America and West Indies
July 1708, 1-4

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Institute of Historical Research

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Cecil Headlam (editor)

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1922

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2-18

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'America and West Indies: July 1708, 1-4', Calendar of State Papers Colonial, America and West Indies, Volume 24: 1708-1709 (1922), pp. 2-18. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=73781 Date accessed: 23 August 2014.


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July 1708, 1-4

July–Dec.3. Passports for 32 ships to sail without convoys or embargo in America and the West Indies.
[C.O. 5, 210. pp. 107, 112, 116, 118, 121, 124, 125.]
July 1.
Whitehall.
4. Council of Trade and Plantations to the Earl of Sun derland. Reply to letter of June 29. We have no objection to Mr. Lewis Morris being restored to his place and precedency in the Council of New Jersey, from which he has been suspended by the Lord Cornbury: But we are apprehensive some inconvenience may insue upon the displacing of either Mr. Cox or Mr. Sonmans, some time since appointed by H.M., and therefore are of opinion that they be continued, and that Mr. John Harrison, who is the last of those we had proposed by our Representation of May 31, be left out. [C.O. 5, 994. pp. 449, 450.]
July 1.
St. Xphers.
5. Governor Parke to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Acknowledges letters of Jan. 29 and Feb. 26. I hope H.M. will think itt for her service to order all the officers to their posts, the Regiment else in a little time will be in the same condition the last was, ⅓rd of their arms are already unserviceable, and they have 10 months pay due to them, so that I am forced to give them liberty to worke, and onely keep the most necessary guards, as at Monks Hill, and in the severall ffortts appointing them a place of Rendevous in case of alarms; the giving them quarters is so expensive to the Islands, they are quite weary of it, and will do it no longer. Indeed Antigua excepted, the rest are not able; and Antigua is so expensive a place to live in that a soldier cannot live on his pay there, here they can as beef is at present, but for Indian provissions, which is what they must cheifly live on is just as dear againe in Antigua as 'tis in St. Kitts, therefore I have brought most of the men here; the Regiment will hardly be of use except they are paid, armed and cloathed, and whilst the Coll. and Major and great number of officers are at home, it will never be; Major Aldy has not yet been here, who ought never to be from the Regiment, the Coll. agrees with merchants to pay the Regiment, they make use of the mony, and take no care to pay the Regiment, the mony ought to be sent by the packet every month, here is one Company has no officer to it, and severall with but one. Coll. Jones, the Lt. Col., has downe right quarrell'd with me because I would not give him leave to go home, and so has severall others; I have given leave but to two Ensigns and a Lieut., one had the leprosie, the other very ill, and the third was good for nothing; Coll. Jones tells me he has got leave from home, wch. will come by the next packet. I suppose in 5 or 6 months most of the rest will have leave to go home, or if your Lordships does not prevent. Whenever your Lordships have not had the Minutes of the Councills and Assemblys regularly, it has not been my fault. I have from time to time constantly called upon and writt to the severall Secretarys for them, and 'tis their fault, by this oppertunety you will receive all from Nevis and this Island to this day; there is only the last three months due from Antigua and Montserrat, wch. if possible to be got shall be sent by the next packet, those of Antigua will be long, and give your Lordships some trouble to hear them read. Coll. Codrington and his Emissarys has put such notions into their heads that untill they are told from yr. Lordships they are in the wrong, they will do nothing; they drew up a bill for Priviledges, wherein the Assembly makes themselves a Court of Judicature to fine and imprison etc.; they deny the Queen the negative voice, and severall other matters never heard of before, the quarrell began between the Councill and Assembly whilst I was at St. Kitts. I thought the Lt. Governor and Councill so much in the right, that I could not but approve of all they had done, when I came up, they had no priviledge taken from them, everything had run in the same channel it had allways done. I let them know I had instructions not to pass any Law of an extraordinary nature without first laying it before your Lordships, that I was onely intrusted with the Queen's prerogative, she might do as she pleased, but to give any part away, would be a breach of trust in me; your Lordships will see in one of their last messages they promise to be gratefull to me, if I would pass what Laws they desired, in short, one of their Members came to me early the next morning and gave me to understand that I should have a noble present, and also the thousand pounds as they call it paid me better then I had it last year for my house rent. I told him in private, and sent them a publick message that I would not betray my trust on any consideration whatever. I kept them to the day before the Fleet sail'd, therefore 'twas impossible to send you the Minutes, but the Deputy Secretary has promised them wth. coppies of those Laws, to go by the packet if she does not come very soon: yr. Lordships will then be able to judge of the whole matter, and be able to direct me what to do.
