The city of Norwich, chapter 5
Of the city in the Conqueror's time

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Institute of Historical Research

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Author

Francis Blomefield

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1806

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14-21

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'The city of Norwich, chapter 5: Of the city in the Conqueror's time', An Essay towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: volume 3: The History of the City and County of Norwich, part I (1806), pp. 14-21. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=77975 Date accessed: 17 September 2014.


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CHAPTER V.

Of The City In The Conqueror's Time.

In the beginning of the reign of

William the Conqueror, it daily increased, till the year 1075, (fn. 1) when the King gave the earldom, city, and castle, to Ralf de Waiet, Waher, or Guader, a Norfolk man born, son of Ralf, an Englishman, by a Welsh woman; this Ralf, while the King was in Normandy, and against his command, as some historians say, (fn. 2) but, as the Saxon Chronicle says, with his leave and approbation, married Emma, daughter of William Fitz-Osborn or Osbert, sister to Roger Earl of Hereford, cousin to the Conqueror, and celebrated his nuptials with great pomp at this city; (fn. 3) Waltheof, the great Earl of Northumberland, Roger Earl of Hereford, and many other bishops, abbots, and barons, being present at the solemnity; such was the pride raised in the Earl by this affinity, that on his very wedding-day, (when wine had intoxicated his brain,) he persuaded his guests to join with him in a rebellion, to which they all consented, and immediately entered into a conspiracy against the the absent King; but Earl Waltheof having consulted his pillow, and perceiving the danger, went the next day to Archbishop Lanfrank, who was guardian of the realm in the King's absence, and discovered the whole to him, by whose advice he went over into Normandy, and with submissive repentance showed the whole to the King: the Earls therefore of Norfolk and Hereford, (whose state now lay open to chance,) as desperate men, took themselves to arms, and endeavoured to join their forces; this sudden noise of war immediately roused the King's subjects, so that Wolstan Bishop of Worcester, and others, raised forces in Worcestershire, and hindered Earl Roger's passing the Severne, and joining Earl Ralf, and at the same time, Odo Bishop of Bajeux, and Jeffry Bishop of Constance, who had assembled a mighty power of English and Normans, went directly against him, and forced him to retire to Norwich; but when he was there, seeing that neither the keepers of the several castles, nor the people, joined him, in such numbers as he expected, he took shipping at his castle at Norwich, (fn. 4) and fled into Little-Britain with the chief of his followers, leaving his wife to keep the castle, against which the King immediately sent an army, (fn. 5) and besieged the same, till through famine, she was forced to yield, but upon composition that the besieged should depart the realm, as persons abjured and banished for ever; (fn. 6) and then she and her adherents followed her husband; and so this castle, city, and earldom, came again into the Conqueror's hands, and became part of the royal demeans of England. In this siege the city suffered much, as we learn from Domesday; many of the citizens who took the Earl's part fled away, and so forfeited all they had, others were forced to go away, because Waleram, under pretence that they joined the Earl, whether they did or no, invaded and seized their inheritances, and a greater part were forced to look out for themselves, the chief of the city being burned down at the siege, so that they had no places of residence, and others were so heavily fined and taxed by the King, that they were forced to fly; and thus by this one conspiracy, the city received prodigious damage every way. Things being thus appeased, the King kept his Christmas at Westminster, and then punished all the English that were at Earl Ralph's wedding at Norwich, some of which were condemned to have their eyes put out, others to be banished, and others to forfeit all they had; (fn. 7) and thus ended this rebellion in England, but the King did not forget him, (fn. 8) but the next year went into Brittanny, and besieged Earl Ralph in his castle of Dol or Dolence, to whose assistance Philip the French King came with a powerful army, and constrained King William, who wanted provisions for his army, to raise the siege, with so great loss of men, horses, and money, that the next year he was glad to make peace with him; and thus ended the whole affair, in the year 1077.

