Elizabeth
July 1561, 11-20

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Institute of Historical Research

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Joseph Stevenson (editor)

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1866

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173-193

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'Elizabeth: July 1561, 11-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 4: 1561-1562 (1866), pp. 173-193. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=72996 Date accessed: 23 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


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July 1561, 11-20

July 11.298. Instructions to D'Oyzel.
The Queen of Scotland, Queen Dowager of France, desires to obtain the following from her good sister the Queen of England, and has charged M. D'Oyzel to the same effect:—
1. A passport for her; with a clause that if she arrives in any port of England, she may tarry there and purchase provisions and necessaries, and if it seems good to her that she may leave her ships, and pass by land to Scotland.
2. Another safe-conduct for her to pass through England to Scotland, with her train and one hundred horses, mules, etc.
3. Another safe-conduct, with commission for the said M. D'Oyzel to go and return through England to Scotland.
Copy, in a French hand, endd. by Cecil. Endd.: 11 July 1561. Fr. Pp. 2.
July 11.299. W. Herlle to Cecil.
1. Arrived at Antwerp last Saturday after a very quick passage, and found much forwardness in that for which he was sent; he therefore intends to depart towards the place appointed. The rumour of the Queen having transported armour into Russia is very "brym" here; and it is told to all the Princes of Germany that the losing of Livonia is through the furniture of ammunition which the English sent to the Russians; it is therefore necessary to send a letter to every estate, disowning the same. He will do his best to diminish the false opinions conceived. The Queen is smally bound to the city of Bremen, and of the other part the Landgrave, the Bishop of Munster, and Hamburg have showed themselves very much her friends. This injury proceeds from the house of Burgundy and the Hanse, who do not cease to practise covertly all the mischief they can, and one of their chiefest instruments is Duke Henrich of Brunswick. With him also is one Lazarus Swendi, who has conferred with him respecting the damage of England, which he will try and discover.
2. There is a little book published here of the great cruelties which the Muscovites use against the prisoners of Livonia, or Lapland, whom they take; the book does not seem to be any private case, but rather to proceed from the chiefest to exasperate men's minds against such as are confederates of a Prince that is a common enemy to the empire. Under the secret pretence of abasing their coin, means are sought to rob the English of all their fine money in England, and that neither the rack nor gibbet can prohibit the same, if any lucre be proposed; such is the state and iniquity of this iron age. One thing here breeds much slander, and that is that daily whole flocks of women come over here, bearing the port and name of gentility, and using the shadow of conscience in religion, but who are stark staring strumpets for the most part. These spread rumours, and men judge and report worse of those that remain.
3. George Cobham has come to this town from Germany, in a miserable state; his apparel consisted of a doublet and hosen. It appears he should have been apprehended for debt, and is still in doubt, for his chamber is guarded night and day with two of the Margrave's officers.
4. A great sum of money is said to be found in Calais. He hears the Prince of Orange prepares to depart from hence towards Leipsic on the 29th instant, with much pomp, taking 800 horse. The expectation of his marriage is so great that Germany seems to attend to nothing else. Some suspicions are spread abroad, which are devices practised by colonels to procure entertainment. At Leipsic the harbingers have appointed out a place for 10,000 horse, with provision according. Here are better tidings come of the King of Portugal's Indies, to the discouragement of the Venetians, who were before in hopes of the ancient trade of spicery again. There are also letters from Constantinople of a late date, received by way of Venice, carrying credit that the Turks have sent sixty galleys and forty great ships to reinforce the cities of Caffa and Theodosia (lying in the Strait of Lacus Meotides) against the attempts of the Crim Tartars, who mean to invade them this year at the Russian's pleasure. The Russian threatens Armenia one way, and the Sophy another way, to assail the Turk. The King of Denmark pretends great malice to the bands of Hamburg, and has stopped many of their ships passing through the Sound; this is not known to many, having occurred but seven days past. The Swedish agent here blazes about of his master's speedy journey into England, now his coronation is ended, who only waits for a prosperous wind, everything being in readiness. This is scarcely credited, in that he has entangled himself with the protection of Livonia, a case of more honour than profit, and much danger; he having at one time to resist the Russians in Livonia, as well as in his own territories, and to defend his dignity against the Poles, who claim a former grant of the same. Amongst other things, the writer has been inquisitive about fine bullion here, the price whereof is 47s. Flemish, the mark, every mark containing eight ounces, but, to be plain, there was none to be got at any price.—Antwerp, 11 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 5.
July 12.300. Intelligences from various Parts.
Rome, 12 July. King Philip has accepted the Bull concerning the intimation of the Council, declaring he will send his clergy to Trent by August. Warning was then given to all Ambassadors at Rome to signify the same to their Princes. The Pope has written the like to the French King, requesting him to abstain from other congregations, and to take order that his clergy may be ready at the time appointed. Puteo and Simonetta were ordered to put themselves in readiness, and Cardinal Varmiensis is written to (being at Vienna) to prepare all things necessary, and join the two above named. Cardinal De Monte is despatched with the payment of 100,000 crowns; the Duke of Florence has become one of his securities for payment thereof. The Prince of Florence prepares to go to Spain in the beginning of September. On Midsummer Day seven of King Philip's galleys being at sea, seeking for three foists of the Moors which were about the isle of Filicudi, fell upon nine vessels of Dragut Rays in such a manner that there was no retiring without danger of great loss. Thinking the best way was to stand to it for their defence, they waited the assailing of Dragut Rays. The fight lasted three hours, with great loss on both sides, and in the end the Turks had the victory, and captured the seven galleys and brought them to Filicudi. In the galleys were the Bishop of Catania, with his servants and provisions for the Council of Trent, and the Regent Semarra, with divers others intending to land at Naples. There were 300,000 crowns in ready money in them, and the silks and merchandise would amount to as much more. They were all conveyed to Tripoli.