As to the Order relating to my house-rent, I shall be very glad to gett what yr. Lordships have been pleas'd to allow me, but as it is order'd, must lay it before the Generall Councill and Assembly of all the four Islands, wch. can't be done untill I have a man of warr; the first year I was paid 'tis true, but so as it did me little good—I was paid in sugar after the ffleet was gone; as for what St. Christophers promised me, the hurricane has made them so poor, they are not able. I have not so much as asked one pound of sugar from them, nor expect any. I am to have nothing from Antigua except I give up the Queen's prerogative and pass such laws as will make them a Commonwealth, so that this yeare a necessitous man that had been in my post must either have starved or betrayed his trust. I assure your Lordships none of these Governments give something for nothing, therefore the Queen should allow her Governors such sallary as they may be able to lay up something to keep them when out of their Governments, and to receive nothing from the Inhabitants; if the Queen will advance my sallary to £2000 per annum as the other Governors have, I will be content to suffer as a Traytour if ever I take any ffee, present, perquisit or reward, private or publick, whilst I have the honour to command; 'tis true the Governour of Bermudas has not a sallary of £2000 per annum, but then he has an independent Company, and a benefit out of the whalefishing, wch. makes it much more, and one may buy as much provission there for five shill. as here for 20. I leave this to your Lordships' consideration. I beg the same favour of your Lordships (wch. the poorest man and greatest criminal has a right too) that is that I may not be condemn'd unheard, for there is no doubt but Coll. Codrington by himself or his friends will misrepresent every thing; he wants not will to do itt (except in the full and change of the moon). I beg that you will suspend your judgement untill you have seen the Minutes of the Councill and Assembly; then your Lordships will be convinced I have lost my sallary for house-rent because I would not break my Instructions. I hope I shall not suffer in your Lordships' good opinion for obeying your orders. In this dispute Barry Tankard Esq., one of the Councill, was for gratifyeing the Assembly in everything, and because he could not bring over anybody else to his opinion, he affronted the Councill and left them declareing he would never sitt more; pursuant to the Order I receiv'd from your Lordships, I writt to him by the Secretary, he came to towne that day the Councill satt, but neither came to Councill, nor answered the letter, against the next Councill day, I had him writt to againe, wch. he never answered nor came, tho that day in towne alsoe; and for seaven Councill dayes together never came nor sent any excuse; at last two of the Councill spoke to him, his answer was, he would never sitt more, all wch. is entred in the Councill books, and therefore pursuant to the Order I receiv'd from yr. Lordships, and by the advice and consent of the Councill I suspended him; therefore since it has been done pursuant to yr. Lordships Instructions I hope the suspension will be confirm'd, and his name struck out of the list of Councillors for Antigua; I had but six Councellors left, for Coll. Williams has been bed-rid ever since I came, he has never been sworne, and Major Lyons has kept his chamber this six months, and Mr. Crab in England, therefore I was necessitated to swear another, wch. is Coll. Wm. Byam, wch. I hope yr. Lordships will confirme, for he is not onely of the best ffamily, but has one of the best estates, and as good a charector as any one on the Island; as to the postscript in your Lordships' letter about the Patent Officers; the Secretary is Sir Charles Hedges' Couzen, the Navall Officer is Coll. Rowland Williams, who has been bed-rid severall years. The marshall was one Mr. John Perry, who has left the Islands this 3 years; about 8 months ago I put in one Mr. Michael Ayon, not hearing from Mr. Perry and his Deputy (who was one of the Drummers of the Regiment) letting a man go about his buissness that was committed for murther; therefore I hope Mr. Ayon may be confirmed, the place is not worth much, for Mr. Perry offered it in England for £150; I think it unreasonable that any such offices should be executed by Deputy. 'Tis true if they do not do their duty I may suspend them, but then I disoblige their patrons in Brittaine, who are men of intrest and perhaps may have them restor'd, wch. would be an affront put upon me; and truly the best of them, wch. is the Secretary's is hardly worth the begging. I think the Deputy does not allow above £100, or at most £150, the yeare, the other are hardly worth the charge of takeing out patents for; Mr. Rhods that came over Secretary about the losses at Nevis Sir Charles writt me word would stay and be Deputy Secretary. I wish he had thought it worth his while, for he was a pretty Gentleman, and would have been a great help to me; the Capt. of the Hector man of warr had an order to convoy the ffleet home in case I wth. the advice and consent of the Councill thought it for the service. I laid it before the severall Councills of Antigua, Nevis and St. Christophers, and they were all unanimous that 'twas for the good of the Islands to have the ffleet convoyed home, accordingly she sayles wth. the ffleet and carrys the publick papers; I wish yr. Lordships could find some way to prevent the trade between Ireland and the French Islands, for I never send a fflag of truce but they find Irish ships there wth. beef etc., whilst the last fflag of truce was at Martineco, there came in three large ships directly from Ireland wth. beef, and their Irish colours fflying, 'tis a very great shame. P.S. I beg yr. Lordships' pardon that I have not sent the Navall Officers accts. of the imports and exports as often as I could get them. I used to send them to the Custome-house and Treasury, but for the future shall take care to send them also to your Lordships. Signed, Daniel Parke. Endorsed, Recd. Sept. 1st, Read Oct. 27, 1708. 5 pp. [C.O. 152, 7. No. 55; and 153, 10. pp. 195–203.]
July 1.
St. Xphers.
6. Governor Parke to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Inclosed I send the Minutes of Council and Assembly of this Island to this day. Uppon the death of Col. Crisp, I had but six Councillors, therefore swore Francis Phipps, Esq. a Gent of a good estate and charector; therefore desire your Ldpps that he may be confirmed and added to the list for this Island. Signed, Daniel Parke. Endorsed, Recd. Sept. 6, Read Oct. 28, 1708. Holograph. 1 p. [C.O. 152, 7. No. 56; and 153, 10. p. 204.]
July 1.
St. Xphers.
7. Same to same. Inclosed I send the Minutes of the Council and Assembly of Nevis to this day. Signed and endorsed as preceding. [C.O. 152, 7. No. 57; and 153, 10. p. 205.]
