CII.—CXII.—Nos. 14 to 34, CHEYNE ROW.
Ground landlord, leaseholders, etc.
Nos. 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 26 are the property of Mrs. Barker; No.
28 of Mrs. J. Brown; No. 30 of Mrs. Emma Lockhart; and No. 34 of
J. W. Sugg, Esq.
The houses are tenanted as follows: No. 14 (Cheyne Cottage), Miss
Heyman; No. 16, Mrs. Hamilton Fyfe; No. 18, St. John Hutchinson, Esq.;
No. 20, C. A. Allen, Esq.; No. 22, W. L. Barker, Esq.; No. 24, Carlyle's
House Memorial Trust; No. 26, W. F. Fox, Esq.; No. 28, Mrs. A. J.
Broom; No. 30, E. S. Grew, Esq.; No. 32, Mrs. Leche; No. 34, Cyril
General description and date of structure.
The ten houses, numbered 16 to 34, were built on property leased
from Lord Cheyne, the lord of the
manor, in 1708, the date being
marked on a tablet on No. 16. They
occupy the site of the bowling green,
shown on Dr. King's map, which
was a continuation northwards of
the garden of the "Three Tuns" in
Cheyne Walk. Their eastern boundary (as far as No. 26) is the old Tudor
wall of Shrewsbury House, (fn. 1) and
north of this they adjoin the glebe. Cheyne Cottage (No. 14) is a later
building, by some fifty years or more.
Tablet on Cheyne Row
Each of the houses from 16 to 34 follows the same plan in its internal
arrangement. There was originally one more house, on the site of the present
Roman Catholic Church of the Most Holy Redeemer (built in 1894). It was
called Orange House and Mr. William de Morgan had his well-known
pottery here from 1876 to 1882. There were, therefore eleven houses of
practically identical design, and since the larger part of them has escaped
serious alteration, and remains as built in the reign of Queen Anne, the Row
takes a very important place among the architectural monuments of
No. 28 is the only house that has been re-built, but Nos. 18, 20 and
22 have been refronted. Nos. 16, 18 and 34, have kept their original roofs
with a blocked cornice at the eaves. All the other roofs have been raised,
No. 26 alone retaining the old cornice. Early 19th-century balconies have
been added to the first floor windows of No. 16, and to those on the first and
second floors of No. 20, and there is a well designed and roofed balcony to
the first floor of No. 28, of the same period. The external walls of the
lowest storey of Nos. 16, 18, 26, 28, and 32, have been cemented, with false
joints to imitate masonry. Several of the houses retain the original sashes
to their windows, and No. 32 has a delightful shell-hood over its front door.
There was a similar one at Orange House and it may be that all the houses
possessed them at one time. Nos. 18 and 30 have small hoods with carved
brackets. The larger part of the iron railings is contemporary with the
Cheyne Cottage (No. 14), which is of only one storey, towards the
west, has a good doorway with carved mouldings of late 18th-century date.
Since the houses were all built on one pattern, it may be as well to
describe one of the most complete, No. 32. The house is divided by a
partition wall into two portions, comprising a front room and passage; and
a back room and staircase respectively, with an archway between the
passage and the stair. The front room on the ground floor is panelled
throughout with raised panels, and each side of the fireplace is an arched
recess, that on the right being formed into a cupboard, semi-circular on plan,
with shaped shelves and half-domed ceiling. The back room and the
projecting " Powder Closet " are both panelled with plain panels. The
rooms are connected by a six-panelled door, and both have fine moulded
cornices to the ceiling. The chimney-pieces have, however, been replaced
by 19th century examples.
The hall and stair are panelled throughout and the detail of the
stair is similar to that shown on plate 63, with the exception of the square
blocks over newels. The baluster is of a spiral form and each tread
finishes with a carved bracket.
The first floor is also entirely panelled,—the front room having raised
panels,—and is provided with a fine cornice. The back room has its
original fireplace,—a bold, moulded surround of brown marble, surmounted
by a frieze and heavy cornice of wood. A good early Victorian chimney-piece
of white marble is in the front room. with large panel above, and arched
recesses at each side. The second floor is a repetition of the one below,
except that all the panelling is. square framed, that is, without mouldings.
