OF THE CITY IN CHARLES THE FIRST'S TIME.
Charles the First was solemnly proclaimed King of Great Britain on
the last day of March, 1625; the mayor, steward, justices, sheriffs,
and aldermen, joined by the Bishop Sir Thomas Richardson, Knt.
serjeant at law to the deceased King, Sir John Corbet, and many
others, being present at the ceremony. (fn. 1) On the 13th of May following, Thomas Earl of Arundel and Surrey, Earl-Marshal of England, Knight of the Garter, and one of the privy-council, who resided
at his palace here, being appointed Lord Lieutenant of the county
of Norfolk, of the city and county of Norwich, and of all corporate and privileged places within those counties and city, as well
within the liberties as without, by letters patent the 9th of the same
month, did constitute and appoint the mayor of the city for the
time being, Sir Tho. Holland, Sir Tho. Hyrne, Knts. Tho. Holl, Esq.
the justices of the peace and the sheriffs for the time being, to be
his deputy lieutenants in all the city and county thereof, and in all
corporate and privileged places therein contained; and on the 19th
of the same month, these deputies impressed 50 soldiers in the city
for his Majesty's service, and the mayor delivered them to Peter
Murford, Gent. to be by him conducted to Plimouth, and there delivered to such captain as should be appointed by the privy council.
On the 12th of July, the King issued a commission directed to the
mayor, &c. to scour the city ditches, remove all nuisances in and
about the city, repair the walls and turrets, and to tax all residing it,
the several wards according to their abilities towards the work in
being thought very necessary, in order to stop the plague, which
began to spread here, being brought from Yarmouth the latter end
of June: for on the 4th of July, the mayor wrote to the bailiffs
of Yarmouth, desiring them to order the wherry-men, to carry no
persons dwelling in any infected places in their town, to the city;
and the constables of every ward gave notice that no person coming
from London should be entertained, without notice given to the aldermen of their ward, and watch was set day and night at every gate,
to hinder all persons coming from infected places entering the city,
and the carriers were commanded to bring no persons, nor any wool
whatever; (fn. 2) but notwithstanding all this caution, it began to spread,
so that on the 23d of July, the aldermen of every ward named a
searcher or two in each ward, to be keepers of such persons as were
suspected to be sick or die of the plague; and the bellman, by publick
proclamation, warned all persons within the city to put away their
dogs and swine out of the walls, on pain of being killed: on the 30th
of July, the watch of the gates ceased, it being publickly known that
the city was infected, 26 dying this week of the distemper, which
increased so by the 11th of August that it was resolved that every
alderman should have power to send his warrants to the city treasurers for money to relieve the infected persons; and it abating this
week, so that 14 only died of it; orders were issued that the doors of
all persons that died of the infection should be nailed up and watched;
and information of infected houses being taken, it appeared there
were 12 in St. Margaret's, four in St. Benet's, two in St. Laurence, and
one in St. Martin at the Oak, which were all ordered to be watched,
and every one that begged about the street was to be whipped, the
poor being to be maintained, so as no one should have any reason to
beg for want of victuals: Sir John Hobart generously gave 10s. a
week when he left his city house here, (fn. 3) because he could not relieve
them there, and promised to pay all rates as well to the poor as to
the infected persons, during his continuance in the country, the same
as if he had been in town; others following his good example, encouraged many to send in sums of money for their relief, as Mr.
Augustine Scottow, alderman, &c.
Sept. 1, Mr. Toby de Hem informed the court, that the Dutch congregation had retained Peter Heybaud to look to their infected poor,
who was ordered by the court to retire himself from company, and
never to walk abroad but with a red wand a yard and half long, and
his wife and family the same, and not to go abroad after candlelighting but on absolute necessity.
The 19th of Sept. the Black-Tower on Butter-hills was made up
for a reception for infected poor, and Thomas Chambers appointed
keeper thereof at 4s. a week, to hinder its spreading.
Nic. Osborn, the new elected sheriff, paid 10l. to the poor, instead
of his Michaelmas feast.
Sept. 21, the gates were watched again, and Mr. Sheriff Powell
gave money to the poor instead of his feast: and now there died
above 40 in a week; the most that died in any one week during this
calamity was 91, of which 73 of the plague; the 15th of March, the
two widows who were searchers of the infected poor, and the four
bearers, were ordered to reside in Norman's hospital, and carry red
staves when they went out, each being allowed 4s. a week. May 13,
1626, the wardens of the weavers were commanded to keep no feast
this year, but to meet as private as possible, and choose their wardens,
and so they were to continue doing till it pleased God to cease the
contagion in the city, which now began to decline, so that Sept. the
2d, the mayor sent a letter to the bailiffs of Colchester, to restrain all
such carriers of wool and yarn as usually came to this city from
thence, by reason of the great infection in that place, for now though
the city was not clear, there died but few, though small numbers continued dying of the plague every week till the beginning of December,
1626, when by God's mercy it totally ceased: the number that died
of it during its whole continuance was 1431.
The 19th of October, 1625, the city petitioned the King, (by Alex.
Anguish, alderman, who was sent up to London for that purpose,)
mentioning their poverty and distress to be such that they had no
money to lend on privy seals, and indeed it was as much as could be
expected, if not more, for them to maintain the infected and poor at
such a time, which they never neglected during the whole calamity,
but endeavoured all ways to find them with work. At a court held
Nov. 3, the city borrowed 50l. of St. George's company, to set poor
people at work in the stone mines or pits; the bellman being ordered
to warn all such as wanted work and dwelt not in infected houses,
to repair thither with their tools to dig stones, for which they should
have reasonable wages, on purpose their families might not want
Jan. 28, Charles Suckling, Esq. in behalf of Sir John Suckling, Knt.
Comptroller of his Majesty's household, and one of the privy council came into court, and desired that Sir John, being son of Mr. Rob.
Suckling, late alderman, and heretofore twice mayor of the city,
might, according to the custom of the city, be admitted to his freedom; and desired that his oath might be respited till after his
Majesty's coronation, which he was now forced to attend, and the
court being satisfied that the freedom of the city belonged to Sir John
as his birth-right, according to the ancient custom and usage of the
city, "Mr. Mayor and aldermen in all due and thankfull manner,
embraced the said motion, and did consent to admit him," and sent
a copy of the freemen's oath to the recorder then at London, desiring
him to proceed therein as to him shall seem meet and expedient.
Mr. Augustine Scottow, gave 50l. to be continually lent unto five
worsted weavers by 10l. a man, for seven years together, provided
every borrower thereof give security, to be approved of by the mayor,
sheriffs, and aldermen, before they have the money, and renew the
securities as often as the court of majoralty shall require.
In 1626, Sir John Suckling, Knt. by will dated Sept. 30, gave 6l.
per annum for ever, to be distributed among the poor of the parishes
of St. Andrew, St. Austin's, St. George of Colgate, and St. Saviour's,
by the church-wardens and overseers of the said parishes.
This year Peter Aspinall and Edw. Cowell were appointed by the
court, publick letter carriers from and to Cambridge, and had leave to
wear the city arms, as their servants.
Two ships of war being demanded and refused, there were soon
after two writs of quo warranto brought against the mayor, &c. who
stood the trial; and in 1629, were discharged, having proved that
they used nor usurped no privileges but what their charters then
produced authorised them to do.
Fourteen soldiers were pressed and sent to Harwich; the lord keeper,
lord treasurer, comptroller, and chancellor of the Dutchy of Lancaster,
were appointed to come to the city, and sit on the 11th of January,
concerning a loan to the King; they were entertained at the Bishop's
palace, feasted by the court, and met at their coming, by the mayor
and court, and the loan being settled, collectors were appointed for
every ward, and the money paid the May following.
In 1627, 400 Irish soldiers came to Norwich, 200 of which were
billetted there, 100 sent to Yarmouth, and 100 to Lyn; and in July,
an order came for the county and city to levy 250 footmen, of which
the deputy lieutenants sent for 25 men out of the city; but the city
refused to levy so many; 17 only being their proportion, which were
sent to Lyn, to be conducted from thence to Hull. (fn. 4) In November
this year, on complaint to the King of some abuse offered in the city
to the Earl of Murton in his passage through it to London, the mayor
was sent for up, to answer to it, who informed the court of the whole
proceeding; and though it was manifest, no blame could be laid upon
him, yet in obedience to his Majesty's command it was thought fit,
that the mayor, accompanied with Sir Peter Gleane, Mr. Throckmorton, and Mr. Sheriff Lane, should go up to answer personally,
and did so.
In 1628, Mr. Francis Cock, alderman, by will dated Dec. 24, gave
50l. to the poor, and 50l. to be lent to five young worsted weavers, of
West-Wymer ward, at 10l. a man for three years, giving security to
the court for repayment.
Tobias de Hem, merchant, by will dated 29 July, 1629, gave 3l. to
the poor of the parish of St. Andrew, in which he dwelt, to remain
for a stock for the good of the poor. To the military company of the
city 5l. for a stock, to be employed for their benefit and use, and 40s.
for a supper. To Mr. Peter Murford, lieutenant of the company,
40s. To the mayor and city, a piece of plate of 20l. to be delivered
from mayor to mayor. To the city poor 10l.
The 23d of May, the citizens petitioned the court, for liberty of
preaching in this city, who answered they would attend the Bishop,
and endeavour to get it granted.
