Elizabeth
August 1561, 16-20

Sponsor

Institute of Historical Research

Publication

Author

Joseph Stevenson (editor)

Year published

1866

Pages

250-266

Annotate

Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: August 1561, 16-20', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 4: 1561-1562 (1866), pp. 250-266. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73002 Date accessed: 25 October 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

August 1561, 16-20

August 16.404. Queen Elizabeth to Queen Mary.
1. The Lord of St. Cosme has brought her letters, dated on the 8th, at Abbeville, signifying that although by the answer brought to M. D'Oysel, Mary might have had occasion to have entered into some doubt of the writer's amity, yet, after certain purposes passed betwixt her and the English Ambassador, she assures herself of her good meaning to live with her in amity. The said St. Cosme has made the same excuses for not ratifying the treaty as Mary did to the English Ambassador, whom the writer has briefly answered on all the same points. (fn. 1) Lest Mary should think that her reasons have satisfied the writer, she assures her that the answer cannot be reputed for a satisfaction; she only requires her to perform her promise, whereunto she is bound by her seal and hand; the writer courts only what is in her power, and which her own people were made privy to, and without which no perfect amity can continue. Nevertheless, perceiving by the report of St. Cosme that she means forthwith upon her coming home to follow herein the advice of her Council in Scotland, the writer is content to suspend her conceit of all unkindness, and assures her that she is fully resolved (upon this being performed) to unite a sure bond of amity, and live in neighbourhood with her as assuredly in the knot of friendship as they are in that of nature and blood. Reminds her of the error to which evil counsellors induced her father, when Henry VIII. sought to have knit a perpetual bond by inviting him to come to York.
2. "Where it seemeth that report hath been made unto you that we had sent our Admiral to the seas with our navy to impeach your passage, both your servants do well understand how false that is, knowing for a truth that we have not any more than two or three small barks upon the seas to apprehend certain pirates; being thereto intreated, and almost compelled by the earnest complaint of the Spanish Ambassador made of certain Scotchmen haunting our seas as pirates, under pretence of letters of marque; of which matter we earnestly require you at your coming into your realm to have some good consideration."—Henyngham, 16 Aug. 3 Eliz.
Copy. Add. Broadside.
August 16.405. Corrected draft, in Cecil's writing.
Endd. Pp. 4.
August 16.406. Otto, Duke of Brunswick, to the Queen.
Has received her letter by William Herle. Had not heard one word of the report which Herle was commissioned to refute. Was very much astonished that any one should be so malignant as to calumniate her; her virtue will, however, shine forth as the sun in its strength. The evil reports will be more injurious to the authors than to her. Promises to do all he can to repress such rumours, and to assist her in any other way.—Hamburg, 16 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. The last leaf torn. Lat. Pp. 5.
August 16.407. Thomas Nicolas to Chamberlain.
1. Antony Hickman and Edward Castlin, of London, merchants, have written to him and Edward Kingsmill, their servants in the Canaries, how they have procured the Queen's letters directed to Chamberlain for the King of Spain, which they trust he has received. Edward Kingsmill has written to him [Chamberlain] of the great troubles of their masters. The writer was taken by those of the Inquisition about twenty months past, and put into a little dark house about two paces long, laden with irons, without sight of sun or moon all the time, and all his master's goods were embargoed. When he was arraigned they laid to his charge that he had said that the English Mass was as good, or better than theirs; that he went not to Mass; that he said that he had rather give his money to the poor than buy bulls of Rome with it, with other pretty inventions. He answered, proving their allegations to be most untrue with many witnesses. Then they put him again in prison for a certain space, and alleged anew against him six or seven articles against the Queen; but, seeing that they could not prevail against him otherwise, they said that she was an enemy to the faith, that she was preached to be antichrist, and that she maintained circumcision and the Jewish laws, that also a friar shook off the dust of his shoes against her and the city of London; which abominable and untrue things they proved with a force of forsworn Flemings. Then he stood up to the defence of the Queen, proving their sayings to be most untrue, and requiring justice; but was put into Little-ease again till the end of twenty months, when he protested his innocent blood against the judge to be demanded before Christ. This is the foundation of proof which they took. The accuser was a "confess of the Jewish line descended," who had procured his death above two years, because he would not give him his master's goods for nought, and had abused him in his house for that cause. Also the law does not permit a man of Jewish lineage to be officer in the Inquisition, as the said confess is. Also, the witnesses are two thieves and two common women; whereas God has shown His rightful judgment, for one of them was choked, lying in childbed, by her husband, and he hanged for it. Therefore, because the judge was covetous and vicious, and the notary likewise, he refused him for his judge, in the presence of the Licençiado Spinosa, Licençiado Sarvantes, promoter, and Don Juan De Vega, writer; the said judge, however, would not be refused, which was contrary to law.