The back room has a fine fireplace with grey marble moulded surround and
two long bolection moulded panels above. The door to the Powder
Room has a square moulded opening, now glazed. The fireplace in the front
room has a stone surround with bead and hollow on either edge, and a cornice
and shaped frieze in wood.
From the second floor the stair goes up another half flight and gives
access to a little room or cupboard, formed over the half landing. This
room seems to have existed in all the houses at the top of the stairs, and
since it is provided with a window, and a bench, it seems probable that it
was intended to accommodate a page boy.
The fact that these 18th-century houses scarcely ever show any
proper accommodation for servants, is often puzzling, but if the page slept
in a small room, some 7 ft. 6 in. by 3 ft., such as is described above, it may
well be that the maidservants slept in recesses in the kitchen. There are
two such large recesses in the basement of No. 32, partitioned off from
the kitchen and having openings above with a filling of shaped laths for
There are four moulded batten-doors in the basement besides several
others, with raised panels, which were once in the upper part of the house,
but have been replaced by doors of mahogany.
The other houses follow the one we have described in most particulars.
The staircases vary a little in design, as at No. 30 (see plate 65). No. 16
has lost most of its panelling, etc., but its stair remains intact (plate 63).
Carlyle's house, No. 24 has also had some of its panelling removed, or
covered with canvas for wall paper. The semi-circular planned cupboards
in No. 30 are specially worthy of notice, and No. 34 is also very complete
in its original internal features.
Condition of repair.
The houses are all in excellent condition.
From the rate-books we find that the following persons resided in these houses:—
|1748–1779.||Lady Ann Rous.|
|1748.||Mrs. Isabella Coates.|
|1749.||Mrs. Mary Broughton.|
|1790–1793.||Elizabeth Loftus [1793 her
|1757–1770.||Mary Lefevre [1770 her
|1771–1774.||Capt. Charles Wray.|
|1711–1712.||Capt. Larogne [1712 with Mr. Noads].|
|1716–1718.||Duke of Kent.|
|1743–1751.||Alexander Reid, Surgeon.|
|1790–1800.||Rev. Erasmus Middleton.|
|1716–1719.||—Ellers [given also as Ellis
|1748–1750.||Harriet Predreau [? Prideaux].|
Thomas Carlyle lived here
from 1834 to 1881.|
|1711.||? Mrs. Starsey.|
|1721–1725.||Capt. Charles Letouche.|
|1726–1733.||Capt. Alex. Letouche.|
|1754–1755.||Alexander Reid [See also
|1790–1799.||Ann Murth [1796 John
|1719–1725.||Lady Anne Lutwych.|
|1790–1793.||Edward Henry Howarth.|
|1718.||Worshipful Richard Woodward.|
|1719–1722.||John Sharp. [See also No. 32.]|
|1726.||Mrs. Hephin Canzler.|
|1748–1749.||Mary le Bruine.|
|1782–1783.||Capt. Charles Mears [See
also No. 22].|
|1723–1725.||John Sharp [See also No. 30].|
|1732–1751.||Colonel Peter Damarr.|
|1772–1774.||Captain Francis Lynn.|
|1712–1722.||Richard Noy, or Noyes.|
|1724–1750.||Rev. Sloane Elsmere (Rector)|
|1751–1771.||Mrs. Chauvine [Mrs. Hinton and Mrs. Holloway
occur also with Mrs.
No. 16. Elizabeth Wynn. Captain Reginald and Captain Leonard Wynn lived
at 15, Cheyne Walk from 1724–28. (fn. 2)
Lady Ann Rous. Faulkner mentions a tomb-stone in the old burial ground
to the memory of "Lady Ann Rous, aged 90, relict of Sir William Rous, Alderman
of London; 1777."
