Elizabeth
June 1561, 21-30

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1866

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149-164

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'Elizabeth: June 1561, 21-30', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 4: 1561-1562 (1866), pp. 149-164. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=72994 Date accessed: 03 September 2014.


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June 1561, 21-30

June 21. 263. Depositions respecting English Pirates. (fn. 1)
Inquisition at Dunkirk concerning a robbery upon the fishermen of the widow of Rowland Drivere, 21 June 1561.
1. Antony Colyn, master mariner, states, that on Friday, 14 June, being by a place named the Reef, three ships stopped him, two being rigged for war, and the largest was all red, of about forty tons, the other being black, of about twenty-eight or thirty tons. The pirates commanded them to go below, whereupon the other fired a piece of ordnance and two arrows at them. They took from them four cords to fish, the boatmen's apparel, a barrel of flesh, and divers other things. One said, "Shall we take all from one man? we shall meet with enough to-day or to-morrow," whereupon they departed and sailed towards the north-west.
2. Anthony Leux, mariner and partner, deposed as above, adding that the pirates left in their ship 500 fish, and at their departure cut in pieces cords of their ship, so that she should not stay there any longer.
3. John Schoonoghe, servant in the said ship, agrees with the others in his depositions.
Pp. 2.
June 23. 264. Lazarus Fuente to Henry Tipton.
Details the proceedings of the Court of Grenada in the matter of the suit of Edward Quinzmyll [Kingsmill], which had been referred to them by appeal from the Canaries, against the proceedings of Moreto. The writer, Kingsmill's procurador, finds himself without sufficient power, and asks for increased authority and additional instructions.—Grenada, 23 June 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add.: A mi señor hentipton at Seville. Endd. Span. Pp. 2.
June 23. 265. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On the 10th the Queen of Scotland arrived in this town where the King and Court had been eight or ten days before. At her coming she was met a league without the town by the Duke of Orleans, the King of Navarre, the Prince of Condé, and all the Princes of the blood who are here, and most part of the nobility of the Court, and before she came to her lodgings within the Court; the French King and Queen Mother met her, the whole accompanying her honourably to her lodgings. And although the French King minds not to remove this good while from hence, whereby the Queen of Scotland will be long hereabouts, yet for that the voice is that she minds to go shortly into Scotland, he thought good not to defer any longer the demand for the ratification of the late accord at Edinburgh. So on the 18th he sent Mr. Somer to her for audience, who appointed him to come the same day after dinner, which he did.
2. After declaring to her his mistress's gladsomeness at her return to health, he reminded her of what had passed since the beginning in the matter of this ratification, adding thereto the Queen's command for him to renew the same demand.
3. Queen Mary replied that she was not yet in perfect health; that she remembered all the things that he had recited; and that she respited the resolute answer in this matter until she had the advice of the Estates and nobles of her own realm, whither she intended to make her voyage very shortly. Though the matter touched her principally, it also touched them, and they would be most offended if she proceeded without their advice. She also intended to send M. D'Oysel to Queen Elizabeth to declare what she trusted would satisfy her, by whom she would give her to understand of her journey. She meant to embark at Calais, the King having lent her certain galleys and ships; and she also intended to require of her good sister those favours that Princes use to do in such cases. She also meant to retire all the French out of Scotland, so that she would leave nothing undone to satisfy all parties; trusting that the Queen would do the like, and that from henceforth none of her disobedient subjects should find favour and aid at her hands.
