September 1578, 1-5


Institute of Historical Research



Arthur John Butler (editor)

Year published





Comment on this article
Double click anywhere on the text to add an annotation in-line

Citation Show another format:

'Elizabeth: September 1578, 1-5', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 13: 1578-1579 (1903), pp. 169-181. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73373 Date accessed: 20 April 2014. Add to my bookshelf


(Min 3 characters)

September 1578, 1-5

Sept. 1.
K. d. L. x. 785.
Yesterday the term prescribed to the States' deputies expired ; at which time having concluded nothing, and having as it seems little hope of doing good, our Lords were minded to come away as this morning. But the States having consented to a prolongation of 7 or 8 days for the delivery of the towns if the peace go forward, it may perhaps detain them longer. Here it is generally conceived that the necessity to which the affairs of the enemy are reduced will incline him to a peace, if there be no intelligence between him and the French ; a matter not beyond suspicion. Last Friday the Duke of Alençon was here proclaimed Défenseur de la liberté belgique contre la tyrannic Espagnole, and his deputies have since pressed for the States' resolution where to employ their troops, who they say have passed muster and received their first month's pay ; but the determination seems suspended till they see the end of the treaty. Yet the Duke of Aerschot is dispatched to the frontier with order to deliver up the towns agreed upon ; though some think there will be a difficulty in the execution. Late last night arrived a courier from the Emperor to his Ambassador, with news of the authority which he has received from the King of Spain to conclude this peace. They think the King is the rather inclined to this because by letters of the 7th and 9th ult. from Madrid the dispatch of the Duke of Terranova to the same end toward his Imperial Majesty is confirmed. The alteration of religion goes roundly forward in Flanders, especially in the town and liberties of Ghent ; where they generally suppress the religious houses, banish the clergy, confiscate their lands and livings, break down the images, and commit other innovations 'hardly digested of many.' Here, proceeding with more temperance the Protestants have this last week four places granted to them by the Council for the public exercise of their religion which began yesterday ; the 'Lutheriens' having obtained two places for their assemblies. The tumult at Valenciennes about the appointment of their magistrates is so far rather mitigated than thoroughly appeased. Last week the 'Gauntoys' cut in pieces two companies of foot of Count Lalaing's regiment, who being permitted to live at discretion upon the bonhomme for lack of their pay had committed divers outrages iu the territory ; the like course being taken by the governor of Alost with a cornet of horseman that had done like spoils within their liberties. Our camps have hitherto lain still since the arrival of Duke Casimir, wasting and spoiling the country even to the gates of this town, and as yet there is no certainty of their removing ; the matter depending wholly upon the slack provision of money, which unless it be otherwise supplied than there is yet appearance of will go near to make their service unprofitable for this season, besides being no little hindrance to the peace. Duke Casinir has sent his plate and jewels hither to be engaged for 10,000 or 12,000 florins towards the contentment of his men, who are still behind for their 'naughgelt' ; but his ministers after a great deal of travail are hopeless to supply their master's necessity by that or any other means here. The enemy, distressed with sickness, and want of money and victuals, is encamped in certain villages between Louvain and Namur in no disposition, as some think, to hazard a battle.— Antwerp, 1 Sept. 1578. Add. Endd. 1½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 1.]
Sept. 1. 212. Draft of the above in Davison's hand, with some additions : 'Duke Casimir (who has sent his plate, etc. as above), pretends to desire nothing than to approach the enemy, who is now encamped' as above. Of foreign matter we hear from Rochelle that the Prince of Condé has narrowly escaped a surprise, notwithstanding all the fair weather made to him. Out of Germany we hear that the Emperor having suppressed the exercise of religion at Vienna has attempted the like at Linz ; but the nobility and people opposing it as a thing directly against their privileges, he has desisted. 'Upon some advice out of Spain' there is a report of the defeat of the Portugal by the Moors. The credit of it depends upon a second information. Endd. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 1a.]
Sept. 2.