No. 18. Mrs. Lowfield. On the south wall of the church is a tablet to "Mrs.Ann
Lowfield, daughter of Thomas Lowfield, Esq., late of this parish, she departed this life
the 5th of December, 1720, and according to her own desire lies buried close on the
outside of this wall." (Arms on a lozenge: Per fess vert and or, a pale countercharged. In chief a bull's head sable, and in base 2 garbs gules [rightly sable] (Davies).
That Mrs. Lowfield's name was not removed from the rate-books for 1721, the year
after her death, merely indicated that there was no new tenant. For other members
of the family, see Survey of London, Vol. II., p. 26.
William and Isabella Coates. During the period of their residence here the
Rector, the Rev. Sloane Elsmere, lived at 34, Cheyne Row. We are told that in
1752 he married (Hist. Regist. Gent. Magazine) a "Miss Cotes," and if she were a
daughter of this family, it was probably in Cheyne Row that he made her acquaintance.
Lady Hare. There is an entry in the parish registers, under date 1776, of the
burial of Dame Elizabeth Hare, June 13 (Faulkner).
No. 20. Peter Charron. Faulkner gives a monument in the old burial ground
10 "P. Charron, Esq., 1754."
No. 22. Doctor Mead. Richard Mead (1673–1754) was one of the most eminent
physicians of his day, and the author of numerous works. He was called into consultation
during the last illness of Queen Anne and attended among others, Sir Isaac Newton,
Bishop Burnet, George I. and Sir Robert Walpole. Appointed Physician to
George II. He added a gallery to his house in Great Ormond Street and was wellknown as a collector and a patron of literature. Faulkner (fn. 3) includes him among the
residents in Paradise Row, about the year 1714, but this seems to be an error. He
moved from Cheyne Row to Gorges House, where he remained from 1715 to 1718.
Duke of Kent. Henry Grey, Duke of Kent, and eleventh Earl of Kent (?1664–1740) is also placed by Faulkner in Paradise Row, but it is clear that he lived at No.
22 Cheyne Row. Faulkner says: "he was created Duke of Kent in 1710, being then
Lord Chamberlain, and 1713 was installed a knight of the garter. In the reign of
George I. he was successively appointed Lord Steward of the Household, Lord Privy
Seal and one of the Lords Justices during the King's Stay in Hanover." Swift said
of him: "He seems a good natured man but of very little consequence." His
daughter, Lady Elizabeth Grey, married Bannaster, Lord Maynard, who seems to
have resided in Chelsea in 1682, as there is an entry in the parish registers of the birth
of his son Anthony, in that year.
Alexander Reid. Alexander Reid the elder and father of the surgeon, died in
1743 and a monument is mentioned by Lyons and Faulkner, as having been on the
north side of the churchyard. The parish registers contain entries of the
burial of a son, Emmanuel, in 1722, and of his wife Frances, in 1735. Alexander
Reid the younger was a versatile surgeon, whose birth Faulkner places in Cheyne
Row in 1719. The family, however, did not reside here until 1729, having been,
according to the rate-books, in Lawrence Street from 1718 to 1729, where they were
next door but one to the Duchess of Monmouth, in the west wing of what was afterwards called Monmouth House. Dr. Reid remained in No. 22, Cheyne Walk after
his father's death until some date between 1751 and 1754, when we find him at No.
26. He was employed for 48 years as Assistant Surgeon at the Chelsea Hospital, and
then appears to have specialised in inoculation for small-pox, which he carried on
at his two houses in Pall Mall and Paradise Row, Chelsea, and also at that of his
assistant, Mr. Perke, in Danvers Street. Faulkner gives an interesting account of his
friends, his convivial tastes (he was member of the "Sublime Society of Beef Steaks,"
the (Chelsea) Bowling Green Society and originator of "the Ladies' Morning Musical
Meeting") and his propensity for humour, for political satire and for song-writing.
He also publishes a letter from Smollett to Dr. Reid, written from France, in which
he hopes "all your Chelsea Societies will continue to flourish." He was buried in the
Royal Hospital burial ground.
