Elizabeth
December 1587, 1-15

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Institute of Historical Research

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Sophie Crawford Lomas (editor)

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1927

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429-441

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'Elizabeth: December 1587, 1-15', Calendar of State Papers Foreign, Elizabeth, Volume 21, Part 1: 1586-1588 (1927), pp. 429-441. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=74796 Date accessed: 28 July 2014.


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December 1587, 1-15

Dec. 2.George John, Palatine of the Rhine and Duke of Bavaria to Elizabeth.
A long letter, of which the substance is very well given in the following document.—Veldentz, 2 December, 1587.
Signed. Endd. "From the Duke of Petite Pierre to her Majesty" and in a later hand. "This is the [sic] Duke of Bavaria." French. 10½ pp. [German States V. 60.]
Dec. 2."Substance of a letter written by D[uke] George, the Count Palatine, to the Queen's Majesty the 2 of December, 1587."
"That Duke Casimir hath in this treaty with the King of Navarre sought his own particular profit, and preferred it before the general cause, as M. Segur and other of the Religion have openly complained and as may appear by the copies that were sent herewith.
"That the King of Navarre and M. Clervant desired that Duke George's son might be chief of the army, which both he and his son did willingly agree unto, and Duke Casimir himself did offer it to his son. And after, when M. de Buy, coming out of England, had in charge from her Majesty to tell Duke Casimir that if he went not himself he should prefer Duke George's son to the leading of the army, he propounded two things unto him by the said M. de Buy:—
"First that the said Duke George should quit his action of heritage, which is the third part of that which Duke Casimir and his pupil witholdeth from him and the revenue of the 27th year.
"Secondly that Duke George should give assurance to attempt nothing against him.
"To these two points the said Duke George made as lawful an answer as could be reasonably demanded of him, as may appear by the third answer. But this prevailed nothing, so that the army remained five weeks without a head, to the great offence of the Swisses, whose corn country was spoiled by this means.
"That in the end, Duke Casimir made the Baron of Donau [Dhona] head of the army, and rejected Duke George's son, to whom Duke Casimir said that his father Duke George was in the fault thereof, and not he; seeking by that means to put division between the son and the father.
"That Duke George hath letters in his hands whereby it appeareth that Duke Casimir, the same time he concluded by Beutrich at Nimes to succour the churches of France, the same time he treated secretly to make the Guisards kings of France.
"That M. Segur complained greatly that Duke Casimir went about to force and change the capitulation, and would not sign it until he was in a manner enforced thereunto, by reason the army was so far advanced.
"That the said Duke George had a few years past engaged the town of Pfaltzburg (fn. 1) to the Duke of Lorraine for the relief of the Low Countries, and hath spent all the moneys thereof in defence of the poor churches, and that M. Segur employed himself to have recovered the said town for Duke George upon promise to the Duke of Lorraine that the reiters should not spoil his country.
"That the said Duke George hath declared all these matters aforesaid for the reasons following:—
"First that her Majesty may be certified that the fault of this ill success was neither in him nor his son.
"Secondly to let her Majesty understand the injury that hath been done to him and his son, and that after M. Segur was entered into a capitulation with him for a second levy, the said Segur was hindered and letted therein.
"Thirdly that the Baron of 'Donau' did rather hinder him than assist him when he went about to treat with the Duke of Lorraine for the recovery of Pfaltzburg, and that the reiters burned and sacked the Duke of Lorraine's country, who promised to have been a neuter. So that now the forces of the Duke of Guise and Mayne being grown strong, the reiters who before might have passed into France without impeachment, are daily weakened and cut off.
"Fourthly that her Majesty will be a mean that if any treaty of peace go forward in France, the restoring of Pfaltzburg to him may be comprehended in it, in respect whereof he will be bound to furnish the churches with 100,000 florins if the wars shall begin again.
"[Fifthly]. That M. Buy dealt with him touching the affairs of the Low Countries to employ himself therein upon certain conditions; and that he hopeth her Majesty hath already understood his resolution from the said Buy, whereof he doth assure her Majesty to make full account of the performance.
"Sixthly that a good league might be made between her Majesty and the Prince of Sweden, elect King of Poland, in case her Majesty would aid him in the confirmation and assuring to himself of the said kingdom, considering what good havens he hath in Prussia and Liefland [Livonia].