July 1.8. Capt. Gardner to Mr. Popple. There was raised 312 men for Brigadier Handasyd's Regt., whereof the officers carry'd 285 to Plymouth, and have imbark'd the greatest part of that number, but presume they may not all arrive in Jamaica before November, there has neither been tyme, pains or money spar'd, to accomplish what was thought impossible, recruiting for Jamaica, if those men arrive safe, the Regemt. will not want above 40 more. Signed, Rob. Gardner. Endorsed, Recd. 1st, Read 2nd July, 1708. Holograph. 1 p. [C.O. 137, 8. No. 10; and 138, 12. p. 293.]
July 1.
Whitehall.
9. Council of Trade and Plantations to the Queen. Recommend John Peters, John Burryan, Joseph Estridge and John Willet to fill vacancies in the Council of St. Kitts, and Thomas Goar, Robert Elleis, Michael Smith, and John Richardson for Nevis, as proposed by Governor Parke, March 13 etc. [C.O. 153, 10. pp. 184, 185.]
July 1.
New York.
10. Governor Lord Cornbury to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Your Lordshipps' letters of May 7, 1707, I had the honour to receive on June 25th last at Shrewbury in New Jersey, from whence I returned to this place on June 28, at my arrivall here, I was informed that a ship would be ready to sail in few days directly for Bristoll, which opportunity I was glad to embrace to acknowledge the receit of these letters, which are the only letters I have been favoured with, since the Queen has been pleased to grant her Commission to your Lordshipps of which I beg leave to wish your Lordshipps much joy. Your Lordshipps are pleased to inform me that it is H.M. pleasure and expresse command that the Governors of all forreign Plantations doe, from time to time, give unto your Lordshipps frequent and full information of the state, and condition, of their respective Governments, etc. In all these things I shall endeavour to observe H.M. commands punctually, as soon as time can possibly allow it, for some of the things you are pleased to require of me, will take a considerable time to transcribe, as, for example, the proceedings in the Councill, and Assembly, and the Supreame Court, all which shall be done as fast as possible; I wish with all my heart that packet-boats were established to some part of this Continent, then we should not only have frequent, safe opportunitys of writing to England, but we should hear more frequently from thence, whereas now we are some times many months without hearing any thing, perticularly at this time, till I had the [favour] of these [letters] of May 7, [I have not had] one line from your Lordshipps' Board, nor from the Rt. Hon. the Secretary of State these 15 months, and we have but two safe ways of sending into England, which are the Virginia fleet, and the mast fleet from New England, from the first of those places there is noe post, soe that it is very hard to know when that fleet is to sail, for either we must know it by some vessell that comes from thence to this port (and that is not above two or three in a year), or else by some traveller who comes from thence by land, soe that some times a letter is six weekes coming to this place from Virginia, some times longer, by which means we loose the opportunity of sending by that fleet, from Boston there is a post by which we can hear once a week in summer time, and once a fortnight in winter, soe that we have a sure conveyance by the Mast fleet, the conveyances by the West Indies have proved very uncertain, for severall of our vessels have been taken every year during this warr, besides that severall of the packet boats from England have been likewise taken. Your Lordshipps are likewise pleased to inform me that the said Governors are to transmit unto you yearly accounts by way of Journall etc., all which I shall take care to observe. I can't but be extreamly surprised to find by your Lordshipps' letter relating to this Province of New York, that there are not in your Office any Minutes of Councill, or Assembly, or accounts of the Revenue, since my coming to the Government, because I must assure your Lordshipps, that I have never failed of sending the Minutes of the Assembly by the first opportunity after each Sessions, and some of them, I am sure, got safe into England, and I hope, if you are pleased to order Mr. Popple to look among his papers, he will find them. However, they shall be all transcribed fair, and sent to you; the accounts of the Revenue have been constantly sent by the first opportunity [after] the Deputy Auditor has audited them, but in [deed] that Mr. Clark, the present Deputy Auditor, has refused to do, ever since Mr. Byerley was suspended, which was in April, 1705, soe that it has been impossible for me to send those accounts as I ought to have done, for I must have sent them unaudited, or not at all; as for the Minutes of Councill, I sent to your Lordshipps two years agoe all the Minutes of Councill during the time that Mr. Cosens was Clerk of the Councill, and last year I sent all the Minutes of Councill since Mr. Clarke has been Clerk of the Councill; these likewise shall be all transcribed as fast as the length of them will permitt, and shall be sent by the first opportunity that offers. I here inclosed send your Lordshipps a list of the present Councill, and likewise a list of the names of such persons as I think by their circumstances most proper to fill up any vacancy that may happen in the Councill, in these lists, I have distinguished where the persons named live; and I intreat your Lordshipps that what vacancys are first to be filled, may be filled with persons inhabiting in this City, because very often I find it difficult to get five together, soe many of them living at a distance. As for the number of inhabitants of this Province, I sent one exact list of them about four years agoe, and another two years agoe, where they were distinguished by whites, and blacks, males, and females. I will take care a new list shall be taken and sent by the first opportunity. I will likewise endeavour to give your Lordshipps an account of the increase, or decrease of the inhabitants since my coming to this Government. Two sorts of people remove out of this Government into the neighbouring Provinces, the first are trading men, of these but few are removed since I came hither; the other sort are Husband Men, of this sort many are removed lately, espetially from Kings County on Long Island; and the reasons why they remove are of two kinds, the first is, because King's County is but small, and full of people; soe as the young people grow up, they are forced to seek land farther off to settle upon, the land in the Eastern Division of New Jersey is good, and not very far from King's County, there [is only] a Bay to crosse, the other reason that induces them to remove into New Jersey is, because there they pay noe taxes, nor noe dutys; the most effectuall way to prevent the removall of the first