THURGARTON. TURGASTON. and Horspole.
This place, with Horspole, and what belonged to it in Tideby, in the Confessours
time was valued at 3l. but when the great survey was made in the Conquerours
at 4l. (fn. 1) being then the fee of Walter de Aincurt, who had in Turgaston and
Horsepole in demesne two car. and ten sochm. on nine bov. of this land, which before
the conquest was Swains, whose manor here paid the tax for three plow-land or car.
and three bovats. The land being then found to be six car. (or for six plows.)
(fn. 2) Raph de Ayncurt for the (safety or) health of his soul, and of his sons and
daughters, and for the soul of his father, and of his mother, and for the soul of Basilia
his woman (or wife) and of all his parents and ancestors, founded an house of religion
at Thurgarton, and in (or at) the foundation of that house, gave and granted to the canons there regularly serving God and St. Peter, by the counsel and intreaty of Thurstin
arch-bishop of York of pious memory, in pure almes, all Thurgarton and Fiskerton, and
the park by Thurgarton, and all the churches of his whole land, to wit, of Graneby,
&c. as in that place is already set down; which alms of his, he prayed all the sons of
the Holy Church to maintain and defend; and to his heirs if they preserved and sustained it with all its liberties, he left Gods favour, and his fatherly blessing for ever:
but if any did not, he should incur Gods anger, and his curse, except he repented.
(fn. 3) King Henry the second commanded the sheriff of Nott. and the men of the Soc
of Dunham, that the canons of Thurgarton should well and peaceably hold their mills upon Trent. He likewise confirmed to them what Raph de Ayincurt had given, and all
the forementioned churches, viz. Graneby, Elmeton, Cotes, Swafeild, Haneword, Scaupewick, Kirkeby, Braunceton, Tymberland, Blankeney, and of the gift of William Fitz- (or
son of) Ranulf, the church of Blackwell; of the gift of Matthew de Vilers, the church
of Warinton (in Lancashire) the church of Titheby, the chapel of Crophill, and one
carucat of land in the same town of his demesne; of the gift of Gerard, son of Walter
de Sutton, the church of Sutton (in Ashfeild) and two bovats of land in the same town;
of the gift of William Carpintar, the mill of Clive; of the gift of Henry Hosee, one
bovat of land in Egrum; of Robert de Cauz, the mill of Doverbeck; of William de Bella aqua, 2s. out of the mill of Kirlington; of William Sampson, the land called Cressewelle; of Robert de Hoveringham, the church of Hoveringham; of Raph de Bellofago,
the mill of Doverbeek, which is called Snelling milne, with the land and meadow lying
to it; of William de Bereville, one bovat of land in Kirkeby; of Hugh de Hoveringham, seven bovats of land in Titheby, which Emme his grandmother, and Robert his
father gave; of Walter Willan of Lincolne, one bovot in the fields of Lincolne; of
Richard Poutrell, half a carucat of land of his demesne in Thurmeston, with one dwelling house in the same town; of Raph de Ayncurt, son of Roger, the church of Winfeild; of Richard de Crioil, four tofts in Thurgarton, and two tofts in Norton, which
his son Robert confirmed; of John, son of William, the moyety of the church of Uvetorp, and for the tythes of Ailwine Hecche 27s. as the charter of the canons of the
hospital of St. Sepulchers of Lincolne witnessed. The same King, 14 H. 2. (fn. 4) granted
to these canons of Thurgarton forty acres of land in Tetheley, which were then to be
essarted, and ten acres more in the same place which then were essarted, free from regard and all customs (of the forresters.) (fn. 5) The gifts of very many other benefactors
were confirmed by king Henry the third, and other succeeding kings, as Edward the
third, who also confirmed those which Robert de Vilers made of his whole demesne and
capital mess. in Uvethorp, of the toft which was Wulvetts, and that of Hugh de Lincolnes,
and of five bovats of the demesne of the said Robert in Uvethorp, and of two whole bovats, and four bovats and an half in the said town of Uvethorp, and that which William, son of Paganus de Vilers, made of four bovats, with tofts and crofts, and other
appurtenances in the said town of Uvethorp, and that of Raph de Bellofago, of the church
of Loudham, and the mill on Doverbeck, with the land lying to it, and his whole land
of Wodeburg, and that which the said Raph, and that which Emma de Bellofago made
of Snelling milne, with one bovat of land, and the meadow lying to the said mill, and
