Nos. 181 and 172, High Holborn

Sponsor

English Heritage

Publication

Author

W. Edward Riley and Sir Laurence Gomme (editors)

Year published

1914

Pages

23-26

Citation Show another format:

'Nos. 181 and 172, High Holborn', Survey of London: volume 5: St Giles-in-the-Fields, pt II (1914), pp. 23-26. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74272 Date accessed: 24 September 2014.


Highlight

(Min 3 characters)

XXVIII–XXIX. Nos. 181 and 172, HIGH HOLBORN (Demolished).

General description and date of structure.

The land at the eastern corner of Drury Lane and High Holborn may perhaps be, either wholly or in part, identified with certain land held of the Hospital of St. Giles by William Christmas in the reign of Henry III. "with the houses and appurtenances thereon, situate at the Cross by Aldewych." (fn. 1) Aldewych was Drury Lane, (fn. 2) and the Cross by Aldewych would almost certainly be situated at the junction of the two roads. The indentification of the western corner as the site of Christmas's land seems to be excluded by the fact that this was occupied by property of John de Cruce, (fn. 3) who was certainly a contemporary of William Christmas. (fn. 4) It is possible that the land in question was situated on the north side of Broad Street, but as it is known that Christmas owned land on the south side of the way, some of which may even possibly be the actual land referred to, the identification suggested above seems reasonable. Whether in Christmas's time there was at this spot an inn, the forerunner of the later White Hart, is unknown. (fn. 5) Blott's suggestion that the sign of the White Hart was adopted in honour of Richard II., whose badge it was, even if correct, does not necessitate the assumption that no inn was there before that king's reign (1377–1399). The sign might possibly have been changed in Richard's honour.

The first mention of The White Hart does not, however, occur until a century and a half later. In 1537 Henry VIII. effected an exchange of property with the Master of Burton Lazars, as a result of which there passed into the royal hands "one messuage called The Whyte Harte, and eighteen acres of pasture [Purse Field] to the same messuage belonging." (fn. 6) In 1524 "Katherine Smyth alias Katherine Clerke" was living in The White Hart. (fn. 7) She was apparently succeeded as tenant by William Hosyer, (fn. 8) but there is no evidence whether he actually resided in the inn. (fn. 9) In 1567 the occupant of the inn is said to be Matthew Buck, and in 1582 it was Richard Cockshott. (fn. 10) In 1623 Hugh Jones is mentioned as barber and victualler, at Holborn end, next Drury Lane. (fn. 11) The survey of Crown Lands taken in 1650 describes the premises as follows:—

"All that inn, messuage or tenement commonly called … The White Harte scituate … in St. Gyles in the feildes … consistinge of one small hall, one parlour and one kitchen, one larder and a seller underneath the same, and above stayres in the same range, and over the gatehouse, 9 chambers. Alsoe over against the said halle and parlour is now settinge upp one bricke buildinge consistinge of 6 roomes, alsoe one stable strongly built with brick and fflemish walle, contayninge 44 feete in length and 37 feete in breadth, lofted over and covered with Dutch tyle; and two other stables next adjoyninge, built as aforesaid, and 2 tenements or dwelling houses over the same. Alsoe one large yard contayninge 110 feete in length and in breadth 46 feete. Now in the occupation of one Anthony Ives, and is worth per annum £38.

"All yt tenement adjoyninge to ye north side of the abovesaid house, being a corner shopp, consisting of one seller and a faire shopp over the same; alsoe one kitchin, and above stayres two chambers. Nowe in the occupation of Richard Raynbowe, a grocer, and is worth per annum £12."

It would seem that at the time of the transfer of The White Hart to Henry VIII. there were no buildings to the east of the inn. The fact that no such premises are mentioned in connection with the exchange is not, indeed, conclusive, and it is more to the point to observe that no mention of the buildings is contained in any of the grants of the property, during the 16th century, which have been examined. Moreover, on 13th November, 1592, a certificate was returned by the Commission for Incroached Lands, etc., (fn. 12) to the effect that four cottages, with appurtenances, on the south side of the highway leading from St. Giles towards Holborn, opposite certain small cottages built on the Pale Pingle, (fn. 13) were possessed without any grant, state or demise from the sovereign. Plate 2 shows the cottages in question, occupying the site of the buildings to the east of The White Hart.

It may be taken therefore that these four cottages were the earliest buildings on the site, and that they were erected probably not long before 1592, when their existence was first officially noticed.

By 1650 they had grown to a long range of buildings. In that year they were described as follows:—

"All that range of buildinge adjoyninge to thaforesaid inn called The White Hart, abuttinge on the high way on the north, with two tenements on the south side of The White Hart, lyenge uppon the way leadinge into Drury Lane, all which said buildings are now divided into xxj severall habitacions in the occupation of severall tenants, and are worth per annum £24."

The whole property, including The White Hart, the courtyards and gardens, is said to "contayne in length from Drury Lane downe to the first [tenement] 96 feete, and in breadth 76 feete; the other length backward from the stables to the lower side of the garden 125 feete and 93 feete in breadth, bounded with the highway leadinge from St. Gyles into Holburne on the north and Drury Lane on the west." The entire site therefore had a length of 221 feet, and a width of 76 feet along Drury Lane, increasing to 93 feet behind the inn. Allowing for the subsequent widening of High Holborn at this point, it is clear that the area is represented at the present day by the sites of the houses from the corner as far as and including No. 181, High Holborn, while the southern boundary runs to the north of Nos. 190–191, Drury Lane, then turns to the south a little beyond the eastern boundary of those premises, and thence runs in a slightly curved line as far as the eastern boundary of No. 181, High Holborn. (fn. 14)

A reference to the map in Strype's edition of Stow (Plate 5) will show that in the 18th century both High Holborn and Drury Lane were very narrow at this spot. Moreover, in course of time, the large courtyard of the inn became used as a public way, and grew crowded with small tenements. In 1807 the leases of the property expired, and an arrangement was come to between the Vestry of St. Giles and the Crown, by which the latter and its lessees gave up sufficient land to enable the frontage line both to High Holborn and Drury Lane to be amended, with the result that the west end of the former and the north end of the latter were widened by 15 feet and 7 feet respectively. On its part the Vestry consented to the stopping up of White Hart yard and the building thereon of the Crown lessess' new premises. (fn. 15)

Two of the houses, Nos. 181 and 172, erected in accordance with the arrangement, are illustrated in this volume.