The quo warranto affair being now over, and not ending to the
satisfaction of those that begun it, the following letter was directed:
To Alexander Anguish, Mayor, John Thacker and William
After our hearty commendations, we have thought fit to let you
understand, that upon the deliver here at court of the herring-pyes,
which we lately received from you, we find diverse just exceptions
to be taken against the goodness of them, which we must require
you to answer and take such order that the same may be amended
for the future tyme as you would avoid further trouble: the exceptions we take are these, viz.
First, you do not send them according to your tenure, of the
first new herrings that are taken.
Secondly, you do not cause them to be well baked in good and
strong pastye, as they ought to be, that they may endure the carriage the better.
Thirdly, whereas you should by your tenure, bake in these pasties
six-score herrings at the least, being the great hundreth, which
doth require five to be put into every pye at the least, we find but
fower herrings to be in diverse of them.
Fourthly, the number of pyes which you sent at this time, wee
finde to be fewer then have ben sent heretofore, and diverse of
them also much broken.
And lastly, we understand, the bringer of them was constrained
to make three several journeys to you before he could have them,
whereas it seemeth he is bound to come but once.
To every of which our exceptions, we must pray your particular
answer for our better satisfaction, that we may have no cause to
question it further, and so we bid you heartily farewell.
Your loving friends,
iiijth of Oct. 1629.
Upon which they promised more caution for the future. (fn. 5) This rent
of herring pies is the ancient fee farm of the city before it was incorporated, when it was a great place of fishing, before the foundation
of Yarmouth, and is still paid by the sheriffs to the King; the city
being now in possession of the manor in Carleton, which by its tenure
is to carry the pasties to the court. In 1673, this farm was acknowledged to be received by the lord of that manor, (fn. 6) to be carried to the
King, by indenture dated at the Gild-hall, Sept. 27, at 10 o'clock in
the forenoon, by which, Thomas Lord Richardson, Baron of Cramond, acknowledged that he, by Rich. Eden his tenant, then received
of the sheriffs of the city of Norwich one hundred herrings by the
great hundred, viz. of the first new herrings that came to the city, in
24 pies or pasties, well seasoned with the following spices, viz. half a
pound of ginger, half a pound of pepper, a quarter of a pound of cinnamon, one ounce of cloves, an ounce of long-pepper, half an ounce
of grains of paradise, and half an ounce of galangals.
Which said pies are to be brought to the King's house, wherever
he is in England; for which service the person carrying them shall
receive there, six white-loaves, six dishes of meat out of the King's
kitchen, one flaggon of wine, one flaggon of beer, one truss of hay,
one bushel of oats, one pricket of wax, and six tallow candles; and
now the sheriff's yearly pay this farm, the pies being sent up by them,
and placed on his Majesty's table.
In April 1630, the plague brake out again in St. Gregory's parish,
one child dying of it, upon which the court met, and swore a woman
searcher of the infected, nailed up the door of the house, and by the
common cryer ordered, all dogs, cats, tame doves, rabbits, and swine,
to be put out of the city, or killed; and in May, the tower next
Brasen Door was appointed for the buryers, and for a prison for such
infected poor as would not be ruled; and the distemper being much
in Cambridge, the carriers thither were prohibited; six houses were
erected on Butter-hills near the great Black Tower there, which was
fitted up with them for pest-houses, and an acre of land enclosed about
them with tall boards, and watchmen were set day and night to keep
any from going thither, or coming thence; all that died there were
ordered to be buried in the churchyard of St. Peter at South-gate;
but it pleased God that this great caution had its desired effect, the
distemper not spreading, not above one or two died in a week, so that
it being over, the Bishop gave notice to the mayor and court, that he
had appointed St. Bartholomew's day for a general thanksgiving
in all places of divine worship in this city, for the great deliverance
which God had vouchsafed to give them from the pestilence, which
so severely visited other places, commending at the same time their
care and diligence, to which God had given so great a blessing;
recommending to them the strict observance of that day, which he
had appointed for so good a purpose; as also that they would join
with him in their utmost endeavours to collect what money they
could for the poor in Cambridge and Windham, now visited with that
grievous plague: to which the court answered, that his Lordship
might depend on their causing so due and necessary a duty to God
for his extraordinary mercy to them and their city, to be performed
in the strictest manner that possibly could be, and that they would
do as he desired, and collect what they could for their visited brethren, having a grateful sense of these extraordinary mercies, and
that they should not appear so if they did not thank his Lordship for
his seasonable and kind letter of direction in this affair; and accordingly the said fast was solemnised with great strictness, and the collections began for Cambridge and Windham, which were carried on
with such success, that they collected for the town of Cambridge 164l.
8s. 8d. q. and for Windham 103l. 5s. 7d.; and in July following the
pest-houses were taken down, and the city continued clear.
In this and the next year, corn was very scarce, being sold at 30,
and sometimes 40s. a comb, which made the magistrates very circumspect in the affair, and first they ordered no corn to be suffered to pass
the chain or boom on the river, without license from the justices: the
maltsters were ordered to make no malt, but to sell their barley in the
open market, and the bakers were to make only three sorts of bread,
white, wheatea, and household, and no manchet, spice-bread, or such
like. And great care was taken that no starch should be made, as
also that every person in every ward, on search made, should declare
what quantity of corn they had by them: and the treasurer of the
city granary was ordered to buy what corn he could for the present
relief of the poor, at such a price as he could buy it for, and the
keeper of the granary was to deliver weekly to the several aldermen
of the city, a proportionable quantity of corn for the poor at 18s. a
comb, one with another, whatever it cost, viz. 2 parts barley, 1 part
wheat, and 1 part rye; all which the judges of assize and the lords
of the privy council confirmed, and finding the corn not sufficient,
they gathered in the city, and raised 114l. 18s. 10d. to buy corn with
for the poor; and continued for some years, as long as the scarcity
lasted, to take the like care.
In 1631, London being infected, and information given that five
persons were dead of the plague in St. Austin's parish, all carriages,
&c. from London to Norwich were stopped, the houses shut up, bearers
and searchers appointed, two pest-houses ordered on Butter-hills where
they were built before, all communication stopped to Windham, which
was infected, the gates of the city shut, and watched day and night
on Windham fair day, and all precaution taken as before, which had
such good effect the second time, that the contagion ceased, and not
above 20 or 30 persons died of it.
The same year Sir Peter Gleane, Knt. gave 10l. to the poor; and
Sir William Denny, Knt. at the Lady Denny's funeral gave the like
In 1632, 66l. was collected in the city towards rebuilding St. Paul's
cathedral, and Mr. Robert Houghton paid 10l. to the use of the poor
of his mother's gift, she was late wife of Thomas Gleane, Esq. and
before that of Gregory Houghton, late alderman deceased, his father.
This year, on the 27th of Feb. died that worthy Dr. of Divinity
Thomas, son of John Mountford of Norwich, who became prebend
of Harleston, residentiary of St. Paul's, and prebend of Westminster,
and was buried in the chancel of Tewing in Hertfordshire, leaving his
son John Mountford, D. D. rector of Anstie in Hertfordshire, who
being a most zealous man for the church of England, was ejected in
the time of the Usurpation, as was, James Mountfort, his brother,
from the rectory of Tewing, in which he succeeded his father. (fn. 7)
Prudence Blosse, widow of Mr. Alderman Blosse, by will dated
March 1, 1633, gave 10l. to the poor, and to the mayor, sheriff's, and
commonalty, and their successours, her houses in St. Saviour's parish,
to the intent that they may place widows therein, to dwell rent free,
they producing security to keep the houses in sufficient reparation
during their lives respectively, viz. every widow for the house she
dwells in; and so to continue for ever, provided the widows dwelling
in St. Saviour's parish, if there be any such, shall have their dwelling
in the said houses before others. She gave an 100l. to the Children's
Hospital, and to the poor of St. Saviour's an annuity of 13s. 4d. to
be paid yearly for ever on the funeral day of her late husband, Mr.
In 1634, the contest between the church and city was put to reference, each side were to pay their own charges; the Lord Keeper and
Mr. Justice Hutton being arbitrators; the decree bears date July 2,
by which all Tombland, Spitelond, Raton-rowe, Holm-street, and all
the houses, soil, and ground, and all liberties whatever, were confirmed to the city, the liberty of the dean and chapter being to extend to the outward walls of their precinct, and no further; the dean
being excluded from holding any fair, leet, or court, and power of
justiceship out of the precinct, and the whole within the walls of the
precinct to be in the county of Norwich, but under the jurisdiction of
the church; and whereas the city claimed the manor of Norman's,
under the title of Queen Elizabeth by virtue of a lease to her made by
the dean and chapter in the 21st year of her reign, and also the house
and site of the said manor called Norman's Spital or Hospital, by
virtue of a lease made to them by the dean and chapter in the 7th
year of her reign, for 500 years, it was agreed, that the city should
resign up the manor, and the church of St. Paul, &c. and deliver up
the rolls and rentals of the said manor, but should hold for 500 years
the site of the manor called Norman's hospital, as they do at this day,
it being leased out now by the city at an annual reserved rent of
This year, the winter assizes were held at Norwich, and the city
gave Thetford 15l. as a recompense for it.