4. Throckmorton answered that he was not desirous to fall into the discourse as to how those terms first began, because he must charge some party with injury and peril offered to his mistress, but that there could be no better occasion offered to put away the former unkindness than by ratifying the treaty. Whereas she suspends the ratification of the treaty until she has the advice of the Estates of her realm, he told her that it was made by their consent. The Queen answered, not by the consent of all; and that it would appear when she came amongst them whether they would be of the same mind; and she assured him of her desire for amity. He answered that the Queen would use similar means to her to induce her to be of the same mind. She said that then she trusted that the Queen would not encourage any of her subjects to continue in their disobedience, nor to take upon them things not appertaining to subjects. She said that there was much ado in her realm about matters of religion, and though there was a greater number of a contrary religion to her than she could desire, yet there was no reason why subjects should give a law to their Sovereign, especially in matters of religion, which she feared they would take in hand. He answered that her realm was in no other case than the other realms of Christendom were; that religion was of the greatest force that may be; that she had been long out of her realm, so that the contrary religion to hers had now the greatest part of it; and that her mother, a woman of great experience, had kept her realm in quietness until she began to constrain men's consciences. As she thought it unmeet to be constrained by her subjects, so it was as intolerable for them to be constrained by her in matters of conscience, for the duty due to God could not be given to another. She said that God commanded subjects to be obedient to their Princes. He answered, in those things that were not against His commandments. "Well," said she, "I will be plain with you, and tell you what I would all the world should think of me. The religion that I profess I take to be most acceptable to God, and indeed neither do I know, nor desire to know, any other. Constancy doth become all folks well, but none better than Princes and such as have rule over realms, and especially in the matter of religion. I have been brought up in this religion, and who might credit me in anything if I should show myself light in this case? And though I am young and not greatly learned, yet I have heard this matter disputed of by my uncle, my Lord Cardinal, with some that thought they could say somewhat in the matter, and I found therein no great reason to change mine opinion."
4. Throckmorton said that for her to judge well she must be conversant with the Scriptures, and that peradventure she was so partially affected to her uncle's arguments, that she could not indifferently consider the other party. He assured her that the Cardinal had confessed to him that there were great errors and abuses come into the Church, and great disorders in the ministers and clergy, insomuch as he desired that there might be a reformation of both. She said that she had oftentimes heard him say the like. Throckmorton hoped that there would be a unity of religion throughout Christendom. She hoped that it would be so, but said that she was none of those who would change their religion every year; she did not mean to constrain any of her subjects, but trusted that they would have no support at the Queen's hands to constrain her. She would send M. D'Oysel to him to know whether he would [send] anything into England; and prayed him to order himself in this matter, so that there should be good and perfect amity between the Queen and her. Throckmorton promised to do so, and trusted that she would satisfy the Queen by M. D'Oysel. He then delivered the letter which the Queen had sent for Somers' credit in this case. He then presented to her the Earl of Hertford and his brother Carew, whom she courteously embraced, and said that she was glad to see them, offering them all kindness, and praying them to come as boldly into her chamber and use her in all things as they would the Queen of England at her Court.
5. Four or five days before he was at the Court, and presented to the French King and the others the Earl of Hertford, who, passing through the realm towards Italy, would not fail to do his reverence to the King, his brother, and the rest of the Princes of his Court. The King received him very gently, and said that as long as he would tarry in his realm he might be bold of him in all things, and that he would take and repute him as one of his. The like favour and offers he received of the Queen Mother, the King of Navarre, and the nobility. Amongst other things, the Duke of Guise (being great master) made him sit one day at the King's board, when there was a solemn feast by means of the marriage of M. De Carnevalet, Governor to M. D'Orleans, with a gentlewoman of the Court. Upon Corpus Christi Day the people (being in an uproar in the street near to the Earl's lodgings, by occasion of a little disorder committed by one,) came with a great fury to his said lodgings, imagining the cause to have come from thence, his religion being in hatred to divers of that quarter. But the watch being at hand in arms and on horseback, very strong to suppress such disorders, led by M. De Montmorency, Governor of the town, sent away the people and committed some to ward, assuring the Earl of all the assistance they could show. The same day M. De Montmorency's provost dined with him, to confirm the assurance, and the next day the Queen sent the Lieutenant Criminal to do justice upon those whom he should think had been the occasion of the disquiet. There is great likelihood of the said Earl's proving a right worthy personage. He has won much reputation of all sorts in this Court.
6. The Queen having required him by her letters to hearken as much as he could to the Queen of Scotland's marriage, he has done so. The King of Spain does not greatly press it, nor altogether reject it for his son. Perceives that she uses the directions of the Spanish Ambassador for her doings. Has heard from a great personage at this Court that the King of Spain has said that he would be loath to marry his son to a process, but that, if her matters were clear, he knew no party that he would more gladly match his son with. Hears that she is advised by him at her first coming into Scotland to temporize her proceedings in matters of religion, and should he end his matters with the Turk well and the siege of Oran be well ended, then she may proceed with rigour against those who will persevere in their religion repugnant to hers.