"Seventhly that the King of Navarre should put away his wife, and marry the King of Sweden's daughter, and that the young Prince of Sweden, now King of Poland, should marry out of England some one near allied to her Majesty, which alliance would do much good for the strengthening of the churches, and herein he would gladly employ himself.
"Eighthly that her Majesty will not conceive the worse of him in case he shall use the friendship of Catholics for the recovery of that which Duke Casimir witholdeth, minding never to go from his religion, but only to help himself by this means; notwithstanding he is better content that her Majesty and the churches shall have the decision of the matter.
"Lastly he humbly thanketh her Majesty for her willingness to prefer his son to the leading of the army; and that if a better course be not taken than hath been yet, the poor churches will languish still, and all these charges be spent in vain. So that he holdeth it most necessary to make a greater support speedily, as he would gladly declare by word of mouth to her Majesty if he might be so happy as to come into England."
Endd. 3 pp. [German States V. 61.]
Dec. 2.George John, Count Palatine of the Rhine etc. (Prince de Petite Pierre) to the King of Navarre.
I doubt not but that your Majesty's ambassador, M. de 'Sigeurs' (fn. 2) will have told you of the wrong done to your affairs by sending this German and Swiss army without a German chief, a prince of a great house, to whom the reiters would have paid due respect; and that you must by this time evidently perceive how greatly the delay of this army must have harmed you; for if it had advanced three or four weeks sooner, it would have passed into France and executed whatever was desired before the hostile party had gathered their forces.
M. de 'Sigeurs' (fn. 3) and M. de la Noue will no doubt have told you that if my advice had been followed, your Majesty's affairs might have been firmly established, but my cousin Casimir was more envious than regardful of me and my advice, as is shown by the copy of the resolution which I sent to M. de Sigeurs, upon the offers made to me on the said Duke's behalf by M. de Buy; viz.: that my son, George Gustave, should be made chief of the army on two conditions: first, that I should quit my actions of heritage, and secondly that I would give Duke Casimir security to attempt nothing against him; on both which points I answered very reasonably, and in accordance with the judgment of M. de Sigeur.
And seeing that the army collected was in danger of breaking in consequence of the delay both in the delivery of the money for their pay and in the holding of musters, I offered to march with it in person. But although Duke Casimir knew that your Majesty had written both to me and my son that if the Duke did not go himself, my son was to command the army (M. de Clervant having declared this to him); also that the Queen of England had written demanding the same and that he himself had made overtures to my son, yet he thought only of his own interests, and sent to me again to demand me to give up my actions of heritage.
In the end, M. de Sigeur, seeing me to be vexed, not without reason, and knowing that I was sought after by the house of Guise, thought good to treat with me, as your Majesty will see by the copy annexed (letter B) (fn. 4) ; but although he gave me the offers in writing, the envy of Duke Casimir's people finally prevented him from signing them, saying that his embassy did not empower him to make a second levy, but that he would send the articles to your Majesty, and in ten weeks would have an answer. Whereupon I gave M. de Sigeur and M. de la Noue to understand that this was not the first time that my good will had been so ill-recompensed, nor the first tricks that Duke Casimir had played me, showing them how I had always wished to employ myself in this service, and how I had been treated.
Firstly, when Colonel Rolzhausen was sent into France (fn. 5) by Duke Wolfgang, Palatine, Duke Christopher of Wurtemberg, Philip Landgrave of Hesse and others, Duke Christopher seeing that I had always loved the French nation, was beloved by those of them that knew me and was then negotiating the matter of their succour in France, thought good that I should be the chief of the army. But although I was very willing, Duke Wolfgang (my guardian) would not permit it, saying that he had promised the King of Sweden to send me to him for the completion of my marriage, which had been arranged with my consent. Now, coming from Sweden, the Prince of Porcian, (fn. 6) my cousin—related to me through the house 'Crouy,' to which my grandmother belonged—desired me to assist him against the Cardinal of Lorraine, who had wished to imprison him, as was shown by the confession of a gentleman at Paris.
Upon this, an alliance was made between the Elector Frederick Palatine (father of Duke Casimir) and myself to aid the Prince of Porcian, while at the same time the Elector was in danger of being besieged by the Emperor Maximilian and Duke John Frederick of Saxony. For this levy, it was decided that Duke Casimir should march with me, and that in case war was made on the Elector, we should go to his help.