Copy of a Letter from the Duke of Matalona to the Viceroy of Naples.
At this date, within two hours of night, the packet enclosed arrived from the Levant, with news that the Turk's army on the "8th July" sailed back again towards Constantinople, whereby it is supposed the Turk is dead, who by the last letters was sick. Others think it is to aid his countries about the Euxine Sea, commonly called "Il Mare Maggiore," which are much troubled by the King of Russia; but it is necessary for them to be on their guard until they know for a greater certainty.—2 July 1561.
Endd.: 12th July. Advertisements. Pp. 4.
July 12.301. Thomas Bannister to Chamberlain.
Understands from his servant, Christopher Vardie, that there was no commission directed unto him from the Queen and Council, and therefore could not do that which it was his good will to do. Understands further, that he has rather received more wrong than before, which was enough, for that they at Valladolid denied his appeal, or at least remitted the matter from whence it came, where he knows that he will have no justice, but manifest wrong, not only for that 300 ducats which were in question, but to forge a greater matter against him without cause. For these and other considerations he, with others, has put up a supplication to the Queen, upon which he understands she has not only directed her letters and commission to him, but also written to King Philip for redress of the same. He therefore begs Chamberlain to stand his good lord in the furtherance of his cause, that he may have his goods back again, and also that the matter in the Groine, which his servant showed him, may be committed to the hearing of indifferent judges. There is one Sentillian, who gave sentence in his favour, and is now at Valladolid, who knows the whole causes; if he might be called Bannister might have justice. As for his 225 dozen felts which are stayed, he fears that by long lying they are sorely hurt. Desires that he may have some allowance for the same.—London, 18 June 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
July 13.302. The Queen of Scotland to the Lord James.
Thomas Cockburn, William Partridge, William Gaston of Walderswick; William Smyth, Robert Grymbel, and Richard Grymbel, merchants of England, Mr. Thomas Gray, master of a ship of one hundred tons, called the James of Walderswick, and George Chaser, master of a ship called the Primrose of Woodbridge, of eighty tons, have complained that in 1558, being at anchor in the haven of Westmoney in Iceland, in the King of Denmark's waters, they were cruelly underset and invaded by Thomas Nicholson of Aberdeen and John Hog of Leith; who reft, spoiled, and took with them the two ships with their lading, boats, and anchors, to the value of 2,800l. sterling. She therefore desires him to call the said persons before him, and if it be found that the complainants have lost to the alleged value, to cause restitution to be made, and justice duly administered.—Paris, 13 July 1561. Signed.
Add. Copy. Endd.: To our cousin, the Prior of St. Andrews. Pp. 2.
July 13.303. The Queen to Throckmorton.
1. Upon M. D'Oysel's arrival and declaration of his message about the Scottish Queen's passport and safe-conduct, she required of him whether he had any answer concerning the ratification of the treaty, whereunto he said that he had nothing to say. This seeming very strange she deferred to give him an answer until this present, and has now informed him that seeing the Queen does not answer her, as honour and friendship require, she will deal plainly with her, (fn. 1) and let her understand that she cannot grant these friendly parts except she shall first accord to do those things that by her promise, under her hand and seal, she is bound to do. She has therefore required him to return, offering further, that if Mary will be content thus to do, the writer will be most glad to see her in England, and to have such acquaintance with her as might make an end of all controversies. This answer D'Oysel seemed quietly to receive, and to conform himself to return.
2. Has written to the French King, the Queen Mother, and the Scottish Queen, as by the copies he will see, and directs him to repair to them, and to declare that her manner of dealing is plain and friendly with her friends, and with others as they use her. She means so to the Scottish Queen as the world shall perceive that in kindness, honour, and friendship, she shall not overcome her, and on the other part, she means not to yield. In anywise he is so to order this matter that the French, especially the Constable and the King of Navarre, may allow it. Of the reasons that moved her hereto he shall more largely understand by her Council's letters.
Endd. Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd.: 13 July 1561. Pp. 4.
July 13.304. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Of late the Bishop of Viterbo, the Pope's Ambassador in France, came very suddenly to Throckmorton's lodging, and said to him that his master had given him in charge to declare to him the cause why the Abbot of Martinego was lately sent; because, he not being admitted, she might perchance be ignorant or misinformed thereof. His legation was only to intimate to her the publication of the Council at Trent, like as he had given notice to all Christian Princes; all of whom had accepted the said Council, and were pleased to send their clergy thither in September next. He said that the Emperor had desired to have the continuation of the former Council removed; the King of Spain could not be persuaded to condescend to that point, but now of late had agreed to accept it. The Bishop said that he would ask the writer, by way of communication, and not by way of his instructions, what prejudice could grow more to the Queen than to the Princes of Almain, by admitting the Nuncio to an audience as they did?
2. Throckmorton answered, that however the Bishop's instructions bound him to tell him of this matter, his own were to have nothing to do with him, or with anything that came from his master; and that no doubt he had heard how the Queen's Council, after grave deliberation, had answered this matter already to the King of Spain's Amabssador, so that there needed no more be said in it. Hereupon the Bishop took his leave, and the writer took occasion to ask the King of Navarre whether the French King and his Council had resolved to send their clergy to the Council, as the Nuncio had told him. He answered that they had not yet resolved on this point, but that after a conclusion was established he would advertise him thereof, to signify the same to the Queen. In the meantime he desired the writer to advertise her that she might make assured account of him to be wholly hers, and as ready to do her service as any friend or servant she had living.