7. Understands that the Count Egmont has levied 10,000 men in the Low Countries, dispersed in divers places; and that one of the Dukes of Brunswick levies men. Has written to Gresham's factor in Antwerp to inquire thereof, and to let her know with speed. It was bruited that the Queen of Scotland should be conducted home by her uncles, the Duke of Aumale and the Grand Prior, and four other Knights of the Order, with six ships and two galleys, and 1,500 men; but now he hears that the number is diminished. In secret conference with the Spanish Ambassador, he understands that she told him that she minded to go home before the end of August, or not this year; and that she would let him know her certain resolution hereon hereafter. The Ambassador of Sweden departed hence homeward on the 16th instant; he presented sundry of this Court with very fair horses. M. D'Oysel was not the worst sped, which argues some further matter towards the Queen of Scotland.
8. On the 13th the definite sentence of the Prince of Condé's process was pronounced by the Parliament of this town in solemn Court, present and assistant the King of Navarre and most of the Princes of the blood, Cardinals nobles, and others, amongst whom were the Duke of Guise and the Cardinal of Lorraine. He was declared innocent, all the informations brought against him pronounced false, and the letters and signatures whereon matters were grounded counterfeit. At that session were established the Vidame of Chatres, Mme. De Roye, sister to the Admiral and mother to the Prince of Condé's wife, De Cancy of Picardy, and De la Haye. This arrest shall be pronounced in all the Courts of Parliament of the realm. The Prince will stir in the matter against the occasioners of his trouble.
9. On the 9th inst. the Protestant congregations of the realm presented a request to the Queen Mother, addressed to the King, for their liberty in their religion, a copy whereof he encloses. There is appointed to be an assembly in this town of learned men of the realm on the 20th July next; and for that purpose all the Bishops are sent for to be at it, which shall be as it were a Council National, though not termed so. Understands that the Princes Protestant of Almain have offered the French King to levy for him 10,000 men or more, if he needs, in the cause of religion, at the French charges; and have also offered to close the passage of the Rhine if the adversaries of religion stir, or mind to levy men in Almain. They also mind to send a solemn ambassade to acknowledge all Princes and gentlemen of this realm as their brethren who profess that religion.
10. One of the Dukes of Brunswick has come lately out of Spain with large sums of money to levy men in Almain. The Turk's galleys, esteemed in number but forty-five, are discovered from Sicily, as the news is from Rome. It is also said that Oran is rescued, and that the Moors are retired thence, and that a Spanish ship going thither is taken by the Turk's galleys. The French have set forth three galleys to take certain English pirates. The French King's entry into this town, published to be in July next, is deferred till January. Though the Queen of Scotland told him that she was minded to embark at Calais, yet he has been advertised that she minds to take shipping at Nantes, and, passing by the west seas, to land at Dumbarton as it were by stealth, for that it is put into her head not to trust herself too much on the coast of England. (fn. 2)
11. The French, mistrusting this levying of men in the Low Countries, have sent reinforcements for the better security of Calais. Advertised her about twelve months ago of a practice the French meant for the Camber of Rye, and, though some were imprisoned for the same, yet the matter is not yet seen to the bottom; for, besides those that are in durance, there are others, both English and French, who are not yet discovered. If she would cause those who are forthcoming to be straitly handled, the rest would be got from them.
12. There has been with him one Guillaume, now called M. De Vermigny, whom the late and present Kings entertained as the singularest player on the lute in the whole realm, who is not unknown to the Marquis or the Lord Chamberlain; he has contracted himself to a gentlewoman of this town of good house, contrary to her parent's consent, who not only bring him within the ordinance, which forbids such clandestine contracts, but also put him in danger of his life, so that he has none other means to avoid the danger but to get him out of the realm. He desires to come to England and to serve the Queen if she will entertain him; he is a very honest young man, not much above 20, and plays very well; Throckmorton has not heard a sweeter or delicater hand upon the lute than his, whereunto he sings very well; his entertainment is 400 crowns by year. He minds to come whether he be entertained or not.
13. Sir Thomas Chamberlain writes, that the King of Spain uses great execution for matters of religion, and that he was preparing against the Turks, and despatching captains to his galleys and soldiers for his forts in Africa. The bruit was that the Moors had already besieged Oran. He said also, that all the Bishops of Spain were called to appoint such as should go to the General Council. He also writes, that Mr. Harvy is coming home by way of Flanders. The other day the King of Navarre had public preaching in his house by a Protestant preacher, and has daily service in his lodgings in the vulgar tongue, which manner he never used publicly till very lately.
