals of Lorraine, Tournon, Bourbon, and Châtillon, with twenty Knights of the Order, wearing their collars, and a good company of this Court. She sends presently four gentlemen of hers into Scotland; the Laird of Craigmillan and [blank] go by London, and Lesley and Finlater by sea. Their commission is to labour the Estates of Scotland that she may be at liberty to marry where and whom she lists, notwithstanding the clause in the late covenant of marriage, in which it is said that she, over-living the late French King, shall marry with the consent of the Estates of Scotland. She requires them to stay their further proceedings in matters of religion until by this General Council it shall be determined how the same shall be ended. She also asks to have the free bestowing of the benefices of that realm as the Sovereign absolute. These are the chief points of the despatch of the said gentleman, which if she can obtain, she has got so much the more means of entrance into greater matters. If they will not consent, then the messengers shall resort to and encourage such as have promised their constancy towards her, and shall also procure as good a party besides as they can, whereby she thinks to make them do as she shall command them. As they shall speed with their proceedings, two of them shall return hither again.
3. The assembly of the Princes of Almaine in Saxony is very sudden, for what purpose he knows not certainly. Some think it is to resist the Muscovites; others that it is about religion, and to assist to conform things in an unity; others that it is to quiet the discord between Augustus the Elector and the sons of the late Hans Frederic, Dukes in Saxony. Yet, from whatever cause summoned, great matter must hang thereon. Advises her to send some discreet personage thither secretly, to know the determination thereof, and what measures they mean to take for this General Council.
4. The Palsgrave has sent hither James Melville, with charge to labour the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, the Constable, and others in the matter of religion in this realm. The matter, being first solicited out of Almaine, and then by her, cannot but take some good effect. The said King is well affected thereunto, and has now in a manner the principal management of this realm in his hands; the others do nothing without his consent.
5. This King here, to cut off his charges, has discharged the Scottish band of 100 men-at-arms, late under the Earl of Arran, and also of 100 Scottish archers of his body-guard he has cassed twenty, to make them feel that they have violated the ancient league and amity. Noailles goes into Scotland, but Roquerolles having no fancy for that journey, has put it from him.
6. Understands now that the Queen of Scotland does not mind indeed to go into Scotland, but makes it only a bruit to serve her turn by. The Lords of Scotland should be informed that it is but a devised practice to abuse them. The King's going out of this town is yet uncertain.
Orig. Chiefly in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
Jan. 18.890. Another copy of the above.
Corrected draft. Portions underlined, to be expressed in cipher. Endd.: 18 Jan. 1560. Pp. 7.
Jan. 18.891. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. It is very necessary for the Queen, by all secret means, to impeach this General Council at Trent, and to divert from thence as many Princes and states as may be. Some discreet person should be secretly sent to the Princes of Germany who now assemble in Saxony, whereof he has more largely moved the Queen. For such an errand Mr. Richard Tremayne, because he has the Dutch tongue, were very well, and he knows all their humours, being otherwise well learned and affected to religion. The Ambassador who should come from thence hither to do these ceremonies is long looked for, and like to be the last that shall come for that purpose. The men that now pass through the English Court have instructions to speak fair and promise much. If this letter is honestly delivered, Cecil may show the bearer the more favour, and yet the bearer (as the writer thinks) knows not that he carries it.—Orleans, 18 Jan. 1560.
2. P. S.—If Cecil thinks good to send to this assembly in Saxony, these are the most honest, religious, and wise amongst the German Princes; the Palsgrave, the Duke of Wurtemberg, the young Landgrave William, and the Count of Erbach, (to whom Mr. Richard Tremayne is well known,) who has the greatest credit with the Palsgrave. In the matter of the Sacrament the Princes are divided; the Palsgrave and the Landgrave follow the Calvinists; the Dukes of Saxony and Wurtemberg are Lutherans. If Cecil likes to send (as these men mind to do forthwith), he should do it speedily, and gratify every one of the Princes, as well others as the Electors, with the Queen's letters.
Orig. Portions in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
Jan. 18.892. Another copy of the above.
Orig. draft. The P.S. in Throckmorton's hol. Portions marked to be expressed in cipher. Endd.: To Mr. Treasurer, 18 Jan. 1560; and then, by Throckmorton's son: To labour to hinder and divert as many Princes as may be from sending to the Council of Trent. Injured by damp. Pp. 4.
