OF THE CITY IN THE CONFESSOR'S TIME.
Edward the Confessor, being now on the throne, this earldom was
given to Harold, son of Earl Godwin, who was afterwards King of
England, and on his rebellion was seized by the King, and given to
Algar, son of Leofrick Earl of Chester, who resigned it again to
Harold at his return; and in 1052, on the death of Earl Godwin,
Harold, in recompense for his generosity, gave Algar his earldom
again; but he being banished in 1055, it came to the King, who pardoned him at Harold's request, and restored him, so that he enjoyed
it to his death, and then it came to the King, in whose hands it was
when he took the general survey of his land, which was after called
Domesday Book, that being the record which gave the [dome] or final
judgment, concerning the lands, taxes, and revenues, of the whole
kingdom; and from thence we learn the state of the city in his time,
which was exceeding grand, if we consider the few years it must be
done in, for in Domesday page 13, we have the following account
Rex. H. de Norwic.
Jn Noruic erant. t. r. e. Mcccxx. Burgenses, quocum mus
eratita dominicus regis ut non posset recedere, nec homagium facere
sine Licencia ipsius, cui erat Nomen Edstan, hic habebat xviii. Acras
terra t xii. prati, t ii. Ecclesias in Burgo, t sertam partem tercie, et
nni Ecclesie pertinebat una Mansura in Burgo, t vi. Acras prati, hoc
tenet Rogerus Bigot de dono Regis. t de Mccxxxviii. habevant Rex
et Comes, Soca, et Sacam, t Consuetudinem, et super 1. habebat
Stigandus, Socam t Sacam t Commendationem. t super xxxii.
habebat Heroldus, Socam t Sacam t Commendationem, quorum
unus erat ita ei Dominicus, ut non posset recedere nec Momagium
facere sine Licencia ipsius, inter totum habebant omnes lxxx. Acras
terre, t xx. Acras t dimidium prati, et de istis erat una Mulier soror
Stigandi xxxii. Acr. terre, t inter eos omnes habebant dimidium Mo-
lendini, et quartam partem unius molini, et adhuc habent t adhuc xii.
Acr. t dimid. prati, quas tulit cis Wihenoc, modo habet Rainaldus
Filius I vonis, t adhuc ii. Acr. prati que iacehant ad Ecolesiam omnium
Sanctorum, illas etiam tulit Wihenoc, t modo habet Rainaldus. Est
etiam in Burgo quedam Ecclesia Sancti Martini quam tenuit Stigandus
t. r. e. cum xii. Acris terre, eam habet modo Willius de Noiers ad
Feudum Stigandi, tenebat etiam Stigandus unam Eoclesiam Sancti
Michaelis, cui adiacent cxii. Acr. terre, t vi. prati t i. Carucata, hoc
tenet Willus: Episcopus, sed non de Episcopatu, t Burgenses tenebant
xv. Ecclesias, quibus pertinebant in Elemosinam clxxxi. Acr. terre t
prati, et Ecclesiam Sancte Trinitatis tenebant t. r. e. xii. Burgenses,
modo Episcopus de dono Regis Willi: Rex et Comes habebant clxxx.
Acras terre, Abbas habuit Medietatem Ecclesie Sancti Laurentij t i.
Domum de Sancto Edmundo. Doc erat Cotum tempore Regis
Et tota hec Willa reddebat t. r. e. xx. Libr. Regi, t Comiti x. Libr.
rt preter hoc xxi. Sol. et iiii. den. Prebendarios, t vi. Sertarios
mellis, et i. Ursum t vi. Canes ad ursum.
Et Wicman tenuit t. r. e. i. Car. terre t dim: t xvi. Acr. de Pas-
tura, t vii. Acr. prati sub. Stigando modo Rainaldus Filius Ivonis,
tunc et post i. Car. Modo ii. semper balet xxx. Sol.
Hundred of Norwic. The King's [Land.] In Norwic in the
time of King Edward were 1320 burgesses, of whom one was so much
the King's vassal, that he might not depart or do homage (to any
other) without his license, this man's name was Edstan, he had 18
acres of land and 12 of meadow, and two churches in the burgh, (fn. 1) and
a 6th part of a third, (fn. 2) and to one (of these) churches there belonged
one mansion in the borough, and 6 acres of meadow; this Roger
Bigot holds by the King's gift. (fn. 3) And of 1238 (fn. 4) (of the said burgesses)
the King and the Earl had the soc, sac, and customs, and of 50 Stigand had the soc, sac, and patronage, and of 32 Herold had the soc,
sac, and patronage, of whom one was so much his vassal, that he might
not depart nor do homage (to any other) without his license; in the
whole, they all (fn. 5) had 80 acres of land, and 20 acres and an half of
meadow, and of these (fn. 6) one was a woman, sister of Stigand, (who had)
32 acres of land; and among them all they had the half of (one) mill,
and the fourth part of (another) mill, and still have. (fn. 7) And besides
this, they had 12 acres and an half of meadow, which Wihenoc took
away from them, (fn. 8) but now Rainold, the son of Ivo, hath it; (fn. 9) and
there are 2 acres of meadow, which did belong to the church of AllSaints; (fn. 10) these, Wihenoc took away also, but now the said Ruinald
There is also in the borough, a certain church of St. Martin, (fn. 11) which
Stigand held in the time of King Edward, with 12 acres of land,
(and) now (in the Conqueror's time) William de Noiers hath it, (belonging) to (or with) the fee of Stigand. Stigand held also, one
church of St. Michael, (fn. 12) to which there belong 112 acres of land, and
6 of meadow, and (these are, or were accounted for) one carucate, (fn. 13)
this William the Bishop holds, but not (in right) of his bishoprick.