3. The King of Navarre and the rest of the Privy Council have been every day for these ten or twelve days at the Palace in the Court of Parliament to hear the opinions of all the counsellors of the said Court, being in number 120, upon the matter of religion, whereof the most part have already said their minds; and the rest having so done, and after them the Privy Council, the clergy shall be heard, which will be about the end of the month. And upon their conclusions as to what is meetest to be done for the quiet of the realm, the matter shall be rested and enacted to be observed.
4. The Duke of Montpensier, going of late to his house in Touraine for the burial of his mother, and finding great numbers in divers towns who made open profession of the Gospel, by virtue of his governorship of that country, and being assisted by divers gentlemen of his religion, proceeded very rigorously upon them by imprisoning about 140 in a town called Chinon. Herewith the people being moved, (and not forgeting his late usage towards them in the last year in King Francis' days, by razing and defacing divers places of such as he noted to be Protestants, and apprehending their bodies, and now fearing the like,) assembled in great numbers, about 12,000 or 15,000, and marched so fast towards him that he was in a manner besieged round about; and he having no better means to appease them, released all the prisoners, and so quieted the people. The King has sent for the said Duke to come to Court, and commanded the rest to forbear occasioning any more such unquietness in those parts. He has not yet arrived; some say he is nominated to accompany home the Queen of Scotland. The said Queen goes shortly to Fécamp, to make her mother's funeral, and from thence to Calais to embark. It is hitherto appointed that she shall be accompanied into Scotland with the Duke of Longueville and M. Damville; her uncles, the Duke D'Aumale, the Grand Prior, and the Marquis D'Elbœuf; four galleys, and twelve ships, French and Scottish. The late unquietness in Scotland has disquieted her very much, and yet stays not her journey.
5. On the 5th inst. the Earl Bothwell arrived in post. M. De Vielleville is returned from the Emperor, but not yet come to Court. The chief point of his legation was to conclude a marriage between the French King and a daughter of Maximilian, King of Bohemia, which he has brought to pass. Is informed that the Duke of Brunswick holds ready, not far from Hamburg, 7,000 soldiers, which are bruited to be to hinder the King of Sweden's coming into England; for that none of the great Princes are in love with his coming thither. A great doubt arises, however, that the said men of war shall be to assist the Queen of Scotland at her coming home to work her desire at the solicitation of the King of Spain, and some of the French. The knowledge of the truth thereof from Mr. Brigandine, and especially what shipping is appointed, would be desirable. Understands that the Prince of Orange will marry Duke Maurice's daughter by the procurement of the King of Spain, thereby to win to his better devotion the Duke Augustus of Saxony. They of Metz have permission to have a church to preach and administer in publicly.
6. Understands that the Queen of Scotland is thoroughly persuaded that the most dangerous man in all the realm is Knox, and is therefore fully determined to use all means to banish him thence, or else to assure them that she will never dwell in that country as long as he is there. Andto make him the more odious to the Queen, she is minded to send, if she has not done so already, to lay before her his book against the Government of Women. Whatsoever she may insinuate against him, Throckmorton takes him to be as much for her purpose as any man of all that nation; and that his doing therein and his zeal sufficiently recompense his fault in writing that book, and therefore he is not to be driven out of that realm. Desires that the Lord of St. Colm's Inch may receive favour from her in his passage through England to Scotland, as he is well affected towards her.
7. On the 6th a poor merchant of Woodbridge in Suffolk, came to complain of a depredation done upon him and divers merchants of Ipswich by the Scots, in a haven in Iceland, within the King of Denmark's dominions, three years past; he has brought letters in their favour from the said King. Has been to the Queen to set forth the merchants' request; to which the Queen has answered that after she had considered the matter the merchants should have answer. After this she asked him whether he had heard anything from the Queen touching her safe-conduct. He said that he had not. She prayed him as soon as he had word of it to advertise her, and said that her going would be about the beginning of August. By this it appears that she is very desirous of the said safe-conduct; and in case it has not been already delivered to M. De la Haye to bring to her, he thinks it would be more pertinent to send it to him to deliver into her hands. On the 4th inst. the said Queen was taken with a tertian fever, which took her every other day since; and at his being with her, he might well perceive that it had somewhat appaired her cheer, though she makes no great matter of it, the worst being past.
8. Received lately letters from Cecil, with the Queen's commands to him to send her a jeweller garnished with all sorts of goldsmith's work and set stones. Has found much difficulty to light upon such a one for divers dangers which they have alleged, but has got one named Robert Rouvet, a man of great wealth and livelihood, who has been in England in her father's time, and who will be shortly with her furnished with all such things.
9. Sends herewith the arrest pronounced in this Court of Parliament in the Prince of Condé's behalf. Sends also copies of letters which he has received from Lord James Stewart and the Laird of Lethington, together with his answer and a letter which he sent to the Earl of Arran.— Paris, 13 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 8.
July 13.305. Throckmorton to the Lords of the Council.
Gives the same information as that contained in his letter of the same date to the Queen, omitting the complaint of the merchants of Suffolk to the Scottish Queen.—Paris, 13 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 5.
July 13.306. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. If the Queen of Scotland's safe-conduct is not yet delivered to M. D'Oysel, thinks that it would be well to send it to him [the writer] to be by him presented to the Queen of Scotland, as thereby he might see her accptation thereof, and also have occasion to see the state of her health, which presently is casual. Thinks that by so much as the Queen of Scots covets to expel Mr. Knox from Scotland, so much the more ought the Queen to use all her friends and means to retain him there in credit and safety. Reminds him why Philip of Macedon desired Demosthenes forth of Athens.
2. Now that Cecil's son has seen sufficiently the manner of this Court, the writer will place him with a friend of his to attain a knowledge of the French tongue. Thinks Cecil has sufficient cause to hope well of him, as he has both good wit and good nature, and is subject to no vice. Recommends to him Robert Rovett, an honest and substantial merchant of Paris, who makes his voyage into England furnished with good store of jewels and goldsmith's work. Desires to know the Queen's pleasure concerning the voyage to Barbary, and touching M. De Vomany, who is the delicate musician. Encloses a packet, which he requests Cecil to forward to the Lord James.—Paris, 13 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 3.