Henry Hewitt. He died on May 27th, 1771, aged 75, and bequeathed by will,
to each of the Charity Schools, £25. There is a marble tablet in the Lawrence Chapel
of the old church to the memory of Margaret his wife, who died January 7th, 1762.
Rev. Erasmus Middleton (1739–1805). Curate of Chelsea parish from 1786 to
1797. The rector, the Hon. William Bromley Cadogan, held the vicarage of St. Giles,
Reading, and left the parish to the charge of his curate. He was Editor of the Biographia
Evangelica, "the style of which," says the Gentleman's Magazine, " is particularly
disagreeable." He became rector of Turvey, Bedfordshire, and died in 1805.
No. 24.—Ellers. This name is variously spelt in the rate-books, and suggests that
it may have been a foreign name, about which the clerk was uncertain. If this is so,
it may well refer to one of the brothers Elers (fl. 1690–1730), who are credited with
the beginning of the Chelsea china manufactory. (See Survey of London, Vol. II, p. 59).
Ann Skinner. On an important marble monument to Maria Buckby on the north
wall of the chancel in the old church is an inscription stating it was erected by Ann
Skinner, the niece of the deceased. Mr. Randall Davies notes that (fn. 4) " Mrs. Skinner
a widow" is mentioned in Robert Woodcock's will (1710) as being in possession of his
house in Church Lane. He further quotes from the Sexton's Book that she was
buried on 10th June, 1756, "under Mr. Warner's pew, her feet close to the steps of
the communion table."
Thomas Carlyle. Of Thomas Carlyle's residences in London, by far the most
important was the house in Cheyne Row, which was his home for nearly fifty years.
It was in 1834 that he came to live at No. 24 (then No. 5). He was at first in serious
financial straits, but a course of lectures on German literature in May, 1837, lifted
him above want, and the publication in the same year of the French Revolution brought
him fame. In 1845 the Life and Letters of Oliver Cromwell established his position as
a leader of literature. Frederick the Great occupied him from 1851 to 1865, and in
the year following he met his greatest misfortune in the death of his much-loved
wife at Chelsea. From that time "work became impossible." (fn. 5) In 1881 he died.
In 1895 the house was purchased by the Carlyle's House Memorial Trust and converted into a Carlyle Museum. A detailed description of the house is given in Blunt's
Historical Handbook to Chelsea. The house bears a tablet of white marble (with
medallion portrait) commemorative of Carlyle's residence. The tablet was at first
(February 6th, 1886) fixed on No. 49, Cheyne Walk, owing to circumstances preventing its erection on the proper house at the time of delivery, and was not until
1889 removed to its present position.
No. 26. Rev. —Hinton. Faulkner gives the Rev. Thomas Hinton as curate
from 1748 to 1751.
Rev.—Gardiner. The Rev. W. Gardner was curate from 1755 to 1764.(Faulkner.)
Stephen Fox left £100 by will to each of the Charity Schools, 1772. (Faulkner.)
No. 28. Lady Ann Lutwych. Sir Edward Lutwyche, judge of the Common
Pleas, died 1709.
Hele Dyer. Faulkner mentions his residence in Cheyne Row in 1766.
No. 30. Mrs. Boyer. " 1729, November 16th. Died at his house at Chelsea,
Mr. Abel Boyer, author of the French Dictionary and the Life of Queen Anne and
the Political State of Great Britain "(Monthly Chronicle).
No. 32. Thomas Stewart and Colonel Peter Damarr. Mr. Randall Davies tells us
that Stewart bought the freehold of his house in Cheyne Row in 1719 from John
Mackie. (Mddx. Registry 1719. Bk. 4, 277–9). On his monument, on the south wall
of the chancel in the old church, he is described as " of Barbadoes, Merchant." He
died in 1722, his wife Elizabeth, who is also commemorated, having predeceased him
in the year 1717. Stewart left by will £100 "towards making a handsome altar piece
in the parish church" and also £50 to be invested in freeholds, the interest of which was
to be paid to the Rector for an annual sermon on January 5th upon the text:—Ps. L., 14, 15, in commemoration of a great deliverance he had on this day. The
monument mentioned above bears also an inscription to the memory of Thomasin
Damarr, "daughter of the above Elizabeth Stewart." It is not stated whether she
was wife or sister to Colonel Damarr, so it is possible both were children of Elizabeth
by a former marriage. Thomasin Damarr died in 1758, her name remaining in the
rate-books for 1759. The arms on the monument are: or, a fesse checky arg. and az.