At this time, John Burridge, Gent, for refusing to pay 5l. assessed
upon him towards the ship, was committed to prison, but on payment was discharged; this ship-money was the beginning of trouble:
at a court held Nov. 19, it was agreed that the mayor of Lyn, and
bailiffs of Yarmouth, who appointed to be at Norwich the day following, about the business of the ship, should be entertained at the
mayor's house, at the publick cost, and the justices, sheriffs, and aldermen were desired to attend the business; the sum of 10l. being
allowed for that purpose, and 15l. more for entertaining the highsheriffs of Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, about the same business; this
was the first ship of war asked of them; but next year another was
demanded; for I find 10l. charged in the accompts in 1635, for the
entertainment of the high-sheriff of Norfolk, the mayors of Thetford,
Lyn, and Castle-rising, and the bailiffs and aldermen of Yarmouth,
at the making the assessment for the second ship of war: and in 1636,
13l. 6s. 8d. was paid to Mr. Thomas Blomefield for the charge of a
dinner on the 22d of November, for to treat them again for the businees of the third ship, and 15l. in 1637, for the fourth ship, and in
1640, 13l. 6s. 8d. at the assessing of the ship-money; which caused
many debates between the city and counties of Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, and the burghs of Castle-rising, Lyn, Thetford, Yarmouth,
and Wisbitch, concerning the separate proportions that each should
bear towards the charge of each ship, which was estimated at 5500l. of
which Thetford, Castle-rising, and about 53 coast towns in the county
as Cley, Blakeney, Wiveton, Morton, &c. raised 1427l. Norwich 1601l.
Lyn 1192l. Yarmouth 940l and Wisbitch 340l. which was levied accordingly, by a tax of 12d. in the pound, on all lands, houses, gardens, stocks, &c in the city; but upon the return made, the privy
council were not satisfied with the sum, but ordered 1235l. to be
raised more, and ordered that Norwich should pay 330l. of it. This
made the city more exact in examining into the due proportion it
ought to pay, which produced great animosities between them and
the counties, and other burghs, who had procured the council's letters
to tax the city at 1100l. each ship, when heretofore the city in all
other rates for other services, had usually been rated at no more than
a fifteenth part with the county, and sometimes at a 20th, 18th, and
16th part only; but notwithstanding all that could be done, there was
nothing abated; upon which the city petitioned the privy council,
Earl-Marshal, Lord Matravers, and others, but not being excused
thereupon, the mayor, aldermen, &c. were indicted for contempt, and
divers transgressions against the King, but by the mediation and
advice of Sir John Hobart, Bart. Sir Charles Le-gros, Knt. Mr Rob.
Segar, and others, the affair was finished, and the future proportions
were thus settled, viz. Norwich to raise 400l. Lyn 200l. Yarmouth 220l.
Thetford 30l. and Castle-rising 10l. towards every ship of war of 624
The latter part of this year, and the beginning of the next was so
extreme cold, that at a court held May 20, 1635, a weekly provision
of coals was allowed the poor in the hospital, "in respect of the present coldness of the weather." On the 23d of March following, came
a letter signed by the King, directed to the mayor, sheriffs, and aldermen, requiring their constant attendance at the sermon preached
every Sunday morning, either in the cathedral or Green Yard, and to
be there at the beginning of the service after the manner observed in
the city of London, and none to absent himself unless allowed by the
Bishop; upon which, at a court held July 25,
1636, it was ordered, that the mayor and court should constantly
meet at the school, and there attend till service began, and then all
should attend the mayor into church, in such a decent manner as his
The plague broke out here again in September, in St. Austin's
parish, upon which all necessary precaution was taken to hinder its
further progress, by making up the Black-tower, stopping the carriers, cleansing the streets, and preparing the watchers, &c. but yet
it could not be stopped, though very few died of it till May 1637,
when it increased so, that 15 or 16 died in a week; but though it
continued here near two years, the caution taken was so great, that
by God's mercy it never came to any considerable height.
At this time, the pinnacle of the cathedral, which been injured by
fire, was re-edifyed; and now commotions began in the church, the
citizens petitioning the mayor to endeavour to get new lectures, catechisings, evening readings, &c. to be erected, and to be performed by
such factious persons as they should appoint; but the mayor and
court refused them all, and would not apply to the council as they
In 1637, the city of London chose Mr. Thomas Atkyn, alderman of
Norwich, sheriff of London; upon which this city petitioned the lords
of the council concerning that wrong offered them, but had no
redress; wherefore the said alderman requested to be dicharged from
his aldermanship in Norwich, which was agreed to, and on 28th June,
1638, Mr. Edmund Burman was chosen in his room, for Conisford
This year, wheat was above 22s. a comb, barley 16s. and hops 3l.
On the 29th of July, Francis Briggs, late of Honingham, clerk,
curate of Barnham-Broom, and Welbourn, was deprived, and degraded from bis ministerial function, by Mathew Bishop of Norwich,
being convicted of wilfully murdering Rebecca Hunt of Earlham, his
servant, on Nov. 1, 1636, and soon after was executed on the gallows
out of Magdalen gates for the said fact.
The troubles now increasing in the church, by means of many
schismatical and factious persons that were for innovations both in
church and state, many of them who could not push on their designs
to a crisis so early as they wished, as Mr. Peck, (fn. 8) Mr. Allen, Mr. Ward,
Mr. Bridges, &c. being opposed in their proceedings by Bishop Wren,
went voluntarily beyond sea, some to Holland, some to New England,
and others to divers other places.
In 1638, Mr. Robert Craske, alderman, by will dated 22d May,
gave a house in Berstreet in St. John Sepulcher's parish there, to the
city, the profits, after repairs and all lawful deductions, to find
yearly three sermons, preached by some able preacher of the Gos.
pell, to be appointed by the aldermen of South-Conisford ward for
ever; one of which sermons to be in St. Julian's church upon St.
Stephen's day, in the afternoon, and upon St. John's or Childermas
day in the afternoon another sermon in St. Awdry's church; and
another sermon at St. Peter's church at the Gates, upon New.
year's day, or the Sunday next following; and my desire is, that in
every of those sermons, the chief matter that the preacher shall
insist upon, should be to teach the hearers, how they shall be discharged at the day of judgement, when they shall appear before
God's judgement seat." The preacher to have 5s. for each sermon,
and the parson for reading prayers each time 6d. and the clerk of the
parish for attendance and ringing the bells 6d. the overplus to be divided into three equal parts, one third part to be divided by the aldermen of South-Conisford ward to the poor of St. Julian's immediately
after the sermon there; and a third part to be equally divided into
two parts and given to the poor of Trowse Milgate and St. Awdry's,
immediately after the sermon there; and the other third part to the
poor of St. Peter's at the Gates; immediately after sermon there;
each alderman to have 6d. at every such division for their pains: no
poor to have any of the money that were not present at the sermon,
without reasonable excuse allowed by the aldermen of the ward, who
are to keep the house in repair, &c. and if all that receive the money
be not at all the sermons, for such neglect they shall have none of the
gift for the future; and if any of the ministers of the parish churches
aforesaid refuse any licensed preacher chosen as aforesaid to preach
in their churches, the whole gift for that year shall be transferred to
the poor of St. John's Sepulchre, if refused by the minister of St.
Julian's; and if the minister of St. Awdry's refuses, that shall go to
St. Peter's at the Gates, and their own also; and if the minister there
refuses to let such preacher preach there, both their parts, as well their
own, as that forfeited to them, shall be equally divided among the
poor of St. John's at Sepulchre, St. John on Timber-hill, and St. John
of Maddermarket. The said alderman gave also 75l. to be lent by
12l. 10s, a man, for three years, interest free, and if continued, the
bonds to be renewed every three years, to six grocers, freemen
of the city, and the "money to be appointed the next court day after
St. Andrew yearly for ever, by the mayor, and justices, as other
moneys be appointed;" and Mrs. Craske gave 40l. to be lent in
like manner to four brewers.
In 1639, Mr. Alderman Tolye paid to the mayor in court, 50l. given.
by Mr. Augustine Scottowe, late alderman, to be lent to five weavers
for seven years, interest free, on proper security.
In 1640, fine of 5l. paid by Richard Bough for covering a house
with reed, contrary to the act of assembly, was received by the mayor;
and another fine of 10l. of Will. Foster, for erecting a malt-house in
the city, contrary to the laws, were expended in building the walls
round about the pest-house.
The cross in the market, and the end of the council chamber, were
new painted and gilt, the well in the market repaired, and painted,
and Stump-Cross in St. Saviour's rebuilt.
And this year the long-parliament began, the members first chosen
by the city being Mr. Richard Harman, and Mr. Richard Catlin;
Mr. Joseph Scottowe being appointed sheriff, bought off serving the
office for 40l. and so did Mr. John Dethick, but the commons not consenting with the mayor and court, he was forced to serve; and now
there was a committee appointed to meet, "to consider what things
are fit to be petitioned for to the parliament," and to prepare petitions
accordingly. A watchman was appointed at every gate of the city,
during all Lent, to seize the flesh brought into, or live creatures
brought to be killed in the city; and the gates were to be shut at sunsetting, and the keys brought to the mayor or his deputy, and not to
be opened till sun-rising.
In 1641, the commons reassumed their old privilege of choosing
their new elect, (who for some years had been the senior alderman in
course,) and chose alderman Thomas Carver, who died May 31, and
Mr. Adrian Parmenter, was chosen in his room, but three days before
The city petitioned the parliament to be discharged from paying
2500l. assessed upon them, by reason of their great poverty, and impossibility of raising it.