Jan. 18.893. John Shers to Cecil.
Sends a copy of a letter from Rome by the Abbot of St. Salut to the Duke of Savoy's Ambassador. The writer makes suit for his recall this spring, in consequence of his health, and being at greater charges than he can sustain, having overshot himself by the hope of Cecil's favourable words at his taking his leave at Hampton Court. Has haunted company with such as have doings and better entertainment. He has spent more than twenty marks this year upon the Secretary of Savoy, because of the information he has supplied him with of things passed at Rome. From him he has had copies of letters from the said Abbot to the Ambassador of Savoy and the Pope's Legate. This Legate is Bishop of Vercelli and the said Duke's subject, and so is the Abbot. The Secretary officiates as Ambassador when no other is here, and has for his entertainment but 100 crowns, and his table with the Ambassador, which is not sufficient to maintain him, as he spends money, and for money he [Shers] sees all the Ambassador's and Legate's letters as pass to and for, upon his promising to keep them secret except for his own use, so this year he finds himself 40l. back by this trade.—Venice, 18 Jan. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Pp. 2.
Jan. 18.894. John Shers to Cecil.
1. Besides the enclosed news in Italian, there comes news by other letters, that the Pope has made the Duke of Urbino and Marco Antonio Colonna cavallieri della chesa. Great preparations were made to receive the Prince of Florence, who will stay at Rome till Lent.
2. From Milan; the Duke of Savoy, (joining with certain of the Swiss, who hold yet of the Pope,) prepares to be doing with the rest.
3. In Milan; forty ensigns were to be made for that account, with a Christ, and St. Peter's keys in them. There was "ernys" given to those that make arms if they would promise to finish them before April next. It is suspected to be for the Pope, because the Marquis of Pescara does not disburse one penny of King Philip's treasure in that behalf. They look for the Duke of Cessa at Milan, by April.
4. From Mantua; they prepare to receive La Signora Leonora, the Emperor's daughter, this carnival.
5. From Constantinople; the Turk's preparations go forward; and he now sends thirty of his principal galleys to damage Italy, and others will follow to make up the number to 150 galleys, besides corsairs and foists.
6. All men of judgment here make game of the Council at Trent.—Venice, 18 Jan. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
[Jan. 18.]895. Intelligence from Rome.
A Legate is to be sent to the King of Spain to treat of the affairs of the Council and of the Turks, against whom many galleys are being prepared. The Pope will contribute to the expense, and for this purpose has granted to the King the fourth part of the ecclesiastical fruits of Spain for ten years. The Knights of Rhodes are making great preparations in Malta to assist the King, and have removed their town and fort to a stronger position. During the present spring the Emperor will meet the Pope at Mantua, where he will be crowned by His Holiness. They will discuss how they shall deal with the Princes and states who will not come to the Council, but the Emperor is alarmed by the intelligence respecting the Turks, and so this deliberation will be postponed. To remove all difficulties, the Pope will cause the Council to be held in the middle of Germany, and citations will be sent into Flanders. The disturbances in France are happily ended. The Pope has resolved upon sending the royal crown to the Duke of Muscovy, which he has long desired. He promises to do great things for religion. The Duke of Florence, with the Pope's approval, has taken possession of the fortress of Pitigliano.
Orig., in Cavalcanti's hol. Headed: From Rome, by letters of 18 Jan. Endd.: Advertisements by letters to Guido Cavalcanti. Ital. Pp. 2.
Jan. 18.
Labanoff, i. 88.
896. Queen Mary to the Queen.
Desires letters of safe conduct for Simon Prestoun of Craigmillar, James Ogilvy of Finlater, John Lumsden of Blenherne, and Robert Leslie of Arthursheye, with twelve others, to pass through England towards Scotland.—Orleans, 18 Jan., 19th Mary. Signed: [y]our darest sister and cusigne, Marie.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 18 Jan. 1560. Broadside.
Jan. 19.897. Cecil to Throckmorton.
1. Has at sundry times advised the Queen to send some noble person at this time into France, as well by shadow of his authority to please the new governors as to offend the old; and has put in predicament to the Queen the Earl of Bedford and the Lord Admiral. Having obtained that it should be referred to the Council, it was speedily accorded that the Earl of Bedford should be sent. Neither he nor the Earl of Pembroke can attain Throckmorton's present revocation, nor the sending of Mr. Knollys, though they mean not to desist to labour therein.