2. Beseeches him to inform the King of Spain how Her Majesty is reported and of false witnesses accused of his subjects in Canary. Also that he will speak with the Archbishop of Seville, the Inquisitor General of Spain, that he may understand the articles written in his behalf, and that his masters have lost by their evil justice near 6,000 French crowns; and he yet remaining a prisoner for the judge to work his revenge upon him for refusing him. Desires that the Archbishop will remit this matter here to the Provincial of St. Domingo, Doctor Mesias, and the licentiate Spinosa, so that it may be definitely sentenced without delay. The confess is called Francisco De Coronado, of the ancient Jews descended. —Canary, 16 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol., with seal. Add. Pp. 4.
August 16.408. Valentine Browne to Cecil.
1. The letters herewith, which he received this night, were the longer in coming by reason the way was troubled with a great number of men raised in arms upon a controversy between certain gentlemen of the Humes and a kinsman of Lord Seaton. On the 14th inst. there came two Frenchmen out of Scotland, whom he has staid for a few days that further knowledge might be had of their qualities, under colour that such were sought for in these parts by procurement of the French Ambassador in London upon a piracy. One declares himself to be a merchant, and the other a soldier late out of France. Has sent to Randolph for further intelligence of them; and in case he finds no other matter, will remit them on their journey. They have divers letters, but none suspicious. Reminds Cecil of his petitions.
2. Has staid two hoys of Amsterdam, laden with clapboard and rye, which he has great need of, until he hears of the licence for transporting of the hides, fells, and tallow, which come of the slaughter within his charge, with which he might buy and exchange the same; wherein the Lord Treasurer has written his letters to the customers to suffer him at this time to pass; but the same being now made felony by statute, he dares not adventure but with the Queen's commandment, without which he will never make half as much as they are worth, and the less by reason the doing thereof is lawful to the freemen of the town, who daily ship away the same by force of their liberties. They will not meddle with him, but to much "underfote;" perceiving that he is forced to sell it to them, or lose the most part thereof.
3. Reminds him of the pays here, now behind for half a year and more. Touching such part as is for the garrisons unto Midsummer, the Lord Treasurer has answered him it shall be sent with speed; but for so much as is due to the workmen, being about 8,000l., he declares he will not meddle. Requests that consideration thereof may be had, otherwise the poor men, besides their great want, are like to be in great distress this winter for clothes. Has lent them above 2,000l. out of his charge for the victuals, which not being repaid and employed in new provisions, will utterly disfurnish the store. The difficulty he has made touching the payment of Mr. Johnson, the surveyor, for his entertainment as master mason, is this; the office of master mason he has by patent, and therefore nineteen pounds per annum of standing fee, which Browne pays him without denial. But he claims further twenty pence per diem during the time of the works, which the writer has denied, for that it seems a double allowance.— Berwick, 16 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig., with seal. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
August 16.409. —[to Shers?]
In his last letter mentioned the death of Rustem Bassa and of M. Dolus, the French Ambassador in Constantinople. It appears by subsequent letters of the 14 July that Rustem's only daughter is dead, leaving 10,000,000 of gold; she died of the plague, which still rages so that the Turks now begin to take fright. Aly Bassa, the Christian renegade, who succeeded Rustem, has shown himself favourably inclined towards the Signory, and has delivered certain Venetians, who were seized at Constantinople for having forged bonds about corn. The Signory are making progress with the fortifications of Bergamo, in doing which they have destroyed vines equivalent to the production of 5,000 barrels of wine. The fortifications will be ready in three months. The citizens of Bergamo are much distressed with the ruin of their vineyards and houses. The Cardinal of Ferrara, Legate to France, set out from Ferrara on the 10th instant. The Duke, his brother, hopes to have in marriage the Infanta of Portugal. Twenty-seven galleys have arrived at Genoa from Spain with 3,000 recruits, who will join the 25,000 already at Naples. Their general is Marco Antonio Doria Del Coretto, and his lieutenant Giovanni Andrea Doria.—Venice, 16 Aug. 1561. Signature cut off.
Ital. Pp. 2.
August 16.410. — [to Shers?]
Wrote on the 7th ultimo and has little to say. The Count Brocardo Cremonense is hourly expected from the Court of Spain, who will bring the King's decision as to the rewards to be given to the Borromei. Ten Cardinals are about to be created, all of them relatives or friends of Cardinal Borromeo.—Rome, 16 Aug. 1561. Signature cut off.
Endd. Ital. Pp. 2.
[August 16.]411. Intelligence from Venice.
1. From Constantinople. Ali Bassa has well used the Ambassadors that visited him by way of congratulation, and has promised to execute justice without bribery, for which he blamed his predecessor, and to rid the sea of corsairs. The Turk has promised the Venetians to set at liberty all slaves appertaining to any Venetian taken since 1540, and a proclamation is made in Venice that whosoever has any slave in the Turk's power, shall bring his name in by a certain day. It is expected he will do the same with Christian prisoners remaining in his hands, being persuaded by Rostan Bassa that the detention of them was the cause of the pestilence at Constantinople.
2. From Milan. Twenty-eight galleys had arrived at Genoa from Spain, under the command of Antonio Doria, which have since departed towards Naples to join the others there, having aboard, besides others, 1,500 Spaniards. The Admiral and captain of them is Marc Antonio Coretto Doria, Prince of Melphe, and son-in-law to old Andrea Doria, deceased. Order is given him by King Philip to pursue Dragut Rays with fifty galleys, he having robbed and spoiled through all the river of Genoa. Antonio Doria was appointed captain of the galleys of Sicily, who was, with twenty galleys, ordered to guard the coasts about that isle. The Signor Centuriane had sixteen galleys for the defence of Sardinia, and twenty galleys were appointed to guard the coasts about Naples. Giovanni Ant. Doria will remain about Genoa with twenty galleys to guard those quarters, and Giovanni De Mendoça with twenty galleys will attend to the defence of Spain. Riccio Ormetto is restored to his sanctuary. A proclamation was made that no man upon pain of death should wear any dagger or sword, by day or night, passing a certain measure; and that no assembly should take place before the great church of more than three persons. Certain Bishops of Portugal have passed towards the Council, and more were looked for shortly from Spain.