July 13.307. Throckmorton to Cecil.
Since the despatch of his letters of this date, he doubts the conclusion of this great assembly in daily consultation, as he hears that the King of Navarre does not proceed in the cause of religion as he made good show; seeming to think that by this means he may be in case to recover his kingdom of Navarre, or be adjudged by the Pope capable thereof. No assured stay can be established where the Princes cannot assure themselves. There is some bruit that Oran is again in danger. Begs to know the Queen's pleasure for the Queen of Scotland's safe-conduct.—Paris, 13 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. Pp. 2.
July 13.308. Thomas Jenyson to Cecil.
Has sent after the Governor the particular book of the musters and charges of the garrison and works due for the quarter ended at Midsummer, who commanded him so to do, to the intent he might relate the same to the Lords of the Council. Encloses a brief report of the whole three quarters' charge ended Midsummer last. The Lord Governor can declare the state of the works. Since they began, there has not been so much done with 100l. more charges monthly as has been finished these three months past; and besides such exact order is kept, that not one dead pay can pass. The order taken by the Lords with Sir Richard Lee for the numbers appointed to continue upon the late discharge of the workmen he never signified. Desires Cecil to advertise him in all matters touching his charge, for that Lee is gravelled with his doings, which shall continue true, though perhaps he may thereby obtain hatred. Sir Richard seeks to keep him ignorant of the Lords' determination, thereby to bring him into error. There is great want of divers necessaries, wherein Lee has been written to divers times, but he can perceive no provision made. It is requisite that the Treasurer's deputy were privy to the prices and parcels shipped. In the last proportion there was more indented for with the ship master than arrived, and the prices of divers things excessive, so that he refuses to vouch for more than he received to Sir Richard. —Berwick, 13 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Pp. 3.
July 13.309. The Privy Council of England to the Privy Council of Scotland.
1. Perceive by their letters to Lord Dacres, Warden of the West Marches, that upon information given to them by the master of Maxwell, Warden of the opposite march of Scotland (who seems to complain of delay of justice), they find some lack with Lord Dacres' manner of dealing, and require to have redress made of such disorders as are alleged to have been committed by the Queen of England's subjects there. As their motion appears very reasonable, so the writers have thought meet to let them understand the very truth and circumstances as they find it.
2. The Greames, being the greatest number of those that are charged with the matters wherein justice is required by the Master of Maxwell, suspecting lest the Lord Dacres (whose favour they have of long time somewhat mistrusted,) would not deal so indifferently towards them as justice required, sent certain of the chief of their surname to the Lords of the Council, with petition that their cause might be heard by some indifferent persons. Albeit they think Lord Dacres to be as becomes a nobleman and officer of such trust, yet could they not for justice sake but give ear to these men's requests. This was the cause why the matters about the Greames could not be answered. Nevertheless, those they offer for all such matters as were committed before September last, to make answer according to the old custom of the West Marches; and for all matters that can be proved to have been committed by them since the said month they will willingly make recompence, agreeable to the present order upon those Borders. And because the Queen has committed these men's case to certain special persons, presently sent about other her affairs, they pray that they will take order with Maxwell, that in the meantime he will suspend his complaints, and forbear to call any further for recompence of those matters wherewith the said Greames are hitherto charged.—London, 13 July 1561. Signed: Bacon, Winchester, Northampton, Pembroke; Edward Derby, E. Clinton, W. Howard, E. Rogers, F. Knollys, W. Cecil, A. Cave, R. Sackville.
Orig. Add.: To the Duke of Châtellerault and others, the Lords of the Privy Council of Scotland. Pp. 3.
July 13.310. [Throckmorton] to the Queen.
1. Advertised her that a poor merchant (one Partridge of Woodbridge, in Suffolk,) had come to complain to the Queen of Scotland of depredations done upon him and his consorts in Iceland, and that as soon as she made answer he would advertise her thereof. This day he had answer by letter addressed to Lord James to see justice duly administered, a copy whereof he sends. Begs that she will grant him her gracious recommendations to Lord James.
2. P. S.—The Queen of Scotland has written to him that she is minded to send her ecurie through England, and desires to have his favourable letter for their usage on landing. Humbly beseeches her to let him know her pleasure therein with convenient speed.—13 July 1561.
Copy. Endd.: To the Queen, by one Partridge, merchant of Woodbridge in Suffolk, on his own behalf. Pp. 3.
July 14.311. The Queen to the King of France.
Informs him that her refusal of a safe-conduct to the Queen of Scots was on account of her not ratifying the treaty of Edinburgh.—London, 14 July 1561.
Copy. Add. Endd. by Cecil. Fr. Pp. 2.
July 14.312. Cecil to his Son Thomas.
Wishes him God's blessing, but how he inclines himself to deserve it, he knows not. Has received three several letters from him, but none mention at what charge he lives. In anywise he should be serviceable but not chargeable to Sir N. Throckmorton. "Begin by time to translate into French. Serve God daily. Take good heed of your health, and visit once a week your instructions. Fare ye well. Write at every time somewhat to my wife."—London, 14 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd.: My father to me. Pp. 4.
July 14.313. Cecil to Windebank.
Has always allowed of his honesty, and in that respect has committed to him the governance of his son. How they spend their time in Paris he knows not. Heartily prays him that young Cecil may serve God with fear and reverence. For his [Windebank's] well doing there, trusts to procure he shall do well at home.—London, 14 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Windebank. Pp. 2.
July 14.314. Chamberlain to the Queen.