14. Being ready to send away this despatch, M. D'Oysel came to him from the Queen of Scotland, to signify that she minded to send him into England; he thought that he should not go for ten days, and that his commission would be to use all good offices to the Queen of England. Touching on the injuries done to her in the late King's time by her arms and title giving, he charged the Cardinal of Lorraine with the whole of that matter. He also said, that when the Queen of Scotland had conferred with the nobles and estates of her realm she would satisfy the Queen. Another point of his commission he said was to require a passport, or safe-conduct, for the Queen of Scotland and her train, in case, through tempest or sickness, she should be forced to land in any part of England, to be made as amply and favourably as may be, and as in such case is used to be granted to all Princes who are good friends and allies. The third point he said was to go through into Scotland to send all the French thence, and to give order for the Queen's reception. He said, that the Queen of Scotland was minded to send a gentleman over with him to receive it of the Queen, and desired Throckmorton to write hereof to her, and to require her answer, whereby the Queen's voyage shall be much hastened. He also said that the Queen was minded to embark at Calais, whither her uncles, the Cardinals, and others would conduct her about the end of July or the beginning of August.— Paris, 23 June 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 13.
June 23. 266. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
Repeats the information contained in his letter of the same date to the Queen.—Paris, 23 June 1561.
Signed. Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 11.
June 23. 267. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Refers him for occurrences to his letter to the Queen. Forbears to write to her what great personages of this realm and some other Princes' ministers have earnestly required him to do until he knows Cecil's opinion in the matter. He has been told by the persons afore-named, and by others of reputation for virtue and learning, that "the good opinion conceived of the Queen for her religion, virtue, and wisdom doth much decay, and the great good devotion borne her aforetime marvellously turn." The causes Cecil can guess, for that partly the writer has touched them in his former letters; does not know upon what occasions these things are revived. Desires to know what he shall do herein.
2. The late disaster chanced at Paul's Church (fn. 3) is here maliciously and terribly discoursed of; the best affected interpret it as Jonah preaching to Ninevah; the malicious sort apply it to such signs as chanced to Sodom and Jerusalem. That he may see that other countries have had such prodigious signs as well as England, he sends him herewith a paper containing strange sights in Provence. Understands by a Scotchman that Cecil's son is arrived at this side, but was not come to Rouen. Desires to know the Queen's answer for the pass- ports of the Queen of Scotland and for M. De Vomeny.— Paris, 23 June 1561. Signed.
3. P. S.—Desires that order may be given for the speedy delivery of certain letters directed to the Lord James and others, his friends in Scotland, as the Lord of St. Colme's.
Orig, Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
June 23. 268. Another copy of the above.
Endd. Pp. 2.
June 23. 269. Throckmorton to Robert Jones.
1. Thanks him for his letters of 25 May. Somers' letters must excuse his slackness in writing. After many troubles in sundry parts the Prince assembles his clergy for July 15, to consult. He, as a looker-on, finds more difficulty to accord the persons than the matter in controversy. How does Jones think would the Cardinal of Lorraine approve the Confession of Augsburg? Trow you, we shall not have a new world. Some, with great show of judgment in divining by the stars, and others by theology, say, "Ecce novus orbis, novus propheta." The Queen of Scots embarks shortly at Calais, and passes by sea, which she requires to do with the Queen's favour. M. D'Oysel will be shortly in England for that purpose.
2. There is a bruit that Oran is rescued, and also of the retiring of the Turk's galleys. It is thought an interim will be granted here, promoted by many but hindered by more. The Spanish severity lasts still; they were the last to receive the Pope, and will be the last to leave him. Does he think that when the Queen of Scotland is at home the writer will return? They talk strangely of the prodigious fire; some divine of it as the Romans did of the burning of the Capitol; some speak of Sodom and Jerusalem, but the most and the best affected speak of Nineveh. Sends his commendations to Lord Paget and Sir H. Paget. The King's entry into this town is deferred until January.—Paris, 23 June 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add.: To . . . . Mr. Robert Jones at the Court, one of the Clerks of the Privy Seal. Endd.: Recd. 1 July; answered 4th. (fn. 4) Pp. 2.
June 26. 270. Throckmorton to the Earl of Arran.
1. Asks credit for the bearer. Arran's wise determination to proceed in other matters must needs serve to very great purpose, and the more being done before the Queen's coming home, that she may see that her whisperers are but tale bearers and bruit makers. Wishes that others were of the same assured mind to the continuance of amity between the two countries as the Earl. Some private affection may perhaps move men to affectate strange amities with foreign Princes lying far off; but there is none that can be so good for all as that with England. He must be jealous in the advancement of the common cause of religion, there being yet many hollow hearts among them in Scotland, and more abroad, that wish him no good.