3. From Rome. The Pope calls still upon the Bishops to depart for Trent, and offers aid to those who are not able to go forward. He has granted to Patriarch Grimanni to refuse for judges all such Cardinals as he suspects, and to appoint learned men in their places; and to answer by writing to all the articles laid to his charge. Conte Broccardo Persico, whom King Philip has sent to the Pope with the answer to such matters as the Bishop of Terracina was sent to Spain for, was daily expected. Don Juan De Ayala had left Rome with answers to such as he was sent thither for, by the King. There has been a great earthquake at Naples, which has destroyed many palaces and sundry houses, and there withal great flames issued out of Mount Vesuvius, which has set on fire a number of houses at Puteoli and thereabouts. At Naples a great part of the churches of St. Lawrence and St. Augustine were overthrown. The monastery of St. Maria Regina Cœli was so shaken that it was ready to fall, and the nuns thereof had fled from the same.
4. From Spain. The King had caused the Pope's Nuncio to be informed that concerning the refusal by the Queen of England of his messenger, he would let it pass until the end of the Council, at which time he would not fail to show his good will to aid the Church. He makes account that by the spring he will be able to have at sea 200 galleys, so as the Pope, Naples, Sicily, Aragon, Majorca, and Minorca keep touch with him. The fleet which lately arrived from the Indies with a quantity of gold encountered certain pirates, who called themselves Frenchmen, not far from Seville, where, coupling with the pirates, they took them, and hung twenty of them upon their own masts. Amongst them was an English ship, but piracy not being proved to have been committed by the same, it was set at liberty. It is thought one of the ships of the said fleet perished. It is reported by these that they left at Peru, ready to come away, another fleet, with far greater treasure than was brought by this.
Endd. Pp. 4.
August 17.412. Duarte Kingsmyll to Sir Thomas Chamberlain.
1. Has received letters from his masters, Anthony Hickman and Edward Castlon, merchants of London, whose doings he has now in these isles, together with a copy of the Queen's letter to the King of Spain; whereupon he begs Chamberlain to help his poor countrymen in their trouble, and informs him of the facts of the case. In 1558 there passed here three English ships and a pinnace, which remained fourteen or fifteen days and discharged part of their cargo, and proceeded towards Guinea. And because a hulk from Flanders was lacking, it was falsely surmised that they had sunk it, and the Governor's lieutenant, licençiado Betancor, a malicious person, thinking to get a bribe, sequestered all the writer's goods, saying that they were stolen out of the missing hulk. Kingsmyll however proved this to be feigned, for news came of its loss on the coast of Bretagne. Betancor then said that the wares were forfeited, being prohibited goods, which Kingsmyll proved to the contrary at the cost of above 100 doubles. This matter was so craftily handled by the said Betancor, he being judge, and a kinsman scrivener of the cause, in order to see if they could bring him to any agreement, that it endured four years and is not yet ended.
2. A little before last Easter the lieutenant condemned him in a fine of 1,000 ducats for keeping his books in English, and on the judge giving sentence in Kingsmyll's favour, he appealed, and the matter is now before the judges of appeal.
3. His next troubles are yet more intolerable. Licençiado Betancor was succeeded by licençiado Morteo, one for his evil life and lewdness famous throughout Seville and Cadiz, where he was lieutenant to the coregidor, and for his evil doings was fain to embark secretly for these isles, which he knew was a place for his purpose and for men of his qualities. He used such extortion withal that his kingdom endured but a while, and another was put in his room, and the first tyranny he used was with Kingsmyll. On the 29th July in the aforesaid year he came to Kingsmyll's house and commanded his books of account, who showed him one written in Spanish, contrary to his expectation; he then commanded him to open all the chests in his house and found in one of them three [yards] and two-thirds of velvet and a piece of silk, which he took away, saying it was forfeited, and also another book of account translated into English for the use of his masters, Antony Hickman and Edward Castlon. He then made his accusation, as may appear by the process which Kingsmyll has sent to Mr. Tipton. He begs Chamberlain to move the King to allow it to be perused by some learned men of his Council, as he thinks that he would not have been condemned if it had not been that one-third of the fine went to the judges.