The whole of the castle, earldom, and city, being in the Conqueror's hands, he made Roger Bigot constable of the castle, who was the King's bailiff also, to gather all the rents arising from the borough of the castle, city, and earldom.

In the year 1085, (fn. 9) the Saxon Chronicle says, the King sent messengers into every county to take an exact account of every hide of land, and the several owners thereof, how much rent, cattle, &c. every one had, in short, the substance of every man in England, whether in land, cattle, or money, was set down; so that neither ox, cow, or hog, was omitted: and from this record we have the exact account of this city in the year 1086.

Rex. M. de Norwic.

In Nowic erant t. r. e. tc. as before; (fn. 10) ¶ modo sunt in Burgo MDLXV. Burgenses Anglici et Consuetudines reddunt, et cccclxxx. Bordarij, qui propter pauperiem nullam reddunt Consuetudinem, et in illa terra quam tenebat Stigandus tempore Regis Edwardi manent modo er illis Superioribus xxxviiii. Burgenses et in eadem sunt ix. Mansure vacue. Et in illa terra, de qua Heroldus habebat Socam Sunt xv. Burgenses, et xvii. Mansure vacue que Sunt in Occupatione Castelli, et in Burgo clxxxx. Mansure vacue in hoc quod erat in Soca Regis et Comitis, et lxxxi. in Occupatione Castelli, et in Burgo Sunt adhuc L Dom. de quibus non habet Rex suam Consuetudinem, et his habet Rainaldus homo Rogeri Bigot ii. Domus et ii. Mansuras et Robertus Baro ii. Domos, et Abba i. dom. t Rabel ii. domos, et ii. Mansure, et ii. Mansure quas ten. ii. femine, et Ascolf Unglicus [Anglicus] i dom. et homo Teodbald Abbatis Sri. Edmundi i. dom. rt Burghard i. dom. et Wala i. Dom. et Wills. homo Hervi. B. i. Dom. et. meinardus vigil i Dom. et Meinburgenses {Mein Burgensis} i. Dom. t Hervius Deb. [Herveus} i dom. et Rad. Arbalistarius ii. Dom. t i Mansura (fn. 11) t Hereberd Fossator iii. dom. t Rogerus Pete- vinus i. Dom. et Meinardus homo Abbatis de Sco. Benedicto i. Do- mus. et Petrus homo Abbatis Sri. Edmundi i, Mans. Everwinus Burgensis i. Dom, et Baldeuuinus i. Dom, t Wills. i. Anglicus i. Dom, t Gerardus vigil i. Dom. Rodbertus Lorimarus i Mansura t Hildebrand Lorimarus i. Domus t Godwinus Burgensis i. Dom. et Wills. homo Hermeri i. Dom. t Gislebertus Vigil i. dom. et Fulbertus quidam sacerdos Hermeri i. Dom. t Walterus i. dom. t Reinoldus Filius Ivonis i. Dom. et Richardus de Sentebor (potius Sent-cler) i dom. et Hugo homo Willi. de Scoies i. dom.

Et homines Episcopi x. Do,. et in propria Curia Episcopi xiiii. Mansure, quas dedit Wills. Rex. Æ. (Ærfasto) ad principalem sedem Episcopatus, et Gislebertus Arbalistarius i. Dom. et ii. Mansure, et Wills. de Scoies i. Dom, et Meinardus i. Dom. Abbas de Eli i. Man- sura. Et in Burgo tenent Burgenses xliii. Capellas, et tota hee Willa reddibat t. r. e. tc. as before.

Et modo lxx. Lib. pensum Regis, t c. Sol. ad numerum de Gersu- ma Regine, et i. Asturconem; et xx. Lib. Blancas comiti, et xx. Sol. Bersuma ad numerum G. [sc. Godrico.]

Et Ecclesiam Sanctorum Simonis t Jude tc as before.