K. d. L. x. 790.
By the general letter to my Lord you may see how we have proceeded in the treaty of peace. We are very sorry it has taken a contrary effect to that we looked for ; especially having, in the delay in dispatching Mr Sommers, reason to fear that you are but coldly affected to render reasonable assistance to those of this country when it may stand them most in stead. The uncertainty of your dealing has greatly alienated the people's hearts here, so that if you do not return Mr Sommers with a good answer, make full account that they will no longer depend on us. Pray further this bearer's dispatch with her Majesty's order for our return as soon as you can. Our abode here is no less unprofitable to ourselves than chargeable to her, and therefore the less we stay, the more profit it will be both for her and us. A servant of Lord Cobham's is dead of the plague since our return from Louvain, and I greatly fear our train is tainted. The French ambassador who stayed only two days there lost two of his chief gentlemen of the plague ; and therefore we that stayed ten days at least are greatly in doubt that we shall not escape so 'good cheap,' beside the danger of our own persons, having no privilege above the rest. I refer you for occurrents to Mr Davison's letters.—Antwerp, 2 Sept. 1578. Add. Endd. 1 p. [Ibid. IX. 2.]
Various dates. (June- Sept. 2.) 214. Twenty-four pages, apparently from an entry book of Sir F. Walsingham's, containing copies of reports, letters, &c., relating to the embassy of Lord Cobham and himself. The contents have been calendared under the dates to which they belong. [Ibid. IX. 3.]
Sept. 2. 215. [WALSINGHAM] to [BURGHLEY.]
Your Lordship's letter sent by Mr Sommers I have received, and find to my great grief the answer such as I looked for, having seen by experience that your long consultations most commonly end with the worst resolutions. By whose advice her Majesty is directed to deal so hardly with those of this country, depending as they do chiefly upon her favour in their necessity, when a little treasure may do more good than millions at another time, I know not ; but I am sure that the alienation of these people's hearts from her, which I see already come to pass, will breed so great peril to herself and so great mistrust to the whole realm, that she will curse them that were authors of the advice when she perceives that they had more regard to some private profit (for it comes to pass either by corruption or that they are weary of her government), than to her safety, as in duty they are bound. For he that looks into her present state, weighing things as well at home as abroad, shall see by this decision so dangerous a storm drawing on as is likely to blemish the blessedness of her former course of government. First, to look into things abroad : it is over apparent how Spain and France are affected towards her ; and if any think they may work her safety by procuring a reconciliation between her and them—' as I know some have been carried away with such conceits' —they will be found to be authors of very dangerous and unsound counsel, building safety upon a reconciled enemy, some of whom are so carried away with the desire of revenge that they spared not their own blood in the nearest degree. The Prince and States here, who were altogether at her Majesty's devotion, seeing themselves abandoned, cannot but withdraw their goodwill, and of assured friends grow most dangerous enemies. I will therefore take upon me hereafter to give no further assurance of the Prince's friendship. As for the King of Navarre and Prince of Condé, they are to learn by the usage of those of the Low Country what they have to look for. How greatly Duke Casimir repents his repair into these countries, I suppose will appear by his own letters to her Highness. To conclude, Scotland, which is the postern gate, seeing the mischief and malice which is borne and 'tended' against us, I see disposed (though it may be patched up for a time) to take another course for their safety, and not to depend upon those who they think make little account of them ; having dismissed their ambassador with so evil satisfaction, as I perceive by a letter from Alexander H[ay] they were (sic). For the common cause he greatly laments it. To heap up the mischief in full measure, I fear the Duke of Alençon's ministers will be sent back ill-satisfied. Now for the discontent at home. If her Majesty would look truly into it, and the misliking that reigns generally in all 'States,' though men make outwardly a fair show, she would see that the approach of some dangerous alteration is at hand ; which I fear the rather that you and the rest of her Council with whom she has conferred touching 'these country causes' have most faithfully and substantially delivered your minds, as Mr Sommers informs me, who was present at the debating of the matter. Seeing therefore that good counsel cannot take effect, it is an argument that the mischief likely to light on the realm is 'fatal' and cannot be avoided. The only remedy left to us is prayer. As you advised, I have set down the reasons which moved us 'to allow, or at least not to mislike of' the number of the French forces as agreed between them and the States. If it would please her Majesty to hear before condemning, her displeasure would be avoided, and her ministers would serve with more courage and contentment. But I fear these mislikes grow by practice of some not the best affected towards me ; whereof I have received very hard measure since my repair hither. I am enjoined by my wife to yield you my humble thanks for your comfortable letters to her, which, among other benefits I have received at your hands, I do not esteem the least. Copy. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 3x.]
