March 1561, 1-10


Institute of Historical Research



Joseph Stevenson (editor)

Year published





Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: March 1561, 1-10', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 4: 1561-1562 (1866), pp. 1-16. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=72983 Date accessed: 17 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


(Min 3 characters)

March 1561, 1-10

A.D. 1561. March 2.1. Marco Antonio Erizzo to John Thomworth.
1. Being unable to come, the writer sends the bearer. Has had an interview with Brounfel [Bromfield] and the Secretary; the latter produced the paper which he had given to the former, and said that if the writer was satisfied with the prices named in it, the Queen's approval would be obtained. Has already stated verbally why he cannot accept these terms; in the first place it is necessary that he should return home, in the second place he is anxious to complete the jewel. The Secretary wishing that this jewel should not form part of the arrangement, the writer will be satisfied that it should remain in the Queen's custody for the fourth of the entire sum which he demands, as a security for his performance of the contract into which he is willing to enter with her for the supply of bowstaves, bows, and sulphur. Thus no personal security will be necessary. The jewel may be valued by two referees, one chosen by the Queen, the other by himself; if they disagree, the decision of an umpire shall be final. He is willing to accept payment for it according to the terms mentioned in his offer.
2. He expects to receive forthwith an assignation of the hides, tin, and lead, for which he offers as security the sums due to him beforehand for the bows and sulphur. He cannot offer the saltpetre at less than 3l. 10s. the cwt., nor can he undertake to provide any at present. Asks Thomworth to write in this matter to the Secretary, expedition being of great importance.—March 2, 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Al Sor. Jioan Thamworth, a Valtan Abe [Waltham Abbey]. Endd.: 1560. Marc Antonio to Mr. Tanworth. Ital. Pp. 3.
[March 2.]2. [Marc Antonio Erizzo to Cecil.]
Has offered to furnish the Queen with saltpetre of Naples at 10d. a lb., and brimstone of Italy at 20s. the cwt. (which is better than the brimstone of Osterland, which is now at 24s. the cwt.), and now presses for a speedy answer to his proposal. The last saltpetre that was bought of Gresham was of Osterland and cost 4l. the cwt. It needed to be refined, which wasted one third, so that it cost 6l. per cwt. Offers as many bowstaves as the Queen requires at 12l. per 100.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 2.
[March 2.]3. Remarks on the Tender of M. A. Erizzo.
1. Remarks by William Bromfield on the tender mentioned above.
2. The offer of 20,000 bowstaves at 9l. per 100 should be taken, provided they be six and a half feet long at the least.
3. The offer for the bows should not be accepted.
4. The offer of 2,000 cwt. of brimstone is to be respited, as there are in store 120,000 weight, which will make 400 casks of cornpowder, which will not be wrought these four years. Brimstone may also decrease to its former price, viz., 5s. 4d., 6s. 8d., or 10s. at the dearest.
5. Saltpetre at 3l. 10s. is too dear by 10s. the cwt. Saltpetre equal to that of Naples is made in this country; that from Eastland, Danske, and Germany is also very good. A store is very needful.
Orig. Hol. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 3.4. Lord Grey to Cecil.
On the 2nd inst. there arrived 100 hard hewers out of Ireland, whereof seven are labourers, the best workmen, who are appointed to such places as the Muster-master and Surveyor think convenient. Longs for the coming of Sir Richard Lee, trusting to receive by him his licence to repair to the Court. Beseeches Cecil to have remorse of his scar, standing in such terms of incommodity. Desires that order may be given to the Treasurer for disbursing of 200l. out of the Queen's money, which may be defaulked of his entertainment at Michaelmas.—Berwick, 3 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
March 3.5. Lord Grey to Cecil.
Finds so little comfort in any other man's regard of his plaints that he is nothing encouraged to seek remedy at any body but Cecil. Very pity forces him to lament the continual moan and complaints of the gentlemen serving here, who are driven to very great extremities by want of money, lack of victuals in store, the dearth of fish and other cates, and the strait abstinence from flesh commanded by this late proclamation; and who continually call for supply of them and their soldiers, hunger-starved and ready to perish, who must either be relieved with money imprest to them out of hand by some means, or else with liberty of flesh eating, being easier to be gotten and better cheap. The state of service in the works stands very disordered; there are not sufficient tools to serve the use of the workmen already come. In this part he at his coming to the Court will open somewhat that may seem necessary to be had and considered.—Berwick, 3 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
March 3.6. Sir Francis Englefield to Throckmorton.
