April 1561, 11-20


Institute of Historical Research



Joseph Stevenson (editor)

Year published





Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: April 1561, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 4: 1561-1562 (1866), pp. 57-73. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=72987 Date accessed: 19 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


(Min 3 characters)

April 1561, 11-20

April 12.105. Shers to Cecil.
1. The occurrences this week are few. Those that departed from Rome for the Council towards at Trenta stay yet by the way, expecting to be revoked, and now they write from Rome that the Pope has called this toward Council back into disputation whether it will be better to continue the same, and at Trenta, or determine for some new Council somewhere else.
2. The young Caraffa and the Cardinal of Naples are now at liberty, for which he has restored the jewels and plate for 100,000 crowns, and paid 50,000 crowns in ready money, with security for 50,000 crowns more, which must be paid within two months.
3. What he wrote in his last concerning Sienna is not yet confirmed, only that the Conté of Pitigliano has entered King Philip's service; some say he has the government of Port Hercule and Orbitello, which causes the others to rise. It is not true the Duke of Florence fortifies with such haste at Sienna; he would not contend against the King, but would rather pacify. The Duke has now chosen an Ambassador to reside here continually.
4. The marriage of the Emperor's daughter will be solemnized at Mantua on the 26th inst. with much triumph.
5. By the last letters from Constantinople of the 6th March the Turk's army was in readiness, but it is not certain whether it has set forth yet.
6. The Duke of Savoy seems to have stayed his hasty opinion concerning his subjects with wars for religion, who now quiet themselves, without any extreme restraint.— Venice, 12 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal, the second leaf is torn at the bottom corner. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
April 13.106. The Queen to Throckmorton.
In reply to his statement of the last of March that he doubts whether he shall have the place belonging to him in preceding the Ambassador of Spain, he is informed that he shall forbear to go where such meeting or preceding should be, using such pretences as to him shall seem good. His wife seems very desirous to come to him, and therefore shall have licence to do so. "We would gladly hear what ye understand of the proceedings of the Lord James." All things here are in good quiet. Has his remembrance of Ireland in good memory. —Westminster, 13 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 13.107. Draft of the above.
In Cecil's hol., and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 2.
April 13.
Keith, ii. 26. Burnet, iii. Collect. p. 313.
108. Throckmorton to Mary, Queen of Scots.
Reminds her that when the Earl of Bedford was at the French Court he and the writer demanded of her the ratification of the accord lately made at Edinburgh; whereunto she answered that her Council (especially the Cardinal of Lorraine) not being about her, and as she had not heard from her Council in Scotland, she could make no direct answer; but that hearing from them, and having consulted with her Council here, she would satisfy the Queen in the same. Since this time the Queen of England, having knowledge of the coming of the Lord James, and nothing doubting of her consultation with the Cardinal and others of her Council, has commanded him to remind her thereof and demand the confirmation of the late accord. Asks her to let him know her resolute answer.—Paris, 13 April 1561.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 13.109. Throckmorton to the Cardinal of Lorraine.
When the Earl of Bedford was lately at Paris, the Queen of Scots refused to ratify the treaty recently made at Edinburgh, under the plea of the absence of her Councillors, both French and Scottish. Now that the Cardinal and the Lord James are with her, the writer begs that the Cardinal will endeavour to procure the confirmation of the said treaty. —Paris, 13 April 1561.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
April 13.110. Throckmorton to Lord James Stewart.
Complains that the treaty of Edinburgh has not yet been ratified. The Queen of Scots having said to the Earl of Bedford that she, not hearing from her Council in Scotland, was impeached from satisfying the Queen of England in this behalf; Throckmorton now prays him (as he has already done in their conferences) to put to his hand, that the same may now be done "as a thing whereon dependeth the banishing and extirpating of all unkindnesses and bitternesses for the time to come."—Paris, 13 April 1561.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 2.
April 13.111. Count Mansfeld to the Queen.
No news of any importance from Germany. Sends a short account of what was transacted at Naumburg, together with the acts of that Conference. As these have not yet been made public, begs that his name may not be mentioned in connexion with them. Hears that there is to be another convention at Frankfort-on-the-Maine on the 22nd inst. of the Protestant Princes. Has nothing to write about concerning warlike affairs, as all things here are tranquil. The King of Denmark was a few days ago at a monastery about four miles from Lubeck, and summoned the Count of Swartzenburg, George Von Holl, and other noblemen, who are reported to be enlisting soldiers for the King, who wishes to appoint a new Bishop of Lubeck against the will of the Canons and Chapter. The King, however, could do this without going to war; so it is said that he desires through these means to put his brother in the government of Iceland. Begs that she will order his pension to be paid to his agent without further delay. Professes devotion to her service.— Mansfeld, 13 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 3.