But at the very time that my ambassador was with the Prince de Porcian, to inform him that my colonels, rittmasters and captains were ready to march, the Prince was poisoned and died. (fn. 7) I offered still to carry on the war against the Cardinal of Lorraine, but the Elector now beginning to reconcile himself with the Emperor, and having hope of marrying Duke Casimir to the daughter of the Elector of Saxony, did not wish to pursue it; and when I complained of the great sums of money which I had already disbursed, advised me to write to the chief of the churches, as also to the Prince de Conde and the Admiral, that I had heard that the war was about to begin again in France; that I had desired to fight against the Cardinal of Lorraine, which had been interrupted by the death of the Prince de Porcian; but that having my people ready, I should be willing to aid them with the said troops. These offers were sent by M. de Chambre, named Infantius. The Prince de Conde and the Admiral replied that they thanked me for my offer and wished to employ me. Then Duke Casimir (who had formerly promised to march with me) and the Elector Frederick his father, learning this, played me a trick: viz. that after the churches had sent ambassadors to learn if I still meant to march to their aid, and I had replied that I was as determined as before, if they would give me good assurances and agreements; now, the ambassadors coming again to Heidelberg, were corrupted by the Elector Frederick, and decided, without my knowledge, that Duke Casimir should march, as he did. (fn. 8) Thus, I was obliged to pay my colonels, rittmasters and captains for their waiting, of whom the Count Bourckart de Barbi was one, and will testify what great expences and losses I thereby suffered.
After Duke Casimir returned from France, I reproached him in open camp before Billickheim [Billigheim] for the wrong he had done me, who excused himself by saying that the ambassadors had told him that I did not wish to march.
The third loss I have endured for the churches was when Duke Wolfgang went into France, (fn. 9) and the Marquis de Renel, (fn. 10) brother of the Prince de Porcian, had agreed with me to advance 30000 florins which I had at Strasbourg (being part of my wife's dowry) and to make a levy for the aid of the churches, to which I agreed, and began to raise men. Some weeks later, it chanced that I went towards Heidelberg, and on the way met the Marquis with M. de Francourt returning from thence, although the Marquis had promised me not to resort thither or to talk of my levy. He then told me that Francourt had agreed with Duke Wolfgang to make the levy; and since I had been put to some expence, they would see to it that the Duke should arrange matters with me, which he never would do, and thus I suffered my third loss.
The fourth loss was that those of Languedoc had sought my help (fn. 11) by M. de Montbrun and M. de Saint Romain, sending two ambassadors, the Seigneur Gasques (fn. 12) and Alexander Gotin, who after having made long journeys to the Emperor and Electors had gained permission to raise aid and so entirely free the churches, by the help of God. Coming to Heidelberg; and having already disboursed more than 40000 florins, and finding the Prince of Conde there, Gasques was corrupted and led away, with all his papers. The Prince and Duke Casimir each put the doing thereof upon the other, sending to me certain gentlemen and M. de Lanti, whose arrest I had demanded at Strasburg in order to regain the documents, and who said in excuse that Duke Casimir and his father had made him do it. By this, the succour for the churches was delayed almost a year and a half, the poor churches languishing in pain, and myself in shame and loss. And now my last loss for the churches of the Low Countries, when they sent to me with these words:—We pray, implore and adjure you not to abandon us—has cost me the pawning of Pfalzbourg, and the great hurt and shame which I and my son have suffered in this last war.
Moreover, being applied to by the Duke of Lorraine to mediate between him and the chief of the army, I had sent word that I would go to Nancy, whither I had already begun to take my way and had written a letter by advice of M. de Segeurs, with the Duke of Lorraine, whereby the reiters would have been assured of 300000 florins, and Pfalzbourg would have been restored to me, but they let slip this excellent opportunity, both for themselves and me, and have ruined the Duke of Lorraine, without gaining any profit whatever. I had already obtained the said Duke's promise not to enterprise anything against the King of Navarre, as he can testify.
I have sent you this discourse in order to let the churches understand that it is not my doing that they have not been aided, either formerly or by this last levy, and also that your Majesty may arrange with the churches to recompense me for my losses on their behalf, and for my constant good offices to those of the Religion in my countries. Also that the town of Pfalzbourg (as a very necessary passage for the succour of the Huguenots and the French church) may not remain in the hands of the Catholics, or peace be made by your Majesty until it be restored to me; offering, if you will gratify me in this, to make myself always responsible for 100000 florins to enable my son to make another levy when necessity requires.