Sept. 2[?]
K. d. L. x. 818.
216. [WALSINGHAM] to [HATTON.] (fn. 1)
Sir, if it be good to have these countries possessed by the French, and alienated in good will from England, then you have returned Mr Sommers with a good dispatch. But if nothing can be more prejudicial than such a resolution as may minister just cause of alienation, you have committed a most dangerous (I will not say irreparable) error. For first these people mean to depend no more upon your uncertainties, though they are the more grieved that they will be forced to have recourse to a remedy such as may be termed medecina morbo deterius. We do what we can to help the matter, and stay them from taking a desperate resolution. We put them in some hope that upon our return her Majesty will be well informed of the state of their affairs and will take some resolution that will be to their comfort ; which though it breed some content in them for a time yet when they weigh the uncertainty of former resolutions, and how dangerous it is for certain diseases to be relieved by uncertain remedies, they despair of receiving any good. Her Majesty will never have the like occasion to do them good as she might by granting the relief they demanded ; 'the estate of their affairs standing there upon making or marring.' But things past cannot be called back again. Your strange proceeding with them of Scotland makes us the less wonder at your proceeding with them of this country ; and the consideration of both gives me cause to think that there hangs over that realm, which hitherto under her Majesty's government has been blessed with a rare quietness, some most dangerous storm. I am told so to fear the rather that I am informed by Mr Sommers that no prince could be more faithfully dealt with by counsellors than she has been of hers ; wherein he tells me that no man could deal more faithfully than yourself. Where the advice of counsellors cannot prevail with a prince of her judgement, it is a sign that God has closed up her heart from seeing and executing what may be her safety ; which we who love her and depend on her fortune cannot think of but with grief. Lord Cobham and I particularly have cause to think ourselves most unfortunate to be employed in a legation that is like to have so hard an issue. But I hope the world can witness that there lacked no good will in us to do what our calling required. Copy. 1¼ pp. [Ibid. IX. 3λ.]
Sept. 2. 217. [WALSINGHAM] to LEICESTER.
Don John's not yielding to a peace, standing as he does in very hard terms, greatly amazes me. That he has intelligence with Monsieur is not without some just ground of suspicion ; yet I cannot yield to it when I consider that the possession of these countries, which I see clearly are likely to come into his hands, will be more profitable to him than any benefit he can receive from the King of Spain by treasonable dealing. I rather approve the French Ambassador's opinion that was here, who reporting to us what passed between Don John and him, let us understand that he saw no disposition in Don John to make peace. 'For,' said he, 'Don John as long as the wars continue is a great prince, being followed by 20,000 men ; and when the wars end, he has not a foot of ground to repair to. Moreover, by the continuance of the wars he draws to him the good will of martial men, which may serve his turn to many purposes, either in seeking to possess himself of his brother's dominions, or to dispossess some other where he may by practice find some footing.' I am sorry that the peace cannot take place ; doubting, by the delay in the dispatch of Mr Sommers, that her Majesty has no disposition to embrace this cause as in reason and policy she ought to do. Truly, we were greatly grieved with the Marquis's speeches, contained in the letter directed to my Lords, laying before us the harm growing to them by non-execution of her Majesty's promise ; having nothing in substance to reply for the defence. We see plainly that if Mr Sommers is not sent back with good answer, they are resolved to have no further dealings with us, so that we, leaving them unsatisfied, shall return home the most discontented ministers that ever were employed on foreign service in respect not of our own credits, which but for places we hold would be of no great weight, but of the mischief likely to ensue both at once to her Majesty, and to her successors by the alienation of these people's hearts from her. But seeing it seems to be a thing decreed by Him that governs all things, we must digest it with patience, and pray to Him who is hope against hope to give another issue than in reason or policy is to be looked for. Copy. 1 p. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 3μ.]
[Sept. 2, but earlier in the day than No. 215.]