De Burgensibus qui manserunt in Norwic. abierunt t manent in Beccles, villa abbatis Sancti Burgum. et in Torp regis i. et in terra Rogeri Bigot i. et sub Willo de Noiers i. et Ricus de Sent-cler i. Jiti fugientes et alii remanentes omnino sunt vastati, partim propter foris- farturas Radi Comitis, partim propter Arsuram, partim propter Gel- tum Regis, partim per Walerannum.

In hoc Burgo, si bult Episcopus, potest habere i. Monetarium.

In Burgo erat quedam basta Domus, hanc accepit Ranulfus filius Walteri de dono Regis, et Walterus Diaconus i. Dom, in Burgo, sed non euit t. r. e. et ii. Acc. prati de Sancto Sepulchro, abstulere ii. ha mines Radi. Comitis, post rebabuit Presbiter concessu bicecomitis. Radulfus Comes tenuit xiv. Acr. terre t i. Acr. t dim. prati, post tenuit Alunard de Niwetuna.

Terra Burgenisum in Hundret de Humiliat. semper lxxx. Acr. t. xiii. Bord. t i. Car. et iii. Acr. yroti, et val. xiii. s. iiij. d

Franci de Norwic. in Nouo Burgo xxxvi. Burgenses, et vi. Anglici, et er annua Consuetudine reddebat unusqufsque i.d. preter fortisfactu- ras, de hoc toto habebat Rex.ii Pactes et tertiam, modo xli. Burgenses Franci, in dominio et Comitis, t Roger Bigot habet L. et Radulfus Bellafago xiiii. t Hermerus viii. et Robertus Arbalis- tarius v. Fulcherus homo Abbatis i. t Isac i. et Rad. Visus Lupi (fn. 12) i. et in habet et man- suram bastam. Tota hec terra Burgensium erat in Dominio Tomitis Radi. et concessit eam Gegi in Tommune ad faciendum Burgum inter se et Gegem, ut testatur Vicecomes et omnes terre iste tam Militum quam Burgensium reddunt Gegi suam Consuetudinem.

Est etiam in Novo Burgo quedam Ecclesia quam fecit Radus. Comes et eam dedit suis capellanis, modo eam tenet quidam sacerdos Vice-Comitis, de dono Regis nomine Wala, et bal. lx. Sol. et quamdiu Rob. Blundus Comitaum tenuit, habuit inde unoquoque anno i. unciam auri.

The Hundred of Norwich is the King's land. (fn. 13)

In Norwich, in the time of the Confessor, were 1320 burgesses, &c. Now Roger Bigot holds of the King's gift, Edstan the burgess and his land, churches, &c. and Wihenoc hath also 12 acres and an half taken from the burgesses, which now belong to Rainald son of Ivo, St. Martin's church also, with 12 acres of land, which Stigand had in King Edward's time, belonged now to William de Noiers, who owned part of the fee, that belonged to Stigand; (fn. 14) St. Michael's church on Tombland, was Bishop William's, of his own inheritance, and the church of the Holy Trinity, or St. John's Maddermarket, which belonged to 12 burgesses in the Confessor's time, was the Bishop's also by the King's gift.

Now at the time of the survey, there were in the borough 665 burgesses, Englishmen, and they pay the customs, and there are 480 bordars, (fn. 15) who, because of poverty, pay no custom, (fn. 16) and in that land which Stigand held in the time of King Edward, there now remain 39 burgesses of those above mentioned, (fn. 17) and in the same there are 9 (fn. 18) mansions void.

And in that land of which Harold had the soc, there are 15 burgesses, and 17 mansions void, which are in the occupation of the castle, (fn. 19) and in the borough 190 mansions are void, in that which was the soc of the King and the Earl, and 81 (fn. 20) in the occupation of the castle.