For although the other party has made me great offers, I have never wished to accept them, although the ill-satisfaction given to me and my son might have drawn me to do so; being confident that your Majesty, who has always assured me of your friendship, will agree to the inclusion of this demand for Pfalzbourg in the capitulation for peace, if such be made; and as to the 100000 crowns owed me by the King of France, I am willing to give up my claim upon him.
I pray you to let me know whether you desire to employ my son for the first levy that you make, that he may not lose his time, having an opportunity to gain some advantage for him in the affairs of Poland and Sweden, and only regretting that having taken so much care to bring him up in the fear of God, and with [knowledge of] letters and divers languages, he has up to this time, through Duke Casimir's envy, not been able happily to serve the churches, for the glory of God and the service of your Majesty. And that the Pope might at least have one German Prince of the Religion to make war against him.
I send you copies of the letters I have written to the Queen of England, praying for your resolution on such points as touch your Majesty; also intelligences from Sweden and Poland. And that you may know whence came Duke Casimir's desire to revenge himself upon me and to prevent my son from being chief of the army, it arises from a letter which I wrote for your Majesty's service; that he should not treat so rudely and unworthily your ambassador, M. de Sigeurs, or use such stratagems in regard to the Duke of Lorraine as he had begun to do, warning him of the letters of Beutrich, which were not found good seeing that at the same time that he had settled with the churches of Nimes for the succour and his last levy before this one, he was also treating to make the Duke of Guise King of France; and also admonishing him to take another and better way with his army and more fitting expedients. But instead of taking my faithful admonition in good part, he has given very ill recompense to myself and my son, but God will in time make known the difference of the humours and that in the end the tord will fall upon himself.
Thus, my much honoured cousin, I pray you not to take in ill part so long a letter, by which you will see the true affection I have always borne to the churches, my ill recompense, and my most reasonable demands in regard to Pfalzbourg. With the offers I have made both for myself and my son for the service of the churches and your Majesty. Praying you earnestly by my ambassador to send me your resolution.—Veldentz, 2 Dec., 1587.
Postscript. Although I have had advertisement of the retreat of the Swiss and the flight of some cornets of the reiters; of the state of your army and the dangers which threaten it, I do not desire in this your adversity to withdraw my entire affection for you; but by continuing to send you the same letters and declarations that I had dispatched before receiving the said news, hope that I shall give you to see that you still have friends and servants if you hasten your declaration on the proofs and what depends on them.
Endd. "Copy of the Duke of Petitpierre's letter to the King of Navarre." And in another hand "The Duke of Bavaria."
Fr. 10 pp. [Germany, States V. 62.]
Dec. 2/12.
[latest date].
Occurences from divers parts.
Rome, 5 December, 1587. It is almost the universal opinion that in the next promotion, the Pope will only make five cardinals, viz.: Paris, Mendoza, the Patriarch Gonzaga, and the Archbishops of Cosenza and Genoa; but if more, that they will be the Auditor of the Chamber, Fabio Orsino, Todi and the Grand Master of Malta, who is today to arrive at Marino, where he will be received by Cardinal Colonna, his Excellency not wishing to enter Naples, wherefore he will be visited by the viceroy at Pozzuolo.
On Monday he will make his entry here, with, as is said two hundred knights and five grand crosses, who will accompany him.
Our merchants have not yet been able to obtain licence to bet upon the forthcoming promotions. Cardinal Savello is dead, and is to be buried today. There will be thus several vacancies, amongst which is one of 8000 crowns outside Rome, which it is believed Monsignor Savello, nephew of the Pope, will have, and the Abbey of Osino, which, it is understood his Holiness has given to the Cardinal of Perugia, and the place of vicar of Papi to Rusticuccio, there still remaining to distribute that of the Chief Inquisitor; the Bishopric of Portuense [Oporto] of three thousand crowns, with the Abbey in the Cremonese; a commandery of Malta in la Marca and many lapsed pensions; amongst them one of a thousand crowns paid him by the Archbishop of Capua, who returned three days ago from his nunciature of Venice, but has not yet been able to have audience of the Pope.