2. The Earl of Bedford shall have in charge that Throckmorton will help to labour in three things; in the matter of religion, and the impediment of the General Council; in the indirect procuring of the confirmation of the treaty of Cambresis; and thirdly, in hindering the supposed marriage of the Queen of Scots. He shall have letters to all persons of estate requisite, and Throckmorton's memorial shall be sufficiently answered by him.
3. The time serves the Queen to achieve great good things for her realm and God's honour. Until the Earl's coming he will not enlarge much other matter to him, but prays him to keep the King of Navarre and other Protestants in suspense. "In anywise [are] those Protestants who in fearful times were so busy with their pen and weapons, to be now [put] forward, for surely courage will abash the Papists; so well know I their cowardness, I mean specially of the shavelings." —19 Jan. 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Injured by damp and mutilated. Add. Endd. by Throckmorton's son. Pp. 3.
Jan. 20.898. Instructions for the Earl of Bedford.
1. First, taking with him letters from the Queen, he shall proceed to the Court, and act with Throckmorton in the execution of his charge.
2. He shall condole and congratulate with the King and assure him of her desire for amity. He shall then deliver the other letter to the Queen Mother, and shall say that the Queen has always understood how well disposed she has ever been even in these late unkind times to maintain amity, and she trusts she will now make open declaration of the same.
3. He shall then deliver the Queen's letters to the King of Navarre; and if he shall be in the presence of the French King, the Queen Mother, and other Princes, shall say that the Queen is glad that he is in authority, for that she thinks that he will give the French such advice as shall extinguish all former unkind dealings. But if the first speech be in private, where he may boldly utter his mind, then shall the Earl and Throckmorton set forth her contentation that he has escaped the dangers which were imminent before the late King's death. She must remind him how acceptable it shall be to God if he promote the honour of God and the knowledge of His Gospel; and how necessary for his own estate to favour the Gospel, which if he shall defer to do, it shall by delay prove the harder. If the King shall embrace this speech, then shall they desire to understand of what mind he is to the General Council now indicted at Trent; and if they shall perceive him disposed to commune thereof, they shall persuade him that except it may be celebrated as the ancient Councils were, when the Church was not corrupted with such ambition and tyranny as it is by the Pope and his Cardinals, it will do no good to reformation of errors and blindness in the clergy, but shall rather serve to confirm the same; as it is evident that neither the Pope or the Cardinals are meet judges to reform their own faults. And therefore, as the Queen believes that there will be no reformation until the Pope and the rest submit themselves in a General Council to the rule of the old Fathers and Bishops of the ancient Church, and conform themselves to Scripture and the ancient canons, so this manner of assembly will serve but to abuse Christian Princes, and in deed will prove an augmentation of their tyranny. Therefore they shall require the King that such wise men both in divinity and law as are affected to the promotion of true religion, may cause some proceeding to be had either to procure such a General Council or else stay this at Trent for a time; and that before any determination be made, not only the opinions of the Princes Protestant of Germany may be understood, but also that the Queen may be advertised, so that her judgment may be known. If the King seems to accord hereunto he shall be provoked to go forward in the same, not only by persuasions to himself, but by means to be used to such other personages as are thereunto inclined. In this part they shall use their discretions to proceed either thus plainly, or more indirectly, as they shall see the humour of the said King.
4. They shall also move the King that the treaty of Câteau Cambresis be ratified, since nothing is more requisite than to have it confirmed as it was in Scotland; and yet the matter must be so circumspectly handled as therein may not appear over great desire thereto on the part of England. These then are the two principal points, the promoting of religion in France, to the prejudice of the usurped authority of the Pope; and the obtaining the treaty to be well confirmed.
5. As they shall thus proceed with the King of Navarre, so (because the Constable does not much allow of the matter of religion) they shall forbear to deal with him otherwise than he shall give them cause. But on delivery of the Queen's letters, the Earl shall assure him of her goodwill, and that she trusts the world may see the difference between his counsels and those of others who ruled of late, and who were so carried away with private respect to themselves, that they had almost shaken the whole state of France, and lost the kingdom of Scotland wilfully, if the Queen had been so disposed as they would have persuaded the world. They shall use some indirect means to the Constable that the treaty of Câteau Cambresis (whereof he was an author) may be newly ratified, and if opportunity serve it may be remembered that if any disadvantage was at that time towards France, it was by the profitable bargain that Spain had, which sought to carry away the meat and the sweet, and leave the bone and sour to England and France.