1. Hears nothing of his receipt of any of his letters. Hopes to be on his way to Flanders within fourteen days. If opportunity of horses suffer him, will come to him, otherwise he must by Bâle away and down the Rhine. At Aquisgranæ or Spa he must spend the summer, otherwise his former begun recovery will little avail him. When he comes about Cologne he will write his determination to the Queen; before he dares not, lest he be thought to have a devotion on this side the Alps. If any occasion may be taken, he trusts that he [Throckmorton] will help this his determination of prolonging his absence.
2. The Abbot of Martinego is yet at Rome. Another warm speech there was of some of their doings a month past, but it does not continue, because the foundation (he thinks) was false. They were dishonourable and odious to God and the world; Throckmorton may easily guess them, for they were the common talk of all bourses and assemblies. Hopes to pass a month with him this summer. Desires him to direct to Richard Batson, English merchant, at the sign of J. H. S. Name, Greyfriars Street, Antwerp.—Padua, 3 March 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., torn in the inner margin. Add. Endd.: 13 March 1560. Pp. 2.
March 3.7. —Ling [?] to Mundt.
In answer to the offer made at Naumburg, the Landgrave, his master, has directed him to say that he (having so large a family, both by his first and second wives, whose education entails a very great expense, and having also to pay a large sum yearly for the redemption of the county of Catzenellenbogen,) cannot afford to educate any of his sons abroad. Would like to known what allowance the Queen would make yearly if he sent one of his sons to her.—Cassel, 3 March 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. German. Pp. 2.
[March 3.]8. A translation of the above into Latin by Mundt.
Orig., in Mundt's hol. Pp. 2.
March 4.9. Mundt to the Queen.
1. Arrived at Naumburg from Strasburg on the morning of the 6th Feb., where he found the Electors and Princes or their deputies assembled; to whom he announced his arrival by the Palatine's Marshal and requested audience in the Queen's name. It was replied that all those to whom he had letters of credence would assemble in the Elector Palatine's lodgings after the Council, and hear his message. The Electors Palatine and of Saxony, the Dukes of Wurtemberg and Deuxponts and the Landgrave, were there at 10 o'clock, when Mundt delivered his letters to them. They were satisfied as to his trustworthiness and desired him to deliver the Queen's message, which he did according to his instructions signed and sealed by Cecil. They then asked him about the Queen's health, the state of her kingdom, the spread of the Gospel, and the Queen's marriage, all which questions he answered fully except the last, to which he simply replied, "Nescio." At length the Princes said that they would deliberate and then answer him, and asked for the chief points of his message, which he gave them. He will not trouble her here with a full account of all his proceedings, as it may be gathered from the papers which he forwards.
2. Neither the Elector of Brandenburg nor his brother, the Marquis John, were at Naumburg, although lodgings were appointed for them, as the Elector was ill. Duke John Frederick of Saxony left abruptly a few days before Mundt's arrival, because the other Princes would not condemn those who refused to believe that in the Lord's Supper Christ's Body is carnally and substantially taken, according to Luther's teaching. The rest of the Princes thought it sufficient to believe that the Body and Blood of Christ are taken truly. The Elector Palatine frankly asserted that the action was entirely one of faith, and that a wicked man who wanted faith could not receive Christ's Body; and he interdicted his preachers from all disputes on this point, ordering them simply to inculcate a reverential and pious use of that sacrament.
3. Duke John Frederick of Saxony being only one day's journey distant from Naumburg, and as the Elector Palatine and the Marquis of Baden had gone to him on leaving the meeting, and the rest of the Princes had sent their envoys to him, Mundt, by the advice of the Palatine, went there also and was most courteously received. The Duke gave him a full answer written in German, the sense of which he has translated into Latin. The Princes, however, have forgotten to reply to that article, by which soldiers hired to the King of France or other foreign states should be bound by an oath. Indeed, on account of the length of the way and the winter season he was rather late in coming to the assembly, for Augustus left on the first day and the rest on the third day after his arrival.
4. Mundt visited the Landgrave privately, having a special message for him from the Queen, who when he was informed that the arms stored up in his territory had been conveyed to her, was quite content. On Mundt's telling him that if he would send one of his sons to the Queen's Court, he would be shown every favour, he said that he would consider the subject. Mundt's conversation with him was shortened on account of the want of time and his present departure.