It is said that Savello's castles and patrimony of 10000 crowns of rents and his wardrobe, which is very rich, are left for twelve years to the Counts Prospero and Nicolo, brothers of la Ginga, masters of his household and chamber, and that then there is substituted as universal heir the eldest son of Signor Bernardino Savello. . . .
In yesterday's consistory, the church of Nazareth was proposed for Fra Gieronimo da Spelo, confessor of the Pope; his Holiness arguing that making one frate a cardinal, he will make this one a priest.
There was also read and renewed a decree made in the time of Leo the 10th, prohibiting cardinals from publishing matters treated of in Consistory.
His Holiness has lately received as his private chamberlain, a nephew of the Cardinal of Verona.
There has been published a new bull against bastards; that they may not be received into any religious order; and also a reform of the tribunal of the governor of Rome, concerning civil causes transacted by the present governor for the benefit of poor litigants.
Cardinal Gaetano this week has entered upon his office of High Chamberlain, with the usual ceremonies and in presence of all the clerks; and yesterday the rector and all the professors of this school in Rome went to his house to give their oaths to him and acknowledge him as their superior.
Aragon has returned from Proceda; Farnese from Caprarola and Sforza from Lombardy; and Cremona is expected tomorrow.
Letters of the 27th ult. from Messina say that the galleys of Sicily, returning from Naples, have taken a rich merchant ship, going to the Levant with divers Greeks, French and English.
There is come hither Signor Minutio, sent by the Duke of Bavaria. On Wednesday he had audience of the Pope, but no particulars of it are known.
Antwerp, 21 November. On the 17th, the Duke of Parma left Brussels with his court, and a band of cavalry and archers as his guard, so sumptuously attired as had never been seen with any other lord or governor of these countries; his Highness having had made fourteen sorts of very superb liveries; amongst which was one all of gold, even to the equipment of the horse. At his arrival at Bruges, he sent hither in all haste for thirty carpenters. Some say that he is already at Dunkirk and that daily men on horse and on foot resort to him there. The great artillery, munitions and victuals have been sent to Ghent, whither there come also many barks from Malines and other places; his Highness also keeping some ships of war at I'Escluse and Dunkirk, where, it is said, there are stayed seven vessels from Hamburg with 200 mariners, for his service. Small vessels with the carriages, carts and instruments of war go by way of Bruges, and the soldiers who were in the 'Campigna' [or Kempenland] and round about this city are marching towards Flanders.
Amongst the many vessels which have been made here are four very great ones, which cannot sail in these rivers, but only on the high sea; especially one made by some Italians, with these words on the prow: "Vias tuas, Domine Jesu demonstra mihi."
To what end all these provisions are designed, we cannot yet know certainly, but all believe that they are against England, whence His Highness has recalled M. de Campagni, (fn. 13) who awhile ago was at that court to negotiate the peace, and who is to go to him, wherever he may be.
Just now there comes news that the Duke of Parma has laid siege to Ostend, his Highness' intention of making himself master of the small island of Sud Beverland ("Suit Befferlant") not having succeeded, there having been suddenly placed there a garrison of 5000 men; also the guards in the fortresses in Holland having been doubled.
The Hollanders these last days have been making rejoicings for the accord not yet established between the States of Holland because the Earl of Leicester was to return into England with his troops, with whom he is said to be already arrived at Flushing. This Earl had tried to change the magistracy of Enchuysen, but the burghers were opposed to it.
The States of Holland and Zeeland have not yet entirely come to an agreement, but they are fortifying every day, and are re-inforcing their fleet at Lillo, where thirty ships of war are already arrived, and others are expected to come to serve the country if there should be need.
Cologne, 26 of the same.—The day before yesterday, 3600 German soldiers, who, for many weeks had been in these quarters, set out with the Sieur Gio. Manriques to go to the Duke's camp with 400 horse, as escort for a large sum of money for the payment of the troops.
At Dusseldorf are gathered deputies of the barons and noblemen of the Duke of Cleves, earnestly desiring the concession of the Augustan confession and liberty of conscience.
Our Archbishop and Elector is leaving this state, because of the great scarcity here, and is going with his court to Liége, his bishopric.