6. The Earl shall also repair to the Scottish Queen, making the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, and the Constable or some of them, privy thereunto; and after delivering the Queen's letters and most hearty commendations shall advise her in the Queen's name to allow her subjects to be ruled by their own laws, and such natural born people as be best acquainted with their manners and customs, and to be ruled rather by law and love than by force and arms. And in order that the said Queen may plainly understand how sincerely she means it, she requires her to take information how obediently the realm of Scotland is at present governed for her only use since the removing away of the men of war. And although that removing did not content her, because it contented not them that sent them, yet when she finds the great commodity that has ensued, she cannot but thank her [Elizabeth] for so good a turn.
7. Finally (to make proof that the Queen means sincerely towards the realm of Scotland) she [Mary] may understand that neither when the English army was there nor since has she [Elizabeth] sought any new interest in any person of that realm, or in any parcel of ground thereof, to the commodity of England; but has aided the Wardens of Scotland to reform such lewd outlaws, murderers, and thieves as have remained hurtful to her subjects, and who, if the Queen's aid had not been, would have continued so. Therefore the Queen desires her to lay aside all former suspicions, being persuaded that the occasion thereof grew principally of her marriage with the late French King; considering that she may, if she follow this advice, have the full obedience of all her people. The Queen exhorts her that covenants be kept on both sides, and promises all goodwill and friendship, even her aid and force, if needful. If she refuses these friendly offers, and will renew occasion of mistrust, then the Queen must needs alter this her determination of love to some other affection, whereof, the cause arising from the said Queen of Scots, it is to be doubted that in the end she shall most mislike it. In this general form, or such like, they may proceed for the first time, without entry into particular mention for the confirmation of the last treaty, except the said Queen shall of herself offer talk thereof; and then (or else upon a second speech) it may be said that it has seemed strange that such vain delays have been made thereof in the late King's time; and that now the Scottish Queen ought not to allow any further delay. If it is objected that it will be hard to have the former treaty as it was accorded at Edinburgh confirmed, by reason that the French King was then a principal party therein, it may be said that it will be small labour to alter the sentences touching the French King and transpose the substance of the same to the Scottish Queen.
8. The Ambassadors shall also speak with the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Duke of Guise; and after the delivery of letters of credit to them without any great ceremony shall require them to give their niece such advice that she may have Scotland assured to her, and also the sincere friendship of the Queen, her cousin. If any speech shall occur of former dealings by the Queen which particularly touched the said Cardinal and Duke, the Earl may say that she has most cause to find fault with them; but, that amity may be laid betwixt her and their niece, the memory of all former matters should be buried. And in speech with these, he shall assure them of the Queen's disposition to keep amity with their niece, so as there may appear a like disposition on her part; and if otherwise, to let them roundly understand that she cannot neglect her own weal, her honour, and surety, but will take such commodity for her interest as God shall offer. If the said Cardinal, or Duke, shall enter into argument of the disobedience of Scotland; the said Ambassadors shall seem to answer, of their own knowledge, how evil informed they be, seeing in what quietness the realm is since the departing of the men of war from thence; and that the nature and manners of the people of England and Scotland are in that part somewhat like, for by gentleness they may be used or sometimes abused, but with force, and specially with a foreign governor, neither of them can agree; whereof the time of King Philip in England and the late time in Scotland made good proof. It may be added that if they had known the outrage of the men of war there, they of their own nature would not have suffered the like to be shown to any Christian people. If they note the alteration of religion there, it may be said that if they knew the manner of the living of the clergy of that country beforetime, it cannot be thought that the people of that land could allow the profession or religion of the said clergy; and however the religion now used in Scotland may be slandered, its fruits much recommend it; for at present all the ancient hates betwixt family and family, called the deadly feuds, are abolished, and murders and robberies have ceased. The Ambassadors shall explore the likelihood of the marriage of the Scottish Queen; wherein they shall employ their devices to procure it to be either in her own country, or in such place as may least augment her strength; and if they shall see any disposition in the house of Guise to seek the marriage with Spain or Austria, they shall solicit the King of Navarre in secret manner to impeach it, as a thing that shall tend to his great detriment.