April 14.112. The Senate of Hamburg to the Queen.
Certain Princes of the Roman Empire having informed them that certain large quantities of armour and cannon shipped from their town belong to private persons, and is intended for the use of the Grand Duke of the Russians or Muscovites, against the Livonians, in contravention to the Imperial decree, which forbids any munitions of war to be sold for the use of the Muscovites, the writers have hereupon been obliged to stay the vessels laden therewith. They, therefore, beg that she will send them an assurance that these arms are intended for her own service; in which case they will allow the ships to proceed.—Hamburg, 14 April 1561. Signed.
Orig., on parchment. Add. Endd. Lat. Broadside.
April 15.113. Mundt to Cecil.
1. Wrote to him on 4th inst. from Frankfort, and on his return from that place called at the Court of the Elector Palatine for the purpose of ascertaining the cause of the convention of the Princes, which was about to take place at Frankfort. The Elector desired him to come to him on the next day (which was Easter Day) to dinner. On that occasion he told Mundt that he had no news worth sending to the Queen, as affairs stood in the same position as at the Convention of Naumburg. He thought that the Electors would assemble at Frankfort, if certain matters could first be settled. He then asked Mundt about the condition of England, the progress of religion, and the Queen's marriage; to the first two Mundt replied fully, but said that he knew nothing certain of the last.
2. In his conversations with the Elector's Chamberlain and Chancellor he was unable to gather anything further about the intended convention of the Electors, except that they meant to confer on the general affairs of the empire; and that they were going to arrange with the Emperor that they should meet more frequently, as was appointed in the Golden Bull.
3. At Heidelberg Mundt entered into conversation with Franciscus Baldwinus, professor of civil law in the University, who, five years previously, used to lecture publicly at Bourges. He said that it would be most expedient for the Queen to marry and have an heir, for that the Guises had most eagerly sought the opinions of the lawyers concerning the succession to the English throne. Mundt replied that no controversy could possibly arise, as it was settled by Parliament, and by the will of Henry VIII. Baldwinus, however, declared that neither by will or by the decree of Parliament could the right inherent in any one be taken away, and a new one created; that the crown of England was not elective, but descended by legitimate succession to the nearest heir, whether male or female; and that the Queen of Scotland was descended from the eldest daughter. Thinks it his duty to forward this statement.
4. There is an assembly of divines and lawyers at Erfurt to consider the reply to be given to the Emperor and the Pope. Forwards a copy of the letter which the Chancellor of the Duke of Deuxponts sent to him. Wilevil [Vielleville], the former Governor of Metz, came to Heidelberg, on the 10th, where he was honourably received by the Elector, and set out for the Emperor, to treat with him about the marriage between the Queen of Scots and his son Ferdinard.—Strasburg, 15 April 1561. Signed.
5. P. S.—After having finished, a letter was brought to him from a friend of his in the Palatine's Court, who says that this convention at Frankfort is not likely to succeed, on account of various impediments, and chiefly on account of the warlike preparations of the Guises against the religion, both in France and elsewhere, under pretence of the rebellion of certain Princes, as was done by Charles in 1547, and also on account of this papistical and bloody Council.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary, who adds, with a letter sent unto him from a friend of his at Naumburg. Lat. Pp. 4.
April 16.114. The Emperor Ferdinand to the Queen. (fn. 1)
Desires that she will show favour to John Count of Threczin, a nobleman of Poland and one of his household, who intends to visit different countries in Europe.—Vienna, 16 April 1561. Signed: Ferdinandus,—M. Singkhmoser.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Lat. Pp. 3.
April 16.115. The Vidame of Amiens to Cecil.
Has seen the letter which Cecil wrote to M. le Vidame, the writer's brother, lately deceased in England; requiring the release of two Englishmen, taken at sea during the late war, upon some reasonable composition. Has made search for them through all his territory, and found that they were in the hands of a certain gentleman, and not in any house appertaining to his said brother. And because he has to redeem a quantity of plate set in gage by his sister-in-law, he has found means to get the said Englishmen out of the hands of him who had them. They have promised to pay him more than the said plate amounts to. Desires that the said money may be sent over without let.—Pecquiny, 16 April 1561. Signed: Louis D'Ailly.
Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Fr. Pp. 2.
April 16.116. English translation of the above.
Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
April 16.117. Lord Grey to Cecil.