sort of people, would be to bring all the Collonys and Plantations upon the Continent of America, under the same dutys, and customes, for goods imported and exported, if this were once setled, the trading men would then consider which is the healthiest, pleasantest and most convenient place for trade, whereas now the chief consideration is, where the least dutys are paid, of this we have had severall instances lately, since the french destroyed Nevis, severall familys have removed from that Island, with intent to settle in this place, but when they have found what dutys people have paid and doe pay here, and that at Philadelphia they pay none at all, they remove thither; As for the Husband Men I can't see how they can be hindred from removing out of one Province into the other. As for the number of the Militia of this Province, your Lordshipps shall have an exact list of all, in the mean time, I think I may say they amount to rather more then 4,000 men. The commoditys exported from this Province to England, of the growth of the Province are, peltry of all sorts, pitch, tar, rosine and train oyl, and if due incouragement were given, good quantitys of hemp, flax, timber, masts and yards might be sent from this Province to England; but, besides the commoditys above mentioned, we send into England considerable quantitys of sugars, molosses, logwood and other dying wood, scochaneel, indigo and cacao nutts, which we have from the Islands of Barbados, Monserat, St. Christophers, Nevis, Antegoa and Jamaica, to which places we send flower, biscuit, beefe, pork, bacon and train oyl. Besides the trade we have with the English Islands in the West Indies, as abovementioned, we have some vessels that trade to Surinam and Curacao, and some to St. Thomas's, to the two first of these places we carry flower, bacon, candles, and train oyl, and some times horses, from thence we have in return heavy Spanish money, and sometimes some cacao; from the later we have rum, sugar, molosses, cacao, and cotton wool, and we send thither flower, beefe, pork and bacon, but I look upon the trade to St. Thomass, to be prejudicial to these parts, because the commoditys we have from that Island, (which is subject to the King of Denmark), are not the produce of the Island, but the produce of prises taken by the French upon the subjects of the Queen, and carried in thither, it being a Neutral Port; sometimes we have a vessell or two, that goe to the Coast of Guinea, and bring negros from thence, but they seldom come into this place, but rather goe to Virginia, or Maryland, where they find a much better market for their negros then they can doe here. The trade of this Province is much decayed of late years, I mean for these ten years past or more, for in 1694/5, it received its most fatall blow by this means, till that time, noe body was permitted to bolt, but the citizens of New York, then the bolters were under rule, proper officers being appointed to view all the flower that was exported, soe that noe bad commodity was suffered to goe out, but in that year, an Act of Assembly was passed whereby all persons in the country, as well as the city, were permitted to bolt, by which means two great inconvenieneys have hapned, one (which is the greatest) is, that the commodity is vitiated, for the country bolter being under noe rule, or checque, does not care what the commodity is, soe it passe out of his hands, soe that he very often mingles Indian corn flower with his wheat flower, this being discovered in the West Indies, has soe cried downe our flower, that the Pensilvania flower sels for 3/- the hundred more then ours, whereas the New York flower used formerly to exceed the Pensilvania flower one, and sometimes two shillings the hundred, and this I look upon as the greatest inconveniency that has hapned by that Act, the other is, that the country bolter ingrosses all the corn of the County where he lives, and there being bolters almost in every County, it is very difficult for the city bolters to get corn to carry on their trade, the consequence of which is, that the bolters remove into the country, if they remove, the coopers must remove too, for they will find noe work in the city, that this will be the case, we see by experience already, severall having removed themselves, by which means the City will in some years be unpeopled, these two inconveniencys have hapned by the abovementioned Act, which I take to be the greatest cause of the decay of our Trade; there is another cause for the decay of the trade of this Province, which arises from the People's own faults, and that is thus, in the time that Sir Edmond Andros was Gouvernor of this Province, there was noe Assembly, but all was done by Orders of the Gouvernor in Councill, he being willing to incourage the trade of the place as much as he could, made two Orders in Councill. One was to incourage the bolting trade, by prohibiting the exportation of corn in grain, the other was to lay a duty of 10 per cent upon all European commoditys imported into this Province from any part except from England directly, and that was the first thing that encouraged the people of this Province to build shipping, the same thing was done since by Act of Assembly, but since that Act expired (which was since I came), I could never perswade the Assembly to renew it, though the inconveniencys that happen for want of it, are many, as follows, now the people of New England come and buy our corn in grain, with money which they have clipped to the third part of the real vallue, they carry it to New England, there grind it, and bolt it, and ship it off for the West Indies, on the other hand, they bring us in European goods, for which they carry away our best money, formerly we had nothing in return from the West Indies for our flower, and other commoditys, but heavy pieces of eight; now there is not one vessell in ten that brings any money, only European goods, soe that if it were not for the small trade our people have with Surinam and Curacao, we should have noe heavy money in the Province, and though these things are as plain as the sun, yet it is not possible to prevail with the Assembly to renew these Acts, and the only reason I can give for it is, that the Members for the country are more numerous, then those for the city, they don't care what becomes of the city, provided they have goods cheap, they think the more goods are brought in, the cheaper they will be, noe matter from whence they come nor how much the trade of the Province is destroyed, thus I have acquainted your Lordshipps with the decay of the trade of this Province, and the causes of it; if I may propose a cure for the first of these distempers, I can think of none but these, first, if the Bolting Act is not already confirmed at home, that the Queen would be pleased to reject it; if it is confirmed, either by his late Majesty, or by the Queen