2. They will shortly have M. D'Oysel with them, as this bearer can further inform him. It would serve to very great purpose if it be made appear to him that the coming in of the Earl of Huntly, and such others as lately united with Arran, has also brought in a great party, so that the adversaries of religion are but a handful. He also wishes that he were well and courteously used there, that he may make good report thereof, and of the fruits of their profession to the Queen.— Paris, 26 June 1561.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: Per Al. Clerke, 26 June 1561. Pp. 2.
June 26. 271. Throckmorton to the Lord James.
1. Has received his letters from London of the 20th of May and from Edinburgh of the 3rd of June. Has hitherto stayed writing to him for want of a sure through messenger, but has required Cecil from time to time to signify to him such of his advertisements as were meet. Refers him to the bearer for full information. Perceives that his coming home was in right good season, as he thereby stayed many things that might have been to the unquiet of that country. The adversaries may perceive: Non est consilium adversus Dominum.
2. Repeats the information and advice contained in his letter to the Earl of Arran. Doubtless M. De Noailles, the French Ambassador, has himself laboured and left some instruments behind him to be doing in seeking to dissolve their League. D'Oysel will come shortly. Considering what Lord James has done since his coming home, whereby it appears that the devotion of all men will go according to his affection, the writer is persuaded that their legations in that part will take but cold effect. Advises the good treatment of D'Oysel, and wishes that there might be a love day made between him and the Laird of Grange.—Paris, 26 June 1561.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 26 June 1561, per Al. Clerke. Pp. 3.
June 28. 272. Sir Henry Neville to Throckmorton.
1. Neville's want of a messenger has lost Throckmorton the intelligence of the great breach that then was about the creation, "which could not be obtained by no means. She loved the house too well to lay that offensive name upon them who have been traitors three descents; that was her terms then, now a new key; for now Robin is clapt on the cheeks with—No, no, the bear and the ragged staff is not so soon overthrown,—and now as great as ever; and yet to some, if they talk with her of having of him, she will pup with her mouth, and say that she will not be fellow with the Duchess of Norfolk, that men will come and ask for my Lord's grace; and when it is answered, that she may make him King, she will no way agree unto." Leaves the success of the thing to his judgment.
2. The talk is plain that the King will come. The Earl of Pembroke cannot yet bring his purpose to pass, for the Lady Catherine will not have his son, "and whatsoever is the cause I know not, but the Queen has entered into a great misliking with her." The Ambassador of Sweden says that his master will come this year much wiser than the last, for he will not lose 6,000l. in bribing unto the Secretary, and such like. "You have heard of our conquerors I am sure, but I think you have not heard of their confession, for therein if it had not been friendly handled Arundel and Robert had been as far in as any others."
3. Is going into Wiltshire, and marvels that Throckmorton does not will him to bestow a buck this summer among his friends in London; does he think that the Queen killed all last year?
4. Returns not before the Scottish Queen has set her foot on Scottish ground. Hopes God will prosper His word in France; in England they would fain have a change, which will be mad enough when it comes.—Signed.
Modern transcript, from an original formerly in the Conway Collection. Add. Endd.: 28 June 1561.
June 28. 273. —to [Shers].
Did not write last Saturday, having nothing to say. Yesterday received his letter of 10 June, and is rejoiced to hear of his safe arrival in Augsburg. Yesterday at a Consistory the Cardinal of Ferrara received his legatine cross for his mission into France, to which he proceeds with great pomp, having with him 400 horses. He is to have 1,000 scudi a mouth. The mission, however, is unpopular in France in consequence of his connexion with the house of Guise, which is much disliked there. Last week twenty-eight galleys sailed from Naples. Until the Pope clearly sees the course which France will pursue in regard to the Council, be it General or National, he can make no other resolution than he has done. King Philip stands in the like position. The writer holds to his first plan, and hopes to be with him [Shers] next September or October. In the meantime, will Shers intimate his wishes?—Rome, 28 June 1561. Signed, but signature torn off.
Orig. Endd.: Advertisements. Ital. Pp. 2.
June 28. 274. Thomas Windebank to Cecil.