4. Between 1544 and 1550, in consideration that much money was conveyed out of Spain, two statutes were made that all merchants should keep their books in Castilian under pain of 1,000 ducats. Divers learned men on being asked answered the writer that as he had his manual written in Spanish it was sufficient, and that it was a plain extortion and robbery of Morteo. Thinking that the law did not prohibit a merchant from translating his books into his natural tongue, when the said Morteo offered to consent with him for 100 ducats, he refused by the advice of his man of law, and offered twenty or thirty to avoid the trouble of the law, thinking at first that it was not half a dozen doubles matter. Morteo thereupon caused a friend to put in an accusation against him, although in deed he was himself counsellor, accuser, and judge in the matter. And because the statute chiefly speaks of bankers, the writer proved that there were no banks in the island, that he never conveyed money out of the isles, that he brought at one time 2,000 ducats in ready money to buy sugar, and that he yearly laded with sugar; he also proved that it was more gain for a merchant in these parts to employ his money in sugars than to carry ready money; and that he had laden a greater value of sugar out of the isles than the merchandise sent to him, as appears by the customs books. Further, there was no money in the isles that a man might convey away; for although he has known them seven years, and had doings for his masters for 30,000 ducats at one time together, yet would he never get 500 ducats in ready money, there being little money running, and all their payments being in sugar. He also proved by interpreters that his book written in English conformed in all respects with that in Spanish. He also proved that the said statutes had never been proclaimed, as was commanded; and that it was the order of all merchants to translate their books to send to their masters. Notwithstanding the aforesaid, they have for their own proper lucre, (for that one-third part of the condemnation appertains to the judges and the King's third has been given them towards the charge of their officers, etc.,) condemned him in 1,000 ducats and banishment. In Grenada they confirmed the fine, but released him of the banishment. Sends a letter sent by his procurador in Grenada to Mr. Tipton in Seville, whereby he may understand the insatiable covetousness of the judges there, who (forasmuch as the matter touched their own proper lucre) would not be informed of his justice and right. If the law had been contrary to him, fifty or 100 ducats fine would have been sufficient. Concerning the velvets and silks that Morteo took from him, it is commanded that they should restore them again; but they have put them to their own uses, so that he will never be paid, besides a great sum that the Governor and the lieutenant owe him for merchandise taken from his house. Desires Chamberlain's aid herein with the King.
5. The covetousness of Morteo next began to enterprise a new matter against him. On Feb. 10, 1559, he caused one of his alguazils to make a denunciation against him, alleging that the Queen had married a Cavalero de la Rosa, and that he had commanded to set up new and strange religions, and every man to live according as he would himself. Whereupon the said Morteo came to his house and forced him to swear and declare the goods and money that he had, which he put in another man's hands until the 8th of March. The like diligence was used against Thomas Nicolas in the isle of Teneriffe, as may appear by the testimony sent herewith, alleging against him that the Queen had proclaimed war against Spain and ordered all Spaniards to depart by a certain day. This matter has cost them above 100 doubles in costs and charges, besides certain pieces of linen that were lost, to the value of thirty or forty more. Thomas Nicolas was afterwards put in prison; and they would have stayed a ship of theirs laden with sugar but that it broke out of the port perforce, leaving thirty chests of sugar behind. The said Thomas was delivered out of prison for that matter, but he has now been imprisoned for nearly two years, being accused to the Inquisition, whereby their goods are embargoed.—Grand Canary, 17 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Add. Endd. Pp. 13.
August 17.413. [Cecil] to Count Mansfeld.
1. Received Mansfeld's letter of the 17th July by Christopher Hartman, by which it appears he has instructions to say something to the Queen and to request his master's pension. He is sorry the Queen has had cause given her on Mansfeld's behalf, by one Keck, to think there is such lack in him. Keck made a promise not only to Gresham, but to the Queen, of the loan of great sums of money at five per cent., and showed letters of credit in Mansfeld's hand and seal; and when the Queen made sure accompt thereof (being in a kind of war), Keck began so to vary in his negociations that there appeared a manifest deceit, and then followed great disappointment of the Queen's affairs.
2. Desired Gresham to inform him of this matter long since, and also declared the same to certain Englishmen that made means for his pension. The disappointment to the Queen was a loss of more than 10,000 crowns, besides the danger of greater evil. Nevertheless, imputing the error to Keck, Cecil has with some difficulty procured that Gresham shall pay him his pension at Antwerp, and from thence his entertainment is to cease, which order was given a month since.
3. Cecil beseeches his Lordship to continue that devotion to the Queen as he has done, and not to neglect his writing of such occurrences as happen in Almain.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 21.
August 17.414. Translation of the above into French.—Hemyngham Castle [Castle Hedingham].—17 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Copy. Endd. Fr. Pp. 3.
August 17.415. Cecil to Windebank.
Is sorry to hear that the plague is at Paris, which is to be avoided. Would have him follow the counsel of the Ambassador, and not keep company with the Earl of Hertford, or any Englishman, as thereby Thomas Cecil will the more profit in the French tongue. Mislikes nothing in their going to Orleans but that he will not so conveniently hear from them. Is sorry of Kendall's sickness and thinks best for him to return; sees no cause for their having any other. Has had a watchword sent him out of France that his son's being there shall serve him to little purpose, for that he spends his time in idleness. If this is confirmed again he will think himself much deceived in Windebank. If it be true he would revoke his son.—Hemingham in Essex, 27 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Hol. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 2.
August 17.416. The Earl of Rutland to Cecil.