In the Borough (fn. 21) there are moreover 50 houses, of which the King hath not his custom. (fn. 22) Of these Rainald, a man or tenant of Roger Bigot, hath 2 houses, and 2 mansions, (fn. 23) and Robert the Baron 2 houses, and the Abbot (of St. Edmund) 1 house, and Rabel (fn. 24) 2 houses and 2 mansions, and 2 mansions which 2 women hold, and Ascolf an Englishman 1 house, and Teodbald a man or tenant of the Abbot (of St. Edmund) 1 house, and Burghard 1 house, and Wala (fn. 25) 1 house, and William a man or tenant of Hervy the burgess 1 house, and Meinnard the watchman (fn. 26) 1 house, and Mein the burgess 1 house, and Hervi the invalid (fn. 27) 1 house, and Ralph the arbalister (fn. 28) 2 houses and 1 mansion, and Hereberd the ditcher 3 houses, and Roger the Pictavian 2 houses, and Meinard, a man (or tenant) of the Abbot of St. Bennet, 1 house, and Peter a man of the Abbot of St. Edmund, 1 mansion, and Everwin a burgess 1 house, and Baldewin 1 house, and William 1 house, Englishman 1 house, and Gerard the watchman 1 house, and Robert the lorimer (fn. 29) (fn. 30) 1 mansion, and Hildebrand the lorimer 1 house, and Godwin a burgess 1 house, and William, a man of Hermer, 1 house, and Gislebert the watchman 1 house, and Fulbert, a certain priest of Hermer, 1 house, and Walter 1 house, and Reinold the son of Ivo 1 house, and Richard de Sentbor (fn. 31) 1 house, and Hugh, a man of William de Scoies, (Le Escois or the Scot,) 1 house, and the men (or tenants) of the bishop 10 houses, and in the bishop's own court (or palace) 14 mansions, which King William gave to Ærfast, (fn. 32) for the principal seat of the bishoprick, (fn. 33) and Gislebert the arbalister (fn. 34) 1 house and 2 mansions, and William de Scoies 1 house, and Meinard 1 house, and the Abbot of Ely 1 mansion.

And the burgesses held 43 chapels (fn. 35) in the borough.

And this whole town, in the time of King Edward paid, as before.

And now it pays 70l. (fn. 36) by weight to the King, and a hundred shillings by tale, (fn. 37) as a free gift (fn. 38) to the Queen, and an ambling palfrey, and twenty pounds blanch, (fn. 39) or silver uncoined to the Earl, and 20s. by tale, as a free gift to Godric. (fn. 40)

St. Simon and Jude's church was now held by Bishop William, and Wicman's land was held by Rainald the son of Ivo, &c. as under the Confessor's reign.

Of the burgesses who dwelt in Norwich, 22 are gone away, and dwell in Beccles, a town of the Abbot of St. Edmund, and 6 in Humilgar or (Humbleyard) hundred, and have forsaken the Burgh, and in King's Torp or Thorp 1, and in the land of Roger Bigot 1, and under Will. de Noiers 1, and Richard de Sentcler 1.

Those who fled, and those remaining, are altogether wasted or impoverished, partly through Earl Ralph's forfeitures, partly through fire, partly by the King's tribute, and partly by Waleran.

In this borough, if the Bishop will, he may have one monyer. (mintmaster, or man to coin money, and consequently a mint.)

In the burgh there was a certain decayed house, which Ralf the son of Walter had of the King's gift, and Walter the Deacon hath one house in the burgh, but it was not in the time of King Edward. And 2 men took away from St. Sepulcher (fn. 41) 2 acres of meadow, which afterwards the priest had again, by the grant of the sheriff.

Earl Ralph held 14 acres of land, and one acre and an half of meadow, which afterwards Alward de Nieweton (or Newton) held.

The land of the burgesses in the hundred of Humilait, (fn. 42) was always 80 acres, and there were 13 bordars, and it is reckoned or valued at one carucate, and there is of meadow 3 acres, and it is worth, that is the whole paid, 13s. and 4d.