1. Upon receipt of her letter of the 7th ult. (being then removing to follow the King to the city of Madrid, where he now is with his Court,) the writer imparted the same to him. The King to the first part made such answer as he is ac customed to make, demanding of her good welfare, etc. He wished that she had received the Pope's Nuncio's message, which was none other but the like that had been sent to him and the rest of the Christian Princes, specially seeing the matter is of so great moment, and he trusted that the Queen would consider it. Hereupon Chamberlain repeated what he had said touching the denial of the Nuncio's admission, alleging the ancient laws and statutes of the realm against the like, whereof there remained good records; and further prayed him to consider the double and suspicious dealing of the Pope in sending a message to the Queen, whilst by another he conspired against her, and sought to stir her subjects to rebellion. He asked the King whether he could have liking or be without suspicion of the Pope if he should attempt ought against him in like sort. The King answered, that the Nuncio would be able to do small hurt to England by any practices that he might devise; and further said, that he had heard nothing of the sending of the Nuncio into Ireland, and that he believed that the Pope would have given him knowledge of the same, and asked whether the same Nuncio was of that country or a stranger. Chamberlain said that he could tell him no more but that there was one sent expressly with the Pope's Bull, whom, though he joined himself with some traitors, the rest of the Queen's subjects had sought to withstand. The King said, that he trusted that notwithstanding such kind of dealing the Queen would have great consideration of this General Council that so much imported. Chamberlain told him, that the Queen made better answer (in respect of his intermeddling in this matter) than was desired, or than stood with the laws of her realm, or could of her nobility and other estates be permitted; and that when she understood that this General Council should be universal and free, and that all men might lawfully say and declare their conscience for the better reformation of all controversies in religion, (although the same respect had not been had to her in consulting upon this Council as with the rest of the Princes,) she would then appoint such personages of the Church of England as were meet for such a purpose. But if it should be none other than the last was at Trent, then she could have small hope of any good success. The King answered, that the meaning was good, and that he hoped that all who resorted to the same might be inspired to conclude upon that wherewith God might be best served, and the state of Christendom brought to one unity in religion. For the allegation that the Queen was not dealt with as became one of the chief Monarchs of Christendom, he said that the Pope had used to him and the rest none other, but only made signification of a Council meant, and the place where it should be celebrated. Chamberlain said, that the Queen could be content to pass over the respect that ought to have been had to her, so that the proceedings besides had not been so suspicious. With this the King seemed willing to break off, and prayed him to make his most hearty commendations to the Queen, and said that he would write his mind to his Ambassador.
2. There is now arrived the Pope's Nuncio, who came to the King when he and Lord Montague arrived at this Court, who, for misliking on this side, was shortly afterwards revoked, and the other who has resided here goes into Portugal.
3. When he had prepared thus much to answer her letter, he was on St. Peter's even suddenly taken with a burning fever, together with a squinancia in his throat. The fever held him with continual heat for five days, without intermission, with such extremity that he looked for death. Wherefore, seeing that this is the fifth time that he has escaped, always with danger of his life, and can by no means have his health in this country, he trusts that she will provide some one to succeed him in this charge. Is not yet so thoroughly recovered that he can promise to be able to endure the rest of these heats this summer. Wherefore, lest this should be his last letter, he begs leave to declare in brief his experience of the state of his country, whereof he finds so small estimation made and of its ministers that he is in great sorrow for the same. Nevertheless there appears some good hope of recovery in that God has appointed her to be the restorer thereof, with the succession that is to come of her; he therefore begs her to consider the necessity of the case without longer delay, being so great as it is, and of so great importance to her own person and her whole realm.
4. There are arrived nine ships out of the Indies, which, by the Azores, met with five English ships, three of Bristol and two of Barnstable, laden with the wood of those islands, whom they took as pirates and brought to Spain. Has opened the matter to the Duke of Alva, to move the King to have consideration of the poor merchants, which he says, upon further knowledge from the captain who took them, shall be had. The King, upon her letter of recommendation for Hickman and Castelyn, merchants of London, has written generally to the Governors of the Canaries to give entreaty to her subjects. Can obtain no redress for the traffic between the two countries, answer being made that the laws cannot be broken. The English merchants in Andalusia also complain that they are exacted more than heretofore upon such wines as they buy to bring into England. Does not know how to help them, but is persuaded that if they would refrain for a year to buy wines where they are so exacted they might lightly obtain redress.
5. Another Legate is looked for from Rome very shortly. The Duke of Florence's son will be here about September; a marriage will be treated between him and this King's sister, whereof men say that she will not hear. Cannot learn that any better marriage should be treated between this Prince and the Scottish Queen; nor is it thought that the French will yield thereto. (fn. 2) —Madrid, 14 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. Pp. 7.
July 14.315. Chamberlain to Cecil.
1. Has received Cecil's instructions for his proceeding in the matter of the Nuncio repairing from the Pope. Must say that in the first part of his letter he does not guess amiss, for the reports of their proceedings are here put forth to the worst, and therefore if he might from time to time understand somewhat thereof, it could not but serve to a good purpose. It has been said here that the Queen had good disposition to intend to the General Council, which, by report of this Court, is meant to be as free as can be asked. In conference with the King framed his talk to as much advantage as he could, telling him that if the Queen might so understand thereof, then she would be as ready as the rest of the Christian Princes. By his answer, and by what his Ambassador shall now declare, Cecil will be able to conceive what he looks for besides. He may see that the King had no great belief of the Legate's arrival and proceedings in Ireland, whereof nevertheless Chamberlain persuaded him all the assurance he could. Cecil guesses right of the minister who goes between in these matters; he makes no better report of their proceedings than in himself he has liking thereof. Of such as have been of late attached here will be nothing believed other than well. Cannot learn that any such marriage is there treated, nor can he conceive that the French will yield thereunto. (fn. 3) Throckmorton will be better able to understand thereof.