9. They shall also resort to the Duchess of Ferrara, and after the Queen's letters delivered, the Earl shall give her hearty thanks for her good will, which largely appeared in her wise and friendly discourse with Throckmorton; and promise her the Queen's friendship. He shall say that the Queen is glad that she is at Court, and prays her to use her zeal to further the true knowledge of God in the Queen Mother, and especially in the principal persons of the state, for that the gaining of a public person is more worth to the furtherance of the cause than of 1,000 others. The Ambassadors shall provoke her to further the matter of religion, and devise how the abuse of the Pope's authority, with certain manifest errors of the Church of Rome, might be instilled into the ears of the young King and the Queen. They shall also indirectly induce her to impeach the marriage of the Scottish Queen to Spain or Austria; alleging the peril to withdraw the amity of Scotland from France and to make the house of Burgundy mightier than convenient.
Jan. 20.
Instructions for the Earl of Bedford.
10. They shall also deliver the Queen's letters to the Cardinal of Tournon, and move him to have consideration that the late unkindness betwixt the two realms may be abolished. And the Earl shall do the Queen's thanks to the Marschal Montmorency, and likewise to the Admiral, and provoke him to further the amity between the two realms, which cannot be so well done as if there might be one consent in religion. They shall use all purposes to be friendly with Don John Manrique and the resident Ambassador of Spain, and yet to the sight of the French with no more than necessary familiarity, and shall notify to them that the coming of the Earl was only to understand what the Scottish Queen will do concerning this last treaty in Scotland. If speech be moved to them of the General Council, it shall be said that the Queen hears nothing of it but by private letters; that she wishes concord in the Church, and that the Bishops were first restored to the credit which in ancient times they had of learning, holiness, and integrity, and then the more hope might be had of a General Council.
11. Throckmorton shall deliver a chain of gold from the Queen to M. Morette, being a token ordered by her to have been delivered to him before his departure, and by delay of one of her goldsmiths forgotten, for which he has received a great rebuke. The Earl is also to inform Throckmorton that, the present state of things being unsettled, he shall stay there for a season.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 22.
[Jan. 20.]899. Another copy of the above, dated Jan. 25. Signed: F. Bedford.
Endd. Torn at end. Pp. 19.
Jan. 20.900. [Throckmorton] to the Queen of Navarre.
1. Writes in consequence of a promise which he made the last time he saw her.
2. Queen Elizabeth is well assured of the good will of the Queen of Navarre, as she has already informed her by letters, and has more than once expressed her wish for the continuance of the same. She also congratulates the Queen of Navarre upon her affection for the true religion, which she feels assured she will advance at all times. The present opportunity for so doing should not be neglected. Care should be taken that such as feel well disposed towards it should not be discouraged, nor should the adversaries be encouraged by the indifference of the professors. Queen Elizabeth has desired him to remind her of these things.
Draft. Endd. by Throckmorton: A memorial to the Queen of Navarre, 20 Jan. 1560. Fr. Pp. 2.
Jan. 20.901. The Queen to Adolph, Duke of Holstein.
The Duke's letters of 22 Dec. have been presented to her by his Orator, the Dean of Bremen. In reply to the Duke's inquiries respecting her health, she informs him that it is now re-established, for during last summer she suffered from a slight attack of fever. In answer to his request that she would let him know what he had to hope as to the issue of his suit, she assures him that no change whatever has taken place in her sentiments in this matter. In whatever way he may receive her declaration, she cannot say otherwise than this. She must still sing the same song. He tells her that he is anxious about her honour, for which she thanks him; she will never forget what is due to herself in this respect. She will consider it a favour if he will believe none of the rumours which he hears, if they are inconsistent with her true honour and royal dignity. Let him be assured of this, and then this passage of Holy Writ will have its partial accomplishment : "He who endures to the end, the same shall be saved." She has for her aim in all her actions the glory of God and the preservation of her own dignity.—Jan. 20.
Draft, in Ascham's hol. Endd.: 20 Jan. 1560. Lat. Pp. 3.
Jan. 20.902. Cecil to the Duke of Savoy.
Has received his letter of the 23rd of October by M. De Morette, to whom he refers for further information.—London, 20 Jan. 1560.
Corrected draft. Endd.: 20 Jan. 1561. M. Secretary to the Duke of Savoy, by M. De Morette. Fr. Pp. 2.
Jan. 20.903. John Hoffman to the Queen.