Frenchmen of Norwic. (fn. 43)

In the New-Burgh there were 36 burgesses Frenchmen, and 6 English, and by a yearly custom, every one paid 1d. besides forfeitures; of all this, (fn. 44) the King had 2 parts, and the Earl the third. Now there are 51 French burgesses, in the demean of the King and the Earl, (fn. 45) and Roger Bigot hath 50, and Ralf de Bellafago or Beaufo (fn. 46) 14, and Hermer 8, and Robert the arbalister 5, and Fulcher, a man of the Abbat 1, and Isac 1, and Ralf Vice de Lieu 1, and in the Earl's bakehouse, Rob. Blund hath 3, and Wimer (fn. 47) hath one decayed mansion.

All this land of the burgesses was in the demean of Earl Ralf, and he granted it to the King, in common to make a new-borough, between himself and the King; and all these lands, (fn. 48) as well of the knights (or soldiers) as of the burgesses, pay to the King his custom.

There is also in the new-borough, a certain church which Earl Ralph made, and gave it to his chaplains, now, a certain priest of the sheriff, by name Wala, (fn. 49) holds it by the King's gift, and it is worth 60 shillings, and so long as Rob. Blund held the county, (fn. 50) he had thence every year, one ounce of gold. (fn. 51)

And thus we see, that in the Confessor's time, there were 25 churches, and in the Conqueror's time we find 54 churches and chapels here, so that the chapels belonging to the burgesses, seem to be built since the Confessor, they being not mentioned in his survey.

There were no Jews in England before this King's reign, who brought many from Roan in Normandy, and settled them in London, Norwich, Cambridge, &c. In what capacity they came over, says Fuller in his Church History, p. 9, I do not find, perchance as plunderers, to buy such oppressed Englishmen's goods as Christians would not meddle with; sufficeth it us to know, that an invasion by conquest (such as King William then made) is like an inn, entertaining all adventurers; and it may be, these Jewish bankers assisted the Conqueror with their wealth. These Jews (though forbidden to buy land in England) grew rich by usury, (their consciences being so wide, that they were none at all,) so that in the barest pasture in which a Christian would starve, a Jew would grow fat, he bites so close unto the ground. And ever bow down their backs, is part of God's curse upon the Jews, and crook-back'd men, as they eye the earth, the centre of wealth, so they quickly see what straight persons pass by, and easily stoop to take up that they find thereon; and therefore no wonder if the Jewish nation, whose souls are bowed down with covetousness, quickly wax wealthy therewith. King William favoured them very much, and Rufus his son much more; especially if that report of him be true, that he should swear by St. Luke's face, his common oath, If the Jews could overcome the Christians, he himself would become one of their sect.

On Thursday the 9th of September, 1087, died this Great Conqueror, and the city fell to his son and successour, William Rufus.