The English captains of the trained bands of the city were ordered to view the armory and arms, and see if they were fit for
In 1642, July 12, the parliament voted and declared a necessity of
taking up arms, and on the 29th of the same month, Capt. Moses Treswell came to this city, to levy 100 volunteers, by virtue of a commission under the hand and seal of the Earl of Lindsey, the King's
general, who was to convey them to Newwark; but upon application for liberty to beat up his drums, the city, ripe for rebellion,
ordered that he should not do so, according to a resolution passed
by the majority of the court, notwithstanding which, proceeding
according to the King's commission, and beating up, he was apprehended and committed to prison; and the next day, a letter
was sent to the Earl, and Samuel Voute, an inn-keeper where the
captain lodged, was examined, who owned he had a bag of money
of the captain's sealed up, a cloak-bag, a scarlet coat, and a gray coat,
and two horses, which he was ordered to keep safely; on the 10th of
August, Mr. Alexander Anguish, and Mr. Mathew Peckover, aldermen, were appointed to carry a letter the day following to the King
from the mayor and aldermen, in answer to his letter about the imprisonment of the captain, who, with bis man Gilbert, was sent up by
sheriff Lynsey in the beginning of September, upon a 100l. bond,
given by Samuel Voute and Ellis Brown, to deliver the captain and
his man, their swords, horses, clothes, and money, to the parliament,
for which service the court allowed them 15l.
Things being come to this height between the King and parliament,
and the city by this action imagining it would be esteemed as a declaration against their Sovereign, thought it proper at the very same
court to order a double watch through every ward "in regard of the
great distractions and dangers of the kingdom," the watch to be set at
nine o'clock, and the gates locked up, and the keys delivered to the
constables of the several wards where the gates are, by-them to be
kept till next morning: all persons in their turns being obliged to
watch by themselves or deputies: the 13th of August 470lib. weight of
gunpowder, was sent to London to be exchanged for the best sort:
and on the 15th of the same month, the committee for the city magazine reported that they had placed all the arms and powder in the
armory above the assembly chamber, and the great pieces of ordnance
in the low room under the council chamber; all the doors and windows being made strong; and thus they stood upon their guard: and
now a letter of instructions was sent by the Parliament to the mayor,
Sir John Hobart, Knt. and Bart. Richard Harman, Richard Catline,
John Toley, and Adrian Parmenter, Esqrs. and the rest of the deputy
lieutenants of the city, in which they thank them for that acceptable
service done to the parliament and kingdom, in sending up Captain
Treswell; and that a war being likely to ensue between the King and
parliament, they desired them to raise the militia, and take care least
the knights, gentlemen, citizens, and inhabitants of the city be drawn
together, and in particular that they suffer no persons by colour of
warrant from his Majesty, without consent of parliament, to levy or
raise any men or assemblies. (fn. 9)
On the 27th following, two proclamations were brought by a messenger from the King, requiring aid from his subjects to repress the
rebels coming against him, and to forbid all Papists which would not
take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, from serving him; both
which the mayor delivered to the sheriffs, who were on the Parliament's side. At a court held Oct. 22d, there was a general muster of
the trained bands and volunteers, and Mr. Livewell Sherwood was
appointed captain of that company, and fearing an attack from the
King's party, Mr. Cristian, an engineer, was sent for from Lyn to view
the city, in order to fortify it, and had 5l. for his advice; and on the
7th of November following, alderman John Toly accounted for 200l,
granted the city by order of the House of Commons, and for 50l. part
ot the money raised upon the quarter subsidy, all which he had paid
to carpenters, masons, &c. about fortifying and repairing the gates,
buying steel-caps, muskets, &c. Captain Thomas Ashewell's salary of
50l. per annum, and the cannoneer's salary of 3l. per annum, the salaries
of 20s. a year to three scouts being included: and now 40 muskets,
10 croslets complete, and 30 pikes were brought from London to the
magazine, and 20 bandeliers, for 2 callivers of pistol bore, and two
chains weighing 316lib.; and on 28 Nov. Mr. Alex. Anguish, Mr. Burman, Mr. Peckover, Mr. Watts, Mr. Puckle, and Mr Wenham, were
desired to provide earth ready for all such gates on this side the water
as they shall think fit to stop up; and the same dav, John Greenford
and John Friend were ordered to ride to Barton-Mills to lie there as
scouts, and Robert Swallow and Tho. Suggate to Bury, to give speedy
notice to the city of the approach of any cavileers, or others that
shall come in an hostile manner towards the city or county, there
being now a number of worthy gentlemen that belonged to the county,
that had declared for their Sovereign against the Parliament; who
if they had entered the city; were sure that a great number there
would have join'd them, which occasioned this extraordinary care of
the Parliament to keep them out.
Dec. 3, the upper and lower booms were repaired; and on the
10th, St. Austin's and Bishop-gates were rampired up.
Feb. 4. Will. Rogers, gunner, was retained by the city at 4l. a
month, to teach and instruct all such as the mayor and court ordered,
in all things belonging to a gunner; the same day a great iron chain
of 24 links, and 28 links more in several pieces, were lent to the
town of Yarmouth, to lay cross their haven; on the 25th Conisfordgates were stopped up; St. Giles's-gates locked up, as also Pockthorp
and St. Austin's, and the rest strictly guarded day and night: and
now it was debated, whether there should be seven bulwarks made
according to a platform, at 1323l. expense, besides 124l. 16s. for the
breast work against the water, or whether there should be 12 bulwarks beside the breast work, which would cost 2268l.
On the last of Feb. 50 men and horses for dragoons were furnished
and sent by the city to the Lord Grey to Cambridge for Col. Cromwell, for the preservation of the peace of this and the other associated
counties, viz. Norfolk, Suffolk, Cambridgeshire, Essex, Hertfordshire,
and Huntingdonshire. And the day following it was resolved, out of
their abundant zeal, to send 100 men and horses, and Mr. Toly, Mr.
Sherwood, Mr. Ashwell, Mr. Tim. Skottow, Mr. Sam. Brewster,
Hamond Crask, and Mr. Tho. Buret, were to see to the procuring
them, and furnishing them out, who being true and trusty in the cause,
the very same day obtained orders to be issued for the seizing of all
malignants horses in the whole city. (fn. 10)
And now the wicked designs of this cabal were discovered at once;
the mayor and all the royalists in the city plainly perceiving their
errour, in suffering them to come to this head without opposing
them, for William Gostlin, Esq. then mayor, upon his absolutely
refusing to confirm any orders to seize the citizen's horses, was on
Thursday the second day of March seized, by Will. Lord Grey,
Baron of Wark, Major-general for the Parliament for the eastern
association, and carried prisoner to Cambridge; and Mr. Parmenter
and Mr. Utting were deputed to seize all malignants horses in N.
and S. Conisford wards; sheriff Rayley, Alex. Anguish, and Mr.
Burman for Berstreet and St. Stephen's wards; Capt. Sherwood and
Mr. Lomb, for St. Peter's, and St. Giles's; Mr. Baker, Thucker,
Watts, and Hamond Crash, for West-Wymer, Middle-Wymer, and
Heigham; Sheriff Greenwood, Mr. Croshold, Peckover, and Sotherton, for the ward beyond the water; Mr. Gray, Ashewell, Tho. Baret,
and Will. Lowe for East-Wymer, and Christ Church; who forthwith
seized all the horses in the city in the hands of such persons as were
supposed to favour the King's cause, or refused to join with them in
whatever they projected; by which means they not only immediately
furnished out the number of horses they wanted, but scandalously
pocketed large sums of money that divers persons paid to redeem
their horses out of their hands, as John Lowe, who paid 10l. next
morning for the redemption of his two horses seized; and Alex.
Anguish 8l. for one horse, &c. Francis Cory, Esq. the recorder,
was forced to promise speedily to bring in three horses for three
The mayor was no sooner seized in the Gild-hall, but he was
obliged to make Adrian Parmenter his deputy, who was voted to
supply the place till the mayor's discharge, and to be allowed 40s. a
week so long as he continued deputy, being to maintain the swordbearer and other officers, entertain the ministers, and discharge Mrs.
Mayoress of all that charge.
And now the principal of the court and chief of the citizens, when
it was too late, saw their folly in suffering the city to be guarded and
fortified in such a manner, without any resistance; for on Sunday,
March the 5th, 10 soldiers out of every band were ordered to watch
and ward, not only the gates, but every church that had sermons, as
Christ Church, St. Peter's, St. Andrew's, &c. during the time of service, and to deliver the keys of the gates at night to Hamond Crask,
lieutenant of the volunteers: this great caution was taken least such
persons as they knew favoured the King, should make their escape;
for the day following discovered plainly the intent of these proceedings, Augustine Holl and many Other gentlemen and magistrates of
the city, who had associated themselves in order to make an attempt
to get the government of it out of their hands, and to hold it to the use
of the King, being met at Mr. Holl's house, Lieutenant Crask and his
volunteers brought the great ordnance of the city thither, and placing
them ready loaded against it, declared if they did not immediately
surrender themselves prisoners, he would demolish the house and them
in it; upon which they were all taken, and so the King's cause was
quite subdued here at once.
The next day. the cannoneer going to uncharge one of the cannon
in the market place, by some accident it discharged, and very much
injured him, killing and wounding no less than 17 men, women, and
children, upon the spot.
March 11, it was agreed that two of the brass pieces should be sent
to Sir Miles Hobart, if Sir John Hobart would undertake for the
security of them, with powder, bullets, and ball.
On the 13th, 50 dragoons more were raised, and money to pay
the two new companies of volunteers under Major Sherwood and
March 15, the aldermen of every ward had particular charge to
look to their gates.