within a double tresure counterflory gu. for Stewart, impaling sa. on a cross between
4 fleur de lis. arg. 5 pheons az. Motto, Nobilis ira. (Randall Davies.) The various
members of the Sharp family were probably related to the Damarrs, if the order
preserved in the rate-books is correct, which shows them at No. 30 and also at No. 32,
between the tenancies. The inference is strengthened by the fact that the
Christian name Thomasin occurs with both surnames.
Doctor Welstead. Robert Welstead (1671–1735), physician, practised medicine
in Bristol and London. Fellow of the Royal Society in 1718. He published Latin
medical pieces and with Richard West edited Pindar 1692. (Dict. of Nat. Biog.)
Henry Raper. The break in the rate-books makes it uncertain how long Henry
Raper lived at No. 32, but it is probable that it was here that his death occurred in
1789, as we find Catherine Raper his wife at No. 25, Cheyne Walk from 1790–1802. (fn. 6)
A tablet on the north wall of the nave commemorates him and his wife. Beaver
mentions a memorial to Henry Raper (died 1823) in the churchyard, while
Faulkner includes C. C. Raper and M. Raper among those who attended Dr.Burney's funeral in 1814. Both Henry Raper the admiral (died 1845) and his son Henry,
the author of The Practice of Navigation (died 1859), were distinguished men. (Dict.
of Nat. Biog.)
John Denyer. On the east wall of the chancel of the old church are memorial
tablets to Martha Denyer (died 1795), John Denyer (died 1806) and Elizabeth Dennis
Denyer (died 1824), their only daughter. Faulkner tells us, in a quaint little panegyric,
of Mr. Denyer's industry in forming his great collection of printed Bibles, manuscripts
and missals and also of his daughter's talents in illumination, miniatures and repairing
old MSS. John Denyer was chairman of the " Chelsea Armed Association" (Royal
Volunteers). Miss Denyer left by will money for the support of eight poor spinsters,
four of whom were to receive £11 2s. 6d. per annum and four £7 per annum.
No. 34. Lady Hatton. Christopher, first Viscount Hatton, Governor of
Guernsey, died 1706. Beaver quotes from a letter which Lord Hatton received from
Charles Hatton in reference to the choice of some Passion flowers from The Botanic
Rev. Sloane Elsmere. Dr. Sloane Elsmere succeeded Dr. King as Rector of Chelsea
in 1732 and remained here until his death in 1766. He was related to and acted as
executor of Sir Hans Sloane, whose sister was a Mrs. Elsmere. He founded the
Charity Girls' School, and was buried in the old burial ground.
In the Council's ms. collection are:—
(fn. 7) No. 14–34. Ground floor plan (measured drawing).
(fn. 7) Nos. 14–34. West elevation (measured drawing).
No. 14. Front view (photograph).
No. 14. Another view of the same (photograph).
(fn. 7) No. 14. Doorway (photograph).
(fn. 7) Nos. 14 and 16. View from south-west (photograph).
Nos. 16–34. View of from south-west (photograph).
No. 16–34. Another view of the same (photograph).
(fn. 7) No. 16. Staircase (measured drawing).
(fn. 7) No. 24 and 26. Front view (photograph).
No. 24. Front view (photograph).
No. 24. Arch and Window (measured drawing).
(fn. 7) No. 30. Staircase (measured drawing).
No. 30. Cupboards (measured drawing).
(fn. 7) No. 32. Doorway (photograph).
(fn. 7) Nos. 16–34. View from north-west (photograph).