5. The cause of this assembly was this; that as none of the Princes who signed the Confession of Augsburg were alive except the Landgrave, they should all subscribe it. The article about the Lord's Supper will be declared with a new preface. It was also deliberated in what way the Pope and the Emperor should be answered about the Council, and presently a few of the clergy and Councillors of the Princes will assemble at Frankfort to draw up a reply. In that reply mention is made of a certain writing sent to the Emperor in August by the Protestant Estates and Princes, as to what kind of Council they are willing to agree to, a copy of which they say that they will send to the Queen. On account of the press of business the Chancellor of the Palatine was unable to give it to Mundt, but promised to send it as soon as possible to Augsburg. The tenor of this writing was sent by him into England in August.—Strasburg, 4 March 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Endd. Lat. Pp. 4.
March 4.10. The Chancellor of Neuburg to Mundt.
1. Is sorry that he had no opportunity of talking about affairs at length with him at Naumburg. Mundt will remember their conversations at the last Diet at Augsburg, and during the previous year when he was agent for the Queen with the writer's master. Had determined to call on the day on which Mundt set out for Weimar. Has been ordered by his Prince, Wolfgang, Count Palatine of the Rhine, and the Duke of Bavaria to desire Mundt to give their duty to the Queen; and on the same day that Mundt went to Weimar the Chancellor wrote to Christopher Landschad asking him to do so. And now, since they cannot discuss these matters personally, the writer has determined to write to him concerning what he wanted to say.
2. Understanding that the Queen puts considerable trust in the German Princes for aid in case of war, he has thought of a plan by which the Queen may secure many to herself by a moderate annual payment, not merely in time of war but also of peace. His master is so struck with the piety and virtue of the Queen (as the writer can bear witness) that if a decent offer were made he would be willing to serve the realm of England as his ancestors have often done. Recommends the matter to Mundt's consideration, from whom he hopes to hear in reply.—Neuburg on the Danube, 4 March 1561.
Copy. Endd. by Mundt. Lat. Pp. 3.
March 4.11. Mundt to Cecil.
1. Has written to the Queen all that he has done during his mission into Saxony. It appears that the Protestant Princes will have more meetings, especially if the Pope and the Emperor try to thrust this Council upon them, which will render necessary more frequent communications between the Queen and them, and thereby cause additional expense. The Emperor's Ambassador in France, Count Von Bulwyler, has exhorted the Queen and party in power to remain firm in the old religion, as has also the King of Spain's Ambassador; it is therefore probable that they will assist the Pope in this Council.
2. A certain nobleman, who has a castle near Heidelberg, in which the Duchess of Suffolk lived when in exile, desires to be taken into the Queen's service, and to have a pension of 50l. per annum; he is wise and pious, and belongs to the Palatine's Court, yet he understands neither Latin nor French. Mundt will write to Cecil telling him what he could learn about the letting of the mines.—Strasburg, 4 March 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
March 4.12. Randolph to Cecil.
1. On the last of February the Earl of Arran departed from his father at Linlithgow, and came to this town "to be present at the administration of this Communion," which was celebrated on Sunday, March 3. He gave the writer the enclosed letters for the Queen and Cecil. The occasion whereby they came into his hands was this. At the departure of the four Lairds out of France, one in their company named Cunningham was required by Throckmorton to deliver them to Cecil if he could come unto his speech, otherwise at his home-coming to give them to the Earl of Arran, for the more surety that they should not perish. The Earl, thinking that there might be enclosed in the same packet some letters of importance for himself, opened the same, and finding nothing that concerned him, gave them to the writer to be sent to Cecil.