that which Gerard de Phanecurt made of his capital mess. and all his whole demesne,
homages, and services of his freeholders, with wards, reliefs and escaets, villains and
coterels, and their catalls (or chattels) and sequels. lands, and tenements, which
sometimes certain villains or natives, and coterels held of him in vilenage, and of a
wind-mill, with suit to it, and of the meadow, wood, fishponds, and all demesnes and
tenements which the said Gerard held in Hikeling and Kinalton, and that which the said
Gerard made of the homages and services of all the freeholders of his land, and his fee
of Kirkeby and Scapwyck (Lincolneshire) &c. and that which Alice, the daughter of Raph
de Berevile, made of one toft and half a bovat in Scaupewyke and Kirkeby, and that
which Henry Bisett, son of William Carpinter, made of the passage of Briggeford, (fn. 6)
and the toft belonging to it, with William the miller, and that which the said Henry
made of the church of Adelington, and that which Hugh de Chaisneto made of one bovat of land and tost, which William de Adelington held sometimes of him in Sarendale, and that which Oliver de Aencurt, and Matildis Peche his wise, made of four bovats in Boileston, and that which Adam de Pedworth, by the consent of Matildis his
wife, made of the homages and services of the freeholders in Hermeston, and of twelve
bovats there, and the villains which held them, and all their chattels & sequels, & that
which Robert Peisun made of one bovat in Codington, and that which Gocelinus de S.
Paulo made of the church of Hokesworth, and that which Walter, son of Walter, son of
William de Aslacton, made of five bovats and an half, with tofts and other appurtenances in Hokesworth and Aslacton, and that which Philip de Marton made of his land
and manor in Marton, with homages, &c. and that which Alis de Aincurt, sometimes
wife of Roger de Aincurt, made of her land in Darnethorpe and Colingham, and that
which Roger, son of William de Houton, made of seven bovats in Houton, and that
which Matthew de Vilers made to the said canons, sometime at Fiscarton upon Trent, of
one carucat in Crophull, and that which Walter de Stanton made of one toft, and two
bovats of land, with meadow lying to it in Crophill, and many more that Philip de Marton, knight, made in Haneword (Linc.) and that which Roger de Aincurt made of the
services and homages of divers in Senouere and Pillesley (Derb.) and that which Walter,
son of Stephen de Radeclyve, made of two bovats, and a quarter of a bovat of land,
with toft and meadow in Flintham, and that which Lisiard de Mustars made of that bovat of land which was Ulskells in Leirton, and that which Adam Tisun made of that bovat in Egaum, (fn. 7) which Leveric Hogge held, and that which Philip, son of Odo, made
of all his lands in Gonaldeston, and that which Raph, son of Walter, made of two bovats in Martineland, and that which Simon, son of Simon de Hoveringham, made of one
bovat, with the whole meadow and appurtenances in Hoveringham, & that which Benedict de Roldeston made of three tofts, and one bovat of land in Roldeston, and that which
Hubert Fitz-Raph made of the land which William, son of Gregory, held of him
in Scartheclive, and that which William, son of Gilbert Carpentar of Schelford, and Mariot his wife, made of one bovat in Timberland, and that which Gaufr. de Maugruci
made of Hugh, son of Amfrid, with one bovat of land in Scaudeby, and that which
Philid de Paunton, knight, made of 15s. rent, and the rent of six capons of William,
son of Reginald de Kercolston, and that which Gerard de Fanecurt, made of the service and yearly rent of Thomas, son of Gilbert, John, son of William, and William, son of Gilbert, out of the tenements which they held of the said Gerard in the
towns of Skreveton and Kercolston, and of three tofts in Kercolston, and that which William the prior and the covent of Shelford made in exchange to the said prior and covent of Thurgarton, of two acres of land in Gunthorp, for two in Shelford, and that which
Richard, son of Gervas de Wyvereton, made of one bovat in Berneston, and that
which Richard de Wyvereton, knight, made of one toft, three bovats of land, and
two acres of meadow in Berneston and Wyvereton, and that which William, son of Wal
ter Punche, of one tost, with the buildings in Berneston, and twenty acres, with the
appurtenances in the same town, and that which Raph de Rodes, knight, made of
51s. to be received yearly out of two bovats of land in Berneston, &c.