1. Has received his letter of the 10th commending the writer's travail for the reformation of the disordered state on the Borders, with which he has been occupied since his coming hither. Unless it be considered by the Lords of the Council how unable he is to continue the great burden thereof without help of discreet men, he must of force give it over utterly, for it is too great an enterprise to serve alone. Desires that a Marshal and Treasurer may be sent speedily to relieve him; and that he continue not always a banished man, without licence to put his own estate in order of security to his posterity. Can be well content to receive Mr. Stuckly, or any other that the Queen allows. Held a day of truce with Lord Hume on the 14th, who denied him reformation and willed him complain to the Lords upon him, which he is driven to do, and will advertise their answer. In the end of their communing, Lord Hume asked the writer on his honour whether the English intended to besiege Edinburgh, and whether the English fleet had taken French ships coming to Inchkeith with victuals. He answered that he knew nothing that the Queen and Council meant towards breaking the good amity between the two realms, and that he dare affirm that they did not intend anything; and that he had heard no word of the taking of the French ships. Prays him not to forget his request for the fishing in controversy between him and Thomas Carlisle.—Berwick, 16 April 1561. Signed.
2. P.S.—Desires that the Lords of the Council will inform him if anything seems allowable in the articles which were confirmed by the Lords of Scotland.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. On the back: At Berwick, 16 April, at eight in the morning. Delivered at Belford, 16 April, at twelve of the clock, Pp. 3.
April 18.118. Intelligences from various Places.
1. From Rome, 18th April. In the Consistory on the Monday previous to this date, the beginning of the Council was deferred for six months, at the request of the Emperor, King Philip, and the French King. Other things should have been passed at that Consistory, as the naming of the Cardinals of Trent and Conza to the bishoprics of Albano and Conza; the deprivation of the Bishop of Civita di Peña, lately ViceLegate of Bologna; and the admitting of certain Bishops in Spain presented by King Philip. By reason of the Pope's haste to Civita Vecchia, all those are deferred until he returns.
2. On Wednesday arrived Don John D'Aiala, with a great company. He, understanding the Pope was to depart next day, demanded that evening audience; who had answer that if his errand did not require speed, he should take his ease till the Pope's return, or that he would go to Civita Vecchia with him. In the end he was appointed to come to Belvedere next morning. In the conference it was noticed that he needed not much to entreat him to put on his cap, and being once in it he forgot to pluck it off again till the end of the communications, to the marvel of some that rode by, but not of such as are acquainted with the Spanish nation. The same day the Pope took his journey towards Civita Vecchia, accompanied only by the Cardinal Fiore.
3. The Friday after, Cardinal Farnese was conducted a good way on his journey by the Duke of Urbino. The Duke of Florence is minded by sea to meet the Pope at Civita Vecchia. The Duchess of Ferrara was despaired of life, whereof divers discourses are made. The Cardinals of Pisa and Monte shall suffer death. The Pope has required of Ascanio Colonna the artillery of Pagliano and the razing of the fortifications thereof.
4. From Constantinople, 21st March. At this date there were only forty galleys ready; the other forty are very forward, and yet no great haste made in perfecting them. There was great diligence made in sending aid towards Caffa. Advertisements come daily of the great outrage done by the Muscovites in those parts. The Turkish Ambassador was received at the frontiers of Persia with great pomp, being presented with two fair horses richly apparelled with gold and jewels, with the assignation daily of a mutton for every four of his company, which gives the Turk hope to have his son delivered into his hands, but none believes it but himself. In case a peace or truce be concluded with the Sophy, the Turk intends to send a great army into Hungary. Two Venetian ships laden with wheat without licence, were taken and brought into the Straits, and are like to be confiscated, being discovered by the Bassa that sold them the wheat.
5. From Milan, 16th April. M. Della Trinita had clean overthrown the Duke's rebels in La Valle d'Angrogna, having slain twelve principal captains. Trinita lost 150 footmen, six port ensigns, and sundry captains of name. Oran was besieged by sea and land with forty galliots and foists, and 25,000 Turks and Arabs, and it is thought cannot hold for lack of provisions.
6. News from Naples (though not certain), state that Captain Cichala in his journey from Naples to Spain was encountered by a number of foists and galliots, and after a long fight was taken, with his nephew and others, who were carried into Barbary.
7. The Duchess of Ferrara died on Monday the [blank] of April in the evening.
Copy. Endd.: April 1561. Pp. 4.
April 19.119. The Queen to Throckmorton.
1. On Thursday last, the 17th inst., the French Ambassador brought the Baron De Courtillan to the Court, requiring her to accept him as one sent by the King to be a hostage in the place of the Count De Roussy. As he had brought no letters from Throckmorton signifying his estate, or from the King, she was constrained to say that though she had already accepted one hostage, the Count De Benon, without any letters, yet she could not further do so. This she did, not to prejudice the credit of the Baron De Courtillan, but only to show how much she was inclined to have all good offices of amity observed with order. Then she called unto her the Baron and bade him welcome, with such entertainment as she thinks he found no cause of misliking, but yet forbore to accept him as a hostage.