2. Arran has required him to write that whereas Cecil wrote to the Laird of Lethington that he could learn no news of Captain Forbes' doings in France, the motion why he sent into France was this. The Queen's husband being departed, (who in special gave the occasion of the whole troubles in this realm,) Forbes judged that he might without offence to any acknowledge his duty to her so far as should not be prejudicial to the liberty of his country, or burden to his conscience, being well moved thereunto by the example of others, as also to prevent false accusations that might be made of him unto her. To the King of Navarre and the Constable he thought that old friendship required no less than some signification from him how glad he was that God had opened a way unto them to advance the weal of their country and the setting forth of His glory. The writer has shown thus much of his letter to the Earl, to assure him what he has written in the aforesaid matters. Understands that he wishes now that he had taken better advice, notwithstanding he is minded not to let this occasion so pass, thinking it will be the only weal of his country if he were able to bring it to pass. He has by these Commissioners received another letter from her, with commandment oft to write, and very many fair words in credit; he has this day written to her again by William Harrison, his servant, who reports that he has a safe conduct for one year; he is one that passed over with Lady Fleming. He has also some other man's letters, and shall have the present one, so that Cecil may mark him better. "There are now so many doubts put into the Earl of Arran's head in obtaining of her, that he is now more uncertain than ever he was." The Duke can by no means be persuaded that way, but rather that all her fair words will end in some mischief, if it be not substantially provided for. He frankly uttered to the Laird of Lethington that he liked not his son's doings, but doubted (which is almost in every man's mouth spoken) that she will no good to him nor his; for which cause he would be glad to know how favourable Queen Elizabeth would be to him if any such thing should manifestly appear. Was first made privy to this by Maitland, who declared that the Duke wished him [Randolph] to write to the Queen hereof. He requested Maitland to dissemble the matter until he might hear it spoken of some of their own mouths, that he might have the faster grip either of one or both. Yesterday in long discourse, the Earl of Arran broke to him the self same matter. The writer continued his purpose and maintained his opinion there to the uttermost of his power. The Earl finds now where he made his fault; he travails where he can to make him acknowledge the same. Thinks that if it be a matter resolved betwixt his father and him to prove the Queen, it should be done by their own writings rather than by his, as a thing more graciously to be received by the Queen. Ended in these terms, that the matter should be deferred until his father's arrival. "Well, my Lord of Arran may conceive of himself that there is possibility or likelihood that he may have her, but it is against the opinion of all the doctors." Will write more amply in three or four days.— Edinburgh, 4 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
March 4.13. Henry Lee to Yaxley.
1. The day before the writer left Venice he received Yaxley's letter. Thanks him for sending his letters; by his sudden journey to Naples he will not be able to write so often. If there is any news Lee will write, and he has taken good order for the letters coming from England, so that they shall not miss him. He has written divers times to Lord Louthbourrowe, and received no answer. "His poor friends, for all his greatness, might sometimes have heard from him, but these letters commonly sent to these great men often die in the reading."
2. An Ambassador lately arrived here, going towards the Court, named M. Dolons; and the French Ambassador Ligier was here yesterday with the Senate for obtaining of a galley to convey him to Ragusa. The army prepared by King Philip for Tripoli is stopped by weather and sickness, and still remains in Saragosa and Sicily, and part at Malta. The Turk has 150 galleys in readiness to depart from Constantinople for Tripoli against Philip's army. The Sophi, King of "Prarcy," has determined to aid Haysythe, the Turk's second son, against his father and brother. The King of Spain has sent the Order of St. Iago with a commandery of 4,000 crowns a year to one of the Pope's nephews, which was presented on Sunday, in presence of three Cardinals, and the Ambassadors of the Emperor and King of Spain. Sends his commendations to Lord Loughtbourrowe.—Venice, 4 March 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: 4 March 1560. Pp. 2.
March 4.14. Piracy near Rye.
On 4th March 1561 appeared before Corneille Du Bien, Notary to the King's Privy Council; Nicholas Homan, burgess of Fécamp, aged thirty, master of the "Martine" of Fécamp; Martin Fagot, aged forty, mate; and Pierre D'Oyerre and Guilliame Le Toillieur, seamen of the said ship, all burgesses of Fécamp; who, at the request of Pierre Chamart, merchant, residing at Tournay, and Joseph Fagotin, in the name of Lorens Cardon residing at Troyes, solemnly depose that on the 15th of last January they left the port of Bordeaux in the said vessel, which was laden with vin de Gaillac, being bound for Middleburgh in Zealand. When they were abreast of Rye, they were boarded by an armed ship, whose crew spoke both French and English, who brought them to the anchorage of Perres near Rye, and there took from them eight tuns and large casks of wine, of which three tuns and a half belonged to Pierre Chamart, and four tuns and three casks to Lorens Cardon. This deposition was taken in the said town of Middleburgh, on the above written day, in the presence of Jaspar Bartelmieu and Jaspar Simon, burgesses of the said town.