Venice, 12 December, 1587. Letters from Prague of the 25th ult. say that the Grand Chancellor of Poland had again tried to get away from Cracow with the crown, but the people prevented it. Also that many of the lords assembled there to discuss what was to be done, who had been supporters of the Swede—and amongst them one of the chief palatines and four bishops—had declared for Maximilian, and gone out to take the oath of fealty to his Highness, who, with his other adherents designed to crown him this last month; it being said that all the regalia had already been given up to him by those assisting in that Diet; and it was expected to settle this business, excepting that of Lithuania; which would be known within two or three days.
In the meanwhile, Maximilian had sent towards Petrocovia [Piotrcow] 2000 horse and 600 harquebusiers to find the Prince of Sweden, and to announce to him that if he did not turn back and give up his pretensions to the crown, his Highness declared himself his enemy, he being vestito alla Pollacca and having sworn to live and die with that nation. Count Ferdinand of Nogarola, General of the Archduke Charles, was on the borders to block the way to the Tartars who were coming to the aid of the Grand Chancellor; who had sent an express to the Diet of Hungary to persuade those lords not to aid Maximilian; who daily expected in his camp the Duke of Ostroch [or Ostrog], palatine of Volhinia and the Count di Tincinio with some other Polish lords.
There was come to the Imperial court the Bishop of Argentina [Strasburg] on account of certain differences with those of his diocese, and also with the Archduke Ferdinand; for having taken from him some of his castles.
The Emperor is sending the Count Antonio d'Arco to compliment the Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Monsignor Calandra is still here, but no one knows the reason, though the speculators will have that it is for some business of the Duke of Mantua.
Some deny the departure of the Marchese Santa Croce from Lisbon, (stated in letters from Madrid of the 10th ult.) but say he was about to set sail not against Holland and Zeeland, but for the enterprise against England, towards which also the Duke of Parma was making his way. That in Biscay there were embarked two thousand lances, and that, as well as the armada of the Marquis, which was to disembark in Ireland or in Scotland, there were 16000 footmen.
The Senate has resolved to rebuild the bridge of the Rialto (which is now falling into ruin from old age) of stone, for the greater adornment of the city and permanence of the work; and to appoint two or three deputies over the business, it being said that in order that the cost may be met without oppressing private people, they will create three proctors for the moneys.
The going of the President of Ravenna to Cesena was by order from Rome, for the beheading of the Doctor and Count N. de Tiberii for having said that the Pope by law was not able to impose the tax for the galleys which was now exacted from the community; but the Doctor, being warned, saved himself by flight.
Letters from Paris of the 15th ult. say that several had been taken in that city on the charge of having tried to set it on fire in many places there, in order to bring in the reiters, or some [say] the Duke of Guise. Joyeuse is very greatly lamented by the ladies of the court. (fn. 14)
Meanwhile, his Majesty's camp daily became stronger, being on one side of the river Loire, and on the other side the King of Navarre and his forces. The German reiters were lodged about Berri and other neighbouring places, living on the provisions brought by the peasants of the villages, that they might not suffer any further injury.
Two or three couriers have this week passed towards Rome, sent from the Imperial Court with letters from the Nuncio there and the agent of Spain for the Pope and Count Olivares, to give account, as is said, of the proceedings in Poland, and to favour, in the name of the Emperor, the Archbishop of Naples, in the next promotion. They reported that Maximilian had entered Cracow, and that any day the coronation might take place.
On the 7th instant, the obsequies of the late Grand Duke were to be begun in Florence. It is said that the Duke of Mantua sent one express to offer the same compliments as the Cavaliere Dovara had already done for the Grand Duke. In the matter of precedency between the Cavaliere Capello and the Count dal Zaffo, the lords of the Council decided in favour of the Count.
Since the Senate appointed as proveditori for the building of the Bridge of the Rialto the proctors Barbara and Foscarini and Luigi Georgio, the Savio grande have resolved that the Marchese Malatesta, already employed by the Republic, shall have his profits given to him.
Some believe that the couriers gone from the Imperial Court to Rome were sent with this intent:—that the adherents of Maximilian desiring to crown him before others might present themselves or that time might bring about some disturbance, wished to make sure of the Pope's assent to the said coronation.
By an extraordinary courier from Turin to the ambassador of Savoy, we hear that the Duke of Guise had defeated eight other cornets of reiters, who had separated themselves from the army in consequence of a quarrel with the Swiss; and that the Huguenots (contrary to the agreements) had attempted, but in vain, to surprise Avignon.