March 18, Henry Lane, John Daniel, and John Osborn, three of
the aldermen who favoured the King, were put out of their offices,
and afterwards Ric. Rosse, and Alex. Anguish, for the same cause;
and Will. Symonds, Sam. Puckle, Mat. Linsey, John Greenwood, and
Tho. Toft, were placed in their rooms.
Coals were now 50s. a chaldron, and afterwards so dear that they
could not be had for money, so that the brewers were forced to use
furze brakes, &c. and the householders to burn wood.
1643, March 26, 60 muskets and 40 pikes were sent to Cambridge,
and 100 men were ordered to be raised and sent thither.
March 31, the weekly contribution appointed by the Parliament,
was to raise 1250l. for their use in the following manner,
|The county of Norfolk to raise every week||1129||0||0|
|Norwich city with Christ Church liberty||53||0||0|
April 1, it was resolved at a court then held, that in regard of the
imminent danger, and of the near approach of the Earl of Newcastle's
forces towards King's Lyn, and because the country cannot of a sudden
send such forces thither as will be sufficient to secure the town, which
is of such concern to the county, that Serjeant Major Sherwood and
his company of volunteers, should forthwith go thither, there to remain,
to secure the town, till further supplies can be provided and sent.
April2, being Easter day, Capt. Livewell Sherwood went accordingly
with 100 of his volunteers to Lyn, and the next day, Capt. Ashwell
searched Nic. Coppin's and many other citizen's houses, for plate and
pistols; and on the 25th, imprisoned Mr. Coppin and others, on pretence
of proposition money (as they called it) though he had given them 20l.
before, the captain demanding 30l. more.
April 10, it was agreed that Sir Miles Hobart and Sir John Palgrave
should have the two brass pieces of ordnance with their carriages, and
12 bullets to each, being the same pieces Sir Miles formerly had, on
giving a note for the redelivery. They being designed for the use of
the Earl of Manchester in the siege of Lyn.
May 3d, came an order to raise a contribution in the associated
counties to fortify Cambridge, for which they gathered from house to
house, the well-affected (as they termed them) giving freely, and the
rest out of fear.
The 20th of May, it was ordered that one of the sheriffs for the time
being, Mat. Peckover, Linsey, and Puckle, should be part of the committee for sequestering the estates of Papists and delinquents (as they
termed all that did not come into their wicked schemes) and receiving the rents, &c. and Peter Thacker was appointed clerk of the committee and general receiver. And the same day 110l. of the proposition
money (or in plain speech of the money they had violently and forcibly taken from the right owners) was ordered to the committee at
Cambridge, to be sent to Col. Cromwell for present supply, which was
carried up by sheriff Rawley, who had six men with carbines to guard
him all the way.
And now the righteous brethren having gotten Mr. Thacker, one
of their crew, elected mayor, sent up a letter by the sheriff, directed
to the Lord Gray, "to desire the inlargement of Mr. Mayor after
the expiration of his majoralty, in regard of the suffering of his
particular affairs," which the Lord Gray understanding well, kept
him in durance till two or three days before the gild, and then he
was discharged, and came home time enough to be present at the
transferring of his office, to one that they were well assured would do
as he was ordered.
June 6, a committee was appointed "for assessing of men the 5th
part ol their revenue, and the 20th part of their estates," and Mr.
Peckover, Lindsey, Will. Simonds. &c. were appointed commissioners;
and Major Sherwood was allowed 5l. a month for him and his company to guard the gates, with match, and 60lib. of gunpowder, to keep
strict guard on the gild-day, and Conisford-gates, St. Giles's-gates,
St. Martin at the Oak-gates, and Magdalen-gates, were rampired up,
so to remain till the present dangers be over," all boats whatsoever
from Conisford towers to the New-mills, and thence to Hellesden
bridge, were taken away, and laid in a secure place in the city, there
to remain during the time of the present troubles; Sandlin's fernboat, and all wherrys were chained up at the common slath, and not
let loose till their passengers or commodities went immediately for
This month, the 400l. granted to the city, by order of the house of
commons, out of the proposition money raised in the city, towards
fortifying the same, was accounted for, among which accounts I
find, that there was paid for building Hellesden bridge 80l. to pay the
Norforlk. Lent preachers 18l. and about 130l, for the officers, soldiers, &c.; and by an account stated from the 1st of April 1643, to
December following, it appears that the city had raised and expended
in men, horses, money, and arms, no less than 3543l. 8s. for the Parliament's service, most of which was raised in the city on the inhabitants by way of plunder, under the specious names of proposition
money, benevolence, contributions and sequestrations, of Papists and
malignants estates, &c.
Among other articles it appears, that 100 soldiers were sent out
April 4, under Serjeant-major Knights to Wisbitch, and that 20l.
was paid to Serjeant-major Sherwood's volunteers for their service at
Leystoft, where there was discovered a design of a counter-association
on the King's behalf, made by Sir John Pettus, Sir Edw. Barker,
and other loyal gentlemen, and carried so far that Col. Cromwell
was in danger of his person, and very near being taken, had not these
volunteers rescued him, and sent for 100 soldiers from hence, and 100l.
more on the 13th of June: it is observed that they had 60 muskets
complete out of the armory, all which were after lost at Newark.
"Item, paid to Captain Swallow who raised a company of soldiers.
in this city, at the charge of the young men and maids of this city,
who were norsed by Col. Cronwell, for money which they fell short
to compleat them forth 18 Aug. 61l."
There were large sums paid to the committee at Cambridge, to the
Earl of Manchester, Col. Cromwell, to divers scouts, and to several
aldermen, for often attending the committee at Cambridge; to the
Committee of association at Thetford, &c. to the city cannoneers for
6 months pay 54l.; and on the 4th of April there were 70 good horses
valued at 725l. delivered to Lieutenant Strely by order from Col.
Cromwell, which were chiefly taken from the malignants here by open,
And now all things prepared, at a court held the 12th of July, it
Was ordered, "that Capt. Livewell Sherwood shall watchand guard
the city to morrow the 13th instant, in regard that the vow and
covenant is then to be taken, for the appeasing of any stir or tumults,
that may arise in the said city," And the said captain shall procure
a 100 honest men, who will willingly serve in arms for the defence and
security of the city, who shall have arms delivered out of the city
magazine, and shall be exercised with the rest of his company of
This month the gates were opened again, upon promise of the
citizens to rampire them up again at their own charge, upon warning
so to do.
Henry Watts, captain of a company of foot, on his request was
discharged, and Tho. Barrett put in his place, Capt. Watts laying
August 12, a meeting of the associated counties was appointed, the
enemy now approaching, Col. Cromwell was sent to, and this
Castle was ordered to be fortified, and on the 23d of August, it was
Ordered, " that the twelve grand companyes shall be warned by the
aldermen of their companyes to work at the castell-dykes, every
grand company a day, and the first company to begin to morrow."
August 29, there were delived to Erasmus Sands, cannoneer, by
command of the right honourable Edward Earl of Manchester,
Major-general of the associated counties, for the reducing of Lyn, two
demi-culverins of brass weighing 4800lib. one demi-culverin of iron
weighing 3400lib. two faticonets of brass weighing 600lib. and two
which Sir Miles Hobart, had weighing 700lib. with sponges, ladles,
shot, powder, &c. (fn. 11) all which Capt. Sotherton guarded to Sechey.
And now Lincolnshire was added to the aforesaid associated counties,
at the request of the Earl of Manchester, who came to reduce Lyn, at
whose desire Major Sherwood and his volunteers went thither, Sept. 7,
and it was surrendered to the Earl of Manchester Sept. 9, who placed
a garrison there for the use of the Parliament.
On Sept. 11, came an order from the House, to raise money for
the supply of the Lord Fairfax in the north: upon which the aldermen of every ward sat at every church in their wards, to take all the
money or plate that any persons in the ward would give or tend, and
the ministers were desired to incite the people to contribute freely
and cheerfully thereto, "and the aldermen to send for such able
persons as do not, and persuade them to lend freely.
November 8, Lyn was ordered to be fortified by the whole association, and 72 soldiers pressed in Norwich to be sent thither, the, citycannon which they lent, though earnestly requested to be redelivered,
Was ordered to be continued there, and the city to be paid for them
out of the 3d part of the sequestration money, which proceedings
much angered the court, who now began to perceive that the same
restraint of liberty they had first imposed on their fellow citizens, was
by this time straitly laid on their own backs, and (according to the
proverb) the saddle at least (though not the burthen) was placed on
the right horse.
November 18, four of the court were fined 10l. apiece for not gathering up the proposition money quick enough, so that now there
was no receding; and on the 21st following, came an order from
the Earl of Manchester, by power of the Lords Commissioners, and
Earl of Essex, appointing Henry Kyng, Rob. Feltham, Francis Shouldham, John Swallow, Tobias Freer, Gent. Capt. Wild, Capt. Warner,
Capt. Doughty, Capt. Ashwell, Capt. Denew, Capt. Jenny, Capt.
Huntington, Serjeant Major Sherwood, Alderman Puckle, Sam. Brewster, Hamond Crask, merchants of Norwich, Bernard Utber, and
John Allen, Gent, or any two of them, to assess, collect, and levy, all
and every such sums of money, as ought to have been done by virtue
of any former ordinance of parliament, within the county of Norfolk
or city of Norwich, and they to have 6d. in the pound for each pound
levied without distress, and 1s. if by distress, and John Cory of
Norwich, merchant, was appointed treasurer.