under whose auspicious reign we now happily live, then I can propose noe other remedy then this, that H.M. will be gratiously pleased, to allow the City of New York to chuse as many Representatives to serve in Generall Assembly, as all the rest of the Province does, by that means they will be able to passe an Act to repeal the Bolting Act; And that this proposall may not be thought soe unreasonable, as at first sight it may be thought to be, I think the last Generall Assembly of this Province have made it plainly appear to be most reasonable, for in the taxe of £3000, which was raised for the fortifying this City last year, when we expected the french to land upon us, the Assembly thought fit to lay £1,500, one full half of the £3000, upon the City and County of New York. Now, I think it seems reasonable that if the city of New York is to bear half the burthen, the city ought to bear a proportionable share in the Legislature, but this I submit to your Lordshipps' better judgments; as for the second cause of the decay of the trade of this Province, I see noe remedy for that, unlesse H.M. is pleased to signifie her pleasure, that an order of the Gouvernor in Councill shall be effectuall in that case, as it was in the time of Sir Edmond Andros. That there has been a great deal of illegall trade carried on in this Province formerly is undoubtedly true. I hope it has not been soe bad of late years, but yet I know there has been illegall trade carried on between New England, Connecticut and the East end of Long Island, the only way we have to prevent it is, to send a small sloop to cruise in the Sound, between Connecticut, and the East End of Long Island, we have some times had the good luck to meet with some of their vessels, but those cruizers have proved chargeable, and the Revenue here is not able to bear it; Col. Quary has lately settled an Officer at New London in Connecticut, whose Commission likewise extends to the East End of Long Island, I hope that will in some measure checque that illegall trade, though I am well satisfied that the poor gentleman who goes there, will meet with very great difficultys; I am of opinion that if a small yacht were built; of about 50 or 60 tonns, that might cruise in the Sound between Connecticut, and Long Island, it would be one of the most effectual means to prevent illegall trade, and the charge of such a vessell will not be soe great as it may at first sight seem to be, for, if the iron work, sails and rigging are sent from England, the timber, masts and building will be found here for £400, and the only certain charge will be a Master, one man and a boy to look[t] after the yacht when she is in harbour, and in winter when she is laid up, and I think it is very plain, the charges of building such a vessell will soon be saved, for if we must hire a sloope for that service, the cheapest we can get her is, £25 a month, or 18/- a day, and we must man her, and victual her, the months in which that illegall trade is chiefly carried on, are the months of May, June, July, August and September, soe that at £25 a month, the charge will be £125 a year for the vessell only, besides the uncertainty of finding a sloop fit for the service at an hour's warning, whereas such a yacht would be always ready at hand. The number of vessels belonging to this Port is much diminished of late years. I have been told that there has formerly belonged to this Port 32 top sail vessells, besides sloops, now we can't reckon above 28 top sail vessells, and sloops, the number of sea-faring men is likewise decreased, chiefly by the losse of two privatiers, one of which it is thought foundered at sea with about four-score hands on board of her, and another, which was cast away at Sandy hook, going out, and 120 men were lost in her, soe that now by the best computation that can be made, I [can't find] above 300 seafaring men, of all sorts belonging to this Port. All sorts of vessells are built well in this place, but the vessells most usually built here are briganteens and sloops of both which sorts there are severall built every year in this place, by direction and for the use of the merchants in Jamaica, Barbados and others of the Leeward Islands besides those that are built for the use of the merchants of this place, which have been a pretty many of late, because our people have lost a great many vessels this warr, both going to and coming from the West Indies; and I don't believe there are above 6 vessells belonging to the place but were built here. The manufactures setled in this Province are linnen, and woolen, they make very good linnen for common use, and I don't doubt but in time they will improve that considerably. As for the woolen, I think they have brought that to too great perfection already, and I must be of opinion that that will be a very great prejudice to England in a few years, and ought to be taken care of in time, they already make very good serges, linsey woolseys, and in some places they begin to make course cloth, and without doubt, in a short time they will soe farr improve in that, as not to want the assistance of England to cloth themselves, how farr that may be to the advantage of England I submit to your Lordshipps' considerations; we have all sorts of trades here and some of every sort that work well, there is as good fullers earth and tobacco pipe clay in this Province as anywhere in the world. The quantity of train oyle made in Long Island is uncertain, some years they have much more fish than others, for example, last year they made 4000 barrels of oyl, and this last season they have not made above 600, about the middle of October they begin to look out for fish, the season lasts all November. December, January, February and part of March, a years will make about 40 barrels of oyl, a stunt or a whale two years old will make sometimes 50, sometimes 60 barrels of oyl, and the largest whale that I have heard of in these parts, yielded 110 barrells of oyl, and 12 cwt. of bone, there might be good improvement made in the fishery of codd fish and mackrill, but fish of severall sorts is soe plenty in the Rivers and in the Bay before this City, that our people will not take the pains to goe to sea. Thus I have endeavoured to answer the severall queries your Lordshipps are pleased to put to me with respect to the Province of New York, as well as the shortnesse of the time of the sailing of this ship would permit, by the next conveyance I will suply what is defective in this. Your Lordshipps are pleased to command me to add what ever I think conducive to H.M. service, to the interest of England, to the advantage of this perticular Province, and to your assistance in the discharge of the trust reposed in your Lordshipps. There are many things which might be proposed under these directions, but I dare not undertake to doe it off hand in the little time this ship allows me to