Footnotes

1 Baker says 1076.
2 Speed, 429.
3 Stow, fo. 115, says at Ixning in Cambridgeshire, but quotes no authority.
4 Cron. Sax. 183. Annales Waverl.
5 Holingsh.
6 Lanfrank Archbishop of Canterbury wrote to the King upon this, "your kingdom is purged from the infection of the Britains, (or Amoricans,) the castle of Norwich is surrendered, and the Britons that were in it, and had lands here in England, upon granting them life and limb, have took an oath to depart your dominions, within forty days, and never more to return without your special license." Camb. 385.
7 Cron. Sax. 183.
8 Holingsh.
9 Holingshed places it in 1083, and both are right, for it was several years doing, viz. from 1083, till 1086, in which year the Norfolk part was made, as the book itself testifies, which was called by some the Winchester Roll, because kept there, but most commonly Domesday Book.
10 This survey was two-fold, viz. first, what was tempore Regis Edwardi, that is in the time of King Edward the Confessor, either die quo vivus, et mortuus fuit, that is, either at his death, or at the taking a like survey when he was alive, and that must be between 1042, when he began his reign, and 1066, when he died; or secondly, what was (nunc) now, that is, in 1086, the year this survey was made in: and sometimes it adds; semper, that is, in the Confessor's time, and ever since to the present survey.
11 A void piece of ground, where a mansion or dwelling-house formerly stood.
12 Or Vise de Lou, afterwards Vice-deLieu, that is, Wolf's Face.
13 The jurisdiction of the whole city by King Harold's death, who was Earl, was now in the King's hands.
14 This includes that part of the city which Stigand was lord of, where his 50 burgesses dwelt, he had Thorp, &c. which were also Stigand's, given him most likely at Stigand's disgrace and forfeiture.
15 Bordars were labouring men, that held cottages or small pieces of land, and though not named, doubtless there were many in the city in King Edward's days.
16 Hence it appears that the customs the burgesses paid were pecuniary, as landgable, &c. and not servile, for if they had been the latter, poverty would have been no excuse.
17 Namely, of those 50 who lived in Stigand's, afterwards the Bishop's soc.
18 ix. seems by mistake to be put instead of xi. for the 39 burgesses remaining, and 11 mansions void, make up the 50 burgesses in Stigand's time: whence it appears that all the burgesses were householders, if not owners, the latter of which I imagine, because it appears that some householders were not burgesses.
19 That is, belonging to the fee of the castle, and might be made use of only to lodge part of the garrison of the castle, near which Earl Herold's land laid. I imagine this to have been St. Stephen's, called afterwards Nedham, from the needy and sick belonging to the castle dwelling here.
20 Perhaps of the 190 mansions.
21 That part under the jurisdiction of the King and the Earl was called peculiarly the Burgh, it being the far greatest part.
22 These were freeholds.
23 Mansura is often, in this record, used for a house; but where it is added to houses, it seems to be a place convenient to make a house in; some think that Mansura is what we call a capital messuage, but things of this nature explain themselves: under Chichester it says thus, Centum fuerunt hagæ, &c. et sunt in eisdem mansuris, 60 domus plusquam antea fuerant." there were in it 100 hagœ, and there are in the said mansions 60 houses more then there were before. The hagæ or haughs, were pieces of land enclosed with hays or hedges, and are here called mansions, because they were convenient to build mansions or dwelling-houses on.
24 Rabel the artificer, or carpenter, as it is explained elsewhere, had lands in Mora-Torp, now Mourning-Thorp, Limpenhowe, Suthwood, and Filby, and I take it to be this Rabel.
25 Perhaps Wala the priest.
26 These watchmen belonged to Norwich castle, as did also the arbalisters; and the ditcher after mentioned.
27 It is Hervi debilis, an invalid, or disabled soldier.
28 The arbalisters (or archers, as some would have it) seem to be rather the makers of the cross-bows, than the men that used them, for they were men of considerable note, holding several lands, and reckoned in the book among the great men of the county, where title 52 is, lands of Gislebert the arbalister, in Shropham, Tunstal, Brundal, and Thelton; and after, under their respective titles, follow, lands of Ralph the arbalister (our Ralph here) lying in Plumstede, lands of Robert the arbalister in Appethorp or Hardingham, &c.
29 Englishmen (Anglicus) hence the sirname English.
30 i. e. the saddler or bridle-maker.
31 De Sent-cler, rather, as in another place.
32 Arfast or Herfast.