This plundering commission, as it was justly called, was immediately
executed by force and arms: at a court held the next day, it was
ordered, that the sequestration money received of the Bishop, and
the money raised upon the sale of goods of other delinquents sequestered, be forthwith paid to Mr. Cory, and that the 100 more,
for which there is surety given for the Bishop's goods, be likewise
paid the said treasurer, as soon as the same be received." (fn. 12)
December 18, the mayor held the sessions without recorder or steuard, and gave the charge to the grand inquest, &c.
On the 19th of July, was a great tempest of thunder and lightning,
so that above 140 crows, rooks, &c. were found dead in oue wood;
and on the 2d of August, in the even, was another tempest, which
killed a multitude of fish, above 40 combs in the city river only, as
was then reported. (fn. 13)
And this year, on Nov. 2d. the excise began; the excise
office was get up at Mr. Alderman Parmenter's house, for 6d. a
barrel to be paid for small beer, and 2s. for best, and all beer above 6s.
a barrel value.
According to an ordinance of parliament, a subscription was put on
foot here for raising money towards regaining the town of Newcastle,
and 516l. 5s. was gathered in the several wards, and the names of all
such in the several wards that refused giving any thing, were returned,
in number 432, of the principal citizens; which may make us the
less wonder at the great cost and expense they were at in keeping
such a number of soldiers to guard the city, when they knew the
King had so many well-wishers here; among those returned were,
Francis Norris, John Salter, Tim. Skottow, John Freeman, Mr. Watts,
John Balderston, Will. Crowe, Tho. Cory, Mr. Larwood, Mr, Brook,
senior and junior, Joseph Paine, Mr. Pettus, Lady Pettus, Nic. Sothertou, Will. Gostlin, late mayor, Fra. Cory, Mr. Aldrich, Earl,
Davy, and Burman, Alderman Utting, Alderman Croshold, Dr.
Browne, Dr. De-lawne, Mr. John Osborn, Rog. Mingay, Rob. Deye,
Peter Hasbert, Edw. Mayes, James Rant, H. Herne, &c.
January 10, the 100l. taken of the Bishop for sequestration was
dicharged, and 200l. more assessed on him for proposition money; to
supply Capt. Ashwell's company their pay, and in the 24th of the
same month, the day watch was to cease, and the night watch to be
performed by all citizens under the degree of aldermen; the keys of
every gate to be delivered to the constable of the ward every night at
9 o'clock; and at the same court, "Committes to view the churches for
pictures and crucifixes" were appointed, it being "ordered, that sheriff
Toftes, Mr. Linsey, Puckle, Sherwood, and Greenwood, aldermen;
Mr. Ket, John Knight, Mr. Allen, Brewster, Crash, Davy and Rye,
or any four or three of them, shall from time to time meet together,
and repair to the several churches in this city, and view the same,
and take notice of such scandalous pictures, crucifixes, and images,
as are yet remaining in the same churches, and demolish or cause the
same to be demolished, and also to take the names of all such persons
as can give any information of any misdemeanors of scandalous
ministers, and to certitye from time to time their doings therein to
the maior and the rest of the deputy lieutenants in the said city,
at the councell chamber, who are agreed to sit there every Tuesday
and Thursday in the afternoon, to receive their informations, concerning the same, and to proceed further therein, as the cause shall
require." Upon this, these new constituted reformers, relying
on the support of their soldiers, began to view the churches, deface
the monuments, break the windows, file the bells, dash in pieces the
carved works, and reave the brasses off the stones and monuments;
and in short by the forwardness of Toft, who was the ringleader of the
rabble, but little escaped his felonious hands, when he had once got
a taste of the value of the brasses he pulled off, the cathedral alone
affording him above a hundred; all which he seized, thereby defacing
the memory of the ancestors of many of the most ancient and worshipful
families in the county; pulling down the pulpit in the Green Yard,
and placing it in the New-hall Green, which had lately been the
Artillery Yard; for after the church government was destroyed " it
is tragical to relate the furious sacrilege committed under the authority of Lindsey, Tofts the sheriff, and Greenwood; what clattering of glasses, what beating down of walls, what tearing down of
monuments, what pulling down of seats, and wresting out of irons and
brass from the windows and graves; what defacing of arms, what
demolishing of curious stone work, that had not any representation
in the world but the cost of the founder, and skill of the mason,
what piping on the destroyed organ pipes; vestments, both copes
and surplices, together with the leaden cross which had been newly
sawn down from over the Green-Yard pulpit, and the singing books
and service books, were carried to the fire in the public market
place, a lewd wretch walking before the train in his cope trailing
in the dirt, with a service book in his hand, imitating in an impious
scorn the tune, and usurping the words of the litany. The ordinance
being discharged on the guild day, the cathedral was filled with
muskateers, drinking and tobacconing, as freely as if it had turned
alehouse." (fn. 14) This parade was on March the 9th, at which time the
court was then sitting in the Gild-hall in the market, and "ordered,
that seaven Popish pictures that were taken from St. Swithin's the
angel and four Evangelists taken at St. Peter's, and Moses and Aaron
and four Evangelists that came from the cathedrall, and some
other superstitious pictures, shall be burnt in the open market this
day." (fn. 15)
By the direction of Tofts, the pulpit was removed to the east end
of the cathedral, and placed on the south side, where now is Bishop
Overal's monument, and the seats of the court fixed where the altar
stood, and the cross fixed upon the publick market cross was takes
down, such was the reformation of these furious times.
February 17, came an order for 6000l. for the advance money for
the Scots, and 265l. of it was laid on the city; 174l. on Yarmouth,
132l. on Lyn; 27l. 18s. 9d. on Thetford, and the rest on the county,
Valentine Walton being governour of Lyn, and Edmund Hudson,
March 2, orders were issued to guard the river, by sending for an
engine to deepen it, stopping the passage by the two towers, and by
nailing up all doors that were dangerous, on pretence they now feared
many should desert the city that way.
At a court held on Saturday March 23, it was agreed concerning
keeping the fast day on Wednesday next, which falls on the coronation
day, that the whole day shall be solemnly kept in humiliation, as olber
fast days are kept, and that the aldermen shall attend the mayor at the
sermon in the forenoon at St. Andrew's, and in the afternoon at St.
Peter's, and at night when the fast is ended, the great guns shall be shot
off, and the bells rung, after St. Peter's bells be set out, but none before;
and at night who will, may make bonfires.
On March 25, 1644, two scouts were sent to get intelligence how
the business in Lincolnshire went on, and five of the city gates were
ordered to be always kept shut, and two companies of the trained bands
were sent to Cambridge under Capt. Rawley, " in respect of the
eminent danger of the approach of the enemy towards these associated counties." And all horses found, were to be taken up, to
send them on, and sent to the Half-moon in the market, by tbt
aldermen of the several wards: this produced a great stir among these
couragious captains, Capt. Rayley and Lieutenant Cock, Ensigt
Thacker, Serjeant Ashwell, and Serjeant Beaumond, refused absolutely
to go with their companies as appointed, Rayley threw up his commission, and the officers insisted that lots should be drawn who
Sir Miles Hobart, Tho. Hasewell, and Mr. Harry, captains for the
Parliament, facing Newark, were routed by Prince Rupert, and all
their ordnance and ammnnition taken, so that Capt. Ashwell did not
bring home above 30 soldiers of all the companies that went from
hence, and but little armour.
On the 24th of April, 1644, 54 soldiers were pressed for him as
recruits, and it is plain he made but a poor figure at his return, for
the court ordered a sword to be delivered to the captain, which was
John Manning's, the which they promised to return, and Lieutenant
Burton had a back breast and head-piece given him, and 40s. a piece
towards buying them horses and pistols, and carrying them up to the
army again,,and Joseph Atteway, his ensign, was to have the same. (fn. 16)
April 27, the court licensed Captain Lieutenant Thomas Kelsey,
under Col. Fleetwood, to beat up in the city for 10 volunteers, towards
a company lor securing Lovingland and Flegg.
May 11, Capt. Rayley resigned his commission, but the deputy
lieutenants would not accept his resignation, upon which he threw it
down on the table and left it.
A strict watch was set on the gild-day at all the gates, and many
citizens houses ransacked, and all arms taken from them.
July 18, a thanksgiving was held at the cathedral for the victory
over Prince Rupert near York, by the Lord Fairfax, and for taking
York to the use of the Parliament.
In August, there was a petition on foot to the Parliament, for
uniting the parishes, and providing maintenance for an able ministry,
but it was laid aside, by reason of their own disagreement in what
manner to proceed.
In February Nic. Pipe gave 12l. to the poor, and in 1645, a house
and ground in Cringleford, given to the city by Mr. Pipe, was leased
for 21 years at 20l. &c.
In the time of Mr. Tooley, and the two following mayors, the New-hall
was paved with Purbek stone.
In 1645, the gild was not held, least any uproar might follow, and
in August the King's forces took Huntington, and alarmed Cambridge,
upon which all the trained bands of the associated counties were hastily
raised, and those belonging to the city marched as far as the TownClose, and came back again, thinking it the safest/way to sleep in a
In September came a letter directed to the mayor and aldermen,
dated at Westminster, 25 of the same month; and the year following
another in the same words, directed to the mayor, M r. Smith, recorder,
Mr. Wenman, sheriff, Mr. Baker and Parmenter, aldermen, Mr. Lynsey,
Rayley, Toft, Alderman Baron, Dr. Haws, &c. viz.
