Gallow and Brothercross Hundreds
Burnham Overey

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Institute of Historical Research

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Francis Blomefield

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19-28

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'Gallow and Brothercross Hundreds: Burnham Overey', An Essay towards a Topographical History of the County of Norfolk: volume 7, pp. 19-28. URL: http://british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=78294 Date accessed: 19 September 2014.


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BURNHAM OVEREY;

That is, over the Water or River.

Vewtre's Manor.

This was a beruite, or part of the lordship of Burnham Westgale, which was in the Crown, and farmed by Godric at the time of the compiling of Domesday-book, and granted by King William II. to William de Albini, his butler, ancestor to the Earls of Arundel. (fn. 1) William le Vewtre seems to be the principal lord of it; who gave in the reign of King Henry II. the rectory of the church of St. Clements of Burnham, to the canons of Walsingham, with its churchyard, con taining five roods of land; and one of the same name was a witness to the grant of William de Albini, the King's butler, in the reign of Henry I. of the manor of Hapesburgh, to the monks of Wymondham, on his foundation of that priory; and by the name of William le Veuter of Burnham, gave also six acres to it; and by the register of Wymondham, had a son Matthew. In the 3d of Richard I. William de Vealtre owed 114l. 10s. 8d. for his lands in Burnham; (fn. 2) this William left two daughters and coheirs; Margery, married to Richard de Snetterton; and Maud, the other daughter and coheir married Matthew Balstan, and had a daughter Agatha, who married to Rodland, son of Fabian, who enfeoffed the prior of Walsingham in his right or part. Ralph de Snetterton was lord in the 3d of Edward I. and was then found to have wreck at sea in Burnham. Sir Thomas de Sniterton was his son and heir, who, in the 15th of that King, claimed a weekly mercate in Burnham; a fair on the vigil, day, and the day after the feast of St. Margaret, every year, and free warren in his demean lands.

But, though a principal part of this manor was dismembered, and came to Snetterton and Rodland as above-mentioned, yet the family of Veutre being not extinct, had some interest therein. Peter le Veutre, of Burnham, lived about the 20th of Edward I. and Lætitia, his widow, in the 31st of that King; and William le Veutre was witness to a deed in the 32d of the said reign. Robert, son of Peter le Veutre, had a messuage and lands given him by Sir Thomas de Snitterton, and after this, Roger Breton, and Alice his wife, John de Bintre, and Maud his wife, the prior of Walsingham, &c. held here, &c. three fees of the Lord Tateshale, as heir to the Earl of Arundel, which Thomas de Snetterton and his parceners formerly held. John le Vewtre occurs 20th Edward III. and Simon Vewtre was living in the reign of Richard II. and Richard Vewtre, and Oliva his wife in the 3d of Henry V. and had an interest herein.

In the 3d of Henry IV. Sir Robert Knolls, Sir William Calthorp, Simon Vewtre, the prior of Walsingham, and John Leche, &c. held in Burnham, Holkham, Wighton, &c. three fees of the honour of Tateshale.

In the reign of Edward IV. Thomas Giggs was lord of Vewtre's manor; and Margaret his widow, by her will dated August 13, 1473, bequeaths her body to be buried in the chapel of St. Many the Virgin, by her husband, in the church of St. Clement of Burnham; (fn. 3) mentions therein John her son, and Thomas, and Alice, wife of John Giggs: and Thomas Gegges, as appears by his will, dated December 1, 1505, died lord of it, and mentions Oliva his wife, his son John, Alianore, Agnes, and Joan, his daughters, and was proved February 6, in the said year. (fn. 4)