Plate 9 shows the distinctive early 19th-century shop front, which was attached to No. 181. The design embodied a large, slightly bowed window with segmental head, flanked by two doorways. The window was fitted with small panes of glass, having bars forming interlacing segmental panes above the transom. The doors were of quiet and refined design, with excellently treated side posts, having brackets, carved with acanthus ornament, supporting the entablature. The whole exhibits a distinctly Greek feeling.

Another interesting early 19th-century shop front existed at No. 172, and is illustrated on Plate 10. The door to the house and that to the shop adjoined one another in this case, and were slightly recessed. The rounded angles to the window added interest to the design. The general treatment, though simple, possessed much distinction.

Both houses have recently been demolished.

In the Council's collection are:

No. 181. General view of premises (photograph).
(fn. 16) No. 181. Shop front (photograph).
(fn. 16) No. 172. Shop front (photograph).

Footnotes

1 Parton's Hospital and Parish of St. Giles-in-the-Fields, p. 71.
2 From deeds quoted by Parton (Hospital and Parish of St. Giles) it is evident that in the 13th century Drury Lane was known as "Aldewych" or "Via de Aldewych." The name "Drury Lane," given later, was no doubt due to the existence of Drury House near the Strand end of the road. How late "Via de Aldewych" was used there is nothing to show. In certain deeds of the 17th century (e.g., Close Roll, 24 November, 8 Charles I.—Indenture between Francis, Lord Russell, and Earl of Bedford and John Earl of Bristol, etc.) the road is called "Drury Lane alias Fortescue Lane." It is just possible that the latter name is to be connected with Sir John Fortescue, who held the Elm Field (i.e., the land between Castle Street and Long Acre) in the reign of Henry VI. (Close Roll, 30 Henry VI. (302)—Grant by John Crouton and Wm. Horn to John and Katherine Nayler); in fact there is reason for thinking that the "viam regiam ducentem . . . . a villa Sci. Egidii versus Bosomysynne modo Johis. Fortescue militis" mentioned in the same deed is actually Drury Lane. The road seems also to have gone by the name of St. Giles's Lane in the early part of the 17th century. (See p. 35n.)
3 See p. 107.
4 They appear together as witnesses in many deeds. Two deeds bearing the name of William Christmas as witness can be dated with certainty 1257–8 and 1276.
5 Blott's statement that here "stood the mansion house of the Christmasse family, with its pasture land and orchard bordering the King's Highway, Oldborne, the domain reaching to Ficquet Fields," goes beyond the evidence, and his imaginative history, based on an identification of "John of Good Memory," late chaplain of St. Giles, mentioned in Henry II.'s Charter (not the original foundation charter, as Blott says), with a John Christmas = John de Cruce the elder = John de Fonte the elder (all equally hypothetical persons) is absolutely unjustifiable (Blemundsbury, pp. 333–4).
6 Augmentation Office, Deeds of purchase and exchange, E. 19.
7 The premises, together with a cottage and Purse Field with the pightells, were farmed to her on 6 June, 1524, by the Master of Burton Lazars, and it is stated that she was then living there. (Patent Roll, 7 Elizabeth, pt. 3, Grant to Thos. Jordayne.)
8 "Et de liijs iiijd de Willelmo Hosyer pro redditu cujusdam messuagii vocati le White Harte in Hamelett Sci Egidii et xviij acr' pasture ac unius parvi clausi vocati Pale Close." (Ministers' Accounts, 2101, Henry VIII.)
9 Uncertainty on this point and on the date of the period of his tenancy unfortunately stands in the way of accepting the following note as a contribution to the history of The White Hart. "Will. Hosyer, of St. Giles-in-the-Fields, London—Licence (he having had his house burnt down 9th Oct. last [1539] and lost all his goods therein to the value of £200) to collect alms in England and Wales for his relief." (Patent Roll, 32 Henry VIII. pt. 4.)
10 Close Roll, 9 Eliz. (733)—Indenture between Lord Mountjoy and Geo. Harrison; and Close Roll, 24 Eliz. (1129)—Indenture between Jas. Briscowe, etc., and Jas. Mascall. Cockshott was apparently there in 1579, for the piece of ground or garden plot which 12 years before had been used as "a greate garden belonginge to … the White Harte," (Close Roll, 9 Eliz. (742)—Indenture between Lord Mountjoy and Edward Kyngston) was in that year described as "then or late in the tenure of Richard Cockeshute." (Close Roll, 21 Eliz. (1058)—Indenture between Ed. Kyngston and James Mascall.)
11 Parton, Hospital and Parish of St. Giles-in-the-Fields, pp. 131–2.
12 See Land Revenue Enrolments, Book IV., No. 52, p. 120.
13 Situated on the north side of High Holborn, just to the west of the present junction with New Oxford Street.
14 It will be seen that the present Ye Olde White Hart, No. 191, Drury Lane, is not on the site either of the old White Hart, or even of the land formerly belonging to it.
15 Parton, Hospital and Parish of St. Giles, p. 238.
16 Reproduced here.