1. On their arrival at Paris on the 24th, they immediately resorted to Throckmorton, who lodged them that night in a house which he had provided, in very good air. The owner wrote of ten or twelve crowns by the month for the house only, he trusts it shall not pass five or six crowns, which is good cheap. They must buy their own provisions, although Throckmorton would have them resort to him at meat and drink. Although Cecil's pleasure is to avoid putting Throckmorton to charges, yet it were best for Mr. Thomas to resort thither; for being in the company of such as come thither, he will learn to behave himself, not only at table, but also otherwise, according to his estate, although it be a hindrance to the French tongue to be so long in the company of Englishmen. Throckmorton advises them to take the commodity of learning things by often repairing thither with the Earl of Hertford; and when the Court shall be gone, he minds to put them with some advocate, or other gentleman of reputation, who can instruct Mr. Thomas in all things meet to be known of this country.
2. Has told Throckmorton why Cecil did not write to him by Mr. Carew, and moved him for his opinion touching the succeeding of Mr. Carew in his place, who answered that although there was in him some meet parts, yet there lacks in him a second and greater degree than to be a good courtier, that is, skill in negociation of matters, not having been traded nor given thereunto, but chiefly to pleasure; and though he is glad of such honour shown to his brother, yet he thinks him not a meet man that could succeed him.
3. Throckmorton advises the writer to sell their horses, for the hobby being in very evil point, they look not for more than 7l. or 8l., and for the other two 10l. or 12l. The Earl of Hertford will not leave for six weeks, and towards September minds to go towards Italy.—Paris, 28 June 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
June 28. 275. Corrected draft of the above.
Endd.: From myself to my master, July 1561. Pp. 4.
June 29. 276. Throckmorton to the Queen.
M. D'Oysel having announced to the writer on the 28th his despatch towards England, the writer requests his good usage in passing through England towards Scotland, in post with twelve in his company. Has written to her officers in Dover for his good reception.—Paris, 29 June 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
June 29. 277. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
Desires that M. D' Oysel may be well received. Reminds them how much it imports to the maintenance of good amity to have the Queen of Scots in her own country, as she is presently minded to go indeed. Desires that a Scottish gentleman, named Scoggell, may also be well treated. Notwithstanding the Queen's determination to go home, yet she will stay the conclusion until she hears from D'Oysel.—Paris, 29 June 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
June 29.
Tytler, vi. 468.
278. Mary, Queen of Scots, to Lethington.
1. Has received his letter of the 10th. If he employs himself in her service and acts faithfully, as he professed his wish to do, he need not fear caluminators, whom she never receives well. She looks to deeds before putting her faith in everything that is told her. As for the scruple that may arise from his acquaintances in England, he can easily remedy that if he pleases. Forasmuch as he has been the chief instrument and principal negociator in all the intrigues that her nobles have had with England, if he wishes that she should not only forget all past offences, (as she has written to say she would,) but should also trust and employ him, let him cause the hostages who are in England to be removed, and employ himself in undoing that which he has brought about in that country. If he does this, she can then rely on his loyalty. He has the ability of doing even more; and nothing passes amongst the Scottish nobility of which he has not knowledge, and in which his advice is not taken. She will not conceal from him, that if anything goes wrong in that respect after trusting in him, he will be the person whom she will blame the first.
2. Wishes to be a friend and good neighbour to the Queen of England. Is on the point of departing for Scotland, where she hopes to arrive at the time which she has announced to the Prior of St. Andrews. On her arrival she will need ready money for her household and other expenses, which she directs him to obtain from some quarter or other. He is to inform her of all that passes. Learns by his letter that he has published and executed the orders which she has lately sent touching the alienation of Church lands. As she will set out speedily, she will declare her further intentions on her arrival. Wishes to know how all matters have passed, both before and after the commencement of the troubles.—Paris, 29 June 1561.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil. Fr. Pp. 2.
June 29. 279. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Cecil's son arrived on the 23rd, and is lodged quietly, not far from the writer, where he means him to continue for a fortnight or three weeks, until he has seen so much of the Court as is meet; and then order shall be taken for his placing for his better learning the French tongue.