2. She requires Throckmorton to enquire into the quality and value of the said De Courtillan, and imparts briefly all that passed, that he may make a report thereof to the King according to his discretion. And in case the Ambassador here, or Courtillan, should mislike some speech used by Cecil in talk with him and Mr. Wotton, who said that he was not authorized to any purpose of weight as an Ambassador, and although they had never conceived any doubt of his office, yet if any matter of weight should be treated upon, unless he brought some letter of credit, the Queen could not but stay thereupon. Throckmorton is to use his discretion in answering the same.
3. Sir Thomas Cotton has great cause of complaint, who having his son prisoner to Madame Cresaques, last year redeemed one De la Haye with the consent of the said lady to make an exchange for his son, and the said De la Hay departing upon his faith into France, neither returns nor acquits young Cotton, as he is bound to do by writing and oath. The French Ambassador was privy to the contract and shows himself offended with De la Haye, and has delivered his testimonial to Sir Thomas Cotton concerning the same, which Mr. Cotton will send. She requires him to further by all convenient means the redemption of Mr. Cotton's son.
4. Has already licensed his wife to come over to him. In his last letter he mentions a request of Juan De Luna; he is to let him understand that she takes his offer in good part, but that the amity between her and the King of Spain will not permit her to have the use of his services.
Orig. Draft, chiefly in Cecil's hand, and endd. by his secretary. Pp. 4.
April 19.120. Eric XIV. to Cecil.
Has sent Nicholas Swantonson and John Demock to the Queen with certain letters. Although he does not doubt that she will perceive his earnest goodwill and love towards her, nevertheless he begs Cecil to see that his Envoys do not neglect anything which may conduce to his advantage, and that he will do what he can to forward the suit of the writer. —Arboga, 19 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
April 19.121. Shers to Cecil.
1. Since the receipt of Cecil's letters the writer has had a care for his journey homewards. Few things occur but what are known here, for they have as it were registers in all parts, and by that means guess very near what may follow, as they have done of the famed Council towards at Trenta. This appears plainly by the advices from Rome, by which it is said the King of Spain (not for religion) bears against the Pope. Some think it is for admitting the French Ambassador to his banquet and not the Spanish, for giving audience lately to the Duke of Vendôme's Ambassador, as Ambassador from the King of Navarre, and for seeking to advance the Duke of Florence to greater honours as King of Tuscany, and such other proceedings. It is also written from Rome that the Spanish clergy (notwithstanding their popishness) have protested that they will not come to this Council unless it is free, and that the Pope will submit himself to the same, and that all Christian Princes may enter as members of the same, and lend themselves to receive and observe such decrees as shall be concluded upon in that Council for the unity of the Christian Church.
2. Don John D'Ayala, who is appointed Ambassador at Rome in place of Vargas, has not yet arrived there. A gentleman from France had arrived there to the new Ambassador to be presented to the Pope. He had to present his message in writing, and to say little by mouth; his letter is respecting the annates and divers other conclusions, not for the Pope's profit. The Pope (being informed previously) will not as yet admit either the bearer or his letters to his presence. Upon the protest from Spain for the Council, and this messenger from France, the Pope called a Consistory, in which many matters were consulted, and it was concluded to postpone this Council until next September.
3. From Mirandola. The Conté of Mirandola, the greatest stay France ever had in Italy, has forsaken them, and is entertained with King Philip, who has already taken down the arms and "bandire" [banners] of France, and set up the other. Of the Turk's army there is nothing new. "There is a rumour risen here this week amongst the best, and not yet common, that the late French Queen and the Queen of Scots has concluded for marriage, or rather, as some others will say, is about to conclude with the Emperor's son; and upon the same there want no discoursers and setters forth of many good good-morrows touching our country." (fn. 2) The Duke of Savoy is going into France to confirm all the bargains between him and them.—Venice, 19 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
April 19.122. Intelligences from various Places.
1. From Rome, 13th April. The Cardinal of Naples was delivered, having paid before to the chief officer of accompts 50,000 crowns, and must pay another 50,000 within two months. The Cardinals Monte, Pulciano, and Vitelli and Bishop Vestano were securities for the payment. Cardinal Farnese has lent him 10,000 crowns for four years, and Cardinal Santo Fiore the same sum for one year, both without interest. The Pope gave him such a lesson at his coming out that he had not a word to answer, but departed to his house, which he must not leave without licence. He intends to go to Padua, "there to lie scholar-like" until he may grow out of debt.