Although the citizens of Lubeck have always had the privilege of being allowed to trade with the Muscovites when they are at war with Livonia (provided they do not supply them with arms or munitions,) yet as the petitioners and his companions were going from Revel in 1559 their ship and goods were seized by the Livonians, and although they have appealed to the Emperor Ferdinand they have not been able to obtain any redress. They have procured letters of recommendation from King Eric and his brother Duke John, and now they beg her to give them hers also.—Lubeck, 13 Cal. Feb. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd.: 13 Kal. Feb. 1560. Lat. Pp. 4.
Jan. 20.904. Conference at Naumburg.
A list of the ten Princes and others who were present at the Conference of Naumburg, and of such as appeared by deputy, ten in number, 20 Jan. 1561.
Orig., in Mundt's hol. Endd. Lat. Pp. 2.
Jan. 20.905. Council in the North.
Commission appointing Henry, Earl of Rutland, President of the Council in the North, and certain others to assist him. —Westminster, 20 Jan. 3 Eliz.
Copy. Endd. Lat. Pp. 18.
Jan. [20].906. Council in the North.
1. Instructions to Henry, Earl of Rutland, President of the Council in the north parts, and to Thomas, Earl of Northumberland; George, Earl of Shrewsbury; Henry, Earl of Cumberland; Francis, Earl of Bedford; James, Bishop of Durham; Henry, Lord Scrope; John, Lord Lumley; William, Lord Eure; Thomas, Lord Wharton; the two Justices of assize for the time being, Sir Henry Percy; Sir Thomas Gargrave; Sir Nicholas Fairfax; Sir George Conyers; Sir George Bowes; Sir William Vavasour; Sir Henry Gaites and Sir John Forster, Knights; William Whittingham, Dean of Durham; John Rokeby, L.D., John Vaughan, George Brown, Christopher Escoste, Richard Corbet, Henry Saville, Thomas Kymes, and John Egglesfield of Sutton, appointed to be of the Council of the North.
2. The President shall have a yearly stipend of 1,000l. towards the furniture of the diets of himself and the rest of the Councillors; certain fees are also assigned to him. Instructions are given concerning the time and manner of their sitting, and also for holding the assizes, and minute details for the civil and military government of the country.
Copy, examined and signed by John Ferne. Endd. Pp. 20.
Jan. [20].907. Council in the North.
A copy of the above instructions originally given to the Earl of Shrewsbury but now altered to suit the appointment of Henry, Earl of Rutland, (fn. 4) as President of the Council in the North.
Draft, corrected by Cecil and Sir T. Gargrave. Endd. Pp. 36.
Jan. [20].908. Council in the North.
Warrant to the general receiver of the Queen's manors and lands in Yorkshire, to pay yearly to the Earl of Rutland, 1,000l. for his diet and that of the Council; to Sir Thomas Gargrave, 100 marks; to Sir Henry Gate, 20l.; to John Vaughan, 20l.; to George Brown, 40l.; to Christopher Escote, 50l.; to Francis Frobisher, 20l.; to Thomas Kymes, the secretary, 33l. 6s. 8d., and to John Skayffe, messenger, 6l. 13s. 4d.
Orig. draft, drawn by Gargrave, and corrected and endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
[Jan. 20.]909. A fair copy of the above.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary: Jan. 1560. Pp. 4.
[Jan. 20.]910. Council in the North.
"Certain articles to be considered, as well concerning the Lord President, as also to help certain matters in the instructions, if they be thought convenient."
Orig., in Sir Thomas Gargrave's hand. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 4.
[Jan. 20.]911. Council in the North.
Mandate by the Queen directing the Solicitor General to devise articles to supply certain defects in her instructions to the Council as to the trial of civil causes.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 2.
Jan. 22.912. The Queen to the Earl of Rutland.
Charges him principally and first of all to lay the foundation of his duty, as President of the Council of the North, upon the fear of Almighty God, and do all things by wisdom and consideration.
Hol. Draft by Cecil. Endd.: 22 Jan. 1560. M. to the Earl of Rutland. Pp. 2.

Footnotes

1 Shers has written the following comment on the upper margin:—"This gentleman is Il Seignor d' Colingnis, whom Mr. Mason knoweth right well, and is the same that made the practice to have brought the Duke of Ferrara's second son to King Philip."
2 Shers' comment here is: "For France he [is] like to do nothing."
3 Printed by Labanoff from the original draft at Paris, dated 12 Jan. 1560.
4 The names, however, of the Council vary somewhat from those contained in the preceding copy.