K. d. L. x. 788.
We had hoped that our travail for peace would have taken better effect, seeing so many reasons to move us to think that Don John has no reason to continue the wars as he does ; having, beside the infection of his camp, no money to content his soldiers nor means for conveying it, being afraid to pass it by way of France. Besides, we do not see how his camp can be victualled, Monsieur having given order, as I understand, to prevent any coming out of France. If the States' camp, which cannot 'dislodge' for lack of money, had followed him, they had ere this either forced him to yield to a peace or caused him to retire into a town. Great pity it is that her Majesty 'sticking to give credit' for 200,000 guilders should be an impediment and let to what might have benefited these countries so much and put her in security. If Mr Sommers does not now return with a good answer, her Majesty is to make full account that these people are no longer to depend on her assistance. They do not stick openly to give out that it had been better for them to have given her £100,000 than to have had any dealings with her ; considering the great prejudice they have received by the uncertainty of the assistance. Though I have had many causes of grief since my employment here, nothing perplexes me so much as to leave this people so ill satisfied as I perceive we shall ; of which the French are to make their profit, whatever they protest to the contrary. He is worthy to be deceived who will trust to French promises. I beseech you, as we see no further cause for our stay here, where we shall grow daily more hateful, that if Mr Sommers bring no order for our return, this bearer may be dispatched with all expedition.—Antwerp, 2 Sep. 1578. Holograph. Add. Endd. 2 pp. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 4.]
219. Copy of above letter. 1 p. [Ibid. IX. 3ν.]
Sept. 2, [but earlier in the day than No. 216.] 220. [WALSINGHAM] to 'MR. VICE-CHAMBERLAIN' (HATTON).
By the negligence of him that made up the packet at our last dispatch the letter that I had written to you was not sent. The contents of it were to put you in the hope of a peace, which now has fallen out quite contrary to our expectation. We are amazed to see Don John continue the war, finding nothing to induce him to do so, save some particular respects which are more force with him than that which in duty he owes to the King his brother. If the mischief likely to ensue by his not yielding to a peace lighted only upon himself, the harm would be less ; but it seems most clearly that her Majesty and the Crown of England will be partakers of it, through the strange course she takes in these causes. I can but most heartily lament it. If Mr Sommers does not return with some good answer I see a plain disposition in those here to depend no more on her assistance. You and the rest of my Lords know how plainly we have discharged our duty since our repair hither. We can only lament that more credit is not given to it, importing her Majesty as much as it does in honour and safety. Copy. 2/3 [Ibid. IX. 3ν.]
I hear by my friend from Court of your most friendly dealing towards us, and how careful you are to defend the doings of your absent friends, which is no common virtue where men live by the present and not by the absent. But since rare things are best esteemed, you will do well to continue it ; and so, besides that you will make us greatly beholden to you, and ready to requite you with the like friendship, you will draw others to esteem you who can best judge what is the office of a true friend. How hardly we have been dealt with, especially myself, since my departure from Court, I am sure you are not ignorant, the matter having been made so public. Where men are disposed to find fault, it is very hard to please. Sometimes we are misliked of for overlong writing, sometimes for overshort writing ; so that to keep mediocrity to the content of those that are guided in their likings by others' passions is a thing almost impossible. We both have cause to acknowledge ourselves beholden to your best friend ; whose honourable friendship has stood us in best stead. God send me well to return, and I will hereafter take my leave of foreign service, or as this bearer, Captain Colborne, terms it, ambassador's craft ; seeing men are so ready to pick quarrels and 'to deprave careful, painful, and good meaning. Touching the state of things here, if Don John does not retire, it is thought they will come to a fight within a few days ; but men of best judgement think he will withdraw to Namur, his forces being much inferior to the States', and weakened by infection, which as we learn increases much. What result the peace will have now that it is committed to the Emperor's hands, time only can teach us ; for my own part, I am not altogether out of hope but that it may take good effect, the Emperor being afraid that the French may become possessors of these countries. The king himself also is altogether weary of the wars, 'not being in that state for treasure to maintain the same as by some is conceived that take pleasure to set out his greatness,' as appears from the most part of Don John's forces being unpaid for eight months. Copy. 1¼ pp. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 3ο.]