It is desired on the Piazza to have news of the entrance of Maximilian into Cracow and of his coronation, for which there had been great rejoicings in 'Ispruch' [Insbruck], but letters from Prague of the 30th ult., sent by way of Augsburg, say nothing save that his Highness was still in the Monastery of Magil, a league from Cracow; and that the 2000 horse sent against the Prince of Sweden, having met him with his sister and the Queen widow on this side of Petrocovia, on the road to Cracow, with 1800 persons in very ill order, he took to flight, turning back towards Petrocovia, whence, it not being safe to stay there, as all the houses are made of wood, he was gone towards Warsaw with his said company.
And the Bohemians, in their Diet, had consented to give the Emperor, for Maximilian's service, a thousand reiters and a regiment of foot, paid for three months; which were being enlisted with the greatest speed.
Italian. 4 pp. [Newsletters CXV. 38.]
Dec. 10.Her Majesty to M. de Clervant.
Thanking him for his letters, delivered by M. de Chalonges, which have pleased her much, as well by their assurance of affection to herself, as by showing her the good state of their affairs, which she prays God may continue, that all the pain and toil which he and so many other honest men are undergoing may result in a happy peace, to the honour of God and the welfare and repose of that realm. This, she is assured is also the desire of all who are aiding in this enterprise, amongst whom she hears that Baron Dhona has been so forward as to esteem less of his life and fortune than of the service and advancement of the common cause.
And seeing that he has written her a letter by M. Chalonges, by which, as by a picture, he shows his devotion to herself, to whom he has been hitherto unknown, she prays M. de Clervant to thank him on her behalf, and to assure him that she will hold both himself and his good will in remembrance. Refers him to the Sieur de Chalonges for news of what has happened during his visit.—Somerset House (Palais de Somerset), 10 December, 1587.
Copy. Endd. as being to "M. de Clervault." French. [France XVII. 140.]
Dec. 10.Her Majesty to Baron Dhona.
She has asked M. de Clervant to thank him on her behalf for his letters, yet cannot omit herself to assure him that although hitherto unknown to her, he will be henceforth among the number of those to whom she esteems herself much indebted for their devotion to herself, as shown by what he writes. Is also very glad to learn that a person of his quality and good judgment is employed to command in affairs of so great consequence; whereof it is to be hoped the issue will be so much the happier and better in that he will serve as a pattern and mirror to those others who hold charges in his army, and that they will imitate him in the constancy and good affection which he has so well made apparent by the many difficulties he has overcome.
Draft, much corrected. Endd. French. 1 p. [France, XVII. 141.]
Also,
Rough draft much corrected, of the above two letters, differing in their wording but to the same effect. French. [Ibid. XVII. 141a.]
Dec. [10?]Her Majesty to the Duke of Bouillon.
Expressing her pleasure on receiving his letters, brought by M. de Chalonges, both because of his relation of the happy success which God has given to the troops under his command and of the harmony prevailing in an army composed of so many divers nations. Prays God so to lead and strengthen them that in the end they may achieve a good and assured peace to the honour of God and peace of that realm.
In regard to M. de Chalonges, she has found in him such ability that she is well content to leave it to him to make report on her behalf of what has passed between herself and him, both touching the common cause and his Highness; towards whom, for many respects, she feels herself bound to show all favour and friendship.—Our palace of Somerset, etc.
Copy. Endd. French. 1 p. [France XVII. 142.]

Footnotes

1 Always (by a copyist's error) written 'Saltzburg' in this summary.
2 i.e. Segur-Pardaillon.
3 i.e. Segur.
4 Not now with the letter.
5 In 1562. Fridrich de Rolzhausen, Marshal of Hesse; Wolfgang, Duke of Deux-Ponts.
6 Antoine de Croy, Prince de Porcien.
7 On May 5th, 1567.
8 He joined Conde on Jan. 11, 1568.
9 In Feb. 1569.
10 Antoine de Clermont, half brother of the Prince de Porcien.
11 In 1574.
12 Mentioned in one of Henry of Navarre's letters as being a deputy of Bas Languedoc. (See Lettres Missives ii, 406.)
13 Frederic de Perrenot, Sieur de Champagny.
14 Killed in the battle of Coutras, Oct. 10–20.