This morning about 3 o'clock William Strickland (to whom he had given order to look to the sea coasts about Flamborough and Bridlington) came and said that he was advertised by a man of his from Bridlington, that yesternight there was seen about 4 o'clock p.m., eight galleys and sixteen great ships upon the sea, of which two galleys and two ships coming near the coast strake sail, and the rest seemed as the wind was by easting about to do the like. "It is thought they will draw to the shore, which if they do and arrive, I have given such order as I nothing doubt but ye shall hear good news of their stay." Has sent Mr. Strickland thither with all speed, with orders to use both diligence and circumspection.—York, 17 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. On the back are the following memoranda: Haste, post, haste; for life, life; for life, life, life. Delivered in York, 17 August at four of the o'clock in the morning: for life.
Received at Ferrybridge at eight of the o'clock in the morning, the 17th day. Pp. 2.
August 17.417. Winchester and Sackville to Cecil.
For answer to Mr. Brown's remembrances sent in Cecil's letter; to the first they have given him leave for that time only, because the ships are ready to understand with the customers what hides, fells, and tallow he had of the Queen's, and to ship the same. The Queen may not have the pasture of Sheriff-Hutton, though the fine be great; for lacking it she would lose as much, or more, than the rent is; and of the pastures there must be no lease, but only for her service at Berwick, and the rent must be yearly answered to the receiver. Think that the Treasurer of Berwick must have liberty to go and come without asking licence, for that asking may put him in peril of his life or of robbing. The storehouses should be employed in the Queen's service, and removed from the use of Mr. Lee. They have made up their instructions to the receivers and auditors of Yorkshire, Lincoln, Northumberland, Cumberland, Westmoreland, Durham, and Lancaster, where they find of good debt what they trust will be full payment before Christmas; accounting Michaelmas rents in part of it, as will be full payment for Easter, Midsummer, and Michaelmas, and for the works 6,000l. Pray him to stay from increase of charges till the Queen sees more of her debt discharged, and to consider the warrant for the twenty marks the post had for the last letters sent into France.—17 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig., in Winchester's hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
August 18.418. The Queen to Throckmorton.
Perceives by his letter of the 11th, at Abbeville, the purposes held by the Queen of Scots in defence of her delay in not ratifying the treaty, wherein the writer sees nothing of weight, worth the allowance. Requests him to send back the instrument. " The matter opened to you by the letter from Mr. Calvin deserveth our hearty thanks to be given unto him, and so we pray you write to him on our behalf." Requests him to open the matter of the preface to the King of Navarre, or some other, that the book may be suppressed and the writer punished. The French Ambassador has required her not to show favour to such, as being found culpable in France in matters of money, are thought would fly into England, which she has promised, and which Throckmorton may also show to the King of Navarre.
Draft, in Cecil's hol. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: 1561, August 18. Pp. 2.
August 18.419. The Earl of Rutland to Cecil.
1. As he wrote yesterday on the report only of a young man, so now having immediately sent Mr. Strickland and his [the Earl's] servant, Thomas Bambrough, he is by them certified of the truth of that before reported. On Saturday, soon after 3 o'clock, two great galleys were espied at Flamborough, within half a quarter of a mile of the pier; which, letting their anchors fall, put forth of either galley a naked man to swim, and then launched forth two boats which sounded the depth, to which boats the naked swimmers returned. One of the galleys, being the greater, was all white; the other (coloured red) was well trimmed and appointed; she bare a blue flag with the arms of France, and in her stern another white flag glistening like silver. At the same instant there appeared, a good distance from the galleys, thirty-two sail of tall ships, and shortly after further off twenty sail, all which for lack of wind tried the seas, making no haste away; thus they continued in sight till 8 of the clock, and from thence plied along the coast northwards, the wind being somewhat against them.
2. Sends commendations to the Lord Admiral.—York, 18 Aug. 1561. Signed.
3. P. S.—They neither landed nor offered to land, but he is advertised that about ten days past, there was a Fleming riding in Scarborough roads passing towards Scotland, and in the same were seen certain gentlewomen. Is credibly informed that divers ships laden with the Scottish Queen's provisions are landed at Inchkeith and Dunbar. Of the great dissension between Lords Yester and Seaton, and the fray between the craftsmen and burgesses of Edinburgh, he omits to write.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: On the back. At York, 18 August, at eight of the clock before noon. Received at Ferrybridge the same day, at past eleven of the clock in the forenoon. Pp. 3.
August 18.420. Lord Wharton to Cecil.
1. Was much comforted by the contents of Cecil's letter of the 12th, (which he received on the 17th,) whom he thanks for setting forth his service. The Master of the Rolls was well chosen, who may now induce things to the security of the plentiful country of Northumberland, as the paper book sent by him to the Lords, and his declaration at his repair to Court will show. As this beginning is well ordered for the time, so the Queen must bear a great charge to the well doing and better ordering of the fortresses and inhabitation to shut up the open entries between Cheviot and Berwick, and by Parliament some grant to be made therefor.