The Parliament being desirous above all things to establish truth and
righteousness in these kingdoms, towards which, the settlement of a
church government is very conducible, hath resolved to settle a Presbiterial government in the kingdom. For the better effecting whereof, you
are required with the advice of godly ministers and others, to consider
how the county of the city of Norwich may be most conveniently divided into distinct classical Presbiteries, and what ministers and
others, are fit to be of each classis, and you are accordingly to make
such divisions and nominations of persons for each classical Presbitery. Which divisions and persons so named for every division,
you are to certifie to this House with all expedition. I am your very
W. Lenthall, Speaker.
The day before Christmas day, the mayor directed warrants to all
the ministers and church-wardens, charging them to have no sermons
nor communions in their churches the day following, but set open
their shops that day. (fn. 17)
And now began such displacing of the loyal clergy, that there was
published a publick remonstrance, setting forth the violent proceedings against them; upon which was published a pamphlet entituled,
Vox Populi, or the Voice of the People; answered by another
(printed for Edward Martin, bookseller in Norwich, at the sign of the
Upper Half-Moon in the Market-place, Ao. 1646,) entituled "An
Hue-and-Cry after Vox Populi, or an Answer to Vox Diaboli,
or (The Voice of the Devil) a libellous pamphlet falsely styled Vox
Populi. reviling the Magistrates and Ministry of Norwich, wherein
is laid down the Truth of the Rise and Progresse of the said Ministers
of Norwich, their late Remonstrance. Together with the deceitful
dealing of the Independents, in getting hands to their petition there
annexed, and their judging in other Petitions in the city, as also what
entertaiment their Petition found in the Court of Majoralty and
Committee for the county, &c."
But it now appearing that the two sects had as great objections
against each other, as either of them could have against the church of
England, silence was strictly ordered on both sides, and so the paper
war for this time ceased.
On the 27th of April, 1646, the King went in disguise from Oxford
with Mr. Hobson and Mr. Ashburnham, and by a private way came
to Newcastle to the Scots army, and committed himself for protection
into their hands, who, Judas like, sold him to the Parliament for
200,000l.; and in August, by the King's own command, all his majesty's garrisons were yielded up to the Parliamentary forces.
This year the plague was at Norwich, and East-Dearham, and on
the 15th of November was a very great flood, so that boats were rowed
in St. Edmund's, Magdalen, and many other streets in the city.
It was also agreed, that St. Saviour's and St. Austin's parishes
should be united, and if Mr. Collinges would accept them, when the
city shall be possessed of the 300l. per annum out of the revenues of
the dean and chapter, voted by committee of parliament for plundered
ministers, to be settled on this city, for the better maintenance of the
parochial clergy, that he shall have 20l. per annum out of it, as an
addition to those parishes; and it was voted to unite Martin at Oak
and Maries parishes, Peterpermountergate and Julian's, Simon's,
George's of Tombland, and Peter of Hugate." (fn. 18)
In 1647, beef was sold at 5s. a stone, and corn, and all provisions
were very dear; on the 11th of November Capt. Blackwell, by order
of the Parliament, took the lead off the Bishop's palace and chapel,
defacing the chapel, letting them out to poor people for dwelling
houses and tap-houses. Nov. 28, fell a great snow, and next day,
when it laid knee deep, there was exceeding much thunder and
lightning; and on the 1st. of Dec. the apprentices of Norwich assembled in the Castle Yard, subscribed a petition for the observation
of Christmas day, and presented it to the mayor.
In 1648, a petition was presented about the beginning of April, to
John Utting, Esq. mayor, Sam. Smith, Esq. recorder, Erasmus Earl,
Esq. steward, and the rest of the court, subscribed by about 150
persons, for a more speedy and thorough reformation, wherein they
complained, that those (whom they called) their faithful ministers,
were discouraged and slighted, and the ejected ministers (of the
church of England) preferred and encouraged, old ceremonies and
service book constantly used, and the directory for worship not observed; and therefore they petition, that ejected ministers may be
suspended preaching, till they, have given satisfaction to the assembly
of divines, according to the ordinance of parliament of 22d Jan. 1644;
"then (say they) shall not Mr. Lock and Cadime with others, be tollerated nor promoted to popular auditories, to the discouragement
of all well affected persons."
They insisted also, that all the ordinances against superstition and
idolatry and defacing of images, may have a particular order for the
more speedy execution, and that the remaining pictures in several
churches may be demolished or taken away," so shall the crusifix on
the cathedrall gate be defaced, and an other in the roofe of the
cathedrall neere the west door in the inside, and one upon the freeschool, and the imadg of Christ upon the parish house of St.
George's of Tomland be taken down, and many parish churches more
decently made for the congregation to meet in, &c (fn. 19) But the
mayor, who was for the King, took but little notice of this, or other
orders of the like nature, which were often brought him by such tools,
so that Sheriff Ashwell, Mr. Ket and Tho. Buret, went to London, and
gave information to the Parliament against him, which being soon
known, the commons were prodigiously exasperated against them.
Upon this, on the 22d of April, a pursuivant or messenger came hither,
to carry the mayor up to the Parliament, there to answer to such
things as should be alleged against him, who delivered the following
order and letter as his authority for so doing.
Die Martis 18 Apr. 1648. post merid.
"Ordered by the commons assembled in parliament; that Mr.
Xpr. Baret alderman of the city of Norwich, be appointed to
execute the place of mayor of the city of Norwich, in the place
and stead of Mr. John Utting now mayor of the said city, in the
absence and restraint of the said Mr. Utting.
H. Elsing Cler. Parl. D. Com.
"It hath pleased the House of Commons to order you to be deputymayor of the city of Norwich, and county of the same, during
the time of the restraint of Mr. John Utting the present mayor, who
is sent for in safe custody. It is desired that your self, the sheriffs,
and aldermen your bretheren be very carefull in the well governing
of the said city of Norwich, and it is expected that the sheriffs
and aldermen do attend upon you, and give you their best advice
and counsell, so as no disturbance happen amongst you, as of late hath
been, and that you take care that the orders and ordinances of Parliament be duly and punctually observed, and not slighted as farmerly. Not having more in command from the house, I remain
your very loving friend,
W. Lenthall, Speaker.
To the right worshipful Xper. Baret
Esq. deputy-MAYOR of the city of
Norwich, to the Sheriffs, and Aldermen present."
Upon this, the mayor's friends drew up a petition to the parliament, testifying his good government and behaviour, which was carried about the city till Monday, being signed by many hundreds.
The commons remembering how Mr. Gostlin was used, seeing the same
coming upon this mayor, began to assemble on Sunday, calling out
that it might thank Tom Baret, but before they had done, they would
make him a poor Tom Baret indeed, and as for the pursuivant and
sheriff, they would hang them upon the Castle-hill, upon Gardiner's
mare, (meaning the gallows,) and ham-string any body that should
offer to carry Mr. Mayor away; and it being reported that the
mayor was to be carried off in the night, they went in a body to all
the gates, locked them up, and carried away the keys, and watched
themselves all night; the mayor sent them word, he desired they
would depart, not fearing his being carried away; but to no purpose,
for about midnight they grew into a large body in the market place,
being armed, and gave out a watch-word to be known by, viz. For
God and King Charles. Christ. Bransby, Dr. Brooks, and Rob.
Suffield, were the chief persons that managed for them, though they
did it with caution: and it appears that there was a design to have
kept their mayor, and declared for the King, for Mr. Bransby openly
told them, "that if they suffered the mayor to be carried away, they
would have a governour put in, (as was done at Lyn,) and then all
would be tried by martial law; and then we had as good be free
of Catton, as free of the city, for freemen would have no freedom at
all in any choice." And therefore he advised them to keep the city
gates, considering what a dishonour it would be to the city, to have
two mayors carried away, when Lyn would not suffer their mayor
to be carried away, nor Yarmouth their bailiffs. Mr. Spurgyn also
went to them, and said, he hoped they were ail for the King, and
that they would not let the mayor go, who was told that it was so,
and that on a shout given at eight in the morning there would be
500 armed men together at once; accordingly on Monday the 24th
in the morning a shout was given in Chapel-Fields, and a great number immediately assembled, and went thence to the King's-head in
the market, where the messenger was; and about ten in the morning
it being; reported that the mayor was about taking horse, they ran
to seize the messenger, and had not the mayor and justices hindered
them, had killed him on the spot: Joseph Paine and Felix Forby,
persons much beloved by the commons, were sent for, and Mr. Forby
made a speech at the market cross, to dissuade them from their proceedings and to go home, but they would not, alleging that all freemen were bound by their oaths to support their mayor, and keep him
in the city during his year: and now being got to such a number,
they openly avowed they were for the King, that they would purge
the bench and common council, and pluck the round heads out, and
put such honest men in, as would go to church and serve God. The
messenger seeing how things went, desired to be gone without the
mayor, and took horse about eleven o'clock, but had not Mr. Forby,
Palgrave, and others, gone with him near two miles out of the city,
he had been killed by those that followed him, who after they
returned, joined the rest, and went to Sheriff Ashwell's house, who
was captain of the militia, and lived at the corner house over against
the south side of St. Michael's at Plea church, by the Red-wall, broke
the windows, entered the house, and seized all arms they found there;
hither came the mayor and court, read the proclamation, and got
what arms they could to be carried to the Gild-hall, but they still
went on, carrying out all the victuals, wine, and beer, and plundered
and spoiled the goods: about two o'clock they went from thence, and
searched divers houses for arms, in particular Alderman Parmenter's,
who dwell in the house where now the judges usually lodge, against
Hog-hill, that being the Excise Office then, where they expected to
have found a large sum of money, but it being conveyed away, they
plundered the house, &c. as they had done Sheriff Ashwell's; at three
o'clock they went from thence, calling out, Let us go to the Committeehouse, where the county arms are lodged, and arm ourselves; which
was agreed upon: coming thither and finding it secured by Samuel
Cawthern, the keeper of that magazine for the committee, they brake
open the doors, entered and threw out the arms from all parts, which
being known, the citizens luckily shut up their shops; while they
were entering the house, some of them within, shot and killed a boy,
which so enraged them, that they threatened death to every one of
them, and indeed Cawthern narrowly escaped; having got possession,
they began quickly to arm themselves in Chapel-Fields, and now their
dry was, "Gentlemen, Norwich never did so much before, but if
we be not true among ourselves, and keep our arms, we are but dead
men." Which indeed proved true sooner than they expected, and
before they had laid down their arms: for news being sent to Colonel
Fleetwood's fleet troop, then billeted in the country, they came about
five o'clock, and the troopers fell so fiercely upon them, that many
ran away, and others retired to the Committee-house, which soon after,
whether by accident, which is most likely, or by design, was blown up,
no less than 98 barrels of gunpowder going off at one crack, (fn. 20) which
not only blew up many of them into the air, but by the violence of
the shock, which was perceived in the greatest part of the county,
many windows were shattered in pieces, and much mischief done by
the stones and timber at a great distance. (fn. 21) This terrible shock so
affrightened them, that they all dispersed, but had it not happened
thus, the troopers, about 80 in number only, could never have forced
them. There were above 100 persons slain and wounded on both
sides, as well troopers as citizens, and several that were no ways concerned, as they walked in the field at a great distance, were lamed,
bruised, or killed, by the fall of the stones and timber blown up.