2. Begs Cecil to assist him in obtaining his revocation. Never thought that the Queen would have made as it were a divorce between him and his wife, or suffer him at one time to be so overcharged as he can never be able to recover. Mr. Osborn can well inform him of his state.
3. When he had written thus far he was suddenly taken with such a continual fever and squinancy that he looked for none other than death. Is not yet in such health that he can endure to set his secretary to work; wastes away more and more in health of body and in substance, so that if he endures longer it can be nothing to the Queen's service, and to his own great shame and discredit. Never hears whether all his letters are come to his hands.—Madrid, 14 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
July 15.316. The Queen to Queen Mary.
Has received her letters by M. D'Oysel, whom she has thought good to send back to her, for certain reasons which he can explain to her, and which also she has charged her Ambassador resident at the French Court to communicate.
Copy. Endd. by Cecil: 15 July 1561. Fr. P. 1.
July 15.317. Draft of the above.
Add. Endd.: 14 July. Fr. Pp. 2.
[July 15.]318. The Queen's Answer to M. D'Oysel. (fn. 4)
1. Having looked for some good satisfaction from the Scottish Queen concerning the ratification of the treaty, and finding no reasonable answer but continuance of delay, the Queen plainly requires of her the ratification of the said treaty. This, if she shall perform, then the Queen is well disposed to gratify her with any reasonable request, not only to pass by her realm, with commodity to enter any of her ports, but rather to pass through any part thereof, with aid of all manner of things; and if it like her, to give order for a friendly meeting for a corroboration and perfection of their amity.
2. As for M. D'Oysel's passage into Scotland, she thinks it meet that he should rather return and signify thus much to Queen Mary, for which he will have her passport and letters, to the French King and Queen, and the Queen of Scots. If he have any letters or messages for Scotland, he may send the same safely, for which he shall have a passport.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Pp. 2.
July 15.319. Mundt to Cecil.
1. The Envoy whom the King of Navarre lately sent to the Protestant Princes on his return told Mundt that he had made three propositions to them; the first was that if the Guises, or any of their confederates, tried to enlist soldiers in Germany, they should do all they could to oppose them, which was readily agreed to by all. The second was, that if the King of Navarre, Condé, the Admiral and the rest in France, should be attacked by the Pope, the King of Spain and the other accomplices of the Guises, on account of religion, they should assist them. Some agreed to this, on condition that those who were assisted should pay the expenses of the soldiers, but others said that this could only be settled in a general assembly of the Princes. The third was, that whenever the King of Spain threatened to make war on France, if they embraced the Lutheran heresy, the Protestant Princes should send an embassy into France to encourage them against these Spanish threats. Nearly all of them agreed as to the sending of this legation, but the question of the person to be sent and the time was referred to the Elector Palatine as the chief of the Princes. In this, however, there was some difficulty, as many of the Princes wished that the Confession of Augsburg should be received in France, whereas the reformed Church there followed the doctrine of Calvin and the ceremonies of the Church of Geneva, from which the Augsburg Confession somewhat varies, and in Germany itself there are different ceremonies used, nor is there the same doctrine everywhere with respect to the Lord's Supper.
2. It is to be feared that these differences may be an occasion of offence to the weak, and also lest evil speakers may draw opportunities of calumniating from the Confession itself, as in it mention is made of the Mass by name; meaning, however, one that has been reformed and that is properly administered.
3. The Augsburg Confession and its Apology should be drawn up so that it can be clearly understood, as otherwise it may be twisted into different meanings. The opinion of the calmer sort is that they should first look to embracing the pure religion, and shaking off the yoke of the Pope, and to making a mutual confederation, and then they may proceed to establish conformity of religion.
4. Has no news about the Emperor. Maximilian is said to be more strongly minded towards the confession of religion. The marriage of the Prince of Orange with the daughter of Maurice will be celebrated with great pomp at Leipsic on the 24th August. The King of Denmark will be there, but the Landgrave will not, for reasons which the writer stated in his letter of the 3rd June.—Strasburg, 15 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Endd. Lat. Pp. 3.
July 15.320. Cecil to Throckmorton.
Before the closing up of the letters directed to him there was a despatch made to Chamberlain, meant to be sent by the merchants, because it specially concerned their cause. The King of Spain has by a new order in Castile prohibited foreign vessels from carrying any wares of Spain as long as any Spaniard will, by which means all the English ships return empty. The like attempt was in the Emperor Charles's time, but of necessity of both parts revoked. Besides this, the merchants make no small complaints of injustice done to them in sundry ports of Spain. There is little remedy by complaining to the Spanish Ambassador, who attempts to work in as many shops as he can find tools to discredit him [Cecil] with the Queen. This he attempts in two ways; one by stating that he [Cecil] only is the author of the change of religion and the stay now from a qualification; the other, as the principal hinderer of the good will that ought to be betwixt the Queen and his master. Yesterday, finding him absent all day, he travailed much herein with the Queen; and he [the writer] coming secretly to the knowledge hereof, means to sound her heart to feel how many roots he has shaken; not that he weighs his particular the value of a halfpenny, but if the Ambassador may thus feel his strength without encountering, knows he will there rest. For the heads of his accusation he must confess to the Queen that of the one he is guilty, but not thereby in fault, and thereunto he will stand as long as he lives; for the second he must confess no more, but that he always has and will advise her to exercise her amity with the King of Spain cum bonâ cautione, and so to love him as she may also bear the lack of his love. For his furtherance the Ambassador seems to further by all means the marriage here, and labours to procure the Lord Robert to have evil thoughts of him [Cecil], wherein hitherto he does not think he has had much profit; for he will never desire towards him but well, as he trusts he understands. Prays him to forward the packet to Chamberlain.—Havering, 15 July 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Hol. Add. Endd.: By Francis the courier. Pp. 2.