2. There has been with the writer a Portuguese named Captain Melchior, aged about 60 years, who has traded much in Barbary, well experimented in navigation, and for that purpose was entertained by the late old King Francis and King Henry of France. Since their death he has been with the King of Navarre, of whom he has 200 crowns yearly; and for that it is not sufficient to find him, his wife, and children, and is not well paid, he is content to leave it to be received elsewhere. He has uttered to Throckmorton in great secret (with conjuration to show the same to none but the Queen and her trusty merchants,) a trade which will be profitable to the English, and which is not traded at this day by any other. He says that he has lived twelve years in the kingdom of Sus, Morocco, and Fez, and knows the secrets of the country, the commodities that may be had there, and what is most esteemed to be sold for great gain. And where men are desirous to seek out the Indies, Guinea, and Bignie, which are long voyages and dangerous for heats (especially to the English, who are not so well acquainted with the matter as the Portuguese,) this voyage is nothing so far nor so dangerous, and may be traded all times of the year, and yet as great commodities may be had thence (pepper excepted) as from the other. The Kings of Spain and Portugal are at continual war with those Princes, and therefore cannot trade thither safely. There are (he says) these commodities in great store: gold, copper of the reddest and best for artillery, sugar, dates, gum arabic for clothiers, amber, wax, skins dressed for wearing, and horses better than in Spain. The things most esteemed there are tin, sword blades, lances of the longest sort, oars for galleys, iron, and carisays blue and watchet; so the voyage is meeter for the English than any other people.
3. He says that the King will have two thirds of the tin as his prize, which is for fifteen ducats the hundred, in consideration of all the imports and customs for the wars; and the other third part to be sold as it may be, which is commonly worth thirty ducats the hundred. Lances and oars are commonly worth two ducats at least apiece, and sword blades are sold at a very great price. He offers the Queen, or any other who will fit forth a ship of 100 tons, or rather under, for a trial of his offer, and to go without bruit the first time, to go in it himself, and show the way and trade thither. He desires to have some men skilled in navigation to make them acquainted with the voyage, to leave the knowledge thereof after his death. He also desires to have some merchant to know how to handle the feat of those merchandises to and fro. And if it shall appear that he deserves to be made of, then he desires to be so rewarded as he shall be thought worthy of, or for want of yearly entertainment to be well rewarded and so discharged. He also desires that this matter may be handled with great secresy; for the King of Portugal, knowing his sufficiency in this trade, and fearing lest he bring some other Prince into it, has sought by divers ways to undo him, for that he will not dwell in Portugal and serve him; and if he know of this matter, it will animate him the more against him. Throckmorton recommends that a trial should be made, as he offers to go himself. He will bring another Portuguese with him, the best pilot in the world. Strangways will be a very meet man to go with him.
4. Melchior requires to be answered in this matter as soon as may be, for the King of Navarre is in hand with him to undertake a voyage. There can nothing be lost of the merchants, for it cannot be that more commodity will arise to them than his entertainment can hinder them; besides he cannot live long, being 60 years old, but yet a lusty man. He has a wife and children, who are at a little house in Navarre that the King has given him. He minds to make the King privy to his going abroad, but not whither he goes; and minds not to remove his household until he finds how his voyage will speed his living in England. The port where he will bring his ship is but 150 leagues beyond the Straits, fourteen leagues up a river, and because of the river the ship must not be above 100 tons. This must be kept secret from the Spaniards and Portuguese. Although a Portuguese, he has been a minister there for the French, and has a safe-conduct to traffic thither. He said that the Prince there very much desired tin to be brought into his country. If Cecil likes this matter, they may prepare the ship, and when it is ready Captain Melchior will come, whereby time will be won and the same prepared more secretly.—Paris, 29 June 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
June 30. 280. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. Recommends the bearer, M. D'Oysel, (fn. 5) to the Queen and Council. Amongst his errands in England and Scotland none are greatly dangerous, saving that he has in charge to labour by all possible means to dissolve the league between the Scots and England, and to tie them to the French. Wishes that he may receive the best usage and plain dealing in England, (and also for his journey into Scotland, where he goes in post with twelve of his company,) that between the contrary or any suspicion, he conceive no doubt to hinder the Queen of Scotland going into Scotland, for upon her answer back much depends. Her going home is the thing that they ought to desire, for then the greatest part of the Queen's care that way is carried.
2. There comes with D'Oysel a Scotch gentleman, named Scoggell, to fetch the safe conduct. He is very evil affected and much given to lying, and therefore the writer wishes that his usage were such, though not for his sake or for any devotion towards his person, as if he would lie at his return he might do so upon some honest ground. Such a dangerous must be made of as men use to offer candles to the devil; he is one of the archers of the guard.—Paris, 30 June 1561. Signed.