Copy. Fr. Pp. 4.
March 5.15. Randolph to Cecil.
1. Received on the 4th inst. Cecil's letters of the 26th Feb. Has conferred with the Duke and the Earl of Arran, in the matter whereof Cecil wrote; and finds them well enough inclined to take good advice, and not very hasty to grant anything that may be incommodious to their country or themselves. The other Lords are not yet arrived, save the Earl of Crawford, who is thought to will well to the Duke, but will not greatly meddle in any matter. Cecil's advice is well liked; it will end either in that or in some other to like effect; viz., that in their Sovereign's absence they would be loath to conclude so weighty a matter; or that their league standing with England, they can do nothing prejudicial to that which shall rather be quietly rounded into men's ears than openly spoken. It may also be called in question whether with safe conscience a Christian people may enter into a league where occasion is of so much blood shedding, etc.
2. The Duke is resolved that all their meaning is but mischief towards him. The Lord Semple is released (as they term it) from the horn. Lord Bothwell has given him by the Queen the abbeys of Melrose and Haddington. The Bishop of Orkney begins to reform his diocese, and preaches himself. Saw this day a letter he wrote to the Duke. The Laird of Lethington having put a scruple into the writer's head whether his letters came at all times safely, desires to know how they come into Cecil's hands. For the conveyance of them to Berwick he uses the most secret way he can, most commonly by some servant of the Laird of Ormiston, or the Laird of Grange.
3. Has received both the proclamations. The liberty they have here to eat flesh on Sundays in Lent makes them the bolder to do the same the whole week after. The Communion was administered here on Sunday last, with great decency and good order. There were none admitted but such as made open protestation of their belief, examined and admitted by the ministers and deacons, to the number of 1,300 and odd. On Sunday next they choose superintendents for all the shires, known and learned men. Mr. Willock for Glasgow and that country. For St. Andrews, the Sub-prior of the same. Mr. Knox thinks his state honourable enough, if God gives him strength to persist in that vocation which He has placed him in.—Edinburgh, 5 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Endd. Pp. 2.
March 7.16. Sir John Forster to the Privy Council.
Encloses copies of the two last letters from the Warden of Scotland, whereby they may understand their order for twelve bills of either realm to speer, file, and deliver. Met on the 4th inst. at the Stawforde, and made deliverance of the said twelve bills, and have entered into cognizance to speer, file, and deliver other twelve bills of either realm at their next meeting at Hexpethgate Head on 24th inst. From Liddlesdale he can get no answer of justice. They may perceive by the enclosed letters Lord Borthwick's promises of justice, which he does not keep. Wrote in his last letter to the Warden that he would satisfy Lord Borthwick's desire according to the contents of those letters for performance of certain bills for the attempts of both realms, so that he would join the Warden there. Sent his warden-serjeant with a roll of twenty-three attemptates to be delivered to Lord Borthwick at the Hermitage on 25th Feb., when such as kept the house flatly denied either to receive any letter or rolls, and said that they kept the house for Lord Bothwell and no other, and took the officer prisoner and spoiled him of his horse and all that he had, and caused him to find surety to enter whenever they called upon him. It is supposed that they have got some encouragement to do so by reason of Lord Bothwell's arrival in Scotland. Has earnestly called on the Warden for redress of this contempt, who says that he will desire the assistance of the Council of Scotland now at Edinburgh: for otherwise he is unable to redress it, or other attempts of Liddlesdale. For twenty-three bills of Liddlesdale which he received, the offenders are all within Lord Dacre's office of the west marches; he therefore desires that he may be written to to send them to him. Desires that they will write to the Council at Edinburgh to know what order they will take for answer of Liddlesdale; and in the meantime he will take such order that they will not be able to do any great spoil.—From his house nigh Alnwick, 7 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
March 7.17. Conrad Gesner to Cecil.
Hears that the Queen is not pleased with the dedication of his book to her, because the same book had previously been dedicated to the Greys. (fn. 1) He must explain that he has never received a farthing from any one of them on that account. Has heard from Aimer that the dedication to the deceased Greys was not displeasing to their relations. As he is very poor (having forty needy relatives) he will be glad if the price of the books sent (amounting to four crowns) be transmitted to him. Has written very fully to Caius, through whom he desires Cecil to reply. Sends one of his recent publications.—Zurich, 7 March 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 7 May [sic] 1561. Lat. Pp. 2.