And the burgesses held 15 churches, (fn. 14) to which there belonged in alms, (fn. 15)
181 acres of land and meadow. And 12 burgesses held the church of
the Holy Trinity in the time of King Edward, (fn. 16) (and) now the Bishop
(hath it) of the gift of King William. The King and the Earl had
180 acres of land. The Abbot of St. Edmund had one house, and
the mediety of the church of St. Laurence, (and) this was the whole
in the time of King Edward. And this whole town (fn. 17) in the time of
King Edward, paid 20l. to the King, and 10l. to the Earl; (fn. 18) and be
sides this, 1l. 1s. 4d. (for) prebendaries, (fn. 19) and 6 sextaries (fn. 20) of honey, and
one bear, and 6 bear-dogs.
And Wicman held in the time of King Edward, one carucate and
an half of land, and 16 acres of pasture, and 7 acres of meadow,
under Stigand; now Rainald the son of Ivo holds the same, then and
afterwards (it was reckoned) one carucate, now two, (fn. 21) (and) it was
always worth 30 shilling; and further, Ecclesiam Sanctorum Simonis
et Jude, tenuit Almarius Episcoupus t. r. e. post Erfastus, modo
Willus. huie adiacent tres patres unius motendini et dimidium Acc.
prati A. i mansura A non est de Episcopatu, sed de Patrimonia Almari
Episcopi in Burgo hab. ii. Arr. prati de Episcopatu; A bal. xx. Sol.
That is, Bishop Almar held the church of St. Simon and Jude in the
time of King Edward, afterwards (Bishop) Erfast, (and) now (Bishop)
William; to this belong three parts of a mill, (fn. 22) and half an acre of meadow, and one mansion, and is not (part) of the bishoprick, but of the
patrimony of Bishop Almar. In the burgh he had 2 acres of meadow (fn. 23)
belonging to the bishoprick, and (the whole) is worth 20 shillings.
From all which it appears, that at that time this city had 25 parochial churches, if not more; that the number of burgesses exceeded
Lincoln, Ipswich, Yarmouth, Cambridge, Canterbury, and the chief
places in England, and it is plain that York only could pretend to
exceed Norwich at this time, none of the rest coming near it; and it
is not certain that that exceeded it, for it is said that there were 1628
mansions inhabited in York, but in Norwich the burgesses only are
named: now because there were more houses and householders in a
city than burgesses, it is likely Norwich might have as many, if not
more, houses than York; for it appears from the account of Lincoln,
that there were 1070 houses inhabited, and only 900 burgesses, and
the bordarij or bordars, which were in Norwich in the Conqueror's
time, (300 of which, it is very probabe, might be here in the Confessor's time,) had their houses here, which are not mentioned in the
survey, which is not so minute and exact as the Conqueror's.
Such was the magnitude of Norwich near 700 years ago, being then
a Hundred by itself, containing 883 acres of land and meadow,
with a sheep's walk within its jurisdiction, so that it seems to have extended then about a mile beyond the present walls: but it did not
continue long in this state, but daily increased, in the peaceable reign
of this King, as well as in the short one of his successour,
King Harold, who was Earl and Governour here.
First, 1238 of them dwelt in the part
whereof the King and the Earl had the
soc, sac, and custom, that is the entire
jurisdiction, for soc is the power that any
one hath to hold courts, wherein all that
dwelt on his land, or in his jurisdiction,
are answerable to do suit and service,
and sac is the right of having all the
amerciaments and forfeitures of all such
suitors; and custom, includes all other
profits, as landgable or tax, tolls, heriots,
and other customs, which differed
according as they were used in divers
places, but every where the division between the King and an Earl, was two
parts to the King, and a third to the
Earl, in right of an earldom.
In the second part dwelt 50 of these
Burgesses, and they belonged to Stigand's court, who had their amerciaments, protection or patronage; that is,
(to speak after the old Roman manner,)
he was their patron, and they his clients;
but it is not said that he had the customs
of these burgesses, which makes me
think they belonged to the King and the
Earl, for the soc was sometimes one person's, and the customs another: this Stigand was Bishop of the diocese, and
after Archbishop of Canterbury, in King
Edward's time; and this was part of the
city, now St. Martin's on the Plain, and
Tombland where St. Michael's stood.
The other 32 of the 1320, dwelt in
that part which was Herold the Earl's
land, who had therefore the jurisdiction
of court over them, received their amerciaments, and was their patron; he was
son of Earl Godwin of Kent, and after
the Confessor's death, King of England.