By a deed, dated February 28, in the 16th of Henry VIII. John Gyggs. Gent. of Burnham St. Clements conveys in trust to Richard Hoo, Gent. the manor of Vewsters, with its appertenances in Burnham, St Cements, St. Andrew, Ulpe, Sutlon, Norton, Depedale, St. Edmunds, Westgate, Holkham, Wighton, and Warham; John to have it for life, and after to Agnes his wife, an annuity of 10l. per annum for her life. This Richard Hoo married —, sister of John Gygges, which John died March 30, in the 6th of Edward VI. and had, by Agnes his wife, daughter and heir of Thomas Barry, Susan his daughter and heir, married to Humphrey Dene of Wigenhale, whose daughter and heir, Anne, became wife to Thomas Hoo, (son of Richard Hoo above-mentioned, of Scarning, where a pedigree of this family may be seen,) and the said Anne dying without issue, her husband, Thomas, enjoyed by deed of settlement this lordship; and by Margaret his second wife, daughter of Clement Palgrave of Northwood Berningham, had Richard Hoo, Esq. his son and heir, aged nine years on his father's death, in the 13th of Elizabeth. About this time there belonged to this lordship six messuages, six gardens, as many orchards, 300 acres of land, twenty of meadow eighty of pasture, fifty of furze and heath, 40s. rent per ann. free warren, and liberty of fold-course, in Burnham, Overy, Sutton, Norton, Westgate, and Ulpe; the aforesaid Richard died seized of it in the — of King Charles.

Peter Lombard, Esq. was lord in 1740: on whose death it came, by the marriage of Mary his daughter and coheir, to the honourable Horace Walpole, Esq. after, Lord Wolterton.

The site of this manor was in the south part of Overy-street, alias Church-gate, or East-gate, beginning at the several fishery of Vewters, was well built, enclosed with a stone wall, and contained about three acres, and a several fishery belonged to it.

Pomfret's Manor

Was formerly a part of the manor of Vewter's, and taken out of it on the division of it; Sir Robert Knolles, Knt. settled it by a fine, levied on the 6th of Henry IV. on John Drew, clerk, his trustee, with Sculthorp, and other manors; and in the 10th of that king it was settled by Drew on John Stedman, the master, and the chaplains of the college of the Holy Trinity of Pontifract in Yorkshire, from whence it took its name; (fn. 5) called also Knolle's alms-house, being founded by him.

On its dissolution it came to the Crown, and was granted May 17, Ao. 4to. Edward VI. to Sir William Fermer, and Sir Richard Fulmerston.

John Ladyman was lord of it in the 4th and 5th of Philip and Mary, and in a roll then dated, Edward Martyndale was living in the site of it, with the marsh against it, and he is called late lord of Pomfreyts.

Sir Philip Parker was lord of it in the 7th of Charles I. and one of the same name had livery of it about the 20th of Elizabeth.—The lete fee of this manor to the lord of the hundred was 9d.

Peter Lombard, Esq. in 1740, and the honourable Horace Walpole, Esq. is the present lord, 1750.

Hall-Close Manor.

The Calthorps had an interest or lordship in this town, in the reign of Henry III. and in the 14th of Edward I. a precept was directed to the sheriff of Norfolk, to make division between the manors of Sir Ralph Hemenhale, and Emme his wife, and John de Gymingham, in Burnham Norton, and the manor of Sir William Calthorp, and Cecilia his wife, in Burnham St. Clements, William and Cecilia having appropriated 110 acres of marsh of their inheritance; and in the 35th of that King, Sir Walter de Calthorp was found, and Roger Breton, John de Bintre, &c. to hold in Burnham, &c. fees of the heirs of the Lords Tateshale, who held in capite; in this family it remained, till Edward Calthorp of Kirby Cane, Esq. son and heir of Edward Calthorp, Esq. second son of Sir William Calthorp, by his second wife Elizabeth, daughter and coheir of Sir Miles Stapleton, Knt. of Ingham, in Norfolk, sold the reversion of several lands, parcel of this manor, held for life by Elizabeth, daughter of John Berney of Redeham, Esq. wife of William Calthorp, Esq. second son of Sir William aforesaid, by Elizabeth his first wife, daughter of the Lord Grey of Ruthyn; and in the 36th of that King, on May 1st, for 203l. 6s. 8d. he sold to Robert Jenyson of Burnham Westgate, Gent. his manors of Halclose and Games, with the advowsons of churches, courts, letes, six messuages, 140 acres of land, twelve of meadow, ten of pasture, two of wood, twelve of heath, forty of marsh, and 120s. rent, with a water-mill, called Flud's mill, in Burnham Overey, Thorp, Sutton, Westgate, Norton, Depedale, &c. all which Elizabeth Calthorp, widow of William Calthorp, Esq. deceased, held for life.

On the 30th of March, in the 2d and 3d of Philip and Mary, Robert Jenyson, Gent. sold to Thomas Hoo, lord of Vewters, the site of the manor of Halclose lying next the garden of the said Thomas Hoo.