July 16.321. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. Whereas on 13th of July he advertised her that the Queen of Scotland minded to embark at Calais according to her former opportunity, now she is resolved to take shipping at Newhaven, with as great speed as her preparations will be ready. She will be accompanied with her uncles, the Duke D'Aumale, the Grand Prior, and the Marquis D'Elbœuf. It is said that the Duke of Longueville, M. Damville, and others of the King's Chamber, will accompany her home also; all of whom mind to return home through England. She has sent to him sundry times of late to understand if he could ascertain her concerning the safe-conduct. On the 15th she sent a gentleman named Levison to desire the writer's letters for his passage through England, with certain her mules and carriage horses, and that he might have Throckmorton's accommodation to provide his mistress with some ambling hackneys for her own saddle, which might be suffered to pass forth into Scotland. As the writer does not know her resolute pleasure herein, he has deferred his answer until his next access to the Queen of Scotland.
2. Nothing is concluded in the matter of religion in this long and great consultation other than before; but now the resolution is deferred until the end of the consultation of the bishops and clergy, who assemble at Poissy, near St. Germains, on the 25th. The Prince of Condé and the Duke of Guise remain unreconciled, though many great personages have travailed to compound their differences.
3. The Cardinal of Ferrara is greatly advanced in his journey hitherwards, who comes hither as the Bishop of Rome's Legate; the said Bishop of Rome sends one of his new made Cardinals, Mulo, as his Legate into Spain. The French King sends the Rhinegraf instead of the Baron De la Garde to present his order to the King of Denmark, of whom there is some secret speech of marriage with the Queen of Scotland, and that the said Rhinegraf has the handling of the matter. Of late Mr. Harvey came this way out of Spain towards Flanders, and desired him to testify unto her of his truth and allegiance; he said that the King of Spain has given him 500 crowns pension, payable in the Low Countries. Begs her good usage for Robert Rouvet, a jeweller of Paris, who makes his repair into England. On the 14th of July he received her letters of the 18th of June by M. De Noailles, late Ambassador in Scotland, and intends thereupon to repair to St. Germain, where the King is.—Paris, 16 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
July 17.322. Count Mansfeld to Cecil.
Having received no reply to his letter to the Queen, more especially about his pension, (now a year in arrear,) the writer sends his servant, Christopher Hartman. If the Queen has heard any evil report of him he begs Cecil to state what it is. Asks him to obtain an audience with the Queen for his servant, and also that he will aid him in getting his pension paid.—Mansfelt, 17 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
July 19.323. The Bishop of Carlisle to Cecil.
After three sermons in the Cathedral (unto which a great number did resort) the common people affirmed that they had been deceived; which also happened throughout all his visitation in the diocese, the two next weeks following. The gentlemen of the county received him with much civility; but he cannot express the entertainment of Lord Wharton and Lady Musgrave, his daughter, for the Gospel's sake. The priests are wicked imps of Antichrist, and for the most part very ignorant and stubborn; past measure false and subtle. Only fear makes them obedient. Three only absented themselves from his visitation and fled, because they would not subscribe. Two belong to Lord Dacre and one to the Earl of Cumberland. About twelve or thirteen churches in Gilsland, all under Lord Dacre, do not appear, but refuse to come in, and at Stapleton and sundry of the others have Mass openly, at whom my Lord and his officers wink. Although they stand excommunicate, the writer does not meddle with them until he has some aid from the Council of the North, lest he might trouble the country. Lord Dacre is something too mighty in this country, and as it were a Prince; and the Warden of the West Marches of Scotland and he are great friends. He suffers the Scots to do harm in England unpunished, of policy. He is too long detained in London. —Rose Castle, 19 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
July 19.324. Sir John Mason and Dr. Wotton to Cecil.
1. On Thursday afternoon they resorted to King Philip's Ambassador, and the effect of their discourse was that he complained of a number of spoils made lately upon eighty of his master's subjects, specially of the Low Countries, whereof few or none were redressed, and most of all this robbery was done under their noses. And albeit now and then there was a pretence of a meaning of justice, and some of the offenders were taken, yet either they were let go again, or at the suit of one or other pardoned. Amongst whom he named Marichurch, Johnson, and Handsom of Faversham, who so long as they were abroad, so long might the complainants be sure to have none other rule but daily spoils and daily complaints. Marichurch, he said, was once apprehended and let go by the collusion of the serjeant, who is as much suspected as the common robbers; and to mend the matter he took upon him to get him into his hands again, and for that effect had of the poor plaintiff a crown a day, the whole amounting to 30l., and in the end brought word that he could not find him. Johnson being taken with an open piracy, was constrained to deliver again so much as pleased him of the goods, amounting to scant one half of the value, and had none other punishment.
2. He much complained of the charges in the suits in the Admiralty Court, and for example alleged that 50l. had been disbursed without request of any party, the whole matter not passing 200l.; whereby many poor men were constrained to content themselves with their losses. The ships haunting the seas as pirates were suffered, he said, to be made, dressed, rigged, and set forth openly; Johnson's ship being dressed and set forth at Boston, the town and country murmuring at it. They have in sundry places staples of weapons, powder, and munitions, wherein he named Marichurch, whose staple was at Perin [Penryn] in the West country. Sometimes, quoth he, a poor knave or two are hanged, but the ringleaders ever escape. He knew how well the Queen was affected to justice, and wished that others were so too. It was a marvellous grief to him to trouble her so often in these melancholy matters; but the occasions were so thick, and the King's and the Duchess of Parma's letters so earnest, as he could no less do. Some of the letters he showed, which were indeed somewhat earnest, being commanded by the same to procure a resolute answer how those subjects and others should hereafter live together, and whether they should be forced for lack of remedy to devise a remedy for the surety of their subjects so daily spoiled, as either they must give up their traffic and fishing (as many of them have already done,) or else by wafters must be defended. In his opinion the only way was to apprehend such as are notably known, among whom he harps still upon Marichurch, who was seen at Lowestoft within this month, albeit it is alleged that he cannot be found. Handsam, and more especially Johnson, were talked about in all places, and in no place more than in England. If the first two were forthcoming it might breed some quietness.