write, but by the next I will endeavour to offer to your Lordshipps what is proper upon this subject; in the meantime I think it my duty to offer one thing to your considerations, which I think very much for H.M. service, for the interest of England, and indeed for the perticular advantage of this Province, if the people would but understand it right. The Assembly of this Province is not very forward to passe any Act for setling the Millitia, and the last Act I did prevail with them to passe for that purpose, they limited to the space of one year, besides, they are not very forward to inflict penaltys on their neighbours for not doing their duty; this is soe, not only in this, but in almost all the Provinces upon the Continent, I therefore offer it to your Lordshipps' considerations, whether it would not be for H.M. service, that a short Act of Parliament were passed in Great Brittain, for the setling and regulating the Militia of these parts of the world. I am afraid the Millitia here will never be in the order it ought to be, till that is done; In the Province of New Jersey it is worse, and in the Province of Connecticut, though H.M. was pleased by her Commission to put the Millitia of that Province under my direction, they refuse to receive any Commission from me, or to obey any Order. Your Lordshipps are pleased to say that Mr. Burchett has sent Mr. Popple an answer to my letter of Dec. 14, 1706. relating to Capt. Fane etc., and that a copy thereof is inclosed for my information. I beg leave to inform you that I have received noe such copy inclosed. Capt. Fane is fallen out with all this Province, he has often publickly declared that he hates the whole Province and every body in it, and that, if he met with a New Yorke vessell at sea in distresse he would give her noe assistance, and indeed he has shewen very lately how little kindnesse he has for the place, for having taken a prise in his voyage from Barbados to this place, he would not bring her into this Port, but carried into Virginia, where he had noe businesse, and ought not to goe, [this being] his Port; I don't trouble your Lordshipps with his behaviour to me, which I believe has noe president; but I hope some other ship will be sent to relieve him, which will make the Country easier, under the command of some Gentleman, who will be more dilligent then this Gentleman has been, for I could never send him an order to cruise, but he wanted something which retarded his going out, six or eight or sometimes ten days; Now Capt. Norbury, since his arrivall here, has always been ready at 24 hours warning, does his duty with chearfulnesse, and I believe will make this country very easy. Your Lordshipps are pleased to inform me that an Act of Parliament is passed for a perfect and intire Union of the two Kingdoms of England and Scotland, and you are pleased to say that you have sent me two of the said Acts, that it may be published in the most solemn manner in this Province of New York etc.; I must inform your Lordshipps that noe such Acts are come to my hands, I did procure one from the Attorney Generall of this Province, who had received it from England, and in obedience to your commands I have taken care to publish it in the most solemn manner we are capable of. Now I beg leave to inform your Lordshipps that since the letters I sent to you by the Mast fleet, which sailed from Boston, March 18, nothing extraordinary has hapned in this Province; In the beginning of May, one Jones, Master of a ship bound from Barbados to Philadelphia, overshot his Port, and was taken by a small French privatier from Martinico, about three leagues off from Sandyhook, the same privatier had before that taken a small sloop belonging to this place, and two ships bound from Leverpool to Philadelphia. I was at Burlington when this hapned, as soon as I heard of it, I sent orders to Capt. Norbury to put to sea with H.M.S. Triton's prise, which he did, and since that, we have heard of no privatier off of Sandyhook, but two french privatiers have taken station off the Capes of Delaware, where they have taken 7 or 8 prises, and among the rest, a very rich ship from London, commanded by one Young, who was taken in sight of the Capes, severall of the merchants of that place have writ to me to desire that one of the men of warr that are here may cruise off of their Capes for some days to see some of their vessels safe to sea, who dare not peep out now, the Triton's prise will sail in two days for that purpose. I hope we shall have a good account of some of the privatiers; yesterday I had a message from Albany, from the Commissioners for managing the Indian affairs, to desire me to make what haste I could up to Albany, in [order to be there] by the 15th inst., which I will doe, God willing, unlesse I am hindred by contrary winds, however, I will get up as soon as it is possible, though I did not intend to have gone till the end of August, for it is now a hot season, and this is the hottest summer I have knowne since I came into America. I intend to make but a short stay there, as soon as I return, I will acquaint your Lordshipps by the first opportunity what it is the Indians had to propose to me. I had almost forgot to acquaint your Lordshipps that, being in New Jersey longer then I expected this Spring, I sent a Proclamation to the Gentlemen of the Councill of New York, to adjourn the Assembly of New York, and some days agoe, upon a message from Albany relating to the Indians, the Gentlemen of the Councill were of opinion that the Assembly ought to be called together to see if they would raise a fund for some presents to the Indians. I issued a Proclamation, requiring their meeting the 25th of this month; two days after the Proclamation was issued Mr. Philips acquainted me that severall of the Members of the Assembly had said that they would not meet, because the former adjournment was by a Proclamation signed in New Jersey, and that they took themselves to be dissolved, this is a notion started last year by Mr. Byerley, when he received an Order from me, dated at Burlington, which he had noe mind to obey. I did acquaint the late Council of Trade with this matter, and beg'd their opinions, but I have not yet had any answer. I beg I may have your Lordshipps' opinion whether any Order signed by me in one Province is to be of force in the other or not. Signed, Cornbury. Endorsed, Recd. 3rd. Read 11th Nov., 1708. Holograph. 12 pp. Enclosed,
10. i. (a) List of the Council of New York, and (b) Persons recommended by Lord Cornbury to fill vacancies:—Col. Peartree, Col. D'Peyster, Mr. De Lancey, Mr. Cholwell, Mr. Rynders, Mr. Walters, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Milward, in New York; Col. Willett, Major Jones, Long Island; Col. Beckman, at Esopus; Col. Quary, at Philadelphia. 2 pp. [C.O. 5, 1049. Nos. 96, 96. i.; and (without enclosure), 5, 1121. pp. 328–349.]