March 8.18. Lord Grey to the Lords of the Council.
1. Has received their letters of March 2nd, with the copies of such articles as he sent to the Lords of Scotland, which he returns noted with the reasons that moved him to send the same to them. At his first coming in November last, finding the country disordered, the Border Laws perverted, and the Wardens of Scotland very evil inclined towards reformation, he was forced (to prevent Lord Home's practices) to send a servant to the Lords for declaration of such points as were causes of theft. Although he has understood their inclination yet makes it not any agreement determined, neither did the Scotch Lords so receive it or he ever mean it, as by his letters of the 10th Feb. may amply appear.
2. Wishes that they would consider the weight that he bears and the want of officers and counsellers, and send hither a Marshal and a Treasurer.—Berwick, 8 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
[March 8.]19. Articles for the Lords of Scotland.
The following articles are to be moved to the Lords of the Secret Council of Scotland.
1. For modification of the ransom of prisoners.
2. For abstinence of ploughing and manuring the "threptlands," which the Scots do daily.
3. That Wardens may quit or file on their honours at days of march without reprehension.
4. That order may be given to the Wardens to deliver the principal of bills filed, at such value as the plaintiffs shall swear the bill, if the same be filed upon the Warden's honour.
5. That no detraction be made in delivery of bills filed requiring double, and whether goods taken from Scots in England, or Englishmen in Scotland, shall be delivered with the double, or else the principal on the plaintiff's oath.
6. If an offender withdraw himself from the ground at the day of march, being found guilty of a plaint against him, whether shall the Warden, being charged to do justice presently, pay the bill or no, or shall the lord of the ground where any stolen goods are followed, not presenting the attendance, pay the bill filed?
The following are the considerations moving the Wardens of England to require that the above articles might be debated by the Lords of Scotland:—
1. Forasmuch as sundry persons of either realm having prisoners unransomed, (believing no wars shall happen shortly whereby their cruelty may be requited,) press their prisoners to pay great sums far beyond their ability; their complaints have moved the Wardens to petition the Princes for modification, wherein the nobility of Scotland having signified their opinions, he desires to know the Queen's pleasure thereof.
2. Great inconvenience has hitherto grown between the two realms for ploughing and manuring "the thrept-land," which began lately to revive with many quarrels; he therefore asks how to stay the inconveniences till authorized Commissioners may be sent, or otherwise.
3. The evils that the disorderly filing of bills by assize has induced more the Wardens to consider what order should be taken; and now the Lords of Scotland having agreed to the reformation, he desires to know the Queen's pleasure therein.
4. When cattle is stolen out of either march, and when the stealers are filed by bill to make restitution, they will hurt them so cruelly that (the poor true labouring man being forced by the custom of the march to receive them,) the principal is spoiled of the benefit of his goods notwithstanding recovery of the same.
5. Such delays have been practised by Wardens of Scotland, and mainly by Lord Hume, by perjury, that no justice can be achieved. It is therefore thought necessary that all bills filed should be delivered for, without perjuries proved at a day of truce specially appointed. And for restitution with double, forasmuch as a great number of horses were stolen from Englishmen before Leith by the thieves of Teviotdale and the march, whereof part daily come to light, he thinks it great good service to have procured such conformity from the Scottish Lords as they have granted to this article.
6. By treaty of peace heretofore made, the Warden may arrest, file, and deliver the offender found faultworthy upon the ground at the day of truce. Touching the payment of the bill by the lord of the ground where the stolen goods are followed, if he present not the offender, it has been an ancient custom of the Border, howbeit out of use, but nevertheless renewed by the frank offer of the inhabitants of the marches.
Notes to the above articles by Lord Grey.
1. More of the nobility of Scotland above the degree of knight are prisoners to Englishmen than the contrary, and of the meaner sort more English than Scots; whereby, agreeing to this article, England has the advantage.
2. When he sent to the Lords for abstinence hereof, great controversy and bloodshed was imminent; till now he has repressed such as were within his wardenry.
3. His former letter to them of 28 Nov. purports many considerations moving him to seek the opinion of the Lords of Scotland in this article.
4. The thieves of Tiviotdale used to steal horses and oxen from the English in ploughing and harrowing time, to labour their ground; and when their turn was served, restore the overlaboured cattle by agreement, without consent of the Warden.