3. They told him that justice was never denied, and that it might be that most of their complaints might more justly light upon the Scots, and that if the parties were the Queen's subjects her express meaning was that they should receive exemplary punishment. In the end he prayed them to appoint a time for the hearing of particular complaints, for which purpose they assigned the next day at nine. At which time there resorted to them eight or nine men of honest sort in appearance, whereof two or three seemed to be learned men, of such sort as they call their pensioners, hired by the rest to tell their tales, and draw their requests in writing, who read all their writings and said us much as they were able to say. Whereby it better appeared that they were spoiled than by whom the spoil was made, saving that Marichurch, Johnson, and Handsam seemed much to be charged. Their request was that some way should be devised for the remedy of their damage; in the meantime their earnest request was whether they might safely haunt their accustomed fishing, whereof now is the chief time, which was the cause of their resorting to the realm; and in case it should be said that they might use the trade as heretofore, without fear of spoil, order might be taken for the same. They were told that there was no doubt that the Queen's pleasure was that they should resort hither and use their fishing in as liberal sort as ever they did; and albeit some lewd men had heretofore troubled them, the Queen would devise ways to rid the seas of them; and, promising to advertise the Queen of their requests, they dismissed them. They have perused and abridged their informations and turned them into English.
4. For the satisfaction of their requests they know no better way (unless the Queen should send an armed vessel or two to the sea) than to send immediately to all the ports to inquire what vessels haunt unto them; with commandment upon pain of death to stay all suspected persons, and permit no fisher or other to go abroad without surety found not to offend any of the Queen's friends, and to answer all such things as may be laid to their charge. They name especially fishers; for the manner of the malefactors is to go well manned to the sea, and finding a poor fisherman of the Low Countries, to take from him his fish and nets, and make them of the port believe that the fish was of their own catching. Marichurch, Johnson, and Hadsam, to be apprehended, especially the first two; and at least be bound in sufficient securities to be forthcoming to answer any charges against them, and in the mean season to be of good abearing; the best way, however, to content all parties would be to lay them fast. And for the finding out of such as have for the last two years so foully used the complainants, there might be an examination in the said ports of what vessels were abroad at the time that they complain, especially black, red, or yellow; for such do they allege were those who robbed them.
5. One Thackwell, serjeant of the Admiralty, who is notoriously suspected to collude with them, should be charged with such of the forenamed as he has suffered to escape. He is charged also to have stayed a ship at Newcastle, known to be culpable; and he should be examined as to what has become of it. Thomas Arnott, Jaggs of Lowestoffe, and Thomas Barman, who are accused to have consented with the pirates, or at least to have had good knowledge of their doings, as appears from their examination taken before Sir Thomas Woodhouse, should be effectually spoken with. Two of them are well able to answer, the third is a servant, by whose confession it appears that his master had good understanding with the pirates.—London, 19 July 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 7.

Footnotes

1 Originally, she will not so dishonourably deal with her.
2 This passage is in cipher.
3 This passage is expressed in cipher.
4 Cecil to Throckmorton.
July 14.
Hardwick, i. 172.
1. Although the promise was given and has been kept that D'Oysel should be gently used, yet things have so fallen out that the principal request must be denied.
2. The noise of D'Oysel's coming, and still more so that of the Queen, has so erected up Huntley, Bothwell, and Hume, that it could not be agreeable for him [Cecil] to feed them in their humours.
3. Thinks the longer the Scotch Queen's affairs are uncertain, the longer it will be ere she makes a marriage offensive to England. The offer of the Portugal is acceptable, and the Lord Admiral will send a vessel, and the Mayor and Mr. Garrett will venture 1,000l.
4. Considering all things, cannot either advise or forbid him [Throckmorton] to write to the Queen of things he hears. One thing is his great care of him, and the other lest the Queen mislike the Protestants more, if his sharp reports should come from such.
5. Thanks him heartily for his [Cecil's] son, and begs him to root out his faults by sharp advertisement.
6. Cannot write certainly of the King of Sweden's coming. His Chancellor, not being acquainted with English conditions, does his purpose more hurt than he thinks. The Queen has written plainly to this King in such a way that he [Cecil] thinks he will stop his suit when he reads the lines. Is most sorry to see that the Queen is not seriously disposed to marry.
7. There is a matter secretly thought of, which he will dare communicate. That if an accord can be made between her and the Scottish Queen, the latter should surrender to her all manner of claim, and to her heirs, and in consideration thereof the Scotch Queen shall be acknowledged, in default of heirs of the English Queen. "Well; God send our mistress a husband, and by time a son, that we may hope our posterity shall have a masculine succession. This matter is too big for weak folks, and too deep for simple; the Queen knoweth of it, and so will I end." Has advertised the Scotch Lords of the answer. to D'Oysel. De Seurre said yesterday that he looked for such an answer. Yesternight the Queen supped at his [Cecil's] rude cottage. Sir T. Challoner prepares to go to Spain in Mr. Chamberlain's place, and now it rests to compass his [Throckmorton's] return home. Is in continual jealousy, and he [Throckmorton] in mistrust. The Queen thinks long for the Paris goldsmith.— 14 July 1561.