July 1.
New York.
11. Governor Lord Cornbury to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Repeats part of preceding. I did two years agoe send your Lordshipps the Minutes of Councill [of New Jersey] to that time, and I have constantly sent the Minutes of Assembly by the first opportunity after each Sessions etc. The accounts of the Revenue have not been sent because the Deputy Auditor has refused to audit them, the Queen has had noe Revenue in the Province of New Jersey, only for two years, since they were expired, the Assembly by the [underhand practices of Mr. Lewis] Morris and severall of the [Qua]kers, one Doctor Johnson, and some others, have been prevailed upon not to give the Queen any Revenue, and I am of opinion that as long as the Queen is pleased to allow the Quakers to sit in the Assembly, they never will settle a Revenue, nor a Millitia. I will by the first opportunity send your Lordshipps an exact transcript of the Accounts of the Revenue for those two years, whether the Deputy Auditor will audit them, or not. I here send you enclosed a list of the present Councill, and likewise a list of such persons as by their circumstances are in my judgment proper to fill any vacancy that may happen in the Councill. About two years and a half agoe I did transmit compleat lists of the inhabitants of each County of New Jersey, the Sherriffs are now making new lists, which shall be transmitted to your Lordshipps by the first opportunity. The numbers of inhabitants of New Jersey are considerably increased by the reasons I have offered in preceding. None of the inhabitants of New Jersey remove into the neighbouring Collonys. The Millitia of New Jersey will amount to about 2,300 men besides the Quakers, but of this you shall have compleat lists by the first opportunity. Nothing is exported from New Jersey to England; neither has the Province any trade with any other place, except the neighbouring Provinces of New York, and Pensilvania, the Eastern Division bring their grain of all sorts to New York, and their sheep etc., the Western Division carry all their produce to Philadelphia, the Western Division has not one vessell belonging to it, the last year some of the inhabitants of the Eastern Division built a sloop, and fitted her out to sea, she has made one voyage to Barbados, and that is all the vessells that belong to the Eastern Division, except wood boats that bring fire-wood and pipe-staves to New York; the Province of New Jersey is furnished with European goods thus, the Eastern Division from New York, the Western Division from Philadelphia. The Province of New Jersey has noe trade but as above mentioned. There have sometimes goods been run into the Eastern Division by vessels bound to New York, but it is now pretty well cured by the men of warr lying at Sandy hook, and there is an officer at Amboy, there have likewise goods been run on shoar in the Western Division by vessels bound up the River Delaware to Philadelphia, Collonel Quary has appointed an officer at Burlington [and one at Salem;I hope their dilligence will in a great measure] prevent illegall trade on that side.
There is noe shipping belonging to New Jersey, except as is mentioned on the other side; neither is there any sea-faring man, unlesse the men that goe in the wood boats may be called such. There have been three or four ships and one briganteen built at Woodbridge in the Eastern Division since I came to the Government, and one briganteen and one sloop have been built at Burlington in the Western Division. In came to the Government, and one briganteen and one sloop have been built at Burlington in the Western Division. In New Jersey they make good linnen for common use, and they begin to make woolen stuffs. I have offered my thoughts to your Lordshipps concerning the latter of these in preceding. Thus I have endeavoured to answer the queries contained in your Lordshipps' letter as well as the shortnesse of the time this ship allows me, I will take care by the next to suply what may be wanting in this. Your Lordshipps are pleased to command me to add whatever else I think conducive to H.M. service, to the interest of England, to the advantage of that perticular Province, and to your assistance in the discharge of the trust reposed in your Lordshipps. Many things may be offered under these directions, but I dare not venture to doe it off hand, but by the next I will endeavour to offer such things to your Lordshipps as may be proper upon this subject. In the mean time I think it my duty to lay some matters before you for your consideration, which I think very much for H.M. service, for the interest of England, and indeed for the advantage of that perticular Province, if the People could be persuaded to understand things right; the first thing is the Militia. Refers to preceding. I shall say noe more, only that the Queen must not expect a Militia Act to be past, as long as the Quakers are allowed to sit in the Assembly. The next thing I shall offer to your Lordshipps' considerations is that some method may be directed to inquire into the quallifications of Members returned to service in the Generall Assembly. H.M. is pleased in her Instructions to me to direct how people shall be quallified to chuse, and to be chosen, and that noe person though chosen, shall be suffered to sit unlesse soe quallified, the late Lords of Trade and Plantations, upon a complaint made to them that I kept three Quakers out [of] the Assembly (which was done by advice of the Councill; and only till they shewed their quallifications) were pleased to direct me for the future not to intermeddle with the quallifications of the Member; of the Assembly but to [leave that matter to the House; in obedience to their Lordshipps'] commands, I have not intermedled since that time, the consequence has been this, that upon the last Election in some places they chose some persons who are not qualified according to H.M. Instructions, in the Eastern Division they chose one person, who has not a foot of land in the Province, nor does not inhabit in the Province, but because he is a forward man, and promised them that if he were chosen, he would not consent to the giving a Revenue to the Queen, they chose him, and the House have suffered him to sit, notwithstanding that every Member of the House knows he is not qualified; there are more of the same sort; and it will always be soe, unlesse H.M. is pleased to appoint some Method to inquire into the qualifications of persons returned to serve in the Assembly, other then the House themselves. These things I intreat your Lordshipps' consideration off.