Peter Lombard, Esq. was lord in 1740, and it came, on his death, to the honourable Horace Walpole, by the marriage of his daughter and coheir.

Walsingham Priory Manor.

Hubert Brisworth lived in King John's time, and gave lands and tenements to this priory; and William de Brisworth occurs in the 10th of Richard I. and had lands here.

In the 3d of Edward I. the prior held 40 acres, with the church of Burnham St. Clements of the fee of the Earl of Arundel, also 4 acres in Burnham, of the gift of Ralph de Loges, and in the 34th and 35th of that King, there was a controversy between Thomas, son of Richard de Snetterton, and others, for disseizing him of his free tenement in this town: Thomas says, that Matthew Balstan formerly held a messuage of William le Vewtre, (lord of the town,) his ancestor, who left Maud and Margery, his daughters and coheirs; Maud, by Balstan had Agatha, married to Rodland, son of Fabian, who infeoffed the, prior of his part, and Margery had issue, the said Thomas de Snetterton, and the prior recovered his right; at the same time the right of advowson of the vicarage, of the church of St. Clement's of Burnham, was contested, and the King directed his writ of prohibition to the official of the Bishop of Norwich, to hinder him from giving judgment about it in the ecclesiastical court; for that determining the right of advowsons of churches belonged to the King's crown and dignity; and the jury find that the vicarage was of the yearly value of 24 marks.

In the 3d of Edward III. the prior was to do homage to Symon de Felbrigge, for lands and tenements in Burnham, (called Brysworthy's fee,) at Hingoldon, and to pay to him 6d. per ann. also homage to the Lord Cromwell, and to pay relief for lands held of Vewtry's manor, 11s. 1d. The family of Underburgh held lands of the prior, as appears by an action brought against Julian, widow of Robert Underburgh, for the wardship of John, his son and heir; and in the 19th of Richard II. the prior held here the fourth part of a fee of Sir Constant. de Clifton; and in the 3d of Henry IV. three fees in Burnham, of the heirs of Robert Fitz-John belonging to Thomas Mowbray, Earl-Marshal; and, in 1428, the temporalites of the priory in this town were valued at 6l. 14s. 11d. q.

In the reign of Philip and Mary, this, with the great close, and rectory thereto belonging, and the manor of Lathes, in Burnham, was in the Crown: this I take to be the manor called Leches, which Sir Richard de Walsingham passed by fine, in the 19th of Edward III. to Henry Chamberlayne of Landbeach in Cambridgeshire, with two messuages, and several lands in this town, Burnham-Sutton, Westgate, &c. which John de Arches, and Agnes his wife, held in dower; and in the 43d of that King, was conveyed by John Leche of Egmere, clerk; and John, son of Simon Chamberlayne, conveyed the 4th part of two messuages, 160 acres of land, four of meadow, four of marsh, and 40s. rent, in Burnham, &c. which Margaret, widow of John Reynald, held for life, to John Leshe of Egmere, clerk, who, in the said year, purchased the other three parts of Edmund Creed, and Alice his wife, and Maud, daughter of Simon Chamberlain.

At the Dissolution it came to the Crown; John Watts farmed it, with the rectory of St. Clements, at 10l. per ann. in 1590; and in the reign of King Charles I. the fee farm rent of it was 16l. 19s. 11d. q. besides 1l. 17s. 3¾d. profits of court per ann.

The manor of Burnham Lathes was in Thomas Thurlow, with the rectory of the church of St. Clements.

Peterston Priory or Hospital. (fn. 6)

This priory was in the parish of St. Clements, of Burnham Overey. Robert, son of Arnold de Munteny, granted, by fine, in the 54th of Henry III. to Jeffry, the prior of Peterston, five roods of meadow, and 20d. rent, with a moiety of the advowson of the church of Beeston. Roger de Somerton, and Margaret his wife, daughter of Agnes le Moyne, sued the prior for an acre of land here, in the 34th of Henry III. In the 29th of Edward I. a patent was granted to the priors of Petriston and Westacre, for an exchange of lands; and by a patent granted in the 11th of Edward II. we learn, that the priory was for canons of the order of St. Augustin.