[Sept. 2?] or later? 222. [WALSINGHAM] to —
Sir, Pray excuse my late answer to your letter ; for since my coming hither I have had my hands full, having to deal with divers persons, and charge of matter full of cumber. Yet my greatest trouble has not grown here, but through the hard measure I have received from your quarters, 'particularly' for my own self, but chiefly for the causes I deal in. If other men employed in like service receive no more comfort, they will rather desire imprisonment than employment. But hereof we will talk more at large at our next meeting ; which I hope will be soon, awaiting hourly order for our return. Copy. 14ll. [Ibid. IX. 3π.]
[Sept. 2?] or later? 223. [WALSINGHAM] to —
Sir, I excuse you for not writing that you may not blame me for not answering ; having enough to do to withstand home malice which has wrought me no small grief of mind to be so unkindly dealt with as I have been. But this private grief has not so much troubled me as the untoward dealing for the public, in which regard has been had neither to honour nor policy ; which cannot but bring forth dolorous effects. It is hard to stop the decrees of the Highest. No country can be sure of always enjoying peaceable government. The soundest and best constituted bodies are sometimes subject to maladies. I pray God the disease that is like to light on our State prove not mortal. It is most commonly seen that the bodies which have long been free from sickness are most dangerously touched when they once fall sick. Our remedy must be prayer, for other help I see none. Standing now upon my return, I shall shortly have the 'commode' to deliver that by speech which I would be loth to commit to letter. Copy. ½ p. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 3ρ.]
[Sept. 2?] 224. [WALSINGHAM] to —
Sir, Our expectation of peace has not 'taken that good success' we looked for ; which I heartily lament, considering how coldly her Majesty is affected to assist them. They are I see disposed no longer to depend upon your uncertainties. How prejudicial this may be to the Crown of England in her own time and in time to come, I leave to your judgement, being sorry to have had any dealing in the cause. I hope the world will witness it was not by our fault. Copy. 14ll. [Ib. IX. 3σ.]
Sept. 3. 225. A note of the bonds to PALLAVICINO and SPINOLA.
'The Queen's Majesty stands bound in six several bonds, bearing date at Kirtling, the third Sept. A.D. 1578 to satisfy unto Sor Horatio Paulovicino (sic), merchant of Genoa, the sum of £16,636 7s. 3d.,' half to be paid on Feb. 28, 1579, and half on Oct. 31, 1579. Also to Baptista Spinola of Genoa, for £12,121 4s. to be paid in equal instalments of £5,860 1s. on June 30 and Dec. 31, leaving £401 2s. over. Endd. ¾ p. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 5.]
Sept. 3 & 5. 226. Rough memorandum of six obligations (two for £2,100, two for £2,000, two for £1,760) by the Queen (Sep. 3) and the city of London (Sep. 5) in favour of Baptista Spinola or bearer. Signed by W. Davison. Fr. 1 p. [Ibid. IX. 6.]
Sept. 4.