The prior claimed view of frank-pledge, 3 E. 3. (fn. 8) in their manors of Thurgarton, Fiskerton, Crophull, Outhorp, Heckeling, Graneby, and Sutton, and assize of bread and
ale in Hickling and Horworth, which last were also claimed, 8 E. 1. (fn. 9) and that their
villains in Hokesword, Graneby, Crophill Buttiler, Outhorp, Wiverton, Titheby, and Hickeling,
should not do any suit to the kings Wapentach of Bingham, for which they produced
the kings charter dated at Marbeburgh, 18 H. 3.
(fn. 10) The church of Thurgarton was valued in the year 1328, at twenty marks per annum. There were then also nine carucats of land, each worth 40s. per annum, with
the helps of the natives or villains. Two wind-mills with Barail mill, and Snelling five
marks. The perquisites of the court 40s. The wood for fuel, and other profits,
twenty marks per annum. The garden 40s. per annum: the sum 52l. The rents
of assize of the freeholders were 57s. 10d. 0b The natives or villains (which were
such as we now call husbandmen) paid each a cock and an hen, besides their rent in
money, for a tost and one bovat of land, which was the ordinary and common proportion of their farms, for which they paid 4 or 5s. a piece more or less; of these
there were then in Thurgarton about eighteen, and the sum of their rents was
4l. 11s. 2d. 0b. The cottagers were in number about forty-five, and each had a
toft, and some a croft, and two, three, or four selions of land. Their rents, besides cocks and hens, were usually 2 or 3s. a piece, more or less: the sum of these
rents then was 119s. 3d. 0b. Horsepoll, whereof the family of Kirioll were lords,
and John Kirioll then remained a freeholder in it, and paid an half penny at Christmas, which made up the rents of the rest of the freeholders and natives there 49s.
od. ob. The sum of all the rents of assize of Thurgarton and Horsepoll was then
15l. 17s. 5d. The sum of cocks and hens in number six score and four 15s. 6d.—
These were paid the second day in Christmas: and that day every one both cottagers
and natives, who gave hens and cocks, did eat in the hall, and those who did not
had a white loaf, a slaggon of ale (or beer) with one dish (or mess) from the kitchin.
Every native and cottager gave 3d. in reaping time, except one Will. Spendelove,
and Douce Doffaire, which joyned at 3d. and worked together in harvest for one
toft, whereof each held half: the sum of all this reaping money was 15s. Every native (or husbandman) gave 0b. for cleansing the damm or pool of Barail milne at
Pentecost, which made in all 9d. The Reve (Greve or Provost) for the time being paid neither for reaping, nor cleansing the mill damm, nor cock nor hen. Edmund Freman, and Reginald his son (freeholders) owed to the lord of the manor
for their whole tenement three [arruras] plowing-daies, with one plow, which were
then worth by the year 12d. one in Winter, another in Lent, and the third in Summer; likewise for the said tenements three workings in Autumn for three daies,
viz. the first day with one man, the second with two men, and the third with five
workmen, and one of themselves in person; they were every day to have their re
section: these works in harvest were valued at 13d. 0b. which made the sum 2s. 1d.