It appears, that there was a controversy between the canons of Walsingham, who had the church of St. Clement's of Burnham appropriated to them, and Thomas, prior of the hospital of St. Peter de Petra in Burnham; that whereas the prior and convent of Walsingham had granted to the master and brothers of the hospital a free chantry in their chapel, or oratory, at Burnham, with right of burial in their churchyard, within the parish of Burnham St. Clement's. for the bro therhood, for which they were to pay a mark of silver yearly to the prior: on the refusal of the payment, it was recovered, with the arrears thereof, against the master and brethren aforesaid. The lands belonging to the prior of Walsingham, called Grab-hall lands, were to pay 25s. in the name of a relief, and the prior to do homage for them to the Earl of Arundel, containing eighty acres, valued at 26s. 8d. and were bought, or given to them by Sir Edmund de Reynham, Knt.

Roger occurs prior in 1299, as appears from an agreement then made between him and John, the prior of Castleacre. See in WestLexham.

In the 16th of Richard II. Simon Barret, &c. alienated to the prior, one messuage, twenty-six acres, and a rood of land, in this town, Burnham Thorpe, and Holkham.

Dionysius was prior of the church of St. Peter of Petryston, as appears by his letters of attorney, to deliver to Oliver Groos, Richard Boson, Esq. and John, rector of the church of Bayfield, lands in West-Lexham, dated at Petristom, in the chapter-house, January 5, in the 7th year of Henry VI.

Priors of Peterston.

Simon occurs prior in the 32d of Henry III.

Godfrey, or Geffrey, in the 54th of that King.

Roger, in the 56th.

1308, Eust. de Barsham, admitted prior.

1314, Warine de Repps.

1324, Thomas de Warham.

1339, Thomas de Warham.

1349, John de Holkham.

Roger de Briningham.

1365, John Massingham.

1376, John de Dunton.

1393, William Bryght.

1396, Dionys. de Warham.

1433, Richard Hulme.

Before the year 1200, here was a house of canons of the order of St. Austin, under the patronage of St. Peter, subordinate to the monastery of Walsingham; the founder is unknown, but was probably one of the ancestors of the Cheneys, which family had the patronage of it, and came from them to the Claverings Lord Dacres, &c.

The temporalities of this priory in Burnham St. Clement's, in rent of land, a mill, &c. were valued in 1428, at 4l. 4s. 1d. q. all their temporalities were valued in the said year, at 20l. 10s. 10d. and all their spiritualities, at 27l. 4s. 2d. q. William de Westacre, chancellor of Norwich, on his death, in 1418, gave to the repair of St. Peter's chapel here, 20s.

In the 28th of Henry VI. the prior of Walsingham had a grant of the site, or place of the priory, or hospital of Peterston, in Burnham St. Clement's, so that it was united to the aforesaid priory, by a grant of the King, and confirmed by the Bishop of Norwich.

Peterston seems to have been an hamlet to Burnham St. Clement's, and was charged separately for its tenths, at 2l. 4s. out of which 14s. were deducted.

At the general dissolution of religious houses, it came to the Crown, and was granted April 11th, in the 4th year of Edward VI. to Thomas Bishop of Norwich and his successours, and is held of that see by lease.

It belonged, as Spleman says, (fn. 7) about the end of Queen Elizabeth's reign, to Richard Manser, Gent. who had much suit and quarrel with Firmine Gray, about a lease of it, and died without issue, disposing of it by will, to Roger Manser, his brother, who was deprived of it by —Armiger, of North Creak, who married Richard Manser's sister, and left it to William Armiger, his son and heir, who sold it, to secure the title, to the Lord Chief Justice Coke.

When this priory was united to Walsingham, in the 28th of Henry VI. the Bishop of Norwich reserved to himself and successours all churches belonging to the said priory, the Bishop paying to the King his tenths, when they should happen, and Walsingham to pay tenths for the temporalities of that priory.

Windham Priory Manor.

William le Veutre, lord of Burnham, granted to this monastery 6 acres of land and an half, for the soul's health of King Henry I. and of William his butler, and of William Earl of Arundel, (fn. 8) his lord, with the homages of his men; and Mathew, son of William de Burnham, gave them lands, and a portion of tithe: the church of St. Clement's belonged to them, valued in 1428, at 9 marks per annum.