2. After the coming of himself and colleagues to Berwick, and so travelling along the Marches, sundry Scotchmen, of whom he had acquaintance when serving, some calling openly over the water of Tweed, desiring to speak with him, and others coming to him before he knew them, by whom he received the following news, and especially of one spy he had who came to Hexham:—That the Queen of Scots, writing for a passport to Queen Elizabeth, had been plainly denied, and that King Philip and the King of Denmark would aid her to come, and whether she came without a great power or no they could not tell; for they said that she knew that the English ships, with force, were prepared to let her. They hoped that she would not be married until she came into Scotland. The espials said that there were but few Lords at the last Convention, and that they had summoned a great number to be at Edinburgh in September next. They say that the Lords of the Council are afraid of the Queen's coming, and that the others are glad. They told him of a fray in Edinburgh on the 7th between the craftsmen and the burgesses, which it busied the Lords to stay, after two or three killed. They told of great threatenings between Lord Hume, the Carrs, and their party with Lord Yeaster against Lord Seaton, the Earl of Cassilis and their party, who were warned with powers of men against the 16th. Thinks that this brag will end as they have ended others, without any bloodshed. The espial told him that the Queen of Scots had as good intelligence out of London and out of the Court as any we had out of Scotland. They said that some of their Lords would serve their Queen, and that they have got her favour before her coming, and that they know what office and reward they shall have. Lord Hume, Sir Andrew Carr, and many borderers are apparently against the Lords. The thieves on the Borders sow these disorders, which will give them great boldness to do evil this winter. Participates such as he hears with the Master of the Rolls.—At his cousin, Sir Thomas Dacre's house, at Lanercost, 18 Aug. 1561. Signed.
3. P. S.—Is informed that Sir Oliver Sinclair, the chief favourite of the late King of Scots, is chief favourite of the Queen of Scots.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary: On the back. Delivered at Thirkall, 18 August, at 7 of the clock at night. Pp. 4.
August 19.421. Throckmorton to the Queen.
1. On 15th inst. received her letter of the 7th, written at Smallbridge, whereupon next morning he resorted to the Earl of Hertford's lodging, and declared her pleasure for his immediate return, who answered that he was sick in bed of a fever, and was grieved that he could not with all diligence perform her commandment, and trusted that she would not interpret the worse if he delayed his setting forward for three or four days. The Earl having asked him whether it was not meet that he should take his leave of the French King and his Court, Throckmorton answered, that weighing the honour that had been done to him it would not be amiss for him to do so; according to which he minds to go to the Court within a day or two, and then to repair home with all diligence.
2. The assembly of the clergy at Poissy have devised certain articles to be disputed upon, which he sends herewith. Cannot perceive that they intend to bring in any question of ceremonies, doctrine, alterations, or grave reformation of abuses in the Church, as was hoped. They say that it belongs not to them to determine on those points, but that it must be done by a General Council of Christendom; and as the King of Spain's delegated ministers are on their way to the General Council, why should not they assist at it as well as the others? Whereupon a great number of gentlemen, to the number of 200, on the 17th, devised a request with a confession of their faith, and presented it to the King of Navarre, who put them over to the Queen Mother, and they have offered to dispute with the clergy thereupon; but at the despatch hereof they had no answer. Beza and Peter Martyr are daily looked for to come to this assembly, but seeing that the greater part is like to overcome the better, there is little hope that wit will be able to weigh with will.
3. The Estates assembled at Pontoise are like to grant the King great sums of money. The clergy and nobility have accorded that the governance of the realm shall rest upon the King of Navarre and the Queen Mother, but the third Estate will not yet consent thereto, alleging that their charge is to agree to none but to the Princes of the blood, and until they have other answer from their provinces they can go no farther.
4. The Cardinal of Ferrara comes hitherward as Legate from the Pope.
5. The writer's servant, coming by Calais, saw the Queen of Scotland haling out of that haven on the 14th inst. about noon, with two galleys and two great ships. Sure news has come out of Italy, that Dragut Raiz has lately taken seven galleys of the King of Spain, going towards Sicily, very rich, wherein were a great many gentlemen of good estimation. Hears some secret whispering that the Cardinal Granville will come this way shortly in post to pass into Spain.—Paris, 19 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
Sept.422. Council of Poissy.
1. "Principal points of religion disputable in France," viz:—
1. The use of images.
2. The administration of the Sacrament of baptism.
3. The Holy Communion.
4. The sacrifice of the Mass.
5. The imposition of hands, and the vocation of ministers.
6. To consider if there is any hope of a complete accord in doctrine.
2. On which points it is necessary to consider the reasons of separation, and also the usages of the primitive Church; and lastly, to see if some means cannot be found for arriving at a good union.
Orig. Endd. Fr. Pp. 2.
August 19.423. Throckmorton to the Privy Council.
Recapitulates the contents of his letter to the Queen of the same date. Now that the Queen of Scots is gone, he trusts that he may be recalled. As they have wrought for Chamberlain's revoke, who came forth almost twelve months after the writer did, so he hopes that they will be a means to the Queen that he may not be stayed here.—Paris, 19 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 4.
August 19.424. Throckmorton to Cecil.
1. The Queen's letters of the 12th reached him on the 15th. As far as the writer can judge, Lord Hertford means to return in post as soon as possible. He has given charge to the bearer, his servant, to meet him again at the sea side. He seems very ignorant of what the matter may mean. On the 18th instant two of his servants, Jenkin Crisp and Towle, arrived here, who were lately at the Court. Would be sorry he should incur the Queen's displeasure, for in him are many good parts, and he has, since his coming here, deserved the best thanks.