Orig. Chiefly in cipher, deciphered. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
June 30. 281. Throckmorton to Maitland.
Received on 21 June Maitland's letters of the 10th by this bearer, to whom he refers for full information. "It is a great pleasure and comfort to me to hear of your wise proceedings with the French Ambassador." Whereas he says with Chaucer,
"With empty hands men should no haukis lure;"
he confesses it so with wild and "ramish" hawks, who will prey upon every carrion without respect, but with hawks of gentle kind and well reclaimed it is otherwise; for they will fast a meal or two rather than do against their kind. Rome was not built all in one day. Quod differter non aufertur. Tout vient à point, qui peult attendre. Refers the rest to the bearer.—Paris, 30 June 1561.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 2.
June 30. 282. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. In his packet sent yesterday by Proctor, a merchant of London, he touched upon the commodities that might arise from the voyage to Barbary; "such traffic may open a moyen to tell you how some may be occupied that way, which be desirous and practise to occupy the Queen with cumber another way. This matter is meeter to be told than written." Desires to be advertised of his [Cecil's] and the Queen's acceptation of this by his next; for the captain and pilot are greatly pressed to be otherwise employed. Is advertised that next summer the French mind to sail that way.
2. M. D'Oysel told him that he was minded to depart on Sunday, June 29. Desires Cecil to give order for his good usage in his passage through. This bearer is desirous to be at home before D'Oysel's arrival in Scotland. Is some way moved to think that the Queen's devotion and inclination to retain and entertain the benevolence of a party in Scotland decays and waxes cold. Fears that the same is less advanced because he is an earnest solicitor to have it take place. Desires Cecil not to let so good an occasion be omitted for his accidental disgrace. By the enclosed copy of a letter lately sent he may perceive that he speaks not without book.— Paris, 30 June 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.

Footnotes

1 Forming part of a document, of which the former portion is dated 16 June. See No. 250.
2 The King of France to his Ambassador in Spain.
June 20.
MS. Paris. Teulet, ii. 4.
. . . . He has only two things to say to you. One is for the passage of his sister-in-law, Queen Mary, concerning which he wrote to him lately by Lhuillier, and he has no doubt that before her departure they shall have the King's orders to his officers in the Low Countries, in conformity with what she has desired, and the King of France has written, as she is about to go to her kingdom, to which her subjects have called her. He is very anxious that her alliance with the King of Spain should aid the preservation of her realm in peace and tranquillity; and for this end, he asks the King to write to the Queen of England to the effect that she will not permit any of her subjects to give the Queen of Scotland any trouble on her return. The Ambassador shall make this request to the King on the part of the French, as a matter in which he is deeply interested.— S. Germain des Prez, 20 June 1561. Signed.
Copy. Fr.
3 On Wednesday 4 June, between 4 and 5 of the clock in the afternoon, the steeple of Paul's in London, being fired by lightning, brast forth (as it seemed to the beholders) two or three yards beneath the foot of the cross, and from thence burnt down the spear to the stonework and bells so terribly, that within the space of four hours the same steeple, with the roofs of the church (so much as was timber or otherwise combustible) were consumed; which was a lamentable sight, and pitiful remembrance to the beholders thereof.—Stow's Chronicle, p. 646.
4 On the back are a few memoranda respecting the offices of the Hanaper, the Petty Bag, and the Rolls.
5 Cecil to Randolph.
June 30.
B. M. Harl. 6990. 6. Wright, i. 61.
Has not much to write in the matters mentioned in the Queen's letter. He may see their opinion is that it will do much hurt in Scotland if the Queen should come thither before things are better established. To stay her is no better way than that she and her friends in France may find lack of conformity there to the end proposed by her, which is to subvert the course of religion and withdraw the good will of hers hitherward. On the news of her coming the writer wished to have had one hour's conference with the Laird of Ledington. Has not yet heard of D'Oysel's coming; the French Ambassador says he is purposed to be here about the 8th July, Noailles is passed hence yesterday, somewhat disgraced; for the Queen would not speak with him, for that he sought not to see her at his passage into Scotland. Desires him to make some answer to this letter. Sends such pamphlets as are here. Seeing the Lords of Scotland are not together, it was well done for two or three of the principal to send copies of the Queen's letter to the rest.—Greenwich, 30 June 1561. Signed.