Concealed lands here, lately belonging to this priory, granted in the 13th of Elizabeth, to Richard Hill and Robert Dunne, on June 11th, in fee farm at 35l. 10s. 4d. ob. per annum with the portion of tithes of 9 marks, in the tenure of William Pepys; and February 19th, in the 16th of Elizabeth, granted to Christopher Fenton and Bernard Gylpyn.

John Thurlowe, Gent. of this parish, had an estate herein, and dying July 7th, 1583, left by Amia his wife, Thomas his son and heir, who dying April 10th, 1618, left by Dinah, his wife, (afterwards remarried to Nicholas Smith,) John Thurlow, Gent. who by an inquisition taken at Norwich, July 23d, in the 7th of Charles I. was found to die seized of 2 messuages and 34 acres of land, in this town, August the 10th, 1631, held of Sir Philip Parker, of his manor of Pomfrets, by fealty, of 19 acres of marsh land, held of the King, in capite, and of 2 messuages and 30 acres in Burnham, Burnham Thorp, &c. John was found to be his son and heir, then an infant, by Anne his wife, daughter of —Salter.

On the 19th of November, 1664, Sir Edward Byshe granted a patent to John Thurlow, of Burnham Overy, a great traveller many years, in several parts of Europe, America, Africa, &c. for these arms:— azure, a Jacob's staff between three stars, or; crest, an anchor erect, gules, the cable or.

The tenths of this town were 10l.; deducted 3l. 14s.

The portion of tithes abovementioned came afterwards to Nicholas Mynne of Little Walsingham, who gave it to Caius college in Cambridge, and for which a yearly rent of sixteen quarters of barley is paid.

The temporalities of the priory of Lewes in this town were in 1428, 30s. per annum.

The Church of Burnham Overey is dedicated to St. Clement; churches so dedicated may be observed for the most part to be always seated near some water, river, or sea; it was formerly a rectory valued at 30 marks and 10s. and being granted by William Vewtre, lord of the manor of that name, to the priory of Walsingham, was thereto appropriated, and a vicarage settled, valued at 6 marks and an half; the present valor being 8l.

King Henry III. in his 39th year, confirmed it to them.

The church is built in a conventual manner, the steeple being between the nave or body, and the chancel; and has also a south isle, which with the nave is covered with lead, and the chancel is tiled, and in the tower, which is foursquare, is one bell.

In the church lie several gravestones in memory of the Thurlows. One with a brass plate.

Pray for the soule of Katheryn Thurlow, whych dyed in the yere of our Lord 1517.—Pray for the soule of Thomas Thyrlowe, which dyed in 1516.

One
In memory of Elizabeth, wife of Thomas Thyrlow, of Thorpe, Gent: who dyed Jan. 29, 1678, and buried by Thomas, his grandfather, she dyed Nov. 30, 1679, and left only 2 daughters, Mary and Elizabeth.

A monument against a pillar,
Thomas Walker Armiger, Interioris Templi, Londini Socius in Ao. 1706, Thesaurarius, subtus jacet obiit 26, die Augusti Ao. Domi. 1707, Ætatis suæ 61; and these arms; argent, a chevron between three crescents, azure, on a canton, a martlet - - - -

On a north pillar by the steeple a monument,
In memory of Ann, the wife of Robert Blyford Gent: who dyed March 10, 1672, aged 35. Also of Robert Blyford, Gent: who dyed Nov. 8 1704, aged 70 years and 3 months: they had issue, Henry, Mary, Ann, Robert &c. and this shield, quarterly, argent and gules, on a bend sable, three mullets of 1st, impaling a chevron between three.

A grave-stone for,
John Watts, Gent: who died Apr. 25, 1677; and for Thomas Watts, and Dorothy his wife; Thomas, died 6 of Feb. 1693, aged 60, she Oct. 1695, aged 62.

One for
Thomas Blyford of Burnham Overy, Gent: who died Feb. 1687, aged 64 years.

In the chancel, one for
Henry Blyford, son and heir of Robert Blyford late of Burnham Overy Gent: by Ann his wife, daughter of Henry Thurlow who married Jane eldest daughter of James Willis, of Brancaster, merchant, by Amy, second daughter of Henry Woodrow, of Burnham Westgate, merchant, a man in all respects truly deserving, being strictly just, temperate, and good, died March 18. 1712, in his 49 year; with the arms of Blyford impaling Willis, per fess, argent and gules, three lions rampant counterchanged, in a bordure, ermin.