0b. All the said natives (or husbandmen) were to plow with their plows three times
at the seasons beforesaid, every native with one plow one day in each season, or two,
two daies with one whole plow, if they held only one bovat of land. They were
likewise to harrow as ost as need was, and every plow was to have four loaves called
boneloves the said three seasons; and the first day of plowing in winter, and likewise
in lent, they were to have their diet at the cost of the house, but when they harrowed
they were to have their refection or diet as before, and every harrower was to have
a brown loaf [bissum] and two herrings in the day. Likewise all the said natives
and cottagers were to reap from the beginning of harvest to the end every other day,
viz. every native with two men, and cottager with one, except that in the first day
of Autumn (or harvest) and the last, all the natives (or husbandmen) reaped only
with one man. And the first day in which they reaped, every two were to have one
brown loaf, and two toillects; the second day two brown loaves, and one toillecte;
and afterwards every day on which they reaped, every two men to have three brown
loaves. Likewise in (or on) the day of the great Bidripe, which was called the Priour Bon, every native was to find three workmen, and cottager one: but Richard,
son of William de Horspoll, that day was to find five workmen, and one free servant. And it is to be known, that no man might work or carry on that day in the
territory of Thurgarton but John Kiriell only. Likewise every native aforesaid was
to carry every other day through the whole harvest, every native with one cart, viz.
those daies in (or on) which they did not reap; and likewise hay in hay-time, and
every day were to have their refection. Likewise every of the said natives were to
make carriage from the foreign granges thrice in the year, each with one horse, and
every time they were to have each a small Miche (or white loaf.) And we must know
that the work of every of the said natives was worth 13s. 4d. per annum, and of a
cottager 20d. the sum of the works was 15l. 10s. All the reapers in harvest, which
were called Hallewimen, with other workers in harvest, were to eat in the hall one
day in Christmas, or afterwards at the discretion of the Celerer. Likewise every shenative (or villain) as oft (or whensoever) she took an husband, or committed fornication, was to give a Marchet for the redemption of her blood 5s. 4d. and if she
was the daughter of a cottager, she gave only half the said Marchet. Likewise every native paid for paunage, when it was in the park, for every swine 3d. The intire sum of the whole value of the manor of Thurgarton, with the church and all profits, except Marchetts and paunage when they should happen, was then, viz. 1328,
fourscore and five pounds, and nine pence half penny.
There was a chantry founded in the church of All Saints at Chesterfeild, and 8l.
rent issuing out of the manors of Thurgarton, Fiskerton, Crophill, and Kelum, about
the 44 E. 3. (fn. 11) and in 42 E. 3. (fn. 12) one in the church of St. Mary of Criche, and 61.
rent issuing out of the manors of Thurgarton, Fiskerton, Moreton, Hoveringham, &c.
Ales, who had been wife of William Deyncourt Chr. 12 Jan. 9 H. 6. (fn. 13) had
leave to found a chantry in the coventual church of St. Peter at Thurgarton, and to
give 6l. yearly to the chaplain.
(fn. 14) About the year 1445, sir William Babington, knight, Nicolas Wymbish,
clark, John Mykulberghe, chaplain, and Robert Halome having obtained licence
of the king, 25 Jun. 20 H. 6. to found a chantry of two chaplains at the altar of St.
Katherine in the church of St. Peter of Thurgarton, to pray daily for that king, and
William Lovell, knight, and Ales his wife and Raph Cromwell, knight, and Margaret his wife, and the persons before named, and for all their souls when they should
die; and for the souls of Ales, who had been wife of William Deincourt, knight,
(before mentioned) of John Deincourt, knight, and of Johane his wife, &c. annexed it to the chantry of Ales Deincourt, before noted.
(fn. 15) Thomas Dethick, 28 H. 8. resigned the priory of Thurgarton, and John Berwick was admitted prior by the king.