5. This article is conform to the ancient custom of the Borders, and in that respect they have partly consented, notwithstanding they know how chargeable it will be to the subjects of Scotland.
6. Much craft and despite has been used in shifting offenders, who were present at the day of march, to delay justice, and to the rest some difficulty was made by the Wardens of Scotland in presenting lords for their tenants, and thereof proceeded this motion.
7. Though the opinions of the Scotch Lords have been searched to know their inclination, yet it is not meant that any alteration of the Border laws should be executed without advice. Desires them to signify their further directions, or otherwise he will not intermeddle with the wardenry.
Copy, on two sheets of paper pasted together.
March 8.20. Lord Grey to Cecil.
Perceives by the letter of the Council of 2 March how they mistake some of his doings for reformation of disorders on these marches. They turn the wrong side of his intent for service outwards, and command him to forbear to move any such matter to the Scotch Lords without first making the Queen privy thereunto, as if he had intermeddled with the alteration of the laws of the Border, wherein no man has been more scrupulous or circumspect. Although he has required the opinion of the Scotch Lords, it follows not therefore that order or execution has effect in the same. If the Queen will, as the Scotch Lords have done, give her Wardens authority to execute such part of the articles as tend to most benefit of this realm, then their commodity is more, if not no harm is done. Has much to complain of, which he suspends till his repair to Court.—Berwick, 8 March 1560. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
March 8.21. John Shers to Cecil.
1. From Venice, 8 March. On Tuesday last a post arrived here from the Duke of Savoy, who was then at Vercelli in Piedmont. The next morning the Ambassador took his leave of the Seigniory, but promised to return shortly. The secretary and his household remain at Venice. Shers hears that another Ambassador from the Duke arrived at Ferrara on his way here. The secretary suspects that his master will be despatched to Rome with some new suit for these wars against Geneva, and then return again to be in readiness with these men for that purpose. There has been a bickering lately between the Duke's men under M. Della Trinita and the Duke's subjects, the Protestants of the Vale of Angrogna, in which the Duke had the worst of it, having lost three of his captains, II Monteglia, II Capitano Chiaverna, and Guido Dal Monte, and above a thousand men. Della Trinita, their general, was glad to save himself at Lucerne.
2. Letters from the Emperor's Court at Vienna give advice that the King of Spain by his Ambassador there has procured from the Emperor the investiture of Sienna, Port Herculo, and Grossetta, with the rest appertaining to Sienna, as parcel of the empire. This is construed to take Sienna from the Duke of Florence. M. Canobio had arrived there from the Pope, with a sword as a present to the Emperor.
3. II Sor. Delphino, the Pope's Nuncio to these Protestant Princes, had returned thither from their Diet without any effect, and the Princes would not receive nor read the Pope's Bull. Was told this morning that one of the Princes told Delphino he had cause to be glad that he was a Venetian gentleman, otherwise they would have taught him to presume to come to their Diets or Councils without a safe conduct, and told him to take warning, and not to do so again, and to give warning to others.
4. The Protestants have informed the Emperor that they will not appear at the Council at Trent, nor any other, unless it be free and general, and with these four conditions. Firstly, that the Gospel and Word of God shall be judge; secondly, that all such Prelates as depend on the Pope shall be absolved of their oath to the Pope; thirdly, that this Council be appointed by the Emperor, and that the Pope shall appear but as a part in the same, and be subject to reformation; and fourthly, that every Prince shall have a voice in the Council.
5. The Pope has appointed three more Cardinals to join with Mantua and Puteo, who were appointed before, for this Council at Trent, yet he would swear that the Pope does not intend that the same shall begin this year.
6. The Pope has given warning to the Duke of Paliano to prepare to die. It is said the Pope would have him resign his title of Paliano to a nephew of his, and would have Marco Antonio Colonna give over Paliano, Mariano, and Genazzano to avoid contention, because (as the Pope says) the same formerly belonged to the Church; and hereupon Marco has fled from Rome, and II Conte Di Santa Fiore with him. There is a new practice with the Pope and Florence, which Spain and the Farnesi admit not of.
7. The Duke of Florence fortifies Sienna with all haste, and the Pope raised men with all diligence; his pretext is for the safeguard of Malta. The Pope has made new governors over Ancona, and in all the chief parts of his dominions provision for men.