2. There was a suspicion of war likely to be in Tuscany which is founded upon the Duke fortifying with haste Sienna, and that the King of Spain has taken in service the Conté Petiliano, (a great enemy to the Duke,) and given him the charge of Porto Hercole and Orbitello; and, finally, that Philip has lately received the investiture of the said state from the Emperor. Cardinal Monte will be shortly liberated; of Cardinal Pisa there was no speaking.
3. By letters from Spain it is said Don John D'Aiala should be Ambassador from the King, and is looked for daily.
4. On the 10th of April the Cardinal of Naples was set at full liberty with comfortable words, so that he may go to his book and resort to any place of study subject to the Church, and to no other university. The Signor De Cenobio should depart next day with the Rose to the Queen of Bohemia and with the hat to the elect of Trent. Signor Pietro Antonio Luna, son-in-law to Duke Urbino, was appointed to go to Mantua to the Duke's marriage with a present of 30,000 crowns. The generalship of the Church was given unto Count Frederico Boromeo, and Ascanio della Cornia is his lieutenant.
5. On April 12th there was a Consistory, in which was great discoursing of the Council; but it is thought that matter will be deferred to September, as both King Philip and the Emperor have requested the same, minding in the meantime to see what may be done to persuade the Princes of Almain to resort thereunto.
6. From France it is written that the King of Navarre was minded to send an Ambassador to reside at Rome on his behalf, which Philip will take in ill-part, as he is already offended because the Pope has received his obedience as King of Navarre.
7. From Venice, 19th April. The Duchess of Ferrara, daughter to the Duke of Florence, lay at the point of death, forsaken by the physicians. Don John D'Aiala had arrived at Milan on his way to Rome as Philip's Ambassador. The Princes and nobility of Italy would resort to the marriage of the Duke of Mantua, which will be about the end of the month. The Pope made a request to the state to send Guido Bonetti [sic] to Rome, but they have refused, thinking it more convenient that his cause be determined there.
8. Vienna, 31st March. The Emperor has delivered investiture to the Bishop of Saltzburg, having sworn fidelity.
9. On May 15th the King and Queen of Bohemia would be crowned in Posonia, a city of Hungary, after which their style will be King and Queen of Hungary. The Emperor will be present.
10. From Constantinople, 6th March. It was confirmed that the Turk's army should not pass eighty galleys, whereof sixty were ready. The Muscovites had overthrown the Tartars, subjects to the Turk, about the coast of Caffa, which would prevent the Turks being busy with Christendom. There was a great scarcity of bread and wine in Constantinople, and the pestilence was very great there, which had caused many to forsake the city. Bajazet, the Turk's son, was still made much of by the Sophi, to whom the Turk had sent a notable Ambassador with great presents, as he was in hope to have him delivered into his hands. In Constantinople there was a great persecution of such as were found to drink wine in any place but in Pera, where it was lawful for Christians to drink it, but none of the Turk's subjects. Warning was given to the Emperor's Ambassador to abstain from drinking of wine, or else to go with his family to Pera.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 4.
April 20.123. Frederic II., King of Denmark, to the Queen.
Johannes Spithovius being about to apply to her for the restitution of his property in England, has asked the writer for letters in his favour. Reminds her that the absence of the petitioner was unavoidable.—Copenhagen, 20 April. Signed.
Orig. Injured by damp, and slightly imperfect. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 2.
April 20.124. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Advertised Cecil that ten ships were rigging on the coast of Normandy. Being desirous to know the truth thereof, and knowing of the Constable's coming to this town, he thought good to learn of him the matter of the said rigging. Therefore on the 11th inst., (not being able to go himself through the grief of sickness,) he sent Somers to him with the Queen's good opinion of him, and to say that though in the late King Francis's reign there were occasions of jealousy given, yet now those things being brought to better terms she trusts to live in quiet and good amity. Moreover, that having heard of the rigging of some ships, which might occasion mistrust and jealousy, (though he was not curious in seeking the secret meaning therein towards any other voyage abroad,) he desired to be ascertained that they were not meant against the Queen or against Scotland; upon whose assurance he would be well satisfied.
2. The Constable said that he had ever borne good affection to the Queen, the rather for that the late King Henry, his master, bare such a singular goodwill towards her. "And there had up again this old tale of his said master's desire to see her, if God had lent him life." He told Throckmorton that he knew no more about the rigging of any ships than of the day of judgment, and assured him on pain of his damnation (which he set forth very earnestly,) that the King meant to live in peace with the Queen, and rehearsed some reasons to move the King to seek to live in quiet, as his minority, it being not meet that his Council should procure him any wars unless he were provoked thereto; his coming to the crown poor, and also that they seek to acquit him of his debts, which cannot be done if he have war. He also said that he knew of no men, munition, or artillery for these ships; that now was the time that their men used to prepare to go to Newfoundland for fishing; and that peradventure these are some merchants who would make a voyage to Rome. Throckmorton believes that what the Constable said is true. He also sent word that the King would depart from Fontainebleau about the 21st and go towards Rheims by sporting journeys, there to be sacred about the 10th or 12th of May, and on the 20th July minds to make his entry into Paris. The Constable goes to Chantilly, a house of his ten leagues from Paris; where he marries one of his sons to a daughter of M. De Humieres.
3. There has been very much business this Easter in divers places of the realm, "specially about the administering of the Sacrament," as at Angers, Mans, Beauvais, and Pontoise. At Beauvais the Cardinal of Châtillon, (who is Archbishop there) caused to be preached, and (as some say) " the Cene openly administered in his chapel after the manner of Geneva, though something discrepant," wherewith the canons and divers of the popular people not content murmured, and assembled to good numbers to have wrought their wicked wills upon the Cardinal, who shut himself and his, with divers of the communicants of the town, within his house; yet not so speedily but that some were hurt and killed, and one of the townsmen brought violently before the Cardinal's gate and there burnt out of hand without further proceeding with justice in the matter. They sought by forcing the gates to enter upon the Cardinal, who was fain to stand to defence until rescue was sent. Thinks that unless great severity be used upon the seditious offenders there are like to ensue great things, to the unquiet of the whole state.
4. Sent Somers on the 15th to the Queen of Scotland, who is departed from Rheims, and gone towards Lorraine, taking the Duke of Guise's house, Jenville, by the way.
5. Cecil wrote to him lately to understand what answer the Ambassador of Portugal had to his request or complaint, fearing the French going to the castle of Mina. It is nothing to his pleasing, being much after this sort; for fishing and other places whither the French use to go, they mind to go forward with their journey, not the King, but his merchant adventurers, who mind to go strongly.
6. Has just received her letters of the 13th of April by Francisco, this bearer, whereby she is pleased that he should absent himself from the sacre of this King for avoiding contentions with the Ambassador of Spain; which matter his present indisposition comes well to colour. The contention that was lately at Rome betwixt the French and Spanish Ambassadors for their range is so ended that the French precede. M. De Sault has greatly commended her, her Court and usage, to the King, the Queen Mother, and others. Hears that the Baron De la Garde, Knight of the Order, is going to the King of Denmark in legation, and carries his master's order to him and the King of Sweden, which argues that there is some more in hand that way than common visitation. Cannot think that so much kindness is meant only to the King of Sweden, considering that he has sent hither no embassy.
7. The King has changed his Ambassador at Rome, because he, being Bishop of Angoulême, accepted the Cardinal's hat without the King's knowledge; and has delegated M. De Lisle, son of M. De Mortier, noted in the Court not to be best affected to papistry. There is much talk that the Pope minds to send shortly the Abbot of Martinego in legation to her. The King is advertised that the Turk with great speed puts his army to the sea, to the number of 120 galleys, which the writer fears will make some part of Christendom smart. Men talk of Sicily and the Goullet. Dragotrey has promised great things upon the coast of Barbary, which will prove a great unquietness to the south of Spain. There is a report that the King of Spain means to repair into the Low Countries, but the writer thinks that this alarm of the Turk will stay him. Hears that the King's sacre is deferred until the 20th of May, which arises upon some doubt of attempts to be made by the house of Guise. In very deed the talk here argues great unquietness in this realm.—Paris, 20 April 1561. Signed.
8. P. S.—Don John De Luna has just desired him to renew his suit to her, and presses for an answer.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 8.
April 20.125. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Received Cecil's letter of the 4th by M. De Sault, on the 15th, who greatly praised the Queen of England, before the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, and all the Princes of the Court. The Admiral said openly that she was a pattern for all the Princesses of Christendom, and showed well the difference betwixt those who profess the true religion of God, and those who retain the contrary. What he knows of the Lord James, Cecil shall understand by letters to the Queen. Has sent to Lord James all such letters as came by Mr. Somers.
2. On the 17th received Cecil's letters of the 14th by Francesco, this bearer. Thinks that the Ambassador of Portugal is reasonably and discreetly answered, and not far discrepant from the answer they made him here. The Baron De Courtillain (otherwise called M. D'Avaugour), is esteemed a sufficient hostage. If Cecil had not advertised him of the coming of the Pope's Nuncio thither, he would have said something therein," but I forbear until I may come to the certainty of a greater mystery, whereof I will not fail to advertise Her Majesty in my next despatches." Thinks that it will be convenient to use the advice of the German Princes for the receiving of the said Nuncio, and also the advice of their well-wishers in Scotland, and it will not be altogether impertinent to make the Ministers of the King of Sweden, and the Duke of Holst, privy to their proceedings in that matter, that they may not conceive doubtfully of her proceedings in "the cause of religion, common to them all." Wishes the like to be done to her friends in these parts. Forasmuch as Mr. Harry Killegrew means to accompany the wife of the writer hither, it is not un meet that he should declare the Queen's intentions herein to the King of Navarre, the Prince of Condé, and the Admiral; and more so because he guesses that some shall be sent from them to Her Majesty, and somewhat concerning the Abbot of Martinego's negociation.
3. Is sorry that he can find no grace for Charles O'Connor, whose offence was not malicious, but rather childish; it will grieve him the less if there be meant indeed a substantial reformation of Ireland. "And I do herein accord with you, and wish that there should not be one inhabitant left of the old evil seed, if you can find the means to replenish it with good, faithful, and obedient people." Reminds him what the Romans and all Princes and states have done to retain countries in their obedience, which have been far distant, or not conjoined to them; and how the Spaniards have kept the realm of Naples and enjoy their New Indies, and yet God forbid that such as be noble faithful, loyal and obedient subjects, should not be well cherished,, and in their own country, well maintained. "You must abolish that choshery, coyne, and livery, their Bryans laws, and many other savage and monstrous absurdities amongst them; and howsoever you do, inhabit the coasts and ports with good people, and specially the coast that lieth towards Scotland."
4. Desires to have the Queen's answer to Don Juan De Luna's suit. He is a man of a noble house, of the age of 55, presently vexed with a quartan. He was Castellan of Milan, and had very good charge and experience in the late Emperor's wars; his wife is of the house of Palœolagus, a Greek born. " The Bishop of Aquila must not know of these matters." (fn. 3) Don John seems not to be best affected towards Rugomus' [Ruy Gomez] faction, whereof he takes the Bishop to be one. The writer perceives by him that the Duke of Alva is the Queen's best friend in the Spanish Council. Thus much he declared to the Earl of Bedford before he spake with Don John De Luna.
5. The Irish matters must be so cunningly and secretly handled that neither the stout rebels may perceive whereabouts Cecil goes, or the Scots, their neighbours. It seems that the Duke of Châtellerault and all his (he would fain except the Earl of Arran), are very much inclined to become French again. Need not tell him the same tale of the Earl of Huntly, and all his; yet the case of England is such, and the terms of other states is such, that the Queen must needs wink at these ingratitudes and make a virtue of necessity, for there is no remedy to keep England in the good case it is in, and in the reputation it has; but the Queen must needs have either Roland or Oliver, if she may not have both, and therefore all sorts must be cherished. Prays him to remember that without delay the following people ("the most able and sufficient of these Irish,") be all made the Queen's pensioners,—the Earl of Argyll, the Earl of Glencairn, and some of his sufficient friends, the Master of Maxwell, the Earl of Morton, the Lairds of Lethington and Grange, Lord Ruthven, Mr. Henry Boneuus [Balnaves], (though he be of no great power), the Laird of Pataro, Mr John Wood, secretary to Lord James, Lord Hume, ("though he be elvish enough") the Laird of Sesford, and some others, the ablest and fittest of the surname of the Humes and Carrs. "Remember, I say, in anywise that presently without delay they be all made the Queen's pensioners. I could wish it to be kept secret for a time, but I think it impossible. As to the Earl of Arran and the Lord James, because they are forth of this predicament, and I cannot tell what will become of either of them, I will pass them over for this time." Wishes that all kindness and favour might be shown to the whole realm of Scotland, and that the English officers were not too vigilant and severe in exercising their offices for penal laws and traffic prohibited, and this to last at least as long as the French Ambassador shall reside in Scotland; "for I judge the commonalty will strike a stroke in the renewing of the treaty betwixt France and Scotland, and in renewing also your treaty when the term thereof shall be expired." When all sorts shall have tasted of this amity and beneficial profit it will be hard for the French to dissever it, though they win the Earl of Huntly and the Duke, both. Is advertised that the Duke seeks to be restored to his things here, which is a venial sin; and that the Earl of Huntly employs all his friends, and sends messengers hither apace to recover his pension, and be brought into credit with these men. Wishes that the Queen and Council would remember in the case of her servants the proportion that Aristotle calls "analogica."—Paris, 20 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
April 20.126. Draft of the above, partly in Throckmorton's hand, a few paragraphs transposed.
Endd. Pp. 7.
April 20.127. Lord Grey to Cecil.
1. Desires to be advertised whether he received the parcel sent by the ordinary post, containing such letters as came to the writer's hands from one that found Captain Forbes' budget. Because Forbes lay lurking by the way long after he had lost his letters, and because Grey has not heard of their receipt, he has entered into a jealousy. Divers Scots have reported that Forbes's despatch into France tended to the hindrance of Lord James and his purposes. Men think it strange that he cannot be heard of since his departure from London; his brethren write daily to Grey for news, but he can learn none to comfort them withal.
2. Lord Gray of Scotland has been called upon for his entry to relieve his sureties, but answers that unless the Earl of Northumberland write to him directly he will not do so. Wherefore Thomas Clark has been twice to great charges with the Earl for his letters, who has denied them. Desires Cecil to write to him for reason therein. Hopes shortly to see him at Court.—Berwick, 20 April 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
April 20.128. Declaration by the Ambassador of Portugal.
1. Two chief objections having been made to the petition on the behalf of the King of Portugal touching the let of the subjects into the countries of Guinea, Brazil, and other parts of the conquest of the said King, the writer, for the information of the Lords of the Council, makes a confutation of the said two objections.
2. To the first objection, that the King of Portugal does injury to the subjects of other Princes by disbarring them from the commodities of his said conquests; it is answered, that all kinds of merchandise are brought out of the said conquests, and all the other nations of Christendom are abundantly furnished of the same by means of their merchants who traffic into Portugal. Notwithstanding this, the English will go to the said coasts of Guinea and Brazils to traffic for themselves. This is not for lack of the commodities, but for their own singular profit, and to take away the peculiar profit and dominion of the King of Portugal. His predecessors have always enjoyed the same, being the first discoverers and conquerors of the same navigation unknown to the world, and at that time thought impossible, having spent about the same all the treasure of their realm and all their power for many years, and in the same lost the lives of many lords and gentlemen. Had the same cost been employed against the Moors in Africa, or in other places in Europe, without doubt the King would have enlarged his dominions, as many other Christian Princes have done. But he would rather employ himself upon this enterprise for the advancement of the Catholic faith. And this has been approved of all, as well of the spirituality as temporality, and particularly by the predecessors of the Queen of England.
3. To the second objection, it is alleged that the English do not pretend to dispossess the King of Portugal of his said conquest where he is acknowledged for King, but only to traffic to such places as are not subject or known to the Portuguese. To this it is answered that the dominion, etc., of the said places is the King of Portugal's for the reasons aforesaid, and in case there are any provinces unknown, the same shall not make any bar to his title. And because he intends to do it thoroughly, it is not meet that any friendly Prince should aid or favour the same people. Besides this, there is not a province maritime or kingdom on the coast of Autyopia, or any other place of the same conquest, but acknowledges more or less the said King of Portugal to be superior and lord of the same navigation. The King of Portugal acknowledges that it is sometimes needful to suffer some parts to have more liberty than others, and sometimes it is done to bring them better and gently to the predication of the Gospel, and to treat them friendly and amicable and not by way of cruelty. It is to be considered that in such a great dominion, and so dispersed, it is impossible in such a small time to possess all the said countries, as it is unto Kings in Europe to possess all their dominions. And in case one or two ships of merchants or others, particularly Englishmen, think to have resort in any of the same provinces or conquests, it is to be credited more that the armies of the said King of Portugal would do it sooner by force; and in case the English pretend to use the same not of force but only to traffic, the King has there what will let that nobody shall there traffic.
Copy, dated and endd. by Cecil. Pp. 6.


1 Another copy of this letter occurs in B.M. Sloane, 4142. 38.
2 The Queen Mother of France to the Bishop of Rennes.
April 11.
Chastelnau, i. 555.
1. Yesterday I received your letter of the 13th March, which came by Switzerland, and to-day that of the 11th, which came by Flanders, which show me that you are well informed of what is passing with you. In answer to your last letter I may state that the extract which you send me from the despatch of the Emperor's Ambassador at Rome addressed to the Emperor corresponds with what I have said to Jean Manriques in the matter which he is pursuing here. Hence I am more and more confirmed in my impression of the truth of the discovery which I have made, viz., that the mission of Manriques hither was not entirely one of condolence, since I perceive that he is a personage on familiar terms with his master, and much beloved by Prince Charles. Add to this the reasons which I have from other quarters, that there are some here [the Guises] who are strenuously urging forward this project; which, however, I would not wish to see carried out as far as the good of this realm is concerned.
2. Therefore, M. De Rennes, I trust that you (having regard to the trust which I have in you, and to the duty imposed upon those persons who are employed in the service of the King, my son,) will employ all the skill you possibly can to discover the truth of this projected marriage between the Queen of Scotland, my daughter, and the Prince Charles, and that immediately you have anything to communicate you will enclose it, in cipher, in the packet of L'Aubespine, informing me of the pros and cons of what you may detect. This will help me to see my way clearly, and to remedy what may become necessary.
3 This sentence is written by Throckmorton on a blank space purposely left in the body of the letter.