The priory of Thurgarton was granted to William Cowper the king's servant, and
Cecily his wife, and their heirs, 30 H. 8. (fn. 16)
Cecilia was daughter and heir of John Toll of London: (fn. 17) she had three sons, Thomas Cooper, esquire, who married Elianor, one of the daughters of sir Michael
Stanhop; William, who married An. daughter of James Mering of Rolleston; and
Richard Cooper, and a daughter called Olivia, wife of Ed. Sutton of Averham, but
she died without issue; her eldest brother the said Thomas Cooper, had Thomas
Cooper his eldest son, who was slain without issue; and William Cooper, his second
son, who was heir to his brother, and married—the daughter of Judge Hutton, by whom he had sir Roger Cooper a worthy honest gentleman, whose fidelity
and constancy to the royal interest weakened his fortunes, so that Cecill Cooper, esquire, his son, will have too hard a task to make this house and demesnes intirely
his own, the woods being also extremely wasted. His brother John Cooper, second
son of sir Roger, was carver to his majesty that now is, king Charles the second, and
a very industrious person, but died 1672, in his majesties debt, having been receiver general of the royal-aid, and additional supply, and collector of the harth-money, &c. in this county.
The rectory, and a great part of the township of Thurgarton, was granted by King
Henry the eighth to Trinity colledge in Cambridge, of whom the Coopers have usually held it in lease; and Mr. John Cooper built a brick-house in the middle of the
town, upon one of the farms, now almost all inclosed.
Lordship is in the possession chiefly, of John Gilbert Cooper, esq; of Southwell, (lease land from Trinity College, Cambridge.)
The village consists of about 50 dwellings. A good house stands upon what is called college-hall-land. But that which I have given a view of, with the tower of the
old church, (built by Mr. Cooper, who pulled down the old priory) stands on the site
of the old priory; in the cellars of which, only, some of this religious sanctuary remains. Mr. Rastall feels much for the demolition of some part of this monastery in
particular, which was a kitchen vast and magnificent almost beyond parallel or comparison; An antiquary, he observes, must be allowed to lament the false taste which
dictated the destruction of so noble a monument of ancient grandeur.
The church, which is dedicated to St. Peter, adjoins the dwelling, it consists of
one dark aisle, the rest is totally destroyed. One of the grand entrances, which was
spacious, and noble, supported by light fluted pillars, is now partly converted into a
window. Under the seats of three wooden stalls, are figures; one resembles the outlines of that plate page 30 fig 8. On the north side of the chancel is a stone on the
floor which remembers Cicil Cooper, esq; who died the 9th. of Dec. the date covered. A near monument over it says "In a vault beneath this stone are deposited
the remains of Susanna Gilbert Cooper, wife of John Gilbert Cooper, esq. and eldest daughter of Nathan Wright, esq; recorder of Leicester, the youngest and last
surviving son of sir Nathan Wright, late keeper of the great seals of England, in
the reigns of William III. and queen Ann, who departed, this life Nov. 10, 1751,
in the 27th. year of her age." John, her husband, is remembered on the other
portion of the tablet. He died April 12th, 1769, in the 45th. year of his age. (fn. 18)
An old stone lies in the centre of the chancel which had once twenty-four brass
shields, now gone, it has no inscription. A curious niche, over the altar table, was
made for a figure, which is now partly destroyed.
This perpetual curacy is in the hands of the Revd. Mr. Skeymour, resident. Patron, Trinity College or their Lessee, 20l. certified value.
The Austin priory, mentioned above by Thoroton, was valued at 25l. per annum.
It was founded in 1130. Fiskerton, adjoining, had a priory of black canons from
this house. (fn. 19)
Which I have observed was built upon the site of the priory, was erected at the expence of John Giibert Cooper, esq; of Southwell. It is now in the occupation of
Phillip Palmer, esq; on lease, a London gentleman. (fn. 20) It is prettily diversified
with wood and water. The grounds about it rise in gentle swells above the stream,
agreeable to the eye of taste. The ponds are nearly in their old state, which are formed on an extensive scale; a little island is a pleasing object. This sheet of water
passes just under the house, and is fed by a spring whose source is under a wood of
Lord How's, called Brook-wood-hill, 2 miles off. The superfluous stream, in passing hence, forms a little cascade with an agreeable murmur.