The day following, the mayor, of his own accord, accompanied
with some of his officers and other friends, rode to the parliament,
and was confined to his house in Brandon, May 19, to the 1st of July
ensuing, when he and John Tooly, late mayor, were fined, (fn. 22) and then
discharged; Christ. Baret acting as deputy in his absence. And this
day Mr. Collings, moved for a thanksgiving day to be set for the deliverance from the mutiny raised yesterday; and Tuesday following
was appointed for that purpose, and Mr. Carter was desired to preach
in the forenoon at the cathedral, and Mr. Collings in the afternoon
there, and each to have 20s.; the aldermen to be in scarlet gowns, attended by the livery of the city: and a sum of 250l. was granted to
the troopers and their company for their service, and three of the six
troops in the city were desired to stay for the safety of the same, and
a letter was ordered to be sent to Col. Wanton, governour of Lyn, to
acquaint him with this affair.
Soon after this, the Lord General Sir Tho. Fairfax came to Norwich, and the deputy mayor and his brethren, with sword and mace,
met him at the gates, in scarlet, &c. and treated him. (fn. 23)
At a court held Nov. 8, a letter was sent to Mr. Atkins, to procure
a commission of oyer and terminer for the city, for the speedy trial of
the mutineers, to send it to Mr. Earl. On Christmas day, Serjeant
Keeble, Serjeant Earl the recorder, and other justices of the city, (fn. 24)
held their sessions, before whom 108 persons were prosecuted, of
which, these received sentence of death, viz. Christ. Hill, brasier;
Anthony Wilson, blacksmith; William True, dyer; Thomas and John
Bidwell, brethren, labourers; Henry Goward, sadler, and Gray an
oatmeal-maker, who were all executed in the Castle ditches Jan. 2,
many others being fined; at which time, an old woman named Tirrel,
one of the hospital, and an other woman, were put to death for
witchcraft. (fn. 25)
June 9, the gild was ordered not to be held this year, for fear of a
August 15, "agreed in regard of the sad distractions of the kingdom, and the judgement of God in the unseasonableness of the
weather, and of the great extremities of the poor, that Mr. Mayor,
and Mr. Sheriff Ashwell shall not keep their feasts at next sessions,
but shall pay 15l. apiece to the poor of the city."
Die Martis September 5, 1648, ordered by the Commons assembled
in Parliament, that all such persons as have been in any of the late
insurrections, be not returned to be upon, nor serve on, any jury in
any county. (fn. 26)
Ordered, that the ordinances excluding all delinquents, to have
any office, or any vote in the election of officers, be put in due execution.
H. Elsinge, Cler. Parl. D. Com.
Jan. 8, in regard of the present dangers of the times, half a band
was appointed every night to watch in the city.
Jan. 26, at an assembly then held, "Agreed, that a congratulatory
letter be written to Lieutenant General Cromwell, for the favours
he hath done formerly for this city, and to desire his furtherance
for speeding of the ordinance towching elections, and the ordinance
for gaining the jurisdiction of Christ-church, &c. And further, that
an ordinance be drawn to enable the assembly to appoint and choose
the preachers to preach at the cathedrall upon the Sabboth day in
the forenoon, instead of the combination, &c." And an act for
regulating the elections was accordingly made.
On the 30th day of this month, 52 minutes after one in the afternoon, was his most sacred Majesty Charles the First barbarously
beheaded by his own rebellious subjects at Whitehall, to the unspeakable grief of all the royalists, and joy of all that vile part of the Parliament, which then usurped his regal power, seized on his dominions,
banished his Queen and children, proclaimed his son and heir
traitour, who to save his own life, was forced to flee from those
villains that had taken away his father's.
John Warner of Norwich, by will dated June 5, 1648, ordered
his executors to buy a piece of ground of 40s. per annum, and settle
it on the city, and the rent of the first nine years after his wife's decease, to be disposed to divers parishes as stocks for their poor, viz.
three years rent to St. Andrew's, to be lent to any honest tradesmen
in the parish for three years, by the church-wardens and chief parishioners, on security given them; and the like to St. Peter's of Mancroft, &c.; and after the nine years be expired, "the clear yearly
rent as aforesaid to go and continue for ever as followeth, viz. to
the town of Denton in Norfolk, (between Harleston and Bungay,)
the third part of the clear yearly rent: also to the town of Calton
by Norwich, the 6th part of the clear yearly rent: also to the townes
of Sprouston cum Beeston by Norwich, another 6th part of the clear
yearly rent: and to the parish of St. Martin at the Oak within the
said city of Norwich, another 6th part of the clear yearly rent, and
to the parish of St. Michael at Plea in the said city, the other 6th
part of the clear yearly rent." The several sums to be divided
among the honest poor in those parishes, on the first Lord's day in the
month of November, yearly for ever. (fn. 27)
Mayors And Sheriffs.
|1626, Basingbourn Throckmorton.||Augustine Scottow, Richard Harman.|
|1627, Francis Cock.||Henry Lane, Tho. Atkin.|
|1628, Tho. Cory.||Will. Simonds, John Daniel.|
|1629, Alex. Anguish.||John Thacker, Will. Gostlin.|
|1630, Will. Browne.||John Tooley, Rob. Palgrave.|
|1631, Tho. Shipdam.||Rob. Thompson, Tho. Carver.|
|1632, Rob. Hernsey, Hornsey, or
Heringshaw.||Edm. Burman, Adrian Parmenter.|
|1633, Will. Bussey.||Rich. Ward, Rich. Keepis, Cupis,
|1634, Christ Baret.||Sam. Puckle, Mat. Peckover.|
|1635, John Anguish.||Tho. Barber, John Croshold.|
|1636, Tho. Baker.||John Freeman, John Utting.|
|1637, Rob. Sampler.||John Lombe, Mat. Sotherton.|
|1638, John Tooley.||Livewell Sherwood, John Gray.|
|1639, Rich. Harman.||Henry Watts, John Salter.|
|1640, Henry Lane.||John Osborne, John Dethick.|
|1641, Tho. "Carver elected May
1, died May 31, and
Adr. Parmenter served.||Mat. Lindsey, Rob. Baren.|
|1642, Will. Gostlin imprisoned,
Adr. Parmenter deputy.||John Greenwood, John Rawley or
|1643, John Thacker.||Tho. Toft, Rich. Bateman.|
|1644, John Tooley 2.||Tho. Baret, Bernard Church.|
|1645, Mat. Peckover.||John Cory, Will. Rye, or Pye.|
|1646, Henry Watts.||Rich. Wenman, Rob. Holmes.|
|1647, John Utting imprisoned.
Christ. Baret deputy.||Tho. Ashwell, Will. Davy.|
|1648, Edm. Burman.||Will. Barnham, Rob. Allen.|
|Samuel Smith, Esq. recorder.|
|Erasmus Earl, Esq. serjeant at law,
Burgesses In Parliament.
1 Ck. I. Parl. at Westm. Tho. Hyrne, Knt. Will. Denny, Esq.
1 Ditto. John Sucklinge, Knt. Comptroller of the Household, Tho. Hyrne, Knt. (fn. 28)
3 Ditto. Peter Gleane, Knt. Rob. Debnye, Esq.
15 Ditto. Tho. Atkins, John Tooley. (fn. 29)
16 Ditto. Rich. Harman, Rich. Catlyn, Esqrs.
Thomas Atkins, and Erasmus Earl, Esqrs.
were also elected and sent up during this long
parliament, bat were not admitted to sit.
The Committee-house was where now
 Mr. Sterling's house on the eastside of Bethelem yard, and Bethelem
itself now stands. A certificate was returned to the Parliament by the Court,
that the damage and loss was 1004l.