2. Cecil's son departs from the town to his host's house in the country to avoid the danger of the plague, which is rife here. If it cease when the cold weather comes he will repair hither again. Hears that Mr. Harry Knollys is in towardness to be Master of Eton College, and thereby will be better enabled to countenance this charge. Hopes that by Cecil's next despatch Knollys will be preferred to the College, and charged to put himself in readiness to occupy this place. Has presented some writing touching his revocation to the Lords, but not to the Queen.—Paris, 19 Aug. 1561. Signed.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
August 19.
Burgon, i. 395.
425. Gresham to Cecil.
1. Wrote last upon arriving at Dunkirk, and on the 18th instant he arrived at Antwerp. Has done nothing yet in the Queen's affairs, but perceives the merchant adventurers and staplers are ready for paying the money at the time appointed. There is great scarcity of money here at this present, and the exchange has fallen for London from 22s. 4d. to 22s., which will doubtless rise after this payment is past.
2. The King of Sweden has sent Commissioners into Wurtemberg to take up a number of horsemen and footmen; some think to make war against the King of Demark, who, with the Duke of Holst, arrests all the ships they can get at Hamburg and Bremen; for what purpose is not known. The Duke Augustus has sent the Count Swartzenburg and another Count in post to the King of Denmark. The said Duke and other nobles in Germany take it ill that King Philip would not allow any of his nobles to accompany the Prince of Orange to his marriage with Duke Maurice's daughter, fearing they should be corrupted with their heresies. The French King has sent the Order of St. Michael to the King of Denmark. He has shipped Cecil's four leather chairs and two of velvet, the others will be ready next week. Asks Cecil, at the Queen's coming to Enfield, to remember him for passing his account, and that he will write for Sir Walter Mildmay to be there. Sends his commendations to the Lord Admiral, Sir Francis Knollys, and Lady Cecil.—Antwerp, 19 Aug. 1561.
3. P. S.— There is no mention now of the King of Sweden's coming to England, for there is a practice for him to marry the daughter of the King of Poland, and Ambassadors are sent on both parts. The town is still triumphing and drinking which of the towns shall win the Land Jewel; there has been spent above 100,000l. Letters from Germany mention that the Emperor has the ague, and is in great danger. Sends herewith a letter from Dr. Mount.
Orig. Hol. Add. Endd. by Cecil's secretary. Pp. 3.
August 19.426. Advertisements from Italy.
1. Milan, 13 August 1561. Letters have arrived this day from Genoa of the 11th inst., which announces the arrival of Marco Antonio Caretto Doria, the Spanish admiral-in-chief. He will hoist his flag at Naples, where he will sail with the whole fleet in search of Dragut. The Marquis of Pescara will meet the Cardinal of Ferrara at Pavia, whence he will proceed to Casal. Sforzo Pallavicino has cleared a large open space round Bergamo, to the ruin of the vineyards and the destruction of the houses. The fortifications will be very costly.
2. Rome, 16 August. The Pope, after having been enjoying himself moving about from place to place, has now returned to St. Peter's. Although it is reported that he will go to Bologna, Viterbo, Perugia, and Loretto, many think that he will not pass beyond Frescati or Tivoli, as he has much to keep him busy at Rome. He is much interested about the buildings which have been begun. Count Broccardo Persico of Cremona (the bearer of the King of Spain's resolution about the gifts to the Signiori Borromei) is expected. The Cardinal Borromeo will have a pension of 12,000 ducats and the see of Toledo. The Count will also finish the negociations begun by Don Juan D'Ayala, who has returned to Spain. The rivers have risen much and are so filthy that the fish die, and are taken out in great plenty. A pestilence, such as happened before the taking of Rome, is hence apprehended. The palace, or rather the ruins of the Quatri Coronati of St. Clement, will be given to the Orphan House; but it is too distant and is very inconvenient. King Philip has distributed pensions to various Cardinals, whose names, and the amount received by them, are not known. A promotion of Cardinals will take place in September, all of whom are friends and relations of the Borromei.
3. At Naples, the Benedictines of the Order of St. George have quarrelled with the brethren of the Order of St. Lena, one of whom has been killed, whereupon the Pope has said that he will proceed against the entire body. The murderer has been secured and sent to the Pope, with the request that he would punish the criminal and not the Order.
4. Don Cæsar Gonzaga still has the fever, for which the Pope, who is much attached to him, is in great anxiety. The King of Spain has granted great powers to Don Cæsar through Ruy Gomez in remembrance of former obligations. King Philip has obtained extended privileges from the Pope respecting the galleys fitted out by him against the Turks. Cardinal Farnese is still in trouble in consequence of the ill turn which he did to the Duke of Florence with the King of Spain. The reported death of the Cardinal of Marsilia is not true.
5. Ferrara, 19 August. Don Giovanni De Guevarra, keeper of the castle of Piacenza, has arrived here to condole, in the name of the King of Spain, upon the death of the Duchess; he next proceeds to Florence. But he is planning a marriage between the Duke of Ferrara and the Infante of Portugal. (fn. 2) She is about 22 years old, very beautiful, with a dower of 300,000 ducats. He has 100,000 from his father, King Philip gives him as many, and he has 50,000 from the Duke of Savoy (the chief manager of this match), and 50,000 from his uncle, the Duke of Braganza. Cardinal D'Este is still ill.
Orig. Endd. Ital. Pp. 4.
August 20.427. The Queen to the Marshal and Treasurer of Berwick.
They shall send Captain Reid with 200 soldiers, the most part of whom are to be harquebussiers, to the coast of Cumberland, there to take shipping for Carlingford in Ireland, to serve at Armagh, where the Lord Lieutenant will be on the 30th.
Copy. Endd. Pp. 3.

