LXV.—NORTH OF DENMARK PLACE.
To the north of Denmark Place the frontage to High Street seems
to have been fully built on before 1658 (Plate 3). Originally the garden of
the Hospital extended as far as here, for the limits of the parish of St.
Margaret, Westminster, are described in 1222, as stretching along what
now Oxford Street as far as the Hospital garden. (fn. 1) In somewhat later
times the principal feature of this triangular plot was The Crown inn and
brewhouse, which is referred to as early as 1452 (fn. 2) as "a brewhouse called
The Crowne" with six cottages adjoining. It will be seen, therefore,
that even at that date there were a number of buildings on this plot.
Included in the portion of the Hospital's property which fell to the share
of Katherine Legh were "one close rent xijs and iiijd by the yere goyng
oute of a mese called The Crowne, and one chieff rente of vis by yere goyng
oute of a brew house there, nowe so late in the tenure or occupacion of one
Richard Lightfoot." When next heard of The Crown brewhouse, with a
close of 3 acres (fn. 3) and an orchard and garden adjoining, belonged to John
Vavasour, whose son Nicholas in 1615 sold it to William Bowes. (fn. 4)
At a spot immediately opposite The Crown at one time stood the
pound, and according to Maitland (fn. 5) , this was also the situation of the
gallows, between the date of their removal from the Elms in Smithfield
about the year 1413, and their further subsequent removal to Tyburn.
It does not appear, however, that Maitland had any authority for the
statement as to the removal of the gallows from Smithfield. As regards
the further removal to Tyburn, if it ever took place it must have been
before the year 1478, when it is quite certain that the gallows were already
in the position occupied by them for centuries to come, viz., opposite the
southern end of Edgware Road. There is, indeed, a very considerable
probability that this was the case even in Edward I.'s reign, (fn. 6) and it seems
improbable that a permanent gallows ever stood in St. Giles at all. (fn. 7)
The pound was originally (fn. 8) in High Street, St. Giles, just to the
west of where Endell Street now issues, and was removed thence in 1656
to the junction of High Street, Oxford Street and Tottenham Court Road. (fn. 9)
||See p. 1.
Close Roll, 30 Henry VI.—Grant, dated 2nd April, 1452, by Jo. Crouton and W.
Horn to Jo. and Katherine Nayler.
||To the east of Church Close.
Close Roll, 13 James I. (2275).
History of London, p. 1363.
Tyburn Gallows (published by the London County Council), p. 16.
||The gallows in St. Giles Fields erected for the execution of Lord Cobham were
obviously put up for that special purpose. There may, of course, have been a manorial gallows,
but no mention of such for St. Giles occurs in the Quo Warranto Rolls.
Endowed Charities, County of London, III., p. 350.
||Parton's Hospital and Parish of St. Giles, p. 228.