K. d. L. x. 794.
Having since my arrival in Flanders perused all the fortifications of Bruges, Ghent, Antwerp, Mechlin and Brussels, I find Ghent the most strongly situate, upon the confluence of many swift and great rivers, 'which by engine at one place in the heart of the city, where those rivers as in a centre concur, may be so elevate that they will drown the country a great distance round about,' save where it is so supplied with 'spurres and foreign bulwarks' made with such forcible rampires, well-flanked curtains, large and deep ditches, environed with counterscarfs, that if the 'hudge' works they have begun were finished, considering also the forts and passages of importance that they have subject to their state, I judge the 'Gauntoys' well able to canton and defend themselves against any prince. And as they are more forward in religion than all the the rest of the states so are they more friendly to England, and most dislike the entry of the French. Against the Spaniards all the states are so resolutely bent, that they have beaten to the ground all their 'suburges,' refusing no charges to perform their 'hudge' fortifications ; and seem bent to the death never again to admit the yoke of Spanish garrison. In the camp the disorder is such that though their numbers are great, and horsemen well appointed, there is small hope of good success. The Scots are all shot, without pikes, and so of themselves not able to make head against the enemy. The English that were reputed above 3,400 are now in truth not 1,500. The 'lanceknights' with Casimir that are reported 3,000 pikes are but 10 ensigns, and in truth not 2,000, but they encamp more strongly and orderly, having entrenched themselves in a piece of ground 60 paces broad and 1,000 long, near the castle where Duke Casimir lodges. This much I can report certainly ; but touching the number of horse in the 'legar' and foot in the French camp, I can yet say nothing, not having seen them since my coming 'reduced into troops' or any forms of 'embattaling' and their lodgings so scattered that no certain conjecture can be got that way. The whole camp lies between the branches of the Dyle, a Dutch mile from Mechlin, the whole country there being so settled upon 'straights' and enclosed grounds that their horsemen (at least 14,000), are utterly unprofitable. The reiters waste and spoil their 'friend' country, so that the villages are abandoned to within a mile of Antwerp. The English and Scots having no pay to live upon are likewise forced to get themselves food by spoil, and have lately fired Aerschot and rifled all the country thereabouts, bringing into camp the pillage of the villages near Louvain ; whereby our camp is also infected with the pestilence, and partly thereby, partly by slaughter in their disordered spoils, half our people are consumed. The coming of Monsieur to the camp with 10,000 foot under Colonel 'Bussee' and 3,000 horse is shortly expected ; but how much the people generally repine at it, what treason they suspect, what 'jealousy' even of the Prince they have conceived on that ground, I know you have more sufficient intelligence than my new arrival enables me to give. But if I perceive the advertisement here of any matters that I know will be acceptable, I will direct myself in that way, or in any other that you may command, to deserve the great favours you have in many ways shown me. The honourable entertainment it has pleased the Prince of Orange to give me, and the acquaintance I have with M. Famars and Villiers, on whom his Excellency not a little relies, will give me opportunity to see somewhat further into the present proceedings than a mere 'stranger person.'—Antwerp, 4 Sep., 1578. Add. Endd. 2½ pp. [Holl. and Fl. IX. 7.]
Sept. 5. 228. The LORDS of the COUNCIL to POULET.
The Queen having received your letter of Aug. 25 has commanded us to signify her 'good allowance' of the occasion taken, and her good liking of the advices that you sent. At the same time her pleasure is that we should make you acquainted with the points of M. 'Rambolleit's' negotiation and of the answer that her Highness appointed to be given him. First he declared to her Majesty how and on what occasion the Duke of Anjou had expressed to his mother his intention to renew his suit to the Queen ; and that the King being advertised by her and reminded by M. Mauvissière, allowed so well of his brother's disposition that he could not but impart to her his satisfaction, and send Rambouillet to promote and further the same. Secondly, we should understand that the King was neither 'willing' to his brother's journey to the Low Countries, nor yet privy when he departed ; but had used all persuasion, by himself, the ambassador, the Pope, the minister of the King of Spain and others, to divest him ; but his sudden going showed how little those persuasions had prevailed. Thirdly, whereas it may be thought that the King would further his going with a view to acquiring the Low Countries to increase the dominions of France, the King assures her Majesty that he is determined in no wise to seek an alienation of those countries from the King of Spain, but has sought to reconcile them to the King, and has laboured with the King that he would agree to their demands in all reasonable things, and if they demand things unreasonable, he would rather aid the King than suffer him to be deprived of his rights. Fourthly, he said that his master having heard of certain ambassadors sent from Scotland to her Majesty and not knowing their intention, thought it convenient to send him thither to require that no treaty should be made to the prejudice of the ancient confederation between the crowns of France and Scotland. Lastly he moved in the King's behalf some small matters touching the Queen of Scots, as that she might have some money sent her, that she might for her health's sake