33 So that certainly Norwich was designed for the Bishop's see, before Herbert's time, though I never saw any chronicle that mention it, neither does any of the church records speak a word of it; but all ascribe it wholly to him: it seems therefore, though the Conqueror gave the houses for that intent, yet neither Arfast nor William had their usual residence at Norwich, and the reason thereof appears from the Bury Registers, to have been, because Arfast changed his design, and resolved upon fixing his see at the rich abbey of Bury, and among others, that might be one reason that he removed his see to Thetford, that so residing near Bury, he might the more conveniently carry on his negociation with the Bury monks; but neither he nor Herbert, who intended the same, could perfece it, for the abbot and monks so strenuously opposed it at the court of Rome, that they not only hindered fixing the see there, but obtained a confirmation from the Pope, of their exemption from the Bishop's episcopal jurisdiction. But when Herbert had resolved to build the cathedral church here, he purchased more ground, &c. to what had been formerly given, and got a new confirmation of the whole, and then upon the 9th of April, 1094, as the chronicle of Barth. Cotton, a monk of Norwich, says, he translated the bishoprick to Norwich, that is, he then caused the Chapter, and his Courts, and family, to remove and fix here.
34 Of whom before.
35 That is, were patrons of 43 chapels, most of which were parochial, and soon after were esteemed parish churches.
36 So that the citizens paid in the Conqueror's time treble what they did in King Edward's time, although they were of far less ability; but they were not singular in this, for all places in the kingdom were oppressed in like manner, as appears by the survey.
37 At this time (also long before and after) a pound in good money by tale was a pound in weight, every penny weighing as much as that weight, now called a penny-weight, 20 pence weighed an ounce, and 240 pence (or 12 ounces) a pound: but here it was to be paid by weight, so that if they paid any coined money, whatever the 70l. coined money wanted, occasioned by clipping or wearing, the citizens were to make good by weight.
38 De Gersuma, a fine or income, and I render it a free gift, because I find in Gernemwa or Yarmouth, that the sheriff had 4l. de Gersuma, and then immediately follows, these 4l. the burgesses give gratis, and Amicitia, freely and in friendship. The payments de Gersuma are often mentioned, but the word Gersuma in ancient deeds signifies, the consideration money paid in hand by the buyer to the seller.
39 The free farm rent of this city was appointed by King John's charter to be 108l. blancas, which afterwards was extended to 113l. 8s. numero, by tale, which 12d. per pound, for the blanchiatuara, whitening or refining, and therefore blancas, means so many pounds of silver refined, and is the same as arsas, burnt or tried in the fire.
40 If he was not sheriff of the county at this time, yet certainly he had the custody or care of a great number of the King's manors, and indeed it being usual for the sheriffs of the counties to have something out of each city, burgh, &c. as he had, I conclude he was certainly the sheriff here, it was the same Godric who gave the manor of Newton to the cathedral church, he being mintmaster at Norwich in William Rufus's time, as that King's coin exhibited, in Speed, demonstrate.
41 Berstreet church.
42 Humbleyard H. so that all lands, &c. before mentioned, were in the hundred of Norwich.
43 Now we come to a fourth and new part of Norwich called the New-Borough, chiefly inhabited by Frenchmen, it seems to be made in the Confessor's time, although there might not be such a number of burgesses, this burgh being much increased at the Conquest, by the Normans or Frenchmen sending in it, who did here as they did elsewhere, always get the best for themselves, for this new-burgh contained the most pleasant part of the city, viz. the parishes of St. Giles, and St. Peter's of Mancroft, and accordingly the two streets leading from the market-place to St. Giles's, church are called in old deeds the upper and lower new-port, and port, is an old word for a gate, and signifies sometimes a town.
44 Viz. of the whole of all the yearly customs and forfeitures of this new-burgh, as they had in like manner the yearly profits of the rest of the city.
45 In the land and under the jurisdiction of the King and Earl.
46 De Bellofago or Beaufo, probably brother to Will. de Beaufo, Bishop here.
47 From this Wimer, I suppose, one of the wards of this city is still called Wimer's ward, who although he had only a decayed house in the new-burgh, might be a person of great note, and have many houses in other parts of the city, and especially in that part called by his name, for St. Andrew's Broad-street, in the evidences in King John's time, is always called Wimer's-street.
48 So that there were no such freehouses in the new-burgh, as those 50 mentioned in the old burgh.
49 So that this was St. Peter's of Mancroft church, which as it appears in the Monasticon, was given about this time to the abbey of St. Peter in Gloucester, by this Wala, together with himself, that is, upon his becoming a monk there.
50 So that either he was sheriff, or else had the custody of Earl Ralf's lands after his forfeiture, but probably he was sheriff before Godric, who, it is said, succeeded him in his office.
51 That is out of the said church.