Footnotes

1 Instructions for S. Cosme.
August 2.
Sloane, 4142. 108 b.
Instructions for the Lord of S. Cosme as to his negociations in England.
1. The reasons why the Queen of Scotland does not ratify the treaty of Edinburgh are the following:—
2. The first article, concerning the treaty of Cambray, specifies nothing respecting the Queen, but refers solely to the King of France and the Queen of England.
3. The form of the second article must be altered before the Queen of Scotland can ratify the articles.
4. The Queen of Scotland has proved her sincerity by withdrawing her troops from Scotland into France.
5. The fortresses of Eymouth and such others as have been recently erected have been demolished, according to the fourth article.
6. Since the death of her husband, the Queen of Scotland has never used the arms of England and Ireland; but she cannot cause such as exist in private houses to be defaced.
7. She cannot command the Bishop of Valence or M. De Randan to come into England to settle the affairs mentioned in the sixth article.
8. Has always treated her subjects with kindness, and will continue to do so.
9. Although the reasons given above are in themselves sufficient, yet she intimates that she has despatched the Lord S. Cosme to her subjects in Scotland, requesting them to deliberate upon this treaty; for which purpose he shall ask Queen Elizabeth to furnish him with a passport through England in post. She follows herein the advice given her by the Earl of Bedford and the English Ambassador resident in France, and desires that Queen Elizabeth will believe that she has an earnest desire for the preservation of peace and amity.—Calais, 2 Aug. 1561. Signed: Marie, — Raulet.
Modern transcript.
2 At the bottom of the page Cecil has sketched a pedigree, showing the connexion between the two families.