have more liberty and another physician, the one that she now has being very old, that she might change some old servants that are unable to serve her, and that an auditor might be allowed access to her to take her treasurer's account, it being long since this was done. To these matters her Majesty's pleasure was that Rambouillet should receive answer by us ; and so answer was given to him and Mauvissière, being both present, as follows— First, she thanked the King for imparting to her the circumstances how he came to the knowledge of his brother's intention and his desire to further it. She finds it true that his brother 'did deliver of his intention' to his mother ; for so he has renewed the same, having been as it were buried for the space of two years, but upon what occasion her Majesty knows not. To that end she has of late received sundry letters and sundry messengers and some lately by Bacqueville with the King's permission ; in all which are declared manifest arguments of love and goodwill which Monsieur bears to her Majesty in the cause of marriage. Wherein considering the long silence there has been in this matter, her Majesty thinks it good to use some deliberation to take advice in a matter of this moment, and means, as she shall find the continuance of the Duke of Anjou's goodwill, so to satisfy it as reason and honour shall require. [Last six words in L. Tomson's hand.] To the second and third articles, containing the King's unwillingness to his brother's enterprise into the Low Countries, and his purpose now that he is there, her Majesty answers that albeit she has been diversly advised that other meanings are hidden under that enterprise, she is right glad to hear that the King expresses himself as determined to proceed with such integrity, which is agreeable to her own intention for the reconciling of those controversies. To show the integrity of her part from the beginning, she has so much regarded the interest of the King of Spain in his Low Countries, that she has forborne for a long time to accept many offers from the Estates of those countries to submit themselves to her protection to be delivered from the tyranny of the Spaniards. On the contrary by her ambassador to the King and messenger to Don John, she has solicited their reconciliation to the King as Duke of Burgundy, and to preserve them in their liberties from the said tyranny she has not spared to relieve them whilst by treaty and other feasible (sic, but peasible in draft) means she might obtain for them in doing their duties as good subjects, peace and favour of the King. To the fourth, concerning the ambassador of Scotland, it was answered that the young King having lately been persuaded, by advice of sundry of his nobility, now at his age of 12 years to take upon him the government in his own person and to resume the authority which the Earl of Morton had as Regent, he knowing how much he is bound to her Majesty for his conservation in kis kingdom, and considering that she is his nearest cousin and such a neighbour to him that no prince christened can do him more good or harm, sent to her to impart his estate, and required continuance of her favours and advice. Which message she accepted kindly and has promised him assistance, and aid at all times to reform and suppress his adversaries ; which she thinks are nothing prejudicial to the amity between the French King and him, for in all those things the French King will rather join her than sever from her. Lastly, in answer to the requests made for the Queen of Scots, she has already allowed money to be sent her, and more shall be when there is reasonable occasion. So in all matters pertaining to her health, her service and her accounts, her Majesty will not be found 'strange' to grant what is sought, so long as she shall find that under the pretence of these requests there is no other meaning than is plainly expressed. To this end she has given the Earl of Shrewsbury ample authority to permit her all liberty meet for her health, and to change such servants as he shall think meet, or release such as are unable to continue with her. Thus much her Majesty wishes us to tell you, that at M. Rambouillet's return you may not be unacquainted how he has been dealt with, and may be able to 'discern of' the reports which he shall make, or to use yourself the same speeches in her Majesty's name. And whereas her Majesty is given to understand that various rebels, fugitives, and bad disposed persons gone out of this realm, some of them such as have upon her Majesty's motion been banished out of the King of Spain's dominions, are received and do haunt in that realm, and divers of them are at present at 'Rohane' [Rouen], her pleasure is that you shall deal earnestly with the King that no such may be received nor suffered to remain within his dominions ; and declare to him that seeing the like request has been granted and put into execution by the King of Spain, her Majesty will have cause to think that it can hardly concur with his offers of unity otherwise, that such persons should find relief or comfort in his countries. If you can, deliver to him in writing the names of such persons, adding from time to time others that shall come to your knowledge. Copy. Endd. by L. Tomson : The 5th of September, 1578. Copy of my LL's letter to Sir Amyas Poulett. 4½ pp. [France II. 66.]
Sept. 5. 229. Draft of the above, with many additions and corrections in Lord Burghley's hand. 4 pp. Endd : A m. of a lre. to Sir A. Poulet by Osburn his servant, from the II. [Ibid. II. 67.]
230. Later copy of certain passages from the above apparently made for Sir J. Williamson. [Ibid. II. 67 a.]


1 See Wright, Queen Elizabeth and her Times, vol. ii. p. 93 (where it is dated Sep. 9. The copy however stands between those of two letters dated Sep. 2, and it was probably part of the same dispatch).