Your Lordshipps are pleased to signifie to me that an Act of Parliament is passed for a perfect and intire Union of the two Kingdoms of England and Scotland, and you are pleased to say that you send me two of the said Acts that it may be published in the most solemn manner in New Jersey etc. I take the liberty to acquaint your Lordshipps that I have not received any such Acts, but having procured one from the Attorney Generall of New York, I will take care to publish it in the most solemn manner possible. I am very much concerned that your Lordshipps have not received my letter relating to Mr. Ormston and Mr. Sonmans, because besides that which I sent by the way of the West Indies, I sent a duplicate by the way of Boston, and another by the way of Philadelphia. I hope some of them have reached your hands before this time. However, I now send another duplicate of the same; and I don't at all question your Lordshipps' justice to me. I likewise send a duplicate of my letter of June 21 last, in which you will see an account of the proceedings of the Assembly of New Jersey this spring, to which I beg leave to referr. Just as I was going to seale this letter, I have received H.M. commands to admit Mr. Sonmans into the Councill, which shall be done accordingly. Signed, Cornbury. Endorsed, Recd. 3rd, Read 11th Nov., 1708. Holograph. 4 pp. Enclosed,
11. i. (a) List of the Council of New Jersey, and of (b) Persons recommended by Lord Cornbury to supply vacancies:—Messrs. Wheeler, Huddy and Newbold of Burlington, Capt. John Bowne, Monmouth County, Capt. Kingsland, Essex County, Mr. Longfield, Middlesex. Set out, New Jersey Archives, 1st ser. iii. 340. q.v. Endorsed, Recd. Nov. 3, 1708. 2 pp. [C.O. 5, 970. Nos. 77, 77. i.; and (without enclosure) 5, 994. pp. 465–472.]
July 2.
[2ndm/5 (Jul.) 1708.]
12. Wm. Penn to the Council of Trade and Plantations. Honorable ffriends, I have submitted to wt. you are pleased to say you could not help, and that time and other circumstances will not allow me to sett that matter of the Queen's Right to the Lower Countys in a better explanation, the scruple being only about right of Govermt., and that my recompense from those yt. had the advantage of the Commission of Trade, that was my proposall for a better and more impartiall as well as expeditious and honorable way of superintending the Great Provinces of Trade and Plantations, a poore returne. I here inclose the declaration under my hand and seale, wch. as it is a saveing to the Queen, this is also writt for a saveing to, Honorable ffriends, your very Respectfull Friend, Signed, Wm. Penn. Endorsed, Recd. Read July 2, 1708. Addressed. Holograph. 1¾ pp. Enclosed,
12. i. Mr. Penn's Declaration. I underwritten do by these presents declare and promise, that the Queen's Royal approbation and allowance of Capt. Charles Gookin to be Deputy-Governor of Pennsylvania and the three lower Counties upon Delaware River, shall not be construed in any manner to diminish or set aside H.M. Claim of Right to the said three Lower Counties. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal, this second day of the mo. calld July, 1708. Signed, Wm. Penn. Sealed. The words in italics are in Penn's handwriting. ¾ p. [C.O. 5, 1264. Nos. 48, 49; and 5, 1292. pp. 63, 64.]
July 3.
Barbados.
13. Governor Crowe to Mr. Popple. Refers to letter sent on June 27 by Mr. Rowland Tryon. I was in hopes to have sent you the negroe acct. per these ships, but have not been able to coleckt the sundry private traders accounts, soe must begg your Lordship's paytiance untill next conveyance etc. Signed. M. Crowe. Endorsed, Recd. Sept. 3, Read Oct. 27, 1708. Holograph. ¾ p. [C.O. 28, 11. No. 19; and 29, 11. p. 310.]
[July 4.]14. J. de Kocherthal to the Queen. Prays to be allowed a salary and £20 for outfit, as other Ministers, etc. Set out, N.Y. Docs. V. p. 62. Signed, Josua de Kocherthal. Overleaf,
14. i. H.M. refers above to the Council of Trade and Plantations for their report. Signed, H. Boyle. The whole endorsed, Recd. Read July 7, 1708. 1½ pp. [C.O. 5, 1049. Nos. 80, 80.i.; and 5, 1121. pp. 301, 302.]