Another
In memory of Mary Mott, daughter of Robert Blyford, of Burnham Overey, Gent: by Anne his wife, she had two husbands, John Thurston, Esq, by whom she lyeth, and had a son John surviving &c. her second husband, Edmund Mott, doctor of physick, who lyeth intombed in New Walsingham church, and had issue by him, Edmund, Mary and John, who only survived. She died May 24, 1702, aged 40; with the arms of Thurston Esq. sable, three bugle horns or, stringed azure.

Also one
In memory of John Thurston, Esq. son of John Thurston, of Hoxne' in Suffolk, Esq. who died March 9, 1687, aged 57 years and ten weeks &c.

On a grave-stone, with two Angels holding a crown, and under it, Ecce Præmium.

And,
Expecting the resurrection of the Just, here resteth the body of Mrs; Jane Harris, who died 18 of July 1648.

Here lyeth Elizabeth Southwell, daughter of Sir Thomas Southwell, Kt. and the Lady Margery, his wife, who died in the calends of March 1618.

The church was granted by William de Veautre, as has been observed, to the priory of Walsingham, and appropriated thereto, and had a manse, with 28 acres of land, valued at 30 marks, and 10s.; it was served by a vicar, who had not either a manse, or land belonging to it; the vicarage was valued at 6 marks and an half; the prior of Wymundham had a portion of tithe valued at 9 marks per ann. Peterpence 12d.

Vicars.

Robert occurs vicar in the 12th of Edward I.

1300, Richard Gloz, presented by the prior and convent of Walsingham.

1309, Robert de Thorp. Ditto.

1314, John de Burnham. Ditto.

John Skil.

1331, Jeffrey Bures. Ditto.

1349, Roger de Riburgh. Ditto.

1358, Robert Leycot. Ditto.

1360, Robert Bate. Ditto.

1379, Simon de Nydd. Ditto.

1390, John Merch. Ditto.

1404, John Banyngham. Ditto.

1408, William Warbour. Presented by the prior, &c.

1414, John Wygenhale. Ditto.

1416, Robert Hosteler. Ditto.

1421, Thomas Lawe. Ditto. And instituted into the church of St. Andrew annexed to it.

On July 22, 1421 John Bishop of Norwich united and consolidated the church and vicarage of Burnham St. Andrew, to this of St. Clement, on the petition, &c. of the prior and convent of Walsingham, patrons of it; and in the space of a year, the prior, &c. built a good bridge, for travellers on the high way from St. Andrews to St. Clement's parish.

1429, John Fox. Ditto.

1432, William Dykkes. Ditto.

1440, Edmund Batele. Ditto.

1447, Robert Salie. Ditto, with the church of St Andrew annexed, presented by Thomas, the prior, &c. of Walsingham.

1449, Henry Barker,

1461, Sim. Comyn. Ditto.

1487, John Marshall, by the prior of Walingham, to St. Clement's and St. Andrew's

1494, John Browing. Ditto.

1525, William Harbotill. Ditto.

1545, Christopher Yaxley, by the King.

1547, Thomas Skelton, by William Sterling, by a grant of the next turn, from the prior, &c.

1555, Nicholas Chapman, by the Bishop, a lapse.

1565, William Elye, by the Queen.

1592, John Clarkson, by the Queen.

1605, John Wyld, by the King.

1635, Stephen Basset. Ditto.

1664, Robert Briggs. Ditto.

1701, Andrew Smith. Ditto.

1705, Joseph Osborn, by the Queen.

1729, Gaven Graves, by the King.

1742, Thomas Groom, occurs rector.

1743, Samuel Alstan, by the King.

1758, John Offley, A. M. by the King.

1758, Robert Styleman, by the King, on Offley's resignation.

Here was the chapel of our Lady in this church. St. John Baptist and St. Clement's gilds, the Sepulcher light, and that of Our Lady.

Footnotes

1 Regist. Walsingh. fol. 23.—Reg. Wymond. fol. 81 and 98.
2 Rot. Pip. 3 Rich. I.
3 Regist. Belings Norw.
4 Regist. Ryx. Norw.
5 Pat. a. m. 24.
6 Regist. Walsingh. fol. 130. &c.
7 Hist. of Sacrilege, p. 240.
8 Regist. Wymondh. fol. 98.