8. The Duke of Urbino is sick at Rome of a flux. Wars are more forward than the Council at Trent, although they may have a beginning, for this day the Legate and Cardinal has put forth a breve to divers Bishops to repair without delay towards Trent.
9. He wrote in his last that Guido Janetti was imprisoned at the Pope's Legate's suit, where he still remains, and few men are allowed to speak with him. A letter from the Queen may do much in his favour, for a wrong is done to him.—Venice, 8 March 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 21 [sic] March, with names of Cardinals newly made by the Pope. Pp. 6.
March 10.22. Chamberlain to Cecil.
The quietness of this Court is such and the occurrences of so small moment that he excuses himself from writing to the Queen. Attends hourly to hear from Throckmorton of the ratification of this last accord made with the French, to the intent he might certify this King of the same. As for Cecil's cousin Shelley, he can do no good with him, as he is offended that he [the writer] would not certify the Queen of his answer; and says that he will everywhere remain with the same duty to the Queen and good will to his country as becomes a true Englishman. Wherefore, having even upon this despatch sent to him and received the same answer, he must leave the further consideration of the case to Cecil. Trusts in him for his speedy revocation, and desires that he may receive by his successor a commission to take up such English ships as he shall find meet for his transportation. If the Queen is not a gracious lady to him he looks for none other but to make his end in this wretched country, to the utter ruin of his wife and child, having left his things so much out of order by reason of his sudden departure. There is a talk that Sir Henry Sydney is coming hither with some message from the Queen, whereof he has been earnestly demanded and is able to answer nothing. As for the things which Cecil recommended, he travails all he can to get them, and hopes to bring part with him, though not all. The more the heats of the country increase the more he feels divers motions of the diseases that troubled him last summer, which he greatly fears, and therefore again begs him to help him hence.—Toledo, 10 March 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 10 March 1560. Pp. 4.
March 10.23. Bill on the Gates of Antwerp.
Complaints of injuries done to the privileges of the duchy of Brabant in placing Spaniards in offices in that country, and in bringing it under the dominion of the Pope; by appointing the Cardinal Granville as Governor, who does all he can to destroy their privileges and injure the country; by encouraging the Inquisition and introducing new Bishops, "comme coquin qu'il est." Under the pretence of religion, and by means of the royal authority, he seeks to destroy the liberty of the land, and make the inhabitants slaves to the "porceaux de Spaigne," meaning the Bishop of Malines with his clergy. He is a manifest villain before the Lords and others of the Council of the country, and does all that he likes through the power of his father, the Dragon of Rome. He governs the King in Spain, like a traitor to the country, without regard to his oath, so that that Prince's tyranny increases daily, and they know not how they may any longer endure his cruelty against their privileges. They desire that the inhabitants may not be persecuted on account of religion, and their merchants driven from the country. They complain that they are sent to the galleys like dogs or Turks. If they err in their belief they should be banished, and not made galley slaves, seeing that there are so many vagabonds, whom the officers know full well, but whom they leave at liberty on account of the profit which they derive from them, so that the land remains full of scoundrels, whilst they vent their rage upon innocent people. Warns the governors of the country, that in case they send their friends to the galleys, they are very numerous and will spare neither "chien ne chat" of them. The mace is lifted, and the sword sharpened, and if they have to speak again it will be with pistols and other weapons. All burgomasters and others in office, all priests and monks, young and old, shall be slain, together with the arch-villain, the Red Dragon. They will also revenge themselves on the sophisters of Louvain, who are authors of the Prince's tyranny. France is open to them, and will receive them.
Endd. by Cecil: 10 March 1560. Fr. Pp. 5.


1 This needs a little explanation. In 1553 Gesner dedicated his work called Icones Animalium, (fol. Tigur. apud Froschover,) "Amplissimis heroibus D. Thomœ et D. Johanni, illustrissimi et potentissimi principis, Henrici Gray, Suffolchiæ Ducis, fratribus." This Epistle is dated at Zurich, 5 Cal. Aug. 1553. The second edition of the same work followed in 1560, and was dedicated by the author to Elizabeth, without her previous consent having been obtained. This Epistle is dated Id. Junii, 1560, and is followed by twenty-eight lines of Greek poetry in praise of the Queen. It was printed by Froschover, at Zurich. Copies of these two editions are in the British Museum; of the fomer, under the press mark 445, g. 5, and 459, c. 9; and of the latter, under 460, d. 4.