Elizabeth
May 1561, 21-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1866

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117-127

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'Elizabeth: May 1561, 21-30', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 4: 1561-1562 (1866), pp. 117-127. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=72991 Date accessed: 23 October 2014.


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May 1561, 21-30

May 21.206. The Magdeburg Centuriators to the Queen.
1. It is now a year since they dedicated the fourth century of their Ecclesiastical History to her and forwarded it by their own messenger. (fn. 1) This they did chiefly because in that century the Emperor of Britain, having embraced Christianity, abolished all superstitions, and therefore they think that after so many centuries she ought to know and imitate the virtues of her predecessor. Have received from the Archbishop of Canterbury her reply, in which she expresses her approbation of their work, and has promised to help them with certain books and writings. She has doubtless taken care to seek out in the different libraries in her kingdom those books which will be of assistance to them in their work, which books they beg her to forward. Hope that she will not only send those which they have asked for, but such others also as may be useful for their purpose, as Hector Boethius. Have obtained the Count of Mansfeld's letters to her, pledging himself for the safe return of the books, which shall be with interest. The Princes of Saxony would punish them if the books sustained any damage, and they have sent a very careful man as messenger by whom the volumes may be properly transported to Antwerp and thence to Germany. Beg that she will search for old manuscripts, as they have no doubt that some must remain in private houses, in remote monasteries, and obscure places; these they hope she will order to be collected into one depository. They trust that the same thing may be done in Scotland, in order that the ancient records may not be dispersed and injured as has happened in Germany; since many valuable documents are probably hidden away and afford food for the moths and worms. For this purpose they hope to be able to send into England, and perhaps even into Scotland, during the ensuing summer, a person well acquainted with ancient manuscripts; thus the books may be preserved, but the writers beg that they may have a short time allowed to inspect them and select what may be useful, which being done they promise to restore them with some spiritual gain. They ask this more confidently on account of the Archbishop's promise, and because they know that she is more interested in religion than most other Princes.
2. None of the Princes of Germany have assisted them, but only a few private persons, who like the dogs in the parable of Lazarus, have offered a willing sacrifice. Nevertheless certain malevolent persons have accused them of hunting for treasure, like that of Crœsus. Even if they were destitute of all human assistance they would still progress in their work, although of course it must necessarily be slow. Although they have many of Wickliffe's writings, still they desire to have the rest; which, if she will send, they will endeavour to have printed, as they have already those of John Huss.—Jena, 21 May 1561. Signed: Matth. Fl. Illyricus, Johannes Wigandus, Matthæus Judex.
Orig., with three seals. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 3.
May 21.207. The Magdeburg Centuriators to the Archbishop of Canterbury. (fn. 2)
1. Thank him most heartily for presenting the fourth century of their Ecclesiastical History to the Queen, for sending her reply, and for giving so favourable an opinion of their work. His promise in the Queen's name of sending certain books to them, if they would arrange for their transport to and fro, was most acceptable. They accordingly send a letter from Count Mansfeld, in which he engages that any books sent by the Queen, or the Archbishop, shall be safely returned, to whom also the writers will themselves be bound in all their goods. John Frederick of Saxony, in whose university they are professors of theology, will also be able to protect them from any danger. They have sent their servant to take charge of the books, and to convey them into Germany. The hope that they Archbishop will send not only the books about which they wrote last year, but also others, as Hector Boethius, Leland's Catalogue, Ponticus Virunnius, etc., which seem likely to be useful to them. They trust also that the Queen will have collected some ancient records, by the search which they suggested, and further that she will have discovered in the three kingdoms ancient works, especially those of a dogmatic and historical nature, containing controversies and ceremonies of the Church; all of which should be placed in some convenient depository. Hope to be able to send over to him next summer some skilful man. They have written to the Queen about Wickliffe, whose writings and those of Huss, they hope to be able to print in Germany.
2. With respect to their undertaking, they assure him that no German noble or Prince has assisted them, but only a few private persons; they therefore desire that he will not believe those malevolent persons who say that they are making a large profit. They are obliged to support at least ten persons for this work, who make but slow progress. The portion relating to the fifth century is in the press, and is slightly more bulky than the fourth. They intend to carry on their work, even if no one helps them with a farthing. Understand that they have been accused by some of their adversaries of spreading false and erroneous doctrine in the churches of Germany, but no exculpation on their part is necessary. They therefore simply send the heads of the doctrines which they teach. As they have always endeavoured to confute the craft of those who have introduced corruptions into the sincere doctrine of the Gospel, so they are well aware that the aforesaid malevolent persons do all they can to alienate all good men from them, and by that artifice impede the continuation of their history.—Jena, 21 May 1561. Signed: Matthias Fl. Illyricus, Johannes Wigandus, Matthæus Judex.
Orig., with three seals. Add. Endd. partly by Cecil, partly by his secretary. Lat. Pp. 7.
May 21.208. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 12th of May he received her letters of the 7th by Francis Pitcher, together with one to the Queen of Scotland, crediting Somer to demand the confirmation of the late treaty made in Scotland. Received also the Council's answer to the Bishop of Aquila's request for the admission of the Pope's Nuncio into England, with the reasons that moved them to the same. According to the Queen's instructions and the Queen of Scotland's answer from Nancy, that she would give resolution of the Queen of England's demand, which the Cardinal of Lorraine also averred by letter, he sent M. Somer to Rheims, the place appointed, to speak with the said Queen. At his arrival he understood that the Queen had fallen sick at Joinville, which staid her coming to Rheims; he therefore delivered a letter to the Cardinal of Lorraine, which Throckmorton wrote; a copy whereof he forwards. Somer told him that he was authorized to come for the Queen's answer. Thereto the Cardinal replied that the Queen was sick at Joinville, and that as for himself he meddled no more in her matters, and would be no more sought upon for them, but that the Queen would be shortly at Villers-Cotterets, where Throckmorton might speak with her. The Duke of Guise, being then with the Cardinal, affirmed the same. The Cardinal would enter into no further talk, but said that he would write to Throckmorton. Understanding truly that the Queen will be shortly at VillersCotterets he has thought it meeter to stay the following of this matter, than to send so far to her.
2. Forasmuch as he perceives that some, of whom many hope for great things, go very coldly to work in advancing God's cause, and the other party is very diligent to impeach those proceedings, and not forgetting the Pope's and King of Spain's threatenings and devices to fear such as are not well assured, as some of the greatest here are, and also to give her friends to understand her constancy to advance the thing begun without varying in any jot,—the writer sent to the King of Navarre a copy of the Council's answer to the Bishop of Aquila, with message that the Queen wished him not to be abused with uncertain bruits of her refusal to admit the Pope's Nuncio, or to send to a General Council. Has sent the like to the Constable, the Cardinal of Châtillon and the Prince of Condé, and will impart it to the Admiral. The King of Navarre answered Mr. Somer that he took it in good part and would show the reciproque. Thereunto it was said that Throckmorton would be glad if his friendship were confirmed by a concurrence between the Queen and him, especially in matters of religion; and desired to know whether the King would send his clergy to the Council. He answered that he thought there should be no General Council at all; but charged Somer that it should not be known to come from him. Somer said that seeing the General Council was like to take none effect, he could well consider how necessary it was to have a National Council in the realm. The King said they would do therein as they saw cause, and that it was very like to be so.
3. The said answer was also delivered to the Constable, who said that the Queen might assure herself of him, and that he took it very kindly that it was sent. The Cardinal of Châtillon was also very glad to get the true answer, and said that there were many enemies of the true religion who daily practised how to overthrow it, but he was persuaded of her constancy. He also strongly urged the Queen to further the religion, and seeing she had so many adversaries, to make a good party, and have good intelligence in Almaine with the Princes Protestant. For one friend that she has there she ought to have thirty. Somer answered that she would take in good part this his frank dealing; and that as for religion, whatsoever the adversaries may have bruited the event shall declare her constancy. The Duchess of Lorraine passing that way, the communication was broken off. This is the effect of Mr. Somer's doings, so that Throckmorton cannot proceed with the Queen of Scots till her coming to the Court; in the meantime he has not thought meet to keep Francis here.
4. Her friend was not at Court this sacre, but means to be there about the end of the month, when Throckmorton will not fail to accomplish her instructions, and assures her that he will take it right well from her. The King was sacred at Rheims on the 15th; the Earl of Hertford was there unknown. The Prince of Condé, the Admiral, the Duke of Longueville, the Mareschal Montmorency and his brother Danville, were not at the sacre, because they would not assist at the Mass. The said Duke is clean fallen from the other side and from his marriage that was in hand with the Duke of Guise's daughter; he is now altogether on this side, which has greatly increased the Protestants, he being one of the greatest of this realm. For the temporal peers there assisted at the coronation, the King of Navarre, the Constable, the Dukes of Guise, Nevers, Montpensier, and D'Aumale; for the spiritual, the Archbishop of Rheims (the Cardinal of Lorraine), and the Bishops of Laon, Langres, Beauvais (the Cardinal of Châtillon), Chalons, and Noyon. The Constable has fallen into a gout in his left foot. At the sacre were the Dowager and the Duke and Duchess of Lorraine, and M. De Vaudemont, the Duke's uncle; all come out of Lorraine. The King departed from Rheims on the 17th, and minds to pass these holidays at Soissons, and immediately afterwards to come to VillersCotterets, there to continue most part of his time till his entry into Paris on the 25th July.
5. The Duke of Savoy means somewhat towards Geneva and other places, which the Bernites mistrusting begin to muster in arms. The matter of the valley of Angrogna is appeased. The Duke of Nemours is gone in post to the Duke of Savoy, through an unkindness conceived here against the King of Navarre and others. There is matter of breach likely to break out shortly between the Princes Protestant of Almaine and the Bishops, who, by secret practice of the King of Spain and others of his religion, are allied against the said Princes, which they mind not to leave so. There is some bruit that there are truces taken between the King of Spain and the Turk by sea and land. Yet the Ambassador of Venice (who visited him yesterday), knew nothing hereof. The young Duchess of Ferrara is dead. Emanuel Tremellius follows the Court still for answer of his letters that he brought from the Princes Protestant of Almain. He has written a letter of such intelligence as he has learnt following the Court, which Throckmorton sends. The Queen of Scotland has given order that in case the French be shifted from Dunbar, the Earl of Bothwell shall forthwith enter and keep it to her use; whereof Elizabeth's friends in Scotland may have knowledge.
6. Sues for pardon for Christopher Ashton, who came into France in Queen Mary's time, and who would fain return into England. Begs her to show favour to Edward Horsey, who is about to repair into England. On the 15th there arrived an Ambassador from the King of Sweden, named De Mornay; he is appointed to have audience the 28th. She may be informed of his errand by the Chancellor of Sweden, who is now with her. Understands that the Queen Mother labours all she can that those deputed from the provinces to the Estates may be changed, because in the last assembly they devised things in her prejudice. There will be somewhat ado at the next assembly in August about the same.— Paris. 21 May 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 9.
May 21.209. Orig. draft of the above.
Injured in the outer margin by mice. Endd.: Of Cardinal Châtillon. By Francisco. Pp. 13.
May 21.210. Throckmorton to the Privy Council.
Acknowledges the receipt of their letter of May 7th by Francisco the courier. Gives the same information as that contained in his letter of the same date to the Queen, about Mr. Somers' interviews with the Cardinal of Lorraine, etc., the sacre, and the movements of different great personages. Sends an edict published at the Court in April last, forbidding all men to enter into dispute or reproach. It was also published in divers other places, but the Parliament of Paris would not accept it.—Paris, 21 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 6.
May 21.211. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Sends his letter of the 16th of May with this. As things frame it is needful that the Queen should set a good countenance to fortify her religion and the favourers thereof, not only at home but abroad, and not to let the mutual intelligence with her friends in Almain and Scotland be spared. The time now bids to make good countenance to the Chancellor of Sweden, and to remember the Cardinal of Châtillon's advice. Perceives that the Queen of Scotland will not come home as long as the Queen of England has so many at her devotion and religion in Scotland, and recommends him to hold there, in order that she may be kept here. As long as perils come not to proof, they are not dangerous. Those things are called "building castles in Spain," which he fears not. Bids him take the opportunity offered of winning his friends and keeping them, and in nowise delay gratifying his friends in Scotland, "where it is necessary you animate them to take good courage unto them, and in nowise to give place to their adversaries." It stands the Queen upon to impeach by all means possible that the Papists in Scotland do not make leagues and confederations, as they have done in other countries, and which the Queen of Scotland practises presently, and has therefore caused her ministers to work love days betwixt the Papists that have heretofore disagreed, trusting to bring them to league making, offensive and defensive. She reposes great trust in the Earl of Athol, and desires to make Huntly and him great. Cecil is well informed that Lord Hume depends wholly on the Earl of Huntly, and so he must make account of him, unless the gold or silver hook will otherwise charm him. The honesty of one to whom he is indebted for his fidelity and pains employed in his private causes, moves him to desire Cecil to give to John Cotton, student in the Temple, the office of one of his feodaries.—Paris, 21 May 1561. Signed.
2. P.S.—Has written to the Queen of Christopher Ashton for her grace; he is of a good nature, and a proper serving man. (fn. 3)
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. In dorso: Sends herewith a letter for the Ambassador of Sweden from the new come Ambassador to this Court. Pp. 4.
May 23.212. Lord Grey to Cecil.
Thanks him for his letters of 17th May and the hope of his repair to Court. His livelihood is endangered by his absence. Considering the bare misery into which this garrison was fallen for want of money, it is almost a marvel to see how quiet the captains have both framed themselves to employ this mass, and persuaded the soldiers to accept it, being distributed amongst them for a quarter's pay. Trusts that the Queen will have a liking of them, for he never served amongst more honest or quieter men. At the Treasurer's arrival here with so little money, some rumours inconvenient were swarming in the soldiers' heads, which brake forth in bills written and scattered in the streets, the master deviser and writer whereof is apprehended, and the rest silenced. For his punishment, they will devise so as all rumours may be appeased in that behalf. As for the Councillors, he trusts it will appear that they have set aside all melancholic humours and self-wills. Longs to see Lord James, for joy of his prosperous return.—Berwick, 23 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. On the back: At Berwick, 23 May, at 7 at night. Pp. 3.
May 24.213. Chamberlain to the Queen.
1. Has lately had occasion to seek access unto the King upon advice received from certain English merchants arrived with their ships and merchandises at Bilboa, who state that they are forbidden to lade with the commodities of the country back again. Finds that in divers Parliaments held by the Emperor petition was made for the increase of the navy, that it should not be lawful for any man to lade hence in any other than bottoms belonging to the country, whereunto the Emperor assented, with special exception to the English and the Flemings. Also finds that petition was made to the Emperor that the traffic between England and these countries should be free, which was also granted. The Act made in the last Parliament forbids, without any exception, all men from lading from hence in any other bottoms than those of the naturals of these realms. Declared all this at good length to the King, and reminded him that if the same should be offered on the Queen's part to his subjects, it could not but bring misliking in the end. He furthermore showed the King the great benefits which redound to both subjects, telling him that whereas fifteen or sixteen English ships haunted Flanders twice a year, yet scarce one day in the year was to be found when thirty or forty sail of Flemish hoys were not to be seen in St. Katherine's pool, as he might have seen at his being in England. He also alleged that this statute could not in reason extend against the English ships at Bilboa, which were on their voyage when the Act was published in Biscay. He begged him, therefore, to dispense at least with these ten or twelve.
2. The King willed him to give him remembrances, and he would communicate it to his Council Royal, to whom he also desired Chamberlain to declare what he had said. This he did, and after a good many days was answered that the King could not break his laws made by Parliament, or dispense with them, without the general consent of the States. Finding this answer strange, the writer sought again to have access to the King, who sent word that he should declare his mind to the Regent Figueroa, one of his Council, who after five or six days gave answer in writing that, notwithstanding the King's good will, he could not break or dispense with the law. Has done what he could in this matter, but she may by her letters obtain more.
3. The occurrences are not great. The King, advertised of the Turk's preparations towards the Mediterranean and the Moors' attempts against his forts in Africa, prepares for their defence. He will be able to put to sea seventy galleys and certain ships. The Turk has 120 galleys, besides other great vessels, in readiness, and some say that they are already abroad. It is said that Oran is already besieged by the Moors.
4. The common talk also of the Court is about herself; whereupon they say the being or not being of England as a realm of itself for the time to come only depends, all men inquiring what her determination may be to make of herself. A while since they had believed that she had bestowed herself, which opinion, however, they now begin to lose. They say that the remembrance of God's proceedings in cutting away that question of title which her ancient enemy pretended to her realm should make her lose no longer time. Prays that whatsoever she does may be for her welfare, and that of her realm and subjects, (whereby the common estimation of England in the world abroad in his time is greatly decayed,) may be recovered. Reminds her that he is in the physician's hands, and that his ability fails him to sustain this charge any longer, being obliged to borrow for his sustentation faster than his wife can receive of his allowance. —Toledo, 24 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 5.
May 25.214. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Has received Cecil's letter of the 10th on the 23rd by Lady Throckmorton. As Cecil thinks that he may apply for his return after the Queen of Scotland has made answer to the ratification of the treaty, he answers that the answer is not like to be made shortly, nor to satisfy the Queen's expectations. She is yet at Joinville. He wrote in his last that she was somewhat amended, and minded to come to the Court, but even at the writing hereof he understands that she is down again, and keeps her bed for the most part. She admits no man (especially of her own nation) to her speech, saving physicians. Suspects the less danger of her sickness, because it is a tertian.
2. Is glad to understand that the Consuls of Hamburg have promised to restore the Queen's armour and provisions. Will travail to send a goldsmith with furniture of such things as Cecil writes. He must give order for his good usage, and that such custom as may be demanded of him may be remitted. Cecil may perceive by his letter of the 16th that he accords with his opinion for not placing his son with the Admiral. If his writing were not stayed as Demosthenes' speech was, he by angina, and Throckmorton as it were by commandment "not to touch things spoken here to be done there," he would at this time write unplausibly, and yet he is perplexed with his own silence.—Paris, 25 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 25.215. Florence Diaceto to Cecil.
Is sorry that he is unable to put in execution the purpose that they formed when they were last together, on account of the death of the late King; but is ready to serve the Queen for the future. Sends Cecil a small clock which goes well, and which he has had engraved and enamelled by one of the best workmen in Europe. Having heard that he is building both in London and in the country, informs him that a quarry of marble equal to that of Rome has been discovered in the Pyrenees, of which the King and Queen and nobility have purchased upwards of 20,000 crowns worth. As the owner is a particular friend of his, if Cecil should desire any of it for chimney pieces, doors, or windows, on looking at the sketches which he has sent to Mr. Killegrew, the writer will obtain it for him very cheaply. He has also asked Mr. Killigrew to show the drawings of the said marbles to the Queen; if she desires to have any, he will procure them for her.—Paris, 25 May 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Fr. Pp. 3.
May 29.216. French Hostage.
Oath of François D'Avaugour, Comte de Chateau-Vilain, one of the hostages sent into England by Charles King of France, to the effect that he will observe the articles of the treaty of 2 April 1559.—Greenwich, 29 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Endd. by Cecil. Vellum. Lat.
May 31.217. The Emperor to the Queen.
1. Has frequently informed her and the other Princes, whose subjects navigate the northern seas, that the Czar of Muscovy was waging war against the Teutonic Order in Livonia, and of the peril likely to ensue therefrom. For the last five years that province has endured great calamities, which daily increase; for the enemy at the commencement of the war having captured Narva, thereby obtained command of the river, whereby were removed all obstacles to the safe ingress and egress of their army into Livonia. Afterwards they took Derpt and Marienburg, and several other fortified towns, which they garrisoned, and from thence waged incessant war against the Order and the state of Livonia, overrunning the whole province and slaughtering an infinite number of both sexes, and seizing all the cattle and goods, and destroying what they could not take away.
2. Last summer, with an army of more than 130,000 men, they ravaged and plundered the province, burning the standing crops, and killing and capturing an immense number of men, woman, and children. In the autumn they took the Grand Master of the Order in a fortified town named Wellin, through the treachery of the garrison, and sent him into Muscovy, and they have captured other castles in Esthonia, Harria, and Wirland. It is not to be thought that the enemy will be content with these acquisitions.
3. The writer, desirous to help the Livonians and restrain the insolence of the enemy, finds that the Muscovites are greatly encouraged by obtaining from abroad such warlike stores as they lack, viz., guns, shot, powder, nitre, sulphur, lead, iron, and the like, provisions, especially salt and herrings, various goods, as silks and cloth; they have also obtained artizans and men skilled in warlike matters. He has therefore given strict orders that no one shall be allowed to transport arms or victuals into Muscovy, and begs her to see that none of her subjects go into Muscovy, and most especially that none transport stores to that country. If she will do this, she will not only gratify him but also the whole of the Teutonic Order and have them for her friends.—Vienna, 31 May 1561. Signed: Ferdinandus,—M. Singkhmoser,—Von Seld.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Lat. Pp. 6.
May 31.218. Throckmorton to Cecil.
Cecil will surely give order to be advertised of the meaning of the levy of two regiments of Almaines by the King of Spain; the bruit is that they are prepared against the Turk and should be embarked at Genoa or Nice. Has written to the Queen to know how he shall deal with the Queen of Scots, if she desires to pass through England home; whereof he desires to be advertised by the next. Prays him to send the book of service in Latin used in the Church of England containing the rites and ceremonies; and in French also, if it be translated. If it be not already turned into Latin and French he should set some one in hand to do it well and speedily, it will be also well that something be set forth concerning the doctrine. The French are desirous to see both, that they may make a formulary for the Church here, and also to have the books of all the reformed churches, that they may choose what shall be best for them. It will be well for Cecil to warn his aptest learned men to arm themselves to defend modestly and learnedly their doctrine, if he sends them hither, and to exercise their Latin, because they cannot speak this tongue. Thinks that Thomas Smith and Doctor Weston of the Chancery should be employed in this negociation. Sends a catechism lately made by the Cardinal of Lorraine under another title. Amongst other things, he has maimed, transposed, and multiplied the commandments.—Paris, 31 May 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
May 31.219. —to Shers.
1. "Our Agatho" has informed him of the departure of Shers. The Pope has been suffering from gout, which has prevented him from doing more than holding a Consistory for the purpose of giving their hats to the Cardinals of Aragon, Cornea, and Naples. He has determined to send the Cardinal of Ferrara again as Legate into France, in the hope that he will effect some good results in the affairs of religion. On Monday next this will be published in the Consistory.
2. The Portuguese Bishops are arriving in Italy on their way to Trent; those of Spain have not set out, and probably never will.—Rome, last of May 1561. Signed. (fn. 4)
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Ital. Pp. 3.

Footnotes

1 The following is the title of the book here referred to by the writer: "Quarta Centuria Ecclesiasticæ Historiæ . . . . . . per aliquot studiosos et pios viros in urbe Magdeburgica. fol. Basiliæ, per Joannem Oporinum, 1562." The Preface, dedicated to the Queen, is signed by Mathias Flacius Illyricus, Johannes Vuigandus, Matthæus Judex, et Basilius Faber.
2 On the same date Flacius Illyricus addressed a separate letter to the Archbishop, nearly to the same effect, which may be seen in Parker's Correspondence, p. 139.
3 This P.S. is in the hand of Throckmorton's scribe